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Sample records for reflect selected state

  1. Maps of Selected State Subdivisions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves Summary Maps of Selected State Subdivisions Map 1: Alaska Map 2: California Map 3: Louisiana Map 4: New Mexico Map 5: Texas Map 6: Western Planning Area, Gulf of Mexico Map 7: Central Planning Area, Gulf of Mexico Map 8: Eastern Planning Area, Gulf of Mexico Map 1: Alaska AK 50 - North Onshore and Offshore AK 10 - South Onshore AK 05 - South State Offshore AK 00 - South Federal Offshore Map 2: California CA 50 - Coastal Region

  2. Maps of Selected State Subdivisions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AK 00 - South Federal Offshore Map 2: California CA 50 - Coastal Region Onshore CA 90 - Los Angeles Basin Onshore CA 10 - San Joaquin Basin Onshore CA 05 - State Offshore CA 00 - ...

  3. Vitrified chiral-nematic liquid crystalline films for selective reflection and circular polarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsis, D.; Chen, P.H.M.; Mastrangelo, J.C.; Chen, S.H.; Blanton, T.N.

    1999-06-01

    Nematic and left-handed chiral-nematic liquid crystals comprising methoxybiphenylbenzoate and (S)-(-)-1-phenylethylamine pendants to a cyclohexane core were synthesized and characterized. Although pristine samples were found to be polycrystalline, thermal quenching following heating to and annealing at elevated temperatures permitted the molecular orders characteristic of liquid crystalline mesomorphism to be frozen in the glassy state. Left at room temperature for 6 months, the vitrified liquid crystalline films showed no evidence of recrystallization. An orientational order parameter of 0.65 was determined with linear dichroism of a vitrified nematic film doped with Exalite 428 at a mole fraction of 0.0025. Birefringence dispersion of a blank vitrified nematic film was determined using a phase-difference method complemented by Abbe refractometry. A series of vitrified chiral-nematic films were prepared to demonstrate selective reflection and circular polarization with a spectral region tunable from blue to the infrared region by varying the chemical composition. The experimentally measured circular polarization spectra were found to agree with the Good-Karali theory in which all four system parameters were determined a priori: optical birefringence, average refractive index, selective reflection wavelength, and film thickness.

  4. Solid-State Lighting Recovery Act Award Selections | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid-State Lighting Recovery Act Award Selections Solid-State Lighting Recovery Act Award Selections A chart highlighting core technology research projects and product development ...

  5. State Energy Program 2015 Competitive Award Selections | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    State Energy Program (SEP) selected 11 states for 5 million in competitive funds to advance innovative approaches for local clean energy development that will reduce energy bills ...

  6. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Type, PAD District, and Selected States 224 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and...

  7. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Type, PAD District, and Selected States 224 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and...

  8. Selective interactions in trapped ions: State reconstruction and quantum logic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano, E.

    2005-01-01

    We propose the implementation of selective interactions of atom-motion subspaces in trapped ions. These interactions yield resonant exchange of population inside a selected subspace, leaving the others in a highly dispersive regime. Selectivity allows us to generate motional Fock (and other nonclassical) states with high purity out of a wide class of initial states, and becomes an unconventional cooling mechanism when the ground state is chosen. Individual population of number states can be distinctively measured, as well as the motional Wigner function. Furthermore, a protocol for implementing quantum logic through a suitable control of selective subspaces is presented.

  9. 'Water window' sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang, Weihua; Endo, Akira

    2013-01-28

    Development of laser-produced plasma 'water window' sources poses a major challenge in x-ray research and most effort has focused on line sources for use with zone plate optics. Here, a comparison of carbon and nitrogen line emission with that from both 3d - 4f and 4d - 4f unresolved transition arrays shows that, at power densities available from 'table-top' solid-state lasers, 3d - 4f emission from zirconium plasmas is most intense, and calculations show that in an imaging system based on multilayer mirrors, for reflectance bandwidths >1% has superior performance than either line or broader-band sources. For bandwidths <1%, line sources are preferable.

  10. FINAL Combined SGIG Selections - By State for Press -5.xls | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy FINAL Combined SGIG Selections - By State for Press -5.xls FINAL Combined SGIG Selections - By State for Press -5.xls PDF icon FINAL Combined SGIG Selections - By State for Press -5.xls More Documents & Publications Recovery Act Selections for Smart Grid Invesment Grant Awards- By Category Updated July 2010 FINAL Combined SGIG Selections - By Category for Press -AOv10.xls Recovery Act Selections for Smart Grid Investment Grant Awards - By State - Updated November 2011

  11. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for gender selection in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colls, P.; Silver, L.; Olivera, G.; Weier, J.; Escudero, T.; Goodall, N.; Tomkin, G.; Munne, S.

    2009-08-20

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of gender selection for non medical reasons has been considered an unethical procedure by several authors and agencies in the Western society on the basis of disrupting the sex ratio, being discriminatory againsts women and disposal of normal embryos of the non desired gender. In this study, the analysis of a large series of PGD procedures for gender selection from a wide geographical area in the United States, shows that in general there is no deviation in preference towards any specific gender except for a preference of males in some ethnic populations of Chinese, Indian and Middle Eastern origin that represent a small percentage of the US population. In cases where only normal embryos of the non-desired gender are available, 45.5% of the couples elect to cancel the transfer, while 54.5% of them are open to have transferred embryos of the non-desired gender, this fact being strongly linked to cultural and ethnical background of the parents. In addition this study adds some evidence to the proposition that in couples with previous children of a given gender there is no biological predisposition towards producing embryos of that same gender. Based on these facts, it seems that objections to gender selection formulated by ethics committees and scientific societies are not well-founded.

  12. Polarized 3He? ion source with hyperfine state selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudnikov, V.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Dudnikov, A.

    2015-04-01

    High beam polarization is essential to the scientific productivity of a collider. Polarized 3He ions are an essential part of the nuclear physics programs at existing and future ion-ion and electron-ion colliders such as BNL's RHIC and eRHIC and JLab's ELIC. Ion sources with performance exceeding that achieved today are a key requirement for the development of these next generation high-luminosity high-polarization colliders. The development of high-intensity high-brightness arc-discharge ion sources at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) has opened up an opportunity for realization of a new type of a polarized 3He? ion source. This report discusses a polarized 3He? ion source based on the large difference of extra-electron auto-detachment lifetimes of the different 3He? ion hyperfine states. The highest momentum state of 5/2 has the largest lifetime of ? ? 350 s while the lower momentum states have lifetimes of ? ~ 10 s. By producing 3He? ion beam composed of only the |5/2, 5/2> hyperfine states and then quenching one of the states by an RF resonant field, 3He? beam polarization of 90% can be achieved. Such a method of polarized 3He? production has been considered before; however, due to low intensities of the He+ ion sources existing at that time, it was not possible to produce any interesting intensity of polarized 3He? ions. The high-brightness arc-discharge ion source developed at BINP can produce a high-brightness 3He+ beam with an intensity of up to 2 A allowing for selection of up to ?1-4 mA of 3He? ions with ?90% polarization. The high gas efficiency of an arc-discharge source is important due to the high cost of 3He gas. Some features of such a PIS as well as prototype designs are considered. An integrated 3He? ion source design providing high beam polarization could be prepared using existing BNL equipment with incorporation of new designs of the 1) arc discharge plasma generator, 2) extraction system, 3) charge exchange jet, and 4) magnetic separation system.

  13. LLNL`s partnership with selected US mines, for CTBT verification: A pictorial and some reflections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    The verification of an upcoming Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will involve seismic monitoring and will provide for on-site inspections which may include drilling. Because of the fact that mining operations can send out strong seismic signals, many mining districts in the US and abroad may come under special scrutiny. The seismic signals can be generated by the use of large quantities of conventional explosives, by the collapse of underground workings, or by sudden energy release in the ground such as in rock bursts and coal bumps. These mining activities may be the cause of false alarms, but may also offer opportunities for evasive nuclear testing. So in preparing for future verification of a CTBT it becomes important to address the mining-related questions. For the United States, these are questions to be answered with respect to foreign mines. But there is a good amount of commonality in mining methods worldwide. Studies conducted at US mine sites can provide good analogs of activities that may be carried out for overseas CTBT verification, save for the expected logistical impediments.

  14. Recovery Act Selections for Smart Grid Investment Grant Awards - By State -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Updated November 2011 | Department of Energy State - Updated November 2011 Recovery Act Selections for Smart Grid Investment Grant Awards - By State - Updated November 2011 List of selections for the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program organized by State. Within each State the projects are organized by size. The data includes the headquarters State and City for each recipient as well as the name of the recipient, a brief description of the project, the Recovery Act funding and the total

  15. State selective dynamics of molecules, clusters, and nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keto, John W.

    2005-06-01

    Early objectives of this grant were: (1) Measure two-photon excitation of even parity excitons in liquid an solid xenon, (2) Study state-to-state energy transver between two-photon laser excited states or rare-gas atoms to other rare has atoms, (3) study reactive half-collisions between xenon and chlorine leading to the XeCl* B state, (4) measure the spectra of ro-vibrational states of cluster ions and radicals formed in high-pressure discharges and to study their dynamics, (5) measure the surface and bulk electronic states of nanoparticles produced by a unique method of synthesis--laser ablation of microspheres (LAM). Using near-field and microluminescence techniques, we obtained spectra of single nanocrystals to compare with spectra obtained in a supersonic jet apparatus using resonance excitation followed by photoionization (REMPI) with time-of-flight mass analysis. These materials combine the functional advantages obtained from the size-tunable properties of nanocomposite materials with the fabrication and direct-write advantages of NPs manufactured by LAM. We demostrated that CdSe nanoparticles produced by LAM were efficiient fluorescers, even when deposited dry on sapphire substrates. Si nanoparticles were fluorescent when captured in ethylene glycol. We also obtiained efficient fluorescence from Er doped phosphate glass nanopartiicles which have application to gain wafeguides in integrated optics or to nanoslush lasers. We used a femptosecond laser to study the nonlinear spectra of NC composites. We are currently measuring fluorescence and second and third-order susceptibilities of composites of Ag, Si, and GaN nanoparticles encapsulated within thin films of sapphire or SiO 2.

  16. DOE Announces Selections for Solid-State Lighting Core Technology Research Call (Round 6)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce four selections in response to the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Core...

  17. DOE Announces Selections from Solid-State Lighting Product Development Funding Opportunity Announcement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce the selection of five (5) applications in response to the Solid-State...

  18. DOE Announces Selections from Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies Funding Opportunity Announcement and Laboratory Call

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pleased to announce the selection of sixteen (16) applications in response to the Solid-State...

  19. Ten Projects Selected by DOE to Advance State-of-the-Art Carbon Capture

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    from Coal Power Plants | Department of Energy Ten Projects Selected by DOE to Advance State-of-the-Art Carbon Capture from Coal Power Plants Ten Projects Selected by DOE to Advance State-of-the-Art Carbon Capture from Coal Power Plants July 7, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Ten projects aimed at developing advanced technologies for capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal combustion have been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under its Innovations for Existing Plants

  20. REFLECT HOME

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sacramento is nicknamed the City of Trees, so it made sense for the California State University, Sacramento, team to showcase nature in its Solar Decathlon 2015 project. The team’s Reflect Home does just that by embracing the city’s sense of expansive greenery.

  1. Communication: Feshbach resonances in the water molecule revealed by state-selective spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grechko, Maxim; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Rizzo, Thomas R.; Boyarkin, Oleg V.

    2010-08-28

    We employ triple-resonance vibrational overtone excitation to access quasibound states of water from several fully characterized bound states of the molecule. Comparison of the measured dissociation spectra allows a rigorous assignment of rotational quantum numbers J, nuclear spin and parity, and a tentative vibrational characterization of the observed resonances. Their asymmetrical shapes (Fano profiles) reflect interference of dipole moments for transitions to these resonances with that to the dissociative continuum. The assignments and Fano profile parameters of the resonances stand as a benchmark for the extension of accurate quantum-mechanical calculations to activated complexes of water. The narrow widths of some of these resonances indicate that water molecules may survive for as long as up to 60 ps in states above the dissociation threshold. We consider the possible implication of such long-lived states for the kinetics of water dissociation and the OH+H association reaction.

  2. DOE Announces $6.6 Million in Competitive Grant Selections For Innovative State Efficiency, Renewables Initiatives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OVERLAND PARK, Kan. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency David Rodgers today announced awards for approximately $6.6 million in competitive-selected grants for innovative state-level energy efficiency and renewable energy policies and projects.

  3. Ballistic electrons in an open square geometry: Selective probing of resonant-energy states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zozoulenko, I.V.; Schuster, R.; Berggren, K.-.; Ensslin, K.

    1997-04-01

    We report on the interplay between classical trajectories and quantum-mechanical effects in a square geometry. At low magnetic fields the four-terminal resistance is dominated by phenomena that depend on ballistic trajectories in a classical billiard. Superimposed on these classical effects are quantum interference effects manifested by highly periodic conductance oscillations. Numerical analysis shows that these oscillations are directly related to excitations of particular eigenstates in the square. In spite of open leads, transport through an open cavity is effectively mediated by just a few (or even a single) resonant-energy states. The leads injecting electrons into the cavity play a decisive role in a selection of the particular set of states excited in the dot. The above selection rule sets a specific frequency of the oscillations seen in the experiment. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Critical Issues in NPH Categorization and Limit State Selection of SSCs

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Critical Issues in NPH Categorization and Limit State Selection of Structures, Systems, and Components Quazi Hossain Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Workshop October 25-26, 2011 Steps of an ideal Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPHs) design process The design of structures, systems, and Components (SSCs) in the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities for major Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPHs) is performed, in an ideal case, following these steps: * Step 1:

  5. Contingency selection theory for steady-state security assessment of power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halpin, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis presents the theory and method for systematically finding the performance index (PI) which is used in Automatic Contingency Selection (ACS) algorithms. The purpose of the ACS algorithm is to determine whether a contingency has an impact on the security of the power system (such as out-of-limit conditions in the post-contigency operation) or not, in a computationally efficient manner. Since this is a binary decision problem, then the choice of the PI is equivalent ot the selection of a decision function which measures the impact of each contingency on the system performance in terms of giving out-of-limit conditions. This thesis shows how to select the PI together with a threshold value J/sub th/ so as to minimize the probability of misclassifying the contingency. The main contribution of this thesis is that it gives the theoretical foundation for designing more effective ACS algorithms. It shows that the selection of the PI is based on a statistical decision criteria such as the Bayes Risk Criterion, since one needs to examine the risk involved in misclassifying the contingency. This approach is used to find the PI for monitoring both the line flow, bus voltage and generator VAR limits. It is shown that when formulating the problem in the space of voltage magnitudes and phase angles then the problem of finding the PI which satisfies a specific contingency selection criteria can be stated as a set imbedding and volume maximization problem. These theoretical results are applied to the problem of tuning the weighting coefficients in the currently used PI's for analyzing either the real power flow or node voltage magnitude problems in order ot guarantee proper classification of the contingencies in terms of minimizing the probabilities of missing critial contingencies and false alarms.

  6. DOE Announces Selections for Solid-State Lighting Core Technology and Product Development Funding Opportunities (Round 3)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce eight selections in response to the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Core...

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Selects Michigan State University To Design and Establish Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that Michigan State University (MSU) in East Lansing, MI has been selected to design and establish the Facility for Rare Isotope...

  8. DOE Announces Selections for Solid-State Lighting Core Technology and Product Development Funding Opportunities (Round 4)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce 13 selections in response to the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Core...

  9. Polarized {sup 3}He{sup ?} ion source with hyperfine state selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudnikov, V.; Morozov, V.; Dudnikov, A.

    2015-04-08

    High beam polarization is essential to the scientific productivity of a collider. Polarized {sup 3}He ions are an essential part of the nuclear physics programs at existing and future ion-ion and electron-ion colliders such as BNL's RHIC and eRHIC and JLab's ELIC. Ion sources with performance exceeding that achieved today are a key requirement for the development of these next generation high-luminosity high-polarization colliders. The development of high-intensity high-brightness arc-discharge ion sources at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) has opened up an opportunity for realization of a new type of a polarized {sup 3}He{sup ?} ion source. This report discusses a polarized {sup 3}He{sup ?} ion source based on the large difference of extra-electron auto-detachment lifetimes of the different {sup 3}He{sup ?} ion hyperfine states. The highest momentum state of 5/2 has the largest lifetime of ? ? 350 s while the lower momentum states have lifetimes of ? ~ 10 s. By producing {sup 3}He{sup ?} ion beam composed of only the |5/2, 5/2> hyperfine states and then quenching one of the states by an RF resonant field, {sup 3}He{sup ?} beam polarization of 90% can be achieved. Such a method of polarized {sup 3}He{sup ?} production has been considered before; however, due to low intensities of the He{sup +} ion sources existing at that time, it was not possible to produce any interesting intensity of polarized {sup 3}He{sup ?} ions. The high-brightness arc-discharge ion source developed at BINP can produce a high-brightness {sup 3}He{sup +} beam with an intensity of up to 2 A allowing for selection of up to ?1-4 mA of {sup 3}He{sup ?} ions with ?90% polarization. The high gas efficiency of an arc-discharge source is important due to the high cost of {sup 3}He gas. Some features of such a PIS as well as prototype designs are considered. An integrated {sup 3}He{sup ?} ion source design providing high beam polarization could be prepared using existing BNL equipment with incorporation of new designs of the 1) arc discharge plasma generator, 2) extraction system, 3) charge exchange jet, and 4) magnetic separation system.

  10. WIND SPEED AND ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY TRENDS FOR SELECTED UNITED STATES SURFACE STATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R; Allen H. Weber, A

    2006-11-01

    Recently it has been suggested that global warming and a decrease in mean wind speeds over most land masses are related. Decreases in near surface wind speeds have been reported by previous investigators looking at records with time spans of 15 to 30 years. This study focuses on United States (US) surface stations that have little or no location change since the late 1940s or the 1950s--a time range of up to 58 years. Data were selected from 62 stations (24 of which had not changed location) and separated into ten groups for analysis. The group's annual averages of temperature, wind speed, and percentage of Pasquill-Gifford (PG) stability categories were fitted with linear least squares regression lines. The results showed that the temperatures have increased for eight of the ten groups as expected. Wind speeds have decreased for nine of the ten groups. The mean slope of the wind speed trend lines for stations within the coterminous US was -0.77 m s{sup -1} per century. The percentage frequency of occurrence for the neutral (D) PG stability category decreased, while that for the unstable (B) and the stable (F) categories increased in almost all cases except for the group of stations located in Alaska.

  11. Dose response of selected solid state detectors in applied homogeneous transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, M.; Fallone, B. G.; Rathee, S.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: MR-Linac devices under development worldwide will require standard calibration, commissioning, and quality assurance. Solid state radiation detectors are often used for dose profiles and percent depth dose measurements. The dose response of selected solid state detectors is therefore evaluated in varying transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields for this purpose. Methods: The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was used to model irradiation of a PTW 60003 diamond detector and IBA PFD diode detector in the presence of a magnetic field. The field itself was varied in strength, and oriented both transversely and longitudinally with respect to the incident photon beam. The long axis of the detectors was oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the photon beam. The dose to the active volume of each detector in air was scored, and its ratio to dose with zero magnetic field strength was determined as the dose response in magnetic field. Measurements at low fields for both detectors in transverse magnetic fields were taken to evaluate the accuracy of the simulations. Additional simulations were performed in a water phantom to obtain few representative points for beam profile and percent depth dose measurements. Results: Simulations show significant dose response as a function of magnetic field in transverse field geometries. This response can be near 20% at 1.5 T, and it is highly dependent on the detectors relative orientation to the magnetic field, the energy of the photon beam, and detector composition. Measurements at low transverse magnetic fields verify the simulations for both detectors in their relative orientations to radiation beam. Longitudinal magnetic fields, in contrast, show little dose response, rising slowly with magnetic field, and reaching 0.5%1% at 1.5 T regardless of detector orientation. Water tank and in air simulation results were the same within simulation uncertainty where lateral electronic equilibrium is present and expectedly differed at the beam edge in transverse field orientations only. Due to the difference in design, the two detectors behaved differently. Conclusions: When transverse magnetic fields are present, great care must be taken when using diamond or diode detectors. Dose response varies with relative detector orientation, magnetic field strength, and between detectors. This response can be considerable (?20% for both detectors). Both detectors in longitudinal fields exhibit little to no dose response as a function of magnetic field. Water tank simulations seem to suggest that the diode detector is better suited to general beam commissioning, and each detector must be investigated separately.

  12. REFLECT HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    so it made sense for the California State University, Sacramento, team to showcase nature in its Solar Decathlon 2015 project. The team's Reflect Home does just that by...

  13. Status of the Residential Conservation Service Program in selected states as of December 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frogge, L.M.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.; Morris, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    The primary objective of the study reported was to collect information concerning Residential Conservation Service (RCS) and similar residential audit programs to determine the implementation status of the RCS programs in various parts of the country as of December 1, 1981. Common experiences, problems, and treatment of RCS and other residential audit programs are briefly overviewed, and then the interview findings are discussed on a state-by-state basis for each of the eleven states contacted. The program structure and status are described for each state, including the nonregulated utility programs, unique features, and problems and impacts. The 11 states are: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Iowa, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Texas. Appended are an interview guide and a table of program coverage. (LEW)

  14. NIR-Selective electrochromic heteromaterial frameworks: a platform to understand mesoscale transport phenomena in solid-state electrochemical devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, TE; Chang, CM; Rosen, EL; Garcia, G; Runnerstrom, EL; Williams, BL; Koo, B; Buonsanti, R; Milliron, DJ; Helms, BA

    2014-01-01

    We report here the first solid-state, NIR-selective electrochromic devices. Critical to device performance is the arrangement of nanocrystal-derived electrodes into heteromaterial frameworks, where hierarchically porous ITO nanocrystal active layers are infiltrated by an ion-conducting polymer electrolyte with mesoscale periodicity. Enhanced coloration efficiency and transport are realized over unarchitectured electrodes in devices, paving the way towards new smart windows technologies.

  15. RECOVERY ACT SELECTIONS FOR SMART GRID INVESTMENT GRANT AWARDS - BY STATE

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    STATE HQ State HQ City Name of Awardee Brief Project Description Recovery Act Funding Participant Cost Share Total Project Value Map of Project Coverage Area AL Birmingham Southern Company Services, Inc. Deploy five integrated smart grid technology systems that enhance energy efficiency, cyber security, distribution and transmission line automation, and smart power substations that will reduce energy load and save money for consumers. Will also benefit customers in FL, GA, MS, NC and SC.

  16. Policies to Promote Non-Hydro Renewable Energy in the United States and Selected Countries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This article examines policies designed to encourage the development of non-hydro renewable energy in four countries - Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Japan - and compares the policies enacted in each of these countries to policies that were used in the United States between 1970 and 2003.

  17. Microsoft Word - Rapid Reflective Facet Characterization Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... VSHOT uses a laser, reflected off the facet, and a target to characterize the location of the reflected vector. From this, the surface slope at each selected location can be ...

  18. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume III. Energy data on 15 selected states' manufacturing subsector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    An examination is made of the current and future energy demands, and uses, and cost to characterize typical applications and resulting services in the US and industrial sectors of 15 selected states. Volume III presents tables containing data on selected states' manufacturing subsector energy consumption, functional uses, and cost in 1974 and 1976. Alabama, California, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wisconsin were chosen as having the greatest potential for replacing conventional fuel with solar energy. Basic data on the quantities, cost, and types of fuel and electric energy purchased by industr for heat and power were obtained from the 1974 and 1976 Annual Survey of Manufacturers. The specific indutrial energy servic cracteristics developed for each selected state include. 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electricity consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuel consumption by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (quantity and relative share); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector average cost of purchsed fuels and electricity per million Btu by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); 1974 and 1976 manufacturing subsector fuels and electric energy intensity by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC and primary fuel (in 1976 dollars); manufacturing subsector average annual growth rates of (1) fuels and electricity consumption, (2) fuels and electric energy intensity, and (3) average cost of purchased fuels and electricity (1974 to 1976). Data are compiled on purchased fuels, distillate fuel oil, residual ful oil, coal, coal, and breeze, and natural gas. (MCW)

  19. The thermal decomposition of NH{sub 2}OH and subsequent reactions : ab initio transition state theory and reflected shock tube experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B.; Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Srinivasan, N. K.; Su, M.-C.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Sonoma State Univ.

    2009-01-01

    Primary and secondary reactions involved in the thermal decomposition of NH{sub 2}OH are studied with a combination of shock tube experiments and transition state theory based theoretical kinetics. This coupled theory and experiment study demonstrates the utility of NH{sub 2}OH as a high temperature source of OH radicals. The reflected shock technique is employed in the determination of OH radical time profiles via multipass electronic absorption spectrometry. O-atoms are searched for with atomic resonance absorption spectrometry. The experiments provide a direct measurement of the rate coefficient, k{sub 1}, for the thermal decomposition of NH{sub 2}OH. Secondary rate measurements are obtained for the NH{sub 2} + OH (5a) and NH{sub 2}OH + OH (6a) abstraction reactions. The experimental data are obtained for temperatures in the range from 1355 to 1889 K and are well represented by the respective rate expressions: log[k/(cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1})] = (?10.12 {+-} 0.20) + (?6793 {+-} 317 K/T) (k{sub 1}); log[k/(cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1})] = (?10.00 {+-} 0.06) + (?879 {+-} 101 K/T) (k{sub 5a}); log[k/(cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1})] = (?9.75 {+-} 0.08) + (?1248 {+-} 123 K/T) (k{sub 6a}). Theoretical predictions are made for these rate coefficients as well for the reactions of NH{sub 2}OH + NH{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}OH + NH, NH + OH, NH{sub 2} + NH{sub 2}, NH{sub 2} + NH, and NH + NH, each of which could be of secondary importance in NH{sub 2}OH thermal decomposition. The theoretical analyses employ a combination of ab initio transition state theory and master equation simulations. Comparisons between theory and experiment are made where possible. Modest adjustments of predicted barrier heights (i.e., by 2 kcal/mol or less) generally yield good agreement between theory and experiment. The rate coefficients obtained here should be of utility in modeling NO{sub x} in various combustion environments.

  20. DOE Announces Selection of National Laboratory Center for Solid-State Lighting R&D and Seven Projects for Core Technology Research in Nanotechnology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce the selection of the National Laboratory Center for Solid-State Lighting...

  1. reflecting-behavioral-processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reflecting Behavioral Processes In Integrated Models Of Activity-Travel Demand And Dynamic Network Supply: A Novel Event-Based Framework Presentation at Argonne TRACC March 16, 2012 10:00 AM(CDT) TRACC Conference Room: Building 222, Room D-233 Dr. Karthik Charan Konduri School of Sustainable Energy and the Built Environment Arizona State University Abstract The developments in the microsimulation modeling of two key components of the transportation system, namely, activity-travel demand and

  2. State-selective electron capture in {sup 3}He{sup 2+} + He collisions at intermediate impact energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessi, M.; Otranto, S.; Focke, P.

    2011-01-15

    In this work we have measured single-electron capture in collisions of {sup 3}He{sup 2+} projectiles incident on a helium target for energies of 13.3-100 keV/amu with the cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy setup implemented at the Centro Atomico Bariloche. State-selective single-capture cross sections were measured as a function of the impact energy. They were found to agree with previous existing data from the Frankfurt group, starting at the impact energy of 60 keV/amu; as well as with recent data, at 7.5 keV/amu, from the Lanzhou group. The present experimental results are also contrasted to the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method with dynamical screening.

  3. Electron-atom collision studies using optically state selected beams. Progress report, 1 May 1984-30 April 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celotta, R.J.; Kelley, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    This report discusses the progress made on the research program on collision studies using optically state selected beams. The objective of this work is to stimulate deeper theoretical understanding of the electron-atom interaction by providing more complete experimental measurements on colliding systems. In particular we concentrate on effects dependent on the electron and atomic spins. Recent years have seen a rapid growth in the number and complexity of experiments which include spin analysis. The additional information provided by such experiments has contributed greatly to our ability to model numerically collisions between electrons and atoms. Those measurements have typically been on systems where one of the incident particles has zero spin. Hence, one could derive no direct information about the exchange interaction. In our measurement, both collision partners have non zero spin so that we see directly the effects of the exchange as well as the spin-orbit interaction. Indeed, our experimental observable, the asymmetry in a scattering rate when the incident spins are parallel versus antiparallel, is directly related to the ratio of the collision cross sections for scattering via the triplet versus the singlet spin state. 19 refs., 12 figs.

  4. The role of the transition state in polyatomic reactions: Initial state-selected reaction probabilities of the H + CH{sub 4} ? H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welsch, Ralph Manthe, Uwe

    2014-11-07

    Full-dimensional calculations of initial state-selected reaction probabilities on an accurate ab initio potential energy surface (PES) have been communicated recently [R. Welsch and U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 051102 (2014)]. These calculations use the quantum transition state concept, the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach, and graphics processing units to speed up the potential evaluation. Here further results of these calculations and an extended analysis are presented. State-selected reaction probabilities are given for many initial ro-vibrational states. The role of the vibrational states of the activated complex is analyzed in detail. It is found that rotationally cold methane mainly reacts via the ground state of the activated complex while rotationally excited methane mostly reacts via HHCH{sub 3}-bending excited states of the activated complex. Analyzing the different contributions to the reactivity of the vibrationally states of methane, a complex pattern is found. Comparison with initial state-selected reaction probabilities computed on the semi-empirical Jordan-Gilbert PES reveals the dependence of the results on the specific PES.

  5. Mirror: Visually reflecting C{sup ++}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orosco, R.; Campo, M.; Sole, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Reflection is the ability of a system to inspect and change a model of itself. This ability allows to transparently control and extend the functionality of an existing system without performing any changes to the system itself. In dynamic object-oriented languages like CLOS or Smalltalk. the reflective ability is supported directly by the language. In C++, in contrast, reflection must be provided by some form of code annotation and pre-processing. In most cases, this approach either requires modification of the system code, or just supports the reflection of entire classes but not the reflection of determined objects. This work presents the Mirror environment that supports C++ reflective programming through visual association of meta-classes to classes. It allows full transparent reflection of objects using three-dimensional presentations of the different architecture levels. The environment adds reflective ability to C++ classes without any code modification visible to the user, as well as dynamically selective reflection of objects.

  6. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  7. Reflective coherent spatial light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Richards, Roger K.; Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.

    2003-04-22

    A reflective coherent spatial light modulator (RCSLM) includes a subwavelength resonant grating structure (SWS), the SWS including at least one subwavelength resonant grating layer (SWL) have a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels. Each pixel represents an area capable of individual control of its reflective response. A structure for modulating the resonant reflective response of at least one pixel is provided. The structure for modulating can include at least one electro-optic layer in optical contact with the SWS. The RCSLM is scalable in both pixel size and wavelength. A method for forming a RCSLM includes the steps of selecting a waveguide material and forming a SWS in the waveguide material, the SWS formed from at least one SWL, the SWL having a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels.

  8. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  9. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  10. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  11. Selected Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    impact / selected publications

  12. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and their potential significance to energy use in the industries, and new evaluation of additional seven technologies. The re-assessments were essentially updated with recent information that we searched and collected from literature to the extent possible. The progress of selected technologies as they diffused into the marketplace from 2000 to 2010 was then discussed in this report. The report also includes updated detailed characterizations of 15 technologies studied in 2000, with comparisons noted.

  13. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  14. Reflective diffraction grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamartine, Bruce C.

    2003-06-24

    Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

  15. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wendt, Joel R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  16. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  17. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  18. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  19. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  20. Walk the Line: The Development of Route Selection Standards for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste in the United States - 13519

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilger, Fred; Halstead, Robert J.; Ballard, James D.

    2013-07-01

    Although storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) are widely dispersed throughout the United States, these materials are also relatively concentrated in terms of geographic area. That is, the impacts of storage occur in a very small geographic space. Once shipments begin to a national repository or centralized interim storage facility, the impacts of SNF and HLRW will become more geographically distributed, more publicly visible, and almost certainly more contentious. The selection of shipping routes will likely be a major source of controversy. This paper describes the development of procedures, regulations, and standards for the selection of routes used to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The paper begins by reviewing the circumstances around the development of HM-164 routing guidelines. The paper discusses the significance of New York City versus the Department of Transportation and application of HM-164. The paper describes the methods used to implement those regulations. The paper will also describe the current HM-164 designated routes and will provide a summary data analysis of their characteristics. This analysis will reveal the relatively small spatial scale of the effects of HM 164. The paper will then describe subsequent developments that have affected route selection for these materials. These developments include the use of 'representative routes' found in the Department of Energy (DOE) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the formerly proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The paper will describe recommendations related to route selection found in the National Academy of Sciences 2006 report Going the Distance, as well as recommendations found in the 2012 Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. The paper will examine recently promulgated federal regulations (HM-232) for selection of rail routes for hazardous materials transport. The paper concludes that while the HM 164 regime is sufficient for certain applications, it does not provide an adequate basis for a national plan to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to centralized storage and disposal facilities over a period of 30 to 50 years. (authors)

  1. New opportunities for quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering at steady-state sources using mechanical selection of the incident and final neutron energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamantov, Eugene

    2015-06-12

    We propose a modification of the neutron wide-angle velocity selector (WAVES) device that enables inelastic (in particular, quasielastic) scattering measurements not relying on the neutron time-of-flight. The proposed device is highly suitable for a steady-state neutron source, somewhat similar to a triple-axis spectrometer, but with simultaneous selection of the incident and final neutron energy over a broad range of scattering momentum transfer. Both the incident and final neutron velocities are defined by the WAVES geometry and rotation frequency. The variable energy transfer is achieved through the natural variation of the velocity of the transmitted neutrons as a function of themore » scattering angle component out of the equatorial plane.« less

  2. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Haas, Terry E.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  3. Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and provides for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into one of different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

  4. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  5. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool ...

  6. Low reflectance high power RF load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  7. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  8. Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H.; Sweatt, William

    1987-01-01

    A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes first means which defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and second means acting on the first means for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into a particular selected one of the different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected for and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

  9. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In second order the integrated reflectivity decreases from 1.3 mrad at 12.6 keV to ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION; ...

  10. Local Energy Assurance Planning: Map of States with Number of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    States with Number of Cities Selected Local Energy Assurance Planning: Map of States with Number of Cities Selected Map of the United States identifying the States with cities ...

  11. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  12. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C.

    1986-01-01

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  13. Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Gritto, Et Al.) Rye Patch Area Integrated Seismic Studies At The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir, Nevada Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Laney, 2005) Rye Patch Area Federal...

  14. Author Select

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors Please use the pane on the left to start the selection process.

  15. Tracking federal land management: Report No. 3 on federal land management actions impacting geothermal commecialization at selected target prospects in the five Pacific Rim states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-20

    Generic land management actions affecting geothermal commerializtion in Pacific River states are reviewed. Specific federal land management actions affecting geothermal prospects in California and the Pacific Northwest are described. (MHR)

  16. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  17. Recovery Act Selections for Smart Grid Investment Grant Awards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State - Updated November 2011 Recovery Act Selections for Smart Grid Investment Grant Awards - By State - Updated November 2011 List of selections for the Smart Grid Investment ...

  18. SSL Selections Descriptions v6.xls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selections Descriptions v6.xls More Documents & Publications Solid-State Lighting Recovery Act Award Selections 2015 Project Portfolio 2014 Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio

  19. Author Select

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selection List Select "add" or "add all", which appear after author's names in the middle pane, to add to the search strategy that appears in this pane. Return to Search >>

  20. Author Select

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Author Select Last Name First Name search Type in a name, or the first few letters of a name, in one or both of appropriate search boxes above and select "Go". An attempt will be...

  1. Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenborg, R. C.; Tiee, J. J.; Foy, B. R.; Petrin, R. R.; Wilson, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation for MEDUSA systems designed to locate and identify threat sensors will be discussed. The implications for chemical sensing applications will also be addressed.

  2. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffraction elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2002-01-01

    Techniques for fabricating a well-controlled, quantized-level, engineered surface that serves as substrates for EUV reflection multilayer overcomes problems associated with the fabrication of reflective EUV diffraction elements. The technique when employed to fabricate an EUV diffraction element that includes the steps of: (a) forming an etch stack comprising alternating layers of first and second materials on a substrate surface where the two material can provide relative etch selectivity; (b) creating a relief profile in the etch stack wherein the relief profile has a defined contour; and (c) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. For a typical EUV multilayer, if the features on the substrate are larger than 50 nm, the multilayer will be conformal to the substrate. Thus, the phase imparted to the reflected wavefront will closely match that geometrically set by the surface height profile.

  3. Full-dimensional and reduced-dimensional calculations of initial state-selected reaction probabilities studying the H + CH{sub 4} ? H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction on a neural network PES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welsch, Ralph Manthe, Uwe

    2015-02-14

    Initial state-selected reaction probabilities of the H + CH{sub 4} ? H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction are calculated in full and reduced dimensionality on a recent neural network potential [X. Xu, J. Chen, and D. H. Zhang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 27, 373 (2014)]. The quantum dynamics calculation employs the quantum transition state concept and the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach and rigorously studies the reaction for vanishing total angular momentum (J = 0). The calculations investigate the accuracy of the neutral network potential and study the effect resulting from a reduced-dimensional treatment. Very good agreement is found between the present results obtained on the neural network potential and previous results obtained on a Shepard interpolated potential energy surface. The reduced-dimensional calculations only consider motion in eight degrees of freedom and retain the C{sub 3v} symmetry of the methyl fragment. Considering reaction starting from the vibrational ground state of methane, the reaction probabilities calculated in reduced dimensionality are moderately shifted in energy compared to the full-dimensional ones but otherwise agree rather well. Similar agreement is also found if reaction probabilities averaged over similar types of vibrational excitation of the methane reactant are considered. In contrast, significant differences between reduced and full-dimensional results are found for reaction probabilities starting specifically from symmetric stretching, asymmetric (f{sub 2}-symmetric) stretching, or e-symmetric bending excited states of methane.

  4. Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6152014. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflected beam illumination microscopy ...

  5. State-selective laser photoionization of neutral benzene molecules ejected from keV ion bombarded C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/Ag{l_brace}111{r_brace}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meserole, C. A.; Vandeweert, E.; Chatterjee, R.; Chakraborty, B. R.; Garrison, B. J.; Winograd, N.; Postawa, Z.

    1998-12-16

    One-color two-photon ionization spectroscopy was used to probe state-selectively neutral benzene molecules desorbed from a benzene overlayer physisorbed on a Ag{l_brace}111{r_brace} surface upon 8 keV Ar{sup +} bombardment. Time distributions were measured for benzene molecules ejected in the zero level of the molecular ground state and in the first state of the {nu}{sub 6} ' vibration. These distributions are found to show a strong dependence both on the internal energy of the ejected molecules and the degree of coverage of the Ag surface. Up to monolayer coverages, benzene molecules are ejected by direct collisions with Ag particles sputtered from the underlying substrate. Molecules with higher internal energy leave the surface with a distribution shifted towards lower flight times. At multilayer coverages, a second, thermal-like ejection mechanism gains significance. It is suggested that only molecules excited near the benzene-vacuum interface, survive the ejection process without being deexcited.

  6. Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Selection Process Fellowships will be awarded based on academic excellence, relevance of candidate's research to the laboratory mission in fundamental nuclear science and relevance to Global Security or Science of Campaign missions. Contacts Director Albert Migliori Deputy Franz Freibert 505 667-6879 Email Professional Staff Assistant Susan Ramsay 505 665 0858 Email The Seaborg internal advisory committee will judge applications based on academic excellence, relevance of the

  7. AntiReflection Coating D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AIKEN,DANIEL J.

    1999-09-23

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J{sub sc}) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices.

  8. DOE Acquisition Guide Chapter 15.1 Source Selection Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached is a revised Source Selection Guide. The Guide has been updated to reflect changes to DOE policies and practices and includes new topics such as Flow of the Source Selection Process, Source Selection Official Designation, Confidentiality and Conflict of Interest Certificates, Source Selection Training and Roles and Responsibilities.

  9. Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds K. Ivanova, H. N. Shirer, and E. E. Clothiaux Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The state variables of the atmosphere exhibit correlations at various spatial and temporal scales. These correlations are crucial for understanding short- and long-term trends in climate. Cirrus clouds are important

  10. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1979-12-07

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  11. Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, Paul R.; Shapira, Hanna B.

    1981-01-01

    Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

  12. Entanglement entropy in quantum spin chains with broken reflection symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadar, Zoltan; Zimboras, Zoltan

    2010-09-15

    We investigate the entanglement entropy of a block of L sites in quasifree translation-invariant spin chains concentrating on the effect of reflection-symmetry breaking. The Majorana two-point functions corresponding to the Jordan-Wigner transformed fermionic modes are determined in the most general case; from these, it follows that reflection symmetry in the ground state can only be broken if the model is quantum critical. The large L asymptotics of the entropy are calculated analytically for general gauge-invariant models, which have, until now, been done only for the reflection-symmetric sector. Analytical results are also derived for certain nongauge-invariant models (e.g., for the Ising model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). We also study numerically finite chains of length N with a nonreflection-symmetric Hamiltonian and report that the reflection symmetry of the entropy of the first L spins is violated but the reflection-symmetric Calabrese-Cardy formula is recovered asymptotically. Furthermore, for noncritical reflection-symmetry-breaking Hamiltonians, we find an anomaly in the behavior of the saturation entropy as we approach the critical line. The paper also provides a concise but extensive review of the block-entropy asymptotics in translation-invariant quasifree spin chains with an analysis of the nearest-neighbor case and the enumeration of the yet unsolved parts of the quasifree landscape.

  13. REFLECT HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    storms in a state that averages 27 tornadoes yearly. Learn More STILE The aroma of Italian cooking will waft from STILE, the West Virginia University and University of Roma Tor...

  14. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 ARM Mentor Selection Process Revision 1 DL Sisterson October 2015 DOE/SC-ARM-13-003 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe

  15. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 ARM Mentor Selection Process DL Sisterson October 2015 DOE/SC-ARM-TR-171 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

  16. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

  17. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reflectance Spectroscopy In a fraction of a second, the photovoltaic (PV) Reflectometer measures the reflectance spectrum of a wafer or cell that is dimensionally within 6 in. × 6 in. The measured reflectance plots are deconvolved to derive physical parameters including surface roughness and texture, antireflective coating thickness, metallization area and height, and backside metallization properties. Pair of drawings showing how direct normal incident light reflects in a scatter from a rough

  18. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berger, Andrew J.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota

    2008-09-23

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  19. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  20. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sung Hun

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  1. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geophysical and wellbore data for the area, and these data will be complemented with modern, state-of-the-art reflection seismic data. Three-component geophones will record...

  2. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-31

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  3. PRINCIPAL ISOTOPE SELECTION REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. D. Wright

    1998-08-28

    Utilizing nuclear fuel to produce power in commercial reactors results in the production of hundreds of fission product and transuranic isotopes in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). When the SNF is disposed of in a repository, the criticality analyses could consider all of the isotopes, some principal isotopes affecting criticality, or none of the isotopes, other than the initial loading. The selected set of principal isotopes will be the ones used in criticality analyses of the SNF to evaluate the reactivity of the fuel/waste package composition and configuration. This technical document discusses the process used to select the principal isotopes and the possible affect that these isotopes could have on criticality in the SNF. The objective of this technical document is to discuss the process used to select the principal isotopes for disposal criticality evaluations with commercial SNF. The principal isotopes will be used as supporting information in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' which will be presented to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) when approved by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM).

  4. Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Tsao, J.Y.

    1992-12-15

    A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth. 3 figs.

  5. Reflection mass spectrometry technique for monitoring and controlling composition during molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, B. Eugene; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    1992-01-01

    A method for on-line accurate monitoring and precise control of molecular beam epitaxial growth of Groups III-III-V or Groups III-V-V layers in an advanced semiconductor device incorporates reflection mass spectrometry. The reflection mass spectrometry is responsive to intentional perturbations in molecular fluxes incident on a substrate by accurately measuring the molecular fluxes reflected from the substrate. The reflected flux is extremely sensitive to the state of the growing surface and the measurements obtained enable control of newly forming surfaces that are dynamically changing as a result of growth.

  6. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  7. Reflection thermal diffuse x-ray scattering for quantitative determination of phonon dispersion relations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mei, A. B.; Hellman, O.; Schlepuetz, C. M.; Rockett, A.; Chiang, T. -C.; Hultman, L.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2015-11-03

    Synchrotron reflection x-ray thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) measurements, rather than previously reported transmission TDS, are carried out at room temperature and analyzed using a formalism based upon second-order interatomic force constants and long-range Coulomb interactions to obtain quantitative determinations of MgO phonon dispersion relations (h) over bar omega(j) (q), phonon densities of states g((h) over bar omega), and isochoric temperature-dependent vibrational heat capacities cv (T). We use MgO as a model system for investigating reflection TDS due to its harmonic behavior as well as its mechanical and dynamic stability. Resulting phonon dispersion relations and densities of states are found tomore » be in good agreement with independent reports from inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering experiments. Temperature-dependent isochoric heat capacities cv (T), computed within the harmonic approximation from (h) over bar omega(j) (q) values, increase with temperature from 0.4 x 10-4 eV/atom K at 100 K to 1.4 x 10-4 eV/atom K at 200 K and 1.9 x 10-4 eV/atom K at 300 K, in excellent agreement with isobaric heat capacity values cp (T) between 4 and 300 K. We anticipate that the experimental approach developed here will be valuable for determining vibrational properties of heteroepitaxial thin films since the use of grazing-incidence (θ ≲ θc where θc is the density-dependent critical angle) allows selective tuning of x-ray penetration depths to ≲ 10 nm.« less

  8. Solar Reflection Panels - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Solar Reflection Panels Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This ...

  9. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demonstrate for the first time a lensless x-ray imaging technique involving holographic principles and carried out in reflection (as opposed to transmission) geometry. The...

  10. secretary of state | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    state

  11. START Program: 48 Contiguous States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview fact sheet on the selected DOE Office of Indian Energy Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) projects in the 48 contiguous states.

  12. Selection of Light Duty Truck Engine Air Systems Using Virtual Lab Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Houshun

    2000-08-20

    An integrated development approach using seasoned engine technology methodologies, virtual lab parametric investigations, and selected hardware verification tests reflects today's state-of-the-art R&D trends. This presentation will outline such a strategy. The use of this ''Wired'' approach results in substantial reduction in the development cycle time and hardware iterations. An example showing the virtual lab application for a viable design of the air-exhaust-turbocharger system of a light duty truck engine for personal transportation will be presented.

  13. Variational transition state theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  14. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don M.; Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Platts, David; Clark, David D.

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  15. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophicmore » microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.« less

  16. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.

  17. Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. R. Marshall

    2010-09-20

    Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 μm, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

  18. Local Energy Assurance Planning: Map of Selected Cities | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Selected Cities Local Energy Assurance Planning: Map of Selected Cities Map of the United States showing the location and population size of cities selected for Local Energy Assurance Planning grants under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. PDF icon Local Energy Assurance Planning: Map of Selected Cities More Documents & Publications Local Energy Assurance Planning: Map of States with Number of Cities Selected Recovery Act Local Energy Assurance Planning (LEAP) Initiative

  19. Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Max, N.; Springmeyer, R.

    1987-04-29

    The Torrance-Sparrow model for calculating bidirectional reflection functions contains a geometrical attenuation factor to account for shadowing and occlusions in a hypothetical distribution of grooves on a rough surface. Using an efficient table-based method for determining the shadows and occlusions, we calculate the geometric attenuation factor for surfaces defined by a specific table of bump heights. Diffuse and glossy specular reflection of the environment can be handled in a unified manner by using an integral of the bidirectional reflection function times the environmental illumination, over the hemisphere of solid angle above a surface. We present a method of estimating the integral, by expanding the bidirectional reflection coefficient in spherical harmonics, and show how the coefficients in this expansion can be determined efficiently by reorganizing our geometric attenuation calculation.

  20. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  1. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the sample in a manner consistent with either technique has prevented the use of coherent imaging techniques with reflective samples. Researchers working at Beamline 12.0.2 have...

  2. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  3. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless...

  4. Preparing reflective substrate surfaces for laser treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flick, F.F.

    1984-11-21

    A coating of either copper oxide or felt tip pen ink is used on reflective copper or gold substrates to enhance laser beam coupling when the substrates are cut or welded with a laser.

  5. Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflectance thermometry in dynamic compression experiments. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dolan, Daniel H., ; Ao, Tommy ; Seagle, Christopher T Publication Date: 2012-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1118217 Report Number(s): SAND2012-0864C 481321 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 9th International Temperature Symposium held

  6. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian; Kipling, Kent

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  7. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  8. Origin of deep crustal reflections: Implications of coincident seismic refraction and reflection data in Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holbrook, W.S. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA)); Catchings, R.D. (U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Jarchow, C.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The authors compare seismic refraction and reflection results along the PASSCAL/COCORP 40{degree}N transect in the northern Basin and Range of Nevada in order to determine the origin of the prominent reflections from the deep crystalline crust. Reflection data along the transect show a thick zone of discontinuous, subhorizontal reflections, beginning at 4-6 s two-way traveltime (10-20 km depth) and ending at 9-11 s (27-35 km). Two independently derived velocity models, based on refraction data, are largely similar and agree on many important aspects of the reflectivity-velocity relation. Both models show that the top of the reflective zone lies 3-8 km above a prominent mid-crustal velocity discontinuity, which is interpreted to separate bulk silicic from bulk dioritic-gabbroic crust; in most places, the silicic mid-crust is more strongly reflective than the mafic lower crust. This pattern is expected in areas where ductile shearing is the mechanism responsible for the reflectivity. One of the velocity models, however, suggests that, in places, the strongest reflectivity spans both the middle (6.1-6.3 km/s) and lower (6.6 km/s) crust; this pattern suggests that the combined influence of ductile strain fabrics and mafic intrusions gives rise to crustal reflections. Both models show that the lowermost crust and crust/mantle transition are highly reflective, also suggesting the presence of mafic and/or ultramafic intrusions. Thus the observed reflection patterns suggest that ductile shearing and the intrusion of mantle-derived magma - both of which are likely to have accompanied the extreme Cenozoic extension - are important factors in generating deep crustal reflections.

  9. Reaction Selectivity in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2009-02-02

    The understanding of selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is of paramount importance to our society today. In this review we outline the current state of the art in research on selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Current in-situ surface science techniques have revealed several important features of catalytic selectivity. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy has shown us the importance of understanding the reaction intermediates and mechanism of a heterogeneous reaction, and can readily yield information as to the effect of temperature, pressure, catalyst geometry, surface promoters, and catalyst composition on the reaction mechanism. DFT calculations are quickly approaching the ability to assist in the interpretation of observed surface spectra, thereby making surface spectroscopy an even more powerful tool. HP-STM has revealed three vitally important parameters in heterogeneous selectivity: adsorbate mobility, catalyst mobility, and selective site-blocking. The development of size controlled nanoparticles from 0.8 to 10 nm, of controlled shape, and of controlled bimetallic composition has revealed several important variables for catalytic selectivity. Lastly, DFT calculations may be paving the way to guiding the composition choice for multi-metallic heterogeneous catalysis for the intelligent design of catalysts incorporating the many factors of selectivity we have learned.

  10. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. . Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-09-01

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  11. High reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2000-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  12. Process for fabricating high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2001-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  13. Selective radiative cooling with MgO and/or LiF layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A material for a wavelength-selective radiative cooling system, the material comprising an infrared-reflective substrate coated with magnesium oxide and/or lithium fluoride in a polycrystalline form. The material is non-absorptive for short wavelengths, absorptive from 8 to 13 microns, and reflective at longer wavelengths. The infrared-reflective substrate inhibits absorption at wavelengths shorter than 8 microns, and the magnesium oxide and/or lithium fluoride layers reflect radiation at wavelengths longer than 13 microns.

  14. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Electricity State Profiles Renewable Electricity State Profiles Data for 2010 | Release Date: January 21, 2012 | Next Release: January 30, 2013 Other Renewable Electricity State Profiles Choose a State: Select a State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New

  15. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity State Profiles Renewable Electricity State Profiles Data for 2010 | Release Date: January 21, 2012 | Next Release: January 30, 2013 Other Renewable Electricity State Profiles Choose a State: Select a State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New

  16. EIA - Renewable Electricity State Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity State Profiles Renewable Electricity State Profiles Data for 2010 | Release Date: January 21, 2012 | Next Release: January 30, 2013 Other Renewable Electricity State Profiles Choose a State: Select a State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New

  17. Phase coherence and Andreev reflection in topological insulator devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finck, A. D. K.; Kurter, C.; Hor, Y. S.; Van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-11-04

    Topological insulators (TIs) have attracted immense interest because they host helical surface states. Protected by time-reversal symmetry, they are robust to nonmagnetic disorder. When superconductivity is induced in these helical states, they are predicted to emulate p-wave pairing symmetry, with Majorana states bound to vortices. Majorana bound states possess non-Abelian exchange statistics that can be probed through interferometry. Here, we take a significant step towards Majorana interferometry by observing pronounced Fabry-Pérot oscillations in a TI sandwiched between a superconducting and a normal lead. For energies below the superconducting gap, we observe a doubling in the frequency of the oscillations, arisingmore » from an additional phase from Andreev reflection. When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the TI surface, a number of very sharp and gate-tunable conductance peaks appear at or near zero energy, which has consequences for interpreting spectroscopic probes of Majorana fermions. Our results show that TIs are a promising platform for exploring phase-coherent transport in a solid-state system.« less

  18. Phase coherence and Andreev reflection in topological insulator devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finck, A. D. K.; Kurter, C.; Hor, Y. S.; Van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-11-04

    Topological insulators (TIs) have attracted immense interest because they host helical surface states. Protected by time-reversal symmetry, they are robust to nonmagnetic disorder. When superconductivity is induced in these helical states, they are predicted to emulate p-wave pairing symmetry, with Majorana states bound to vortices. Majorana bound states possess non-Abelian exchange statistics that can be probed through interferometry. Here, we take a significant step towards Majorana interferometry by observing pronounced Fabry-Prot oscillations in a TI sandwiched between a superconducting and a normal lead. For energies below the superconducting gap, we observe a doubling in the frequency of the oscillations, arising from an additional phase from Andreev reflection. When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the TI surface, a number of very sharp and gate-tunable conductance peaks appear at or near zero energy, which has consequences for interpreting spectroscopic probes of Majorana fermions. Our results show that TIs are a promising platform for exploring phase-coherent transport in a solid-state system.

  19. Origin State Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    State 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2001-2009 2008-2009 Alabama Alabama W W W W W W W W W W W Alabama Georgia W W W W W W W W W W W Alabama Illinois - - - - - W W...

  20. Method of making reflecting film reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G.

    1980-01-01

    A reflector of the reflecting film type is disclosed and which may be used in a heliostatic system for concentrating solar energy and comprising a reflecting film bonded to an appropriate rigid substrate in such a way that specularity of a very high order is achieved. A method of bonding the reflecting film to the substrate is also disclosed and comprises the steps of initially adhering the film to a smooth, clean flat rigid surface with a non-bonding liquid between the rigid surface and film, and then bonding the substrate and film. The non-bonding liquid has a molecular adhesion greater than any stresses due to handling or curing of the bonding agent which is applied between the film and the opposing surface of the rigid substrate.

  1. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  2. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  3. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J.

    1989-06-20

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  4. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  5. Prisms with total internal reflection as solar reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabl, Arnulf; Rabl, Veronika

    1978-01-01

    An improved reflective wall for radiant energy collection and concentration devices is provided. The wall is comprised of a plurality of prisms whose frontal faces are adjacent and which reflect the desired radiation by total internal reflection.

  6. Total internal reflection laser tools and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Grubb, Daryl L.

    2016-02-02

    There is provided high power laser tools and laser heads that utilize total internal reflection ("TIR") structures to direct the laser beam along a laser beam path within the TIR structure. The TIR structures may be a TIR prism having its hypotenuse as a TIR surface.

  7. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  8. Sandia Energy - Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and more accurate method of measuring the irradiance from solar reflections using a digital camera. Measurements of reflected solar irradiance is of great importance to...

  9. Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat or curved roofing assemblies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Procedure for measuring the solar reflectance of flat ...

  10. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of ... A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and ...

  11. Pump Selection Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-10-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing pumping system efficiency with pumping selection considerations.

  12. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance. Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Ban-Weiss, George; Gilbert, Haley E.; François, David; Berdahl, Paul; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Destaillats, Hugo; Levinson, Ronnen

    2011-12-01

    The use of highly reflective “cool” roofing materials can decrease demand for air conditioning, mitigate the urban heat island effect, and potentially slow global warming. However, initially high roof solar reflectance can be degraded by natural soiling and weathering processes. We evaluated solar reflectance losses after three years of natural exposure reported in two separate databases: the Rated Products Directory of the US Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) and information reported by manufacturers to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s ENERGY STAR® rating program. Many product ratings were culled because they were duplicative (within a database) or not measured. Amore » second, site-resolved version of the CRRC dataset was created by transcribing from paper records the site-specific measurements of aged solar reflectance in Florida, Arizona and Ohio. Products with high initial solar reflectance tended to lose reflectance, while those with very low initial solar reflectance tended to become more reflective as they aged. Within the site-resolved CRRC database, absolute solar reflectance losses for samples of medium-to-high initial solar reflectance were 2 - 3 times greater in Florida (hot and humid) than in Arizona (hot and dry); losses in Ohio (temperate but polluted) were intermediate. Disaggregating results by product type, factory-applied coating, field-applied coating, metal, modified bitumen, shingle, singleply membrane and tile, revealed that absolute solar reflectance losses were largest for fieldapplied coating, modified bitumen and single-ply membrane products, and smallest for factoryapplied coating and metal products.The 2008 Title 24 provisional aged solar reflectance formula overpredicts the measured aged solar reflectance of 0% to 30% of each product type in the culled public CRRC database. The rate of overprediction was greatest for field-applied coating and single-ply membrane products and least for factory-applied coating, shingle, and metal products. New product-specific formulas can be used to estimate provisional aged solar reflectance from initial solar reflectance pending measurement of aged solar reflectance. The appropriate value of soiling resistance varies by product type and is selected to attain some desired overprediction rate for the formula. The correlations for shingle products presented in this paper should not be used to predict aged solar reflectance or estimate provisional aged solar reflectance because the data set is too small and too limited in range of initial solar reflectance.« less

  13. Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica extracted from oscillation of time-resolved reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumada, Takayuki Akagi, Hiroshi; Itakura, Ryuji; Otobe, Tomohito; Yokoyama, Atsushi

    2014-03-14

    Femtosecond laser ablation dynamics of fused silica is examined via time-resolved reflectivity measurements. After optical breakdown was caused by irradiation of a pump pulse with fluence F{sub pump}?=?3.314.9?J/cm{sup 2}, the reflectivity oscillated with a period of 63??2 ps for a wavelength ??=?795?nm. The period was reduced by half for ??=?398?nm. We ascribe the oscillation to the interference between the probe pulses reflected from the front and rear surfaces of the photo-excited molten fused silica layer. The time-resolved reflectivity agrees closely with a model comprising a photo-excited layer which expands due to the formation of voids, and then separates into two parts, one of which is left on the sample surface and the other separated as a molten thin layer from the surface by the spallation mechanism. Such oscillations were not observed in the reflectivity of soda-lime glass. Whether the reflectivity oscillates or not probably depends on the layer viscosity while in a molten state. Since viscosity of the molten fused silica is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the soda-lime glass at the same temperature, fused silica forms a molten thin layer that reflects the probe pulse, whereas the soda-lime glass is fragmented into clusters.

  14. Systems and methods for selective hydrogen transport and measurement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy ... Systems and methods for selective hydrogen transport and measurement United States Patent ...

  15. SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SELECTIVE HYDROGEN TRANSPORT AND MEASUREMENT...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy ... SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SELECTIVE HYDROGEN TRANSPORT AND MEASUREMENT United States Patent ...

  16. Selecting tense, aspect, and connecting words in language generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaasterland, T.; Dorr, B.

    1995-12-31

    Generating language that reflects the temporal organization of represented knowledge requires a language generation model that integrates contemporary theories of tense and aspect, temporal representations, and methods to plan text. This paper presents a model that produces complex sentences that reflect temporal relations present in underlying temporal concepts. The main result of this work is the successful application of constrained linguistic theories of tense and aspect to a generator which produces meaningful event combinations and selects appropriate connecting words that relate them.

  17. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  18. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  19. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R.

    2001-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  20. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  1. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  2. Multiple-reflection optical gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Thomas G.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple-reflection optical cell for Raman or fluorescence gas analysis consists of two spherical mirrors positioned transverse to a multiple-pass laser cell in a confronting plane-parallel alignment. The two mirrors are of equal diameter but possess different radii of curvature. The spacing between the mirrors is uniform and less than half of the radius of curvature of either mirror. The mirror of greater curvature possesses a small circular portal in its center which is the effective point source for conventional F1 double lens collection optics of a monochromator-detection system. Gas to be analyzed is flowed into the cell and irradiated by a multiply-reflected composite laser beam centered between the mirrors of the cell. Raman or fluorescence radiation originating from a large volume within the cell is (1) collected via multiple reflections with the cell mirrors, (2) partially collimated and (3) directed through the cell portal in a geometric array compatible with F1 collection optics.

  3. Light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H.; Sweatt, William

    1987-01-01

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  4. A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  5. Nevada State Environmental Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    variance requests is selected program areas administrated by NDEP as well as ratify air pollution enforcement actions (settlement agreements). Nevada State Environmental...

  6. Pump Selection Considerations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines important pump selection considerations, including fluid properties and pumping system end use requirements.

  7. Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Fochs, Scott N. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-09-28

    An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

  8. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  9. Seismic reflection imaging at a Shallow Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, P.; Rector, J.; Bainer, R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of our studies was to determine the best seismic method to image these sediments, between the water table at 3 m depth to the basement at 35 m depth. Good cross-correlation between well logs and the seismic data was also desirable, and would facilitate the tracking of known lithological units away from the wells. For instance, known aquifer control boundaries may then be mapped out over the boundaries, and may be used in a joint inversion with reflectivity data and other non-seismic geophysical data to produce a 3-D image containing quantitative physical properties of the target area.

  10. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  11. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  12. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  14. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  15. State Technologies Advancement Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David S. Terry

    2012-01-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative (STAC) which allowed the states and DOE to move RDD&D forward using an innovative competitive project selection and funding process. A cooperative agreement between DOE and NASEO served as the contracting instrument for this innovative federal-state partnership obligating funds from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy to plan, fund, and implement RDD&D projects that were consistent with the common priorities of the states and DOE. DOE's Golden Field Office provided Federal oversight and guidance for the STAC cooperative agreement. The STAC program was built on the foundation of prior Federal-State efforts to collaborate on and engage in joint planning for RDD&D. Although STAC builds on existing, successful programs, it is important to note that it was not intended to replace other successful joint DOE/State initiatives such as the State Energy Program or EERE Special Projects. Overall the STAC process was used to fund, through three competitive solicitations, 35 successful multi-state research, development, deployment, and demonstration projects with an overall average non-federal cost share of 43%. Twenty-two states were awarded at least one prime contract, and organizations in all 50 states and some territories were involved as subcontractors in at least one STAC project. Projects were funded in seven program areas: (1) Building Technologies, (2) Industrial Technologies, (3) Transportation Technologies, (4) Distributed Energy Resources, (5) Hydrogen Technology Learning Centers, (6) Fossil Energy, and (7) Rebuild America.

  16. Reflection-Based Python-C++ Bindings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Generowicz, Jacek; Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.; Marino, Massimo; Mato, Pere

    2004-10-14

    Python is a flexible, powerful, high-level language with excellent interactive and introspective capabilities and a very clean syntax. As such, it can be a very effective tool for driving physics analysis. Python is designed to be extensible in low-level C-like languages, and its use as a scientific steering language has become quite widespread. To this end, existing and custom-written C or C++ libraries are bound to the Python environment as so-called extension modules. A number of tools for easing the process of creating such bindings exist, such as SWIG and Boost. Python. Yet, the process still requires a considerable amount of effort and expertise. The C++ language has few built-in introspective capabilities, but tools such as LCGDict and CINT add this by providing so-called dictionaries: libraries that contain information about the names, entry points, argument types, etc. of other libraries. The reflection information from these dictionaries can be used for the creation of bindings and so the process can be fully automated, as dictionaries are already provided for many end-user libraries for other purposes, such as object persistency. PyLCGDict is a Python extension module that uses LCG dictionaries, as PyROOT uses CINT reflection information, to allow /cwPython users to access C++ libraries with essentially no preparation on the users' behalf. In addition, and in a similar way, PyROOT gives ROOT users access to Python libraries.

  17. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  18. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jones B.; Steger, Philip J.; Wright, Ralph R.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes electrolessly depositing an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The electroplated nickel layer then is separated from the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  19. Technology Pathway Selection Effort

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    cost, profit for biorefinery - Excludes: taxes, distribution costs, tax credits or other ... Rationale for Selecting Pathway * HTL both extraction and conversion process (50-70% of ...

  20. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  1. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2014-11-25

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  2. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR) 2.101 AND 3.104 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 (enter date here, centered revised template...

  3. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The model is then used to compute the reflectance of shingles with a mixture of different colored granules, when the reflectances of the corresponding mono-color shingles are ...

  4. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray energies up to 22 keV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals ...

  5. Control of reflected electromagnetic fields at an IFSAR antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM); Brock, Billy C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-12-09

    A system for reducing multi-path reflections from adjacent metal objects which cause distortion in an IFSAR includes a reflective cone extending between the top of the IFSAR and the skin of its aircraft, and a reflective shroud surrounding the IFSAR. Each of these components may be coated with radar absorbing material.

  6. Alabama - State Energy Profile Overview - U.S. Energy Information...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Energy Profile Overview - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) The page does not exist for . To view this page, please select a state: United States Alabama Alaska ...

  7. United States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    l 0 United States Office of Research and Environmental Protection Agency Development Washington, DC 20460 EPA 600/R-94/209 January 1993 Offsite Environment itoring Report adiation Monitoring Around United States Nuclear Test Areas, Calendar Year 1992 UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING SYSTEMS LABORATORY-LAS VEGAS P.O. BOX 93478 LAS VEGAS, NEVADA 89193-3478 , 702/798-2100 April 20, 1995 Dear Reader: Since 1954, the U.S.

  8. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - I United States Department of Energy D lSCk Al M E R "This book was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe

  9. UNITED STATES

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Stephen M. Shelton General Manager Gentlemen: Enclosed is Special Nuclear Material License ... STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL LlCENSE .- Pursuant to the ...

  10. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Courtney S.; Paisley, Dennis L.; Montoya, Nelson I.; Stahl, David B.

    1993-01-01

    A selectable fragmentation warhead capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  11. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses a selectable fragmentation warhead which is capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  12. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  13. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.; Hudgens, Jeffrey W.

    1999-08-24

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  14. Intra-Cavity Total Reflection For High Sensitivity Measurement Of Optical Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew Charles Rule

    1999-11-16

    An optical cavity resonator device is provided for conducting sensitive murement of optical absorption by matter in any state with diffraction-limited spatial resolution through utilization of total internal reflection within a high-Q (high quality, low loss) optical cavity. Intracavity total reflection generates an evanescent wave that decays exponentially in space at a point external to the cavity, thereby providing a localized region where absorbing materials can be sensitively probed through alteration of the Q-factor of the otherwise isolated cavity. When a laser pulse is injected into the cavity and passes through the evanescent state, an amplitude loss resulting from absorption is incurred that reduces the lifetime of the pulse in the cavity. By monitoring the decay of the injected pulse, the absorption coefficient of manner within the evanescent wave region is accurately obtained from the decay time measurement.

  15. Energy loss of MeV protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juaristi, J.I.

    1996-05-01

    A parameter-free model is presented to study the energy loss of fast protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces. The contributions to the energy loss from excitation of valence-band electrons and ionization of localized target-atom electronic states are calculated separately. The former is calculated from the induced surface wake potential using linear response theory and the specular-reflection model, while the latter is calculated in the first Born approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, the experimental qualitative trend of the energy loss as a function of the angle of incidence is obtained when the valence-band electron model is replaced by localized target atom electron states, though with a worse quantitative agreement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an action described in Section 311 of P.L. 112-74 in excess of 1,000,000. This information is source selection information related to the conduct of a Federal agency...

  17. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  18. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Martinez, F. Edward

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  19. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chapter 15.1 1 Source Selection Overview This chapter provides guidance to the acquisition team on conducting source selection in accordance with Part 15 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Background The mid 1990's was a time of significant change in many areas of procurement, particularly in the introduction of new tools and processes that help the procurement professional better meet the needs of demanding customers. The passage of the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act in 1994

  20. Graduate Program Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Graduate Program Selection Process Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Student Programs (505) 665-0987 Email The student hiring process Thank you for your interest in Los Alamos National Laboratory's Student Programs. Once an application is submitted online, it is available for all interested Laboratory hiring officials to view.

  1. Undergraduate Program Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Undergraduate Program Selection Process Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Student Programs (505) 665-0987 Email Student hiring process Once an application is submitted online, it is made available for all interested Laboratory hiring officials to view. Hiring officials are Laboratory employees who have the funding and work

  2. Sudip Dosanjh: Select Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dosanjh » Sudip Dosanjh: Select Publications Sudip Dosanjh: Select Publications Sort by: Date | Author | Type 2015 C.S. Daley, L. Ramakrishnan, S. Dosanjh, N.J. Wright, "Analyses of Scientific Workflows for Effective Use of Future Architectures", The 6th International Workshop on Big Data Analytics: Challenges, and Opportunities (BDAC-15), 2015, 2014 Sudip Dosanjh, Shane Canon, Jack Deslippe, Kjiersten Fagnan, Richard Gerber, Lisa Gerhardt, Jason Hick, Douglas Jacobsen, David Skinner,

  3. Technique for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the kubelka-munk function

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alfano, Robert R.; Yang, Yuanlong

    2003-09-02

    Method and apparatus for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function. In one aspect, the method is used to determine whether a tissue sample is cancerous or not and comprises the steps of (a) measuring the diffuse reflectance from the tissue sample at a first wavelength and at a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 255-265 nm and wherein the second wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 275-285 nm; (b) using the Kubelka-Munk function to transform the diffuse reflectance measurement obtained at the first and second wavelengths; and (c) comparing a ratio or a difference of the transformed Kubelka-Munk measurements at the first and second wavelengths to appropriate standards determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous. One can use the spectral profile of KMF between 250 nm to 300 nm to determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous or precancerous. According to the value at the first and second wavelengths determine whether or not the malignant tissue is invasive or mixed invasive and in situ or carcinoma in situ.

  4. DOE Announces Selections for Solid-State Lighting Core Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... These semi-polar orientations have the advantage of significantly reducing the piezoelectric fields that distort the quantum well band structure and decrease electron-hole overlap. ...

  5. Critical Issues in NPH Categorization and Limit State Selection of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy 0 (CD-0) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Critical Decision 0 (CD-0) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Template for briefing Critical Decisions to the ESAAB and/or PMRC July 2015 File Template Key Resources PMCDP EVMS PARS IIe FPD Resource Center PM Newsletter Forms and Templates More Documents & Publications DOE Project Management Risk Committee (PMRC) SOP Critical Decision 1 (CD-1) ESAAB and PMRC Brief Template Critical Decision 2 (CD-2 Energy

    1 (CD-1) ESAAB and PMRC Brief

  6. Selected Project City State Project Description Proposed DOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... PNNL will perform an engineering economic feasibility analysis to analyze the viability of this technology as value-added extraction processes for geothermal energy systems. ...

  7. Critical Issues in NPH Categorization and Limit State Selection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Performance Goals from an Accident Analysis Perspective DOE Standard 1020 - Natural Phenomena Hazard analysis and Design Criteria for DOE Facilities...

  8. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    78.5 48.8 See footnotes at end of table. 182 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and...

  9. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    76.6 45.7 See footnotes at end of table. 182 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and...

  10. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    52.1 See footnotes at end of table. 224 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and...

  11. DOE Announces Selections for Solid-State Lighting Core Technology...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technical activities are focused on a targeted market application with fully defined price... efficiency by systematic study and control of indium incorporation in LED active regions. ...

  12. Critical Issues in NPH Categorization and Limit State Selection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Determination of NPH design category (NDC) of SSCs based on Step 1 results ... frequency of failure per year), for each NDC such that the product of PG and the ...

  13. Selected Project City State Phase I Project Highlights Preliminary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the Snake River Plain * Created process to convert data layers to evidence and ... Salt Lake City UT * The project compared two methods - deterministic and stochastic - for ...

  14. DOE Announces Selections from Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    much more energy efficient, longer lasting, and cost competitive by targeting a product system efficiency of 50 percent with lighting that accurately reproduces sunlight spectrum. ...

  15. DOE Announces Selections for Solid-State Lighting Core Technology...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    much more energy efficient, longer lasting, and cost competitive by targeting a product system efficiency of 50 percent with lighting that accurately reproduces sunlight spectrum. ...

  16. DOE Announces Selections from Solid-State Lighting Product Development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    much more energy efficient, longer lasting, and cost competitive by targeting a product system efficiency of 50 percent with lighting that accurately reproduces sunlight spectrum. ...

  17. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  18. Selective epitaxy using the gild process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a method of selective epitaxy on a semiconductor substrate. The present invention provides a method of selectively forming high quality, thin GeSi layers in a silicon circuit, and a method for fabricating smaller semiconductor chips with a greater yield (more error free chips) at a lower cost. The method comprises forming an upper layer over a substrate, and depositing a reflectivity mask which is then removed over selected sections. Using a laser to melt the unmasked sections of the upper layer, the semiconductor material in the upper layer is heated and diffused into the substrate semiconductor material. By varying the amount of laser radiation, the epitaxial layer is formed to a controlled depth which may be very thin. When cooled, a single crystal epitaxial layer is formed over the patterned substrate. The present invention provides the ability to selectively grow layers of mixed semiconductors over patterned substrates such as a layer of Ge.sub.x Si.sub.1-x grown over silicon. Such a process may be used to manufacture small transistors that have a narrow base, heavy doping, and high gain. The narrowness allows a faster transistor, and the heavy doping reduces the resistance of the narrow layer. The process does not require high temperature annealing; therefore materials such as aluminum can be used. Furthermore, the process may be used to fabricate diodes that have a high reverse breakdown voltage and a low reverse leakage current.

  19. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from electron plasma waves on OMEGA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA A reflective optical transport system has been designed for the OMEGA Thomson-scattering diagnostic. A Schwarzschild objective that uses two concentric spherical

  20. United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee when ... with section 1222's requirements, referred to in the ... States v. 14.02 Acres of Land More or Less in Fresno ...

  1. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1989) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso...

  2. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately ...

  3. Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Surface roughness effects on the solar ...

  4. Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electrons produced by laser-matter interaction In an experiment at the laser facility ECLIPSE of the CELIA laboratory, University of Bordeaux, we measure the reflectivity of ...

  5. Clean Energy Transition: Reflections on the Past Decade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clean Energy Transition: Reflections on the Past Decade NREL Industry Growth Forum Dr. Dan E. Arvizu Laboratory Director November 2015 2 Energy Market Fundamentals Globally...

  6. Combined Reflectivity/imaging Method for Assessing Diagnostic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with laser treatment to restore the reflectivity of diagnostic mirrors after degradation by plasma deposition. Multiple mirrors, including an aluminum first surface reference ...

  7. Reflection Survey At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Colwell, Et Al., 2012) Exploration Activity Details Location Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity...

  8. Reflection Survey At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  9. Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  10. Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  11. Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Goranson, 2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Colin Goranson (2005) Recent Drilling Activities At The Earth Power Resources Tuscarora...

  12. Reflection Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  13. Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    failure of seismic reflection data to image thesubsurface demonstrates the robust reliability of aconceptual model approach to geothermal exploration thatemphasizes the...

  14. Reflection Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Reflection Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home...

  15. Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    field, which lies within an extensional step-over between dextral faults, is a young, actively developing metamorphic core complex. The reflection images were processed...

  16. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A reflective optical transport system for ...

  17. Reflection Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)...

  18. Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high pressures The infrared reflectance of iron was studied using high-pressure synchrotron radiation methods up to 50 GPa at room temperature in a diamond anvil cell of 1000-8000 cm{sup -1} (1.25-10 {mu}m). The magnitude of the reflectivity shows a weak pressure

  19. Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Melosh, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    model of blue mountain. References Glenn Melosh, William Cumming, John Casteel, Kim Niggemann, Brian Fairbank (2010) Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for...

  20. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  1. PDSF Selected Announcements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selected Announcements PDSF Selected Announcements Exciting new PDSF developments February 25, 2014 I'm pleased to announce that PDSF successfully deployed new login nodes last week. Some of you may already have noticed that you are now landing on nodes named pdsf[6-8] when you ssh to pdsf.nersc.gov. Our new login nodes use the faster Mendel IB network and more modern hardware. We've gone from four nodes to three but, because each node has a higher core count, the processing power is staying the

  2. Department of Energy Announces Selection of Transportation Contractors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the selection of Tri-State Motor Transit Co. (TSMT) and CAST Transportation, Inc. (CAST) to transport radioactive transuranic...

  3. All Selected Projects

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Selected Projects Oct 23, 2009 (rev. Dec. 14, 2010) 99 Projects SMART GRID INVESTMENT GRANTS Type Advanced Metering Infrastructure Customer Systems Electric Systems Distribution Electric Transmission Systems Equipment Manufacturing Integrated and/or Crosscutting Systems Circle indicates project where specific utility/area is not known.

  4. Climate selection and development of climate indicators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, W.M.; Moreno, S.; Olsen, A.R.

    1982-09-01

    A climate analysis procedure for selecting climate locations which would represent the variation in climate conditions throughout the United States is documented. Separate energy analysis projects for three building categories were to use the results of the climate location project. The categories are: commercial buildings (including multifamily residences), single family residences, and mobile homes. The overall objectives, approach, and method used for all three categories are presented, then the specific application of the general method to each building category is discussed. Climate selection results, conclusions, recommendations, and limits for each building category are presented within the description of the application of the method for that category. (LEW)

  5. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  6. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; Skinner, Charles H.; Rosser, Roy

    1993-01-01

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  7. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  8. Select Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Select Solar Name: Select Solar Address: Unit 5 Blakehill Business Park Chelworth Road Cricklade SN6 6JD Place: Cricklade, United Kingdom...

  9. Dynamical Symmetries Reflected in Realistic Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sviratcheva, K.D.; Draayer, J.P.; /Louisiana State U.; Vary, J.P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC

    2007-04-06

    Realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions, derived within the framework of meson theory or more recently in terms of chiral effective field theory, yield new possibilities for achieving a unified microscopic description of atomic nuclei. Based on spectral distribution methods, a comparison of these interactions to a most general Sp(4) dynamically symmetric interaction, which previously we found to reproduce well that part of the interaction that is responsible for shaping pairing-governed isobaric analog 0{sup +} states, can determine the extent to which this significantly simpler model Hamiltonian can be used to obtain an approximate, yet very good description of low-lying nuclear structure. And furthermore, one can apply this model in situations that would otherwise be prohibitive because of the size of the model space. In addition, we introduce a Sp(4) symmetry breaking term by including the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in the analysis and examining the capacity of this extended model interaction to imitate realistic interactions. This provides a further step towards gaining a better understanding of the underlying foundation of realistic interactions and their ability to reproduce striking features of nuclei such as strong pairing correlations or collective rotational motion.

  10. Parametric reflection upon cascade interaction of focused optical beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobanov, V E; Sukhorukov, A P; Sukhorukova, A K

    2008-10-31

    The parametric reflection of a signal beam in the waist of the reference pump beam upon mismatched three-frequency interaction in a quadratically nonlinear medium is discussed. The critical angle of total internal reflection from the induced defocusing channel is found as a function of the beam waist parameters. It is shown that when the reference beam is focused, this angle increases and some distortions are introduced into the reflected wave due to a finite length of the waist. The modification of the cross section of a wave reflected from a convex parametric mirror is analysed. The optimal beam focusing geometry is found at which the distortions of the shape and divergence of the reflected wave are minimal. Under certain conditions, the signal wave also flows around a cylindrical inhomogeneity produced by the axially symmetric pump beam. The results of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are in good agreement. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  11. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    onp5fGonal Ruord United States of America . I. .' - PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 9t?lh CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION United States Government Printing Office SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS Wash!ogtm. 0.C 20402 OFFICIAL BUSINESS Penalty for pwate use. sco Congressmal Record (USPS 087-390) Postage and Fees Pad I.) s ~lJ"er"ment Prlntlng OffIce 375 SECOND CLASS NEWSPAPER -...~-- -~- -- --- H 45' 78 ' cCJ~GRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE June 28, 1983 H.J. Res. 213: Mr. BOLAND, Mr. WAXM.UG Mr. OBERSTAR.

  12. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    onSres;eional atecord United States of America :- PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 981h CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION United States Government Printing Office SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS Washwtn. D C 20402 OFFICIAL BUSINESS Penalty for plvate use. $300 Congressmnal Record (USPS 087-390) Postage and Fees Pad U S Government Prtnttng Offlce 375 SECOND CLASS NEWSPAPER H 45' 78 * C.QvGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOUSE .-. June 28, 1983 H.J. Res. 273: Mr. BOLAND. Mr. Whxrdhr?. Mr. OBERsThx. Mi. BEDELL, Mr. BONER of

  13. FLUID SELECTING APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stinson, W.J.

    1958-09-16

    A valve designed to selectively sample fluids from a number of sources is described. The valve comprises a rotatable operating lever connected through a bellows seal to a rotatable assembly containing a needle valve, bearings, and a rotational lock. The needle valve is connected through a flexible tube to the sample fluid outlet. By rotating the lever the needle valve is placed over . one of several fluid sources and locked in position so that the fluid is traasferred through the flexible tubing and outlet to a remote sampling system. The fluids from the nonselected sources are exhausted to a waste line. This valve constitutes a simple, dependable means of selecting a sample from one of several scurces.

  14. Energy Department Selects Partners...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selects Partners to Bridge Old and New Corn Ethanol Technology Efforts For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Feb. 24, 1999 — The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced grant recipients in its "Bridge to the Corn Ethanol Industry" initiative which will help connect the established corn ethanol industry and the newer technologies that produce ethanol from agricultural and forest wastes and other types of biomass. Six partnerships totaling $1

  15. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR) 2.101 AND 3.104 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 (enter date here, centered revised template April 26, 2013) The Honorable Harold Rogers The Honorable Barbara A. Mikulski Chairman, Committee on Appropriations Chairwoman, Committee on Appropriations U.S. House of Representatives U.S. Senate Washington, DC 20515 Washington, DC 20510 The Honorable Rodney P. Frelinghuysen The Honorable Dianne Feinstein Chairman,

  16. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  17. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  18. Energy Efficiency Standards for State Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    HB 1266 (July 2013) requires that newly constructed state buildings meet or exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2010 requirements or any other more stringent efficient building requirements selected by the Bureau...

  19. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Vriddhachalam K.; Newnam, Brian E.

    1993-01-01

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 .mu.m, and preferably less than 100 .mu.m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 .mu.m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm .times.25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  20. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  1. Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the SPS H8 beamline (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at the SPS H8 beamline Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus to study crystal channeling and volume reflection phenomena at the SPS H8 beamline A high performance apparatus has been designed and built by the H8-RD22 collaboration for the study of channeling and volume reflection phenomena in the interaction of 400 GeV/c protons with bent silicon

  2. Fabrication of optically reflecting ohmic contacts for semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided to produce a low-resistivity ohmic contact having high optical reflectivity on one side of a semiconductor device. The contact is formed by coating the semiconductor substrate with a thin metal film on the back reflecting side and then optically processing the wafer by illuminating it with electromagnetic radiation of a predetermined wavelength and energy level through the front side of the wafer for a predetermined period of time. This method produces a thin epitaxial alloy layer between the semiconductor substrate and the metal layer when a crystalline substrate is used. The alloy layer provides both a low-resistivity ohmic contact and high optical reflectance.

  3. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  4. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional/State Underground...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    RegionalState Underground Natural Gas Storage Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Regional ...

  5. United States

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Southern Research Station General Technical Report SRS-68 Bats of the Savannah River Site and Vicinity Michael A. Menzel, Jennifer M. Menzel, John C. Kilgo, W. Mark Ford, Timothy C. Carter, and John W. Edwards Authors: Michael A. Menzel, 1 Jennifer M. Menzel, 2 John C. Kilgo, 3 W. Mark Ford, 2 Timothy C. Carter, 4 and John W. Edwards 5 1 Graduate Research Assistant, Division of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, West Virginia University, Morgantown,

  6. Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziendziel, Randolph J.; DePoy, David Moore; Baldasaro, Paul Francis

    2007-01-23

    This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

  7. Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziendziel, Randolph J.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; DePoy, David M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

  8. Optimal Portfolio Selection Under Concave Price Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Jin; Song Qingshuo; Xu Jing; Zhang Jianfeng

    2013-06-15

    In this paper we study an optimal portfolio selection problem under instantaneous price impact. Based on some empirical analysis in the literature, we model such impact as a concave function of the trading size when the trading size is small. The price impact can be thought of as either a liquidity cost or a transaction cost, but the concavity nature of the cost leads to some fundamental difference from those in the existing literature. We show that the problem can be reduced to an impulse control problem, but without fixed cost, and that the value function is a viscosity solution to a special type of Quasi-Variational Inequality (QVI). We also prove directly (without using the solution to the QVI) that the optimal strategy exists and more importantly, despite the absence of a fixed cost, it is still in a 'piecewise constant' form, reflecting a more practical perspective.

  9. Simplifying steam trap selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debat, R.J. )

    1994-01-01

    In the current economic world order, there is an obligation to eliminate waste and conserve economic and natural resources. One trap blowing 100-lb of steam through a 1/4-in. orifice can cost more than $12,000 a year in wasted energy. Richard J. Debat of Armstrong International, Inc. explains the operating principles of the four basic types of steam traps as the first step in simplifying the selection process so the right trap can be specified for a given application.

  10. Selecting chemical treatment programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E. )

    1988-09-01

    Many process equipment performance and reliability problems can be solved economically by the proper selection and application of chemical treatment programs. It is important to choose an experienced chemical vendor and to work closely with the vendor to develop a good chemical treatment program. This requires devoting sufficient manpower to ensure that the treatment program development is thorough and timely. After the treatment program is installed, the system operation and performance should be routinely monitored to ensure that expected benefits are achieved and unexpected problems do not develop.

  11. NREL: Technology Transfer - NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy In this video, NREL Principal Scientist Gary Jorgensen and SkyFuel Chief Technology Officer Randy Gee talk...

  12. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  13. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar ... Rsub g,0more to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with ...

  14. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several

  15. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been calibrated photometrically in the range of 5.5 to 16 keV. The

  16. Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using Kα signal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from hot electrons produced by laser-matter interaction (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using Kα signal from hot electrons produced by laser-matter interaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of reflectivity of spherically bent crystals using Kα signal from hot electrons produced by laser-matter interaction In an experiment at the laser facility ECLIPSE of the CELIA laboratory, University of Bordeaux, we

  17. Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers Authors: Tridon F. ; Luke E. ; Battaglia, A. ; Kollias, P. ; Williams, C. R. Publication Date: 2013-06-01 OSTI

  18. Repetitive output laser system and method using target reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Roy R.

    1978-01-01

    An improved laser system and method for implosion of a thermonuclear fuel pellet in which that portion of a laser pulse reflected by the target pellet is utilized in the laser system to initiate a succeeding target implosion, and in which the energy stored in the laser system to amplify the initial laser pulse, but not completely absorbed thereby, is used to amplify succeeding laser pulses initiated by target reflection.

  19. Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device -

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    progress report 6/15/2014. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6/15/2014. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflected beam illumination microscopy using a microfluidics device - progress report 6/15/2014. Abstract not provided. Authors: James, Conrad D. ; Finnegan, Patrick Sean ; Renzi, Ronald F. Publication Date: 2014-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1171452 Report Number(s):

  20. Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dolan, Daniel H., ; Seagle, Christopher T ; Ao, Tommy ; Herrmann, Mark Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106087 Report Number(s): SAND2013-3898C 465305 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type:

  1. Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques SOFAST: Sandia Optical Fringe Analysis Slope Tool Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (834 KB) SOFAST Imaging SOFAST Imaging Technology Marketing SummaryThis technology is an automated system in which the reflection of a mirror,

  2. Selectivity in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, W.S.

    1980-11-01

    The observation of multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance transitions in isotropic or anisotropic liquids is shown to give readily interpretable information on molecular configurations, rates of motional processes, and intramolecular interactions. However, the observed intensity of high multiple-quantum transitions falls off dramatically as the number of coupled spins increases. The theory of multiple-quantum NMR is developed through the density matrix formalism, and exact intensities are derived for several cases (isotropic first-order systems and anisotropic systems with high symmetry) to shown that this intensity decrease is expected if standard multiple-quantum pulse sequences are used. New pulse sequences are developed which excite coherences and produce population inversions only between selected states, even though other transitions are simultaneously resonant. One type of selective excitation presented only allows molecules to absorb and emit photons in groups of n. Coherent averaging theory is extended to describe these selective sequences, and to design sequences which are selective to arbitrarily high order in the Magnus expansion. This theory and computer calculations both show that extremely good selectivity and large signal enhancements are possible.

  3. State Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PAGE | 1 Produced by Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability (OE) State Overview Population: 0.63 million (<1% total U.S.) Housing Units: 0.32 million (<1% total U.S.) Business Establishments: 0.02 million (<1% total U.S.) Annual Energy Consumption Electric Power: 5.5 TWh (<1% total U.S.) Coal: 0 MSTN (0% total U.S.) Natural Gas: 392 Bcf (2% total U.S.) Motor Gasoline: 7,800 Mbarrels (<1% total U.S.) Distillate Fuel: 3,900 Mbarrels

  4. United States

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tenaslta Power Services Co. OE Docket No. EA-243-A Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Canada Order No. EA-243-A March 1,2007 Tenaska Power Services Co. Order No. EA-243-A I. BACKGROUND Exports of elcctricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 30 I(b) and 402(f) of the Departrncnt of' Energy Organizatio~l Act (42 U, S.C. 7 15 1 (b), 7 1 72Cf)) and rcquirc authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act

  5. United States

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    BP Energy Company OE Docket No. EA- 3 14 Order Authorizing Electricity Exports to Mexico Order No. EA-3 14 February 22,2007 BP Energy Company Order No. EA-314 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated by the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to sections 301(b) and 402(Q of the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7 15 l(b), 7172(f)) and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C.S24a(e)) .

  6. States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ,.' &I ,J?5.8 = , sr; i&L:E%, 7-e;, iB 1 L Unitbd ' States Government ma.morandum DATE: $I$! 24 ml1 Department of Energy y;;;z EM-421 .- Elimination of the Landis Machine Company site SVWECT: The File TO: I have reviewed the attached site summary and elimination recommendation for the Landis Machine Company site in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania. I have determined that there is little likelihood of radioactive contamination at this site. Based' on the above, the Landis Machine Company site is

  7. Selective control of the symmetric Dicke subspace in trapped ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Solano, E.

    2007-09-15

    We propose a method of manipulating selectively the symmetric Dicke subspace in the internal degrees of freedom of N trapped ions. We show that the direct access to ionic-motional subspaces, based on a suitable tuning of motion-dependent ac Stark shifts, induces a two-level dynamics involving previously selected ionic Dicke states. In this manner, it is possible to produce, sequentially and unitarily, ionic Dicke states with increasing excitation number. Moreover, we propose a probabilistic technique to produce directly any ionic Dicke state assuming suitable initial conditions.

  8. Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.K.

    1988-06-17

    The interaction of light and matter define what we see. This interaction can be characterized by a function which relates incoming light to the distribution of outgoing or reflected light. The Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF) is just such a function. Computer graphics scientists attempting to model this function have made simplifying assumptions about the reflecting surfaces. These simpler models have produced adequate results but only handle very uniform or isotropic surface characteristics. Reality on the other hand is filled with a variety of surface textures which result in a variety of BRDFs. This thesis broadens the class of BRDFs which can be used in computer graphics to render objects more realistically. It presents two enhancements to previous work done by the author. First, it describes a method for the approximation of surface absorption of light through the use of a computed geometric attentuation factor. This factor is computed by calculating the parts of the surface which are visible in the incident and reflecting directions. Specifically, it describes the algorithms and theory behind the visibility calculations and how it affects the reflection properties of the surface. Second, it describes a method for computing Fresnel's Law for conducting and dielectric surface materials and how Fresnel's Law affects surface reflectivity. This work also presents a method for rendering objects using the computed BRDFs. 38 refs., 29 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  10. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  11. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P.; Way, J. Douglas

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2. s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  12. Hydrogen-Selective Membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P.; Way, J. Douglas

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2.s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  13. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made interpretation of the Mt. Simon and Knox sections difficult. The data quality also gradually decreased moving westward across the state. To meet evolving project objectives, in 2012 the seismic data was re-processed using different techniques to enhance the signal quality thereby rendering a more coherent seismic profile for interpreters. It is believed that the seismic degradation could be caused by shallow natural gas deposits and Quaternary sediments (which include abandoned river and stream channels, former ponds, and swamps with peat deposits) that may have complicated or changed the seismic wavelet. Where previously limited by seismic coverage, the seismic profiles have provided valuable subsurface information across central Illinois. Some of the interpretations based on this survey included, but are not limited to: - Stratigraphy generally gently dips to the east from Morgan to Douglas County. - The Knox Supergroup roughly maintains its thickness. There is little evidence for faulting in the Knox. However, at least one resolvable fault penetrates the entire Knox section. - The Eau Claire Formation, the primary seal for the Mt. Simon Sandstone, appears to be continuous across the entire seismic profile. - The Mt. Simon Sandstone thins towards the western edge of the basin. As a result, the highly porous lowermost Mt. Simon section is absent in the western part of the state. - Overall basement dip is from west to east. - Basement topography shows evidence of basement highs with on-lapping patterns by Mt. Simon sediments. - There is evidence of faults within the lower Mt. Simon Sandstone and basement rock that are contemporaneous with Mt. Simon Sandstone deposition. These faults are not active and do not penetrate the Eau Claire Shale. It is believed that these faults are associated with a possible failed rifting event 750 to 560 million years ago during the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia.

  14. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  15. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection Across Species Using Selective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Signatures (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Across Species Using Selective Signatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection Across Species Using Selective Signatures Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual

  16. Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Signatures (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect across Species Using Selective Signatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparing Patterns of Natural Selection across Species Using Selective Signatures Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual

  17. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  18. Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.

  19. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L

    2010-03-12

    We investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from condensed explosive charges. These states are often modeled with a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function. However, the JWL function is not a Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics, and therefore cannot give a complete specification of such states. We use the Cheetah code of Fried to study the loci of states of the expanded detonation products gases from C-4 charges, and their combustion products air. In the Le Chatelier Plane of specific-internal-energy versus temperature, these loci are fit with a Quadratic Model function u(T), which has been shown to be valid for T < 3,000 K and p < 1k-bar. This model is used to derive a Fundamental Equation u(v,s) for C-4. Given u(v,s), one can use Maxwell's Relations to derive all other thermodynamic functions, such as temperature: T(v,s), pressure: p(v,s), enthalpy: h(v,s), Gibbs free energy: g(v,s) and Helmholz free energy: f(v,s); these loci are displayed in figures for C-4. Such complete equations of state are needed for numerical simulations of blast waves from explosive charges, and their reflections from surfaces.

  20. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L

    2009-10-16

    Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

  1. State Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State Total Percent of U.S. total Alabama 1,652 0.0 Alaska 152 0.0 Arizona 912,975 19.9 Arkansas 2,724 0.1 California 2,239,983 48.8 Colorado 49,903 1.1 Connecticut 33,627 0.7 Delaware 3,080 0.1 District of Columbia 1,746 0.0 Florida 22,061 0.5 Georgia 99,713 2.2 Guam 39 0.0 Hawaii 126,595 2.8 Idaho 1,423 0.0 Illinois 8,176 0.2 Indiana 12,912 0.3 Iowa 4,480 0.1 Kansas 523 0.0 Kentucky 2,356 0.1 Louisiana 27,704 0.6 Maine 993 0.0 Maryland 30,528 0.7 Massachusetts 143,539 3.1 Michigan 3,416 0.1

  2. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  3. DYNA3D Non-reflecting Boundary Conditions - Test Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2006-09-28

    Two verification problems were developed to test non-reflecting boundary segments in DYNA3D (Whirley and Engelmann, 1993). The problems simulate 1-D wave propagation in a semi-infinite rod using a finite length rod and non-reflecting boundary conditions. One problem examines pure pressure wave propagation, and the other problem explores pure shear wave propagation. In both problems the non-reflecting boundary segments yield results that differ only slightly (less than 6%) during a short duration from their corresponding theoretical solutions. The errors appear to be due to the inability to generate a true step-function compressive wave in the pressure wave propagation problem and due to segment integration inaccuracies in the shear wave propagation problem. These problems serve as verification problems and as regression test problems for DYNA3D.

  4. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, Randy R.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  5. Corrosion-resistant multilayer structures with improved reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Robinson, Jeff C.

    2013-04-09

    In one general embodiment, a thin film structure includes a substrate; a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate; a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sub-layers, wherein one of the sub-layers of each set of sub-layers being of a corrodible material; and a second corrosion barrier layer above the reflective layer. In another general embodiment, a system includes an optical element having a thin film structure as recited above; and an image capture or spectrometer device. In a further general embodiment, a laser according to one embodiment includes a light source and the thin film structure as recited above.

  6. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

    1993-07-20

    A selectable fragmentation warhead is described comprising: a case having proximal and distal ends; a fragmenting plate mounted in said distal end of said casing; first explosive means cast adjacent to said fragmenting plate for creating a predetermined number of fragments from said fragmenting plate; three or more first laser-driven slapper detonators located adjacent to said first explosive means for detonating said first explosive means in a predetermined pattern; smoother-disk means located adjacent to said first means for accelerating said fragments; second explosive means cast adjacent to said smoother-disk means for further accelerating said fragments; at least one laser-driven slapper detonators located in said second explosive means; a laser located in said proximal end of said casing; optical fibers connecting said laser to said first and second laser-driven slapper detonators; and optical switch means located in series with said optical fibers connected to said plurality of first laser-driven slapper detonators for blocking or passing light from said laser to said plurality of first laser-driven slapper detonators.

  7. Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H.

    2011-02-15

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

  8. Visible Reflectivity System for High-Pressure Studies. (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Visible Reflectivity System for High-Pressure Studies. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Visible Reflectivity System for High-Pressure Studies. Authors: Seagle, Christopher T ; Dolan, III, Daniel H Publication Date: 2013-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1073453 Report Number(s): SAND2013-2893J Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Review of

  9. State recovery and lockstep execution restart in a system with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multiprocessor pairing (Patent) | SciTech Connect State recovery and lockstep execution restart in a system with multiprocessor pairing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: State recovery and lockstep execution restart in a system with multiprocessor pairing System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e.,

  10. Signal processing Model/Method for Recovering Acoustic Reflectivity of Spot Weld

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-08

    Until recently, U.S. auto manufacturers have inspected the veracity of welds in the auto bodies they build by using destructive tear-down, which typically results in more than $1 M of scrappage per plant per year. Much of this expense could possibly be avoided with a nondestructive technique (and 100% instead of 1% inspection could be achieved). Recent advances in ultrasound probes promise to provide a sufficiently accurate non-destructive evaluation technique, but the necessary signal processingmore » has not yet been developed. This disclosure describes a signal processing model and method useful for diagnosing the veracity of spot welds between two sheets of the same thickness from ultrasound signals Standard systems theory describes a signal as a convolution of a transducer function, h(t), and an impulse train (beta(t), tau(t)) [1] (see Eq. (1) attached). With a Gaussian wavelet as a transducer function, this model describes the signal from an ultrasound probe quite well, and the literature provides many methods for "deconvolution," for recovery of the impulse train from the signal [see e.g., 2-3]. What is novel about the technique disclosed is the model that describes the impulse train as a function of reflectivity, the share of energy incident on the interface that is reflected, and that allows the recovery of its estimated value. The reflectivity estimate provides an ideal indicator of weld veracity, compressing each signal into a single value between 0 and 1, which can then be displayed as a 2d greyscale or colormap of the weld. The model describing the system is attached as Eqs. (2). These equations account for the energy in the probe-side and opposite sheets. In each period, this energy is a sum of that reflected from the same sheet plus that transmitted from the opposite (dampened by material attenuation at rate a). This model is consistent with physical first principles (in particular the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics) and has been verified empirically. For fast estimation of R using only observations beta(1, ..., T) a receiver state equation has been derived, and is attached as Eq. (3). This equation has the further advantage that the initial impulse S need not be known, rather it is estimated simultaneously. This is necessary because element failure and coupling can cause large variations in S. Constrained nonlinear least squares techniques can be applied to this equation to recover reflectivity (and initial impulse) [4]. In particular, the Gauss-Newton algorithm on the log of the sum of squared errors based on the receiver state equation is recommended. To summarize, it is the model described in Eqs. (2) and (3) that is novel, and that enables the recovery of acoustic reflectivity from the ultrasound signals. It has been verified that this reflectivity estimate provides a better indicator of weld veracity than other features previously derived from such signals.« less

  11. Broad Band Intra-Cavity Total Reflection Chemical Sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.

    1998-11-10

    A broadband, ultrahigh-sensitivity chemical sensor is provided that allows etection through utilization of a small, extremely low-loss, monolithic optical cavity. The cavity is fabricated from highly transparent optical material in the shape of a regular polygon with one or more convex facets to form a stable resonator for ray trajectories sustained by total internal reflection. Optical radiation enters and exits the monolithic cavity by photon tunneling in which two totally reflecting surfaces are brought into close proximity. In the presence of absorbing material, the loss per pass is increased since the evanescent waves that exist exterior to the cavity at points where the circulating pulse is totally reflected, are absorbed. The decay rate of an injected pulse is determined by coupling out an infinitesimal fraction of the pulse to produce an intensity-versus-time decay curve. Since the change in the decay rate resulting from absorption is inversely proportional to the magnitude of absorption, a quantitative sensor of concentration or absorption cross-section with 1 part-per-million/pass or better sensitivity is obtained. The broadband nature of total internal reflection permits a single device to be used over a broad wavelength range. The absorption spectrum of the surrounding medium can thereby be obtained as a measurement of inverse decay time as a function of wavelength.

  12. Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleratio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration Citation Details ... Title: Ion-acoustic shocks with self-regulated ion reflection and acceleration Authors: ...

  13. Wavelength-specific reflections: A decade of EUV actinic mask inspection research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Kenneth; Mochi, Iacopo

    2010-12-31

    Mask inspection is essential for the success of any pattern-transfer lithography technology, and EUV Lithography in particular faces unique challenges. EUV masks resonant-reflective multilayer coatings have a narrow, wavelength-specific response that dramatically affects the way that defects appear, or disappear, at various illuminating wavelengths. Furthermore, the ever-shrinking size of 'critical' defects limits the potential effectiveness of DUV inspection techniques over time. Researchers pursuing numerous ways of finding and characterizing defects on EUV masks and have met with varying degrees of success. Their lessons inform the current, urgent exploration to select the most effective techniques for high-volume manufacturing. Ranging from basic research and demonstration experiments to commercial inspection tool prototypes, we survey the recent history of work in this area, including sixteen projects in Europe, Asia, and America. Solutions range from scanning beams to microscopy, dark field imaging to pattern transfer.

  14. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  15. Implementation of solar-reflective surfaces: Materials and utility programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bretz, S.; Akbari, H.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

    1992-06-01

    This report focuses on implementation issues for using solar-reflective surfaces to cool urban heat islands, with specific examples for Sacramento, California. Advantages of solar-reflective surfaces for reducing energy use are: (1) they are cost-effective if albedo is increased during routine maintenance; (2) the energy savings coincide with peak demand for power; (3) there are positive effects on environmental quality; and (4) the white materials have a long service life. Important considerations when choosing materials for mitigating heat islands are identified as albedo, emissivity, durability, cost, pollution and appearance. There is a potential for increasing urban albedo in Sacramento by an additional 18%. Of residential roofs, we estimate that asphalt shingle and modified bitumen cover the largest area, and that built-up roofing and modified bitumen cover the largest area of commercial buildings. For all of these roof types, albedo may be increased at the time of re-roofing without any additional cost. When a roof is repaired, a solar-reflective roof coating may be applied to significantly increase albedo and extend the life of the root Although a coating may be cost-effective if applied to a new roof following installation or to an older roof following repair, it is not cost-effective if the coating is applied only to save energy. Solar-reflective pavement may be cost-effective if the albedo change is included in the routine resurfacing schedule. Cost-effective options for producing light-colored pavement may include: (1) asphalt concrete, if white aggregate is locally available; (2) concrete overlays; and (3) newly developed white binders and aggregate. Another option may be hot-rolled asphalt, with white chippings. Utilities could promote solar-reflective surfaces through advertisement, educational programs and cost-sharing of road resurfacing.

  16. Multiprocessor switch with selective pairing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-03-11

    System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). Each paired microprocessor or processor cores that provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability connect with a system components such as a memory "nest" (or memory hierarchy), an optional system controller, and optional interrupt controller, optional I/O or peripheral devices, etc. The memory nest is attached to a selective pairing facility via a switch or a bus

  17. START 48 Contiguous United States | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    48 Contiguous United States START 48 Contiguous United States The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program helps competitively selected tribes in the 48 contiguous states, as well as Alaska Native regional corporations, further the development of renewable energy projects. START-supported projects are selected through a competitive application process. Learn more about START projects. The START team is comprised of DOE

  18. DOE Announces $6.6 Million in Competitive Grant Selections For Innovative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Efficiency, Renewables Initiatives | Department of Energy .6 Million in Competitive Grant Selections For Innovative State Efficiency, Renewables Initiatives DOE Announces $6.6 Million in Competitive Grant Selections For Innovative State Efficiency, Renewables Initiatives September 8, 2008 - 3:20pm Addthis OVERLAND PARK, Kan. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency David Rodgers today announced awards for approximately $6.6 million in

  19. Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey; Lin, Yun

    2003-04-29

    An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

  20. Selecting RMF Controls for National Security Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witzke, Edward L.

    2015-08-01

    In 2014, the United States Department of Defense started tra nsitioning the way it performs risk management and accreditation of informatio n systems to a process entitled Risk Management Framework for DoD Information Technology or RMF for DoD IT. There are many more security and privacy contro ls (and control enhancements) from which to select in RMF, than there w ere in the previous Information Assurance process. This report is an attempt t o clarify the way security controls and enhancements are selected. After a brief overview and comparison of RMF for DoD I T with the previously used process, this report looks at the determination of systems as National Security Systems (NSS). Once deemed to be an NSS, this report addr esses the categorization of the information system with respect to impact level s of the various security objectives and the selection of an initial baseline o f controls. Next, the report describes tailoring the controls through the use of overl ays and scoping considerations. Finally, the report discusses organizatio n-defined values for tuning the security controls to the needs of the information system.

  1. Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (767 KB) Solar glare from aerial view Solar glare from aerial view Typical solar glare Typical solar glare

  2. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, David M.; Downing, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence.

  3. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, D.M.; Downing, R.G.

    1997-02-18

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence. 11 figs.

  4. Ultrafast transient reflectance of epitaxial semiconducting perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolin, S. Y.; Guglietta, G. W.; Baxter, J. B. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu; Scafetta, M. D.; May, S. J. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu

    2014-07-14

    Ultrafast pump-probe transient reflectance (TR) spectroscopy was used to study carrier dynamics in an epitaxial perovskite oxide thin film of LaFeO{sub 3} (LFO) with a thickness of 40 unit cells (16?nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (LSAT). TR spectroscopy shows two negative transients in reflectance with local maxima at ?2.5?eV and ?3.5?eV which correspond to two optical transitions in LFO as determined by ellipsometry. The kinetics at these transients were best fit with an exponential decay model with fast (540 ps), medium (?200 ps), and slow (??3?ns) components that we attribute mainly to recombination of photoexcited carriers. Moreover, these reflectance transients did not completely decay within the observable time window, indicating that ?10% of photoexcited carriers exist for at least 3?ns. This work illustrates that TR spectroscopy can be performed on thin (<20?nm) epitaxial oxide films to provide a quantitative understanding of recombination lifetimes, which are important parameters for the potential utilization of perovskite films in photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  5. Reflection seismic mapping of an abandoned coal mine, Belleville, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, N.; Hinds, R.; Roark, M.

    1997-10-01

    Old mine location maps (1958 vintage) indicate that the northwestern part of an undeveloped property near the town of Belleville, St. Clair County, Illinois, is situated above an abandoned and now water-filled, room-and-pillar type coal mine. The central and southeast parts of the Belleville property are shown as overlying intact (non-mined) coal. The coal unit mined at the Belleville site, the Herrin No. 6 is Pennsylvanian in age and about 2.5 m thick at a depth of around 40 m. The current owners of the Belleville property want to construct a large building on the central and southeast parts of the site, but have been concerned about the accuracy of the old mine location maps because of recent mine-related surface subsidence in areas designated on the maps as not mined. To ensure that the proposed new development is located on structurally stable ground, a grid of ten high-resolution reflection seismic lines was acquired on-site. On these reflection seismic data, mined-out areas can be visually identified and differentiated from non-mined areas. The interpretation of the reflection seismic data was constrained and validated by 15 test boreholes. These seismic and borehole data confirm that the central and southeast parts of the property have not been mined extensively. Development of the Belleville site has proceeded with confidence.

  6. Inversion of seismic reflection traveltimes using a nonlinear optimization scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pullammanappallil, S.K.; Louie, J.N. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines)

    1993-11-01

    The authors present the use of a nonlinear optimization scheme called generalized simulated annealing to invert seismic reflection times for velocities, reflector depths, and lengths. A finite-difference solution of the eikonal equation computes reflection traveltimes through the velocity model and avoids ray tracing. They test the optimization scheme on synthetic models and compare it with results from a linearized inversion. The synthetic tests illustrate that, unlike linear inversion schemes, the results obtained by the optimization scheme are independent of the initial model. The annealing method has the ability to produce a suite of models that satisfy the data equally well. They make use of this property to determine the uncertainties associated with the model parameters obtained. Synthetic examples demonstrate that allowing the reflector length to vary, along with its position, helps the optimization process obtain a better solution. The authors put this to use in imaging the Garlock fault, whose geometry at depth is poorly known. They use reflection times picked from shot gathers recorded along COCORP Mojave Line 5 to invert for the Garlock fault and velocities within the Cantil Basin below Fremont Valley, California. The velocities within the basin obtained by their optimization scheme are consistent with earlier studies, though their results suggest that the basin might extend 1--2 km further south. The reconstructed reflector seems to suggest shallowing of the dip of the Garlock fault at depth.

  7. Selective Service Registration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selective Service Registration Selective Service Registration PDF icon Selective Service Registration More Documents & Publications Employee In-Processing Forms New Employee Orientation - Forms Checklist POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #13 Reemployment Priority List Selections

  8. Earth sheltered housing in the south central United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grondzik, W.T. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater); Grondzik, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of identified, occupied earth sheltered residences in the south central United States has been conducted by the Oklahoma State University. Selected results from this investigation of more than 150 residences in the states of Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas are presented, focusing upon the issues of habitability and energy performance of such structures.

  9. Triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyls as Selective Inhibitors of Mycobacterial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyls as Selective Inhibitors of Mycobacterial Lipoamide Dehydrogenase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyls as Selective ...

  10. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  11. State Energy Program awards $5 million to states for State Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Energy Program awards 5 million to states for State Energy Planning and Innovative Energy Practices State Energy Program awards 5 million to states for State Energy...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of Alternative Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Clean Cities Reflects on 20 Years of

  13. Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE SC OFFICE OF SCIENCE (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Word Cloud More Like This Full Text ...

  14. Global Climate Change Response Program: Potential regional impacts of global warming on precipitation in the western United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leverson, V.

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to build upon a previous Global Climate Change Response Program investigation in which an initial `first guess` climate change scenario was derived for the Western United States. Using the scenario`s hypothesized northward shift in the mean wintertime storm track, historical upper-air patterns in the atmosphere were searched to identify winter months (December, January, or February) that would serve as appropriate global warming analogues (GWA). Contour charts were generated of four geopotential height parameters. Specific pattern configurations of the four parameters were identified that reflected the altered storm track pattern, and guidelines for selecting suitable analogues based on the configurations were developed. Monthly mean precipitation values for the GWA months at three climatological divisions in Western Montana, northern Utah, and east central Arizona were compared with median values for the 1946-89 period to determine if any significant differences existed.

  15. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  16. File:08-CO-c - State Transmission Process.pdf | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    modified from its original state, some details may not fully reflect the modified file. Image title Lucidchart Author None Short title 08-CO-c - Certificate of Public Convenience...

  17. Ion polished Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors for high water window reflectivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Radünz, Stefan; Rauhut, Roman; Hofstetter, Michael; Venkatesan, Sriram; Wochnik, Angela; Gullikson, Eric M.; Fischer, Stefan; Nickel, Bert; Scheu, Christina; et al

    2014-01-20

    Recent advances in the development of attosecond soft X-ray sources ranging into the water window spectral range, between the 1s states of carbon and oxygen (284 eV–543 eV), are also driving the development of suited broadband multilayer optics for steering and shaping attosecond pulses. The relatively low intensity of current High Harmonic Generation (HHG) soft X-ray sources calls for an efficient use of photons, thus the development of low-loss multilayer optics is of uttermost importance. Here, we report about the realization of broadband Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors with nearly atomically smooth interfaces by an optimized ion beam deposition and assistedmore » interface polishing process. This yields to our knowledge highest multilayer mirror reflectivity at 300 eV near normal incidence. The results are verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and soft/hard X-ray reflectometry.« less

  18. Ion polished Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors for high water window reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Radünz, Stefan; Rauhut, Roman; Hofstetter, Michael; Venkatesan, Sriram; Wochnik, Angela; Gullikson, Eric M.; Fischer, Stefan; Nickel, Bert; Scheu, Christina; Kleineberg, Ulf

    2014-01-20

    Recent advances in the development of attosecond soft X-ray sources ranging into the water window spectral range, between the 1s states of carbon and oxygen (284 eV–543 eV), are also driving the development of suited broadband multilayer optics for steering and shaping attosecond pulses. The relatively low intensity of current High Harmonic Generation (HHG) soft X-ray sources calls for an efficient use of photons, thus the development of low-loss multilayer optics is of uttermost importance. Here, we report about the realization of broadband Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors with nearly atomically smooth interfaces by an optimized ion beam deposition and assisted interface polishing process. This yields to our knowledge highest multilayer mirror reflectivity at 300 eV near normal incidence. The results are verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and soft/hard X-ray reflectometry.

  19. Power selective optical filter devices and optical systems using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koplow, Jeffrey P

    2014-10-07

    In an embodiment, a power selective optical filter device includes an input polarizer for selectively transmitting an input signal. The device includes a wave-plate structure positioned to receive the input signal, which includes at least one substantially zero-order, zero-wave plate. The zero-order, zero-wave plate is configured to alter a polarization state of the input signal passing in a manner that depends on the power of the input signal. The zero-order, zero-wave plate includes an entry and exit wave plate each having a fast axis, with the fast axes oriented substantially perpendicular to each other. Each entry wave plate is oriented relative to a transmission axis of the input polarizer at a respective angle. An output polarizer is positioned to receive a signal output from the wave-plate structure and selectively transmits the signal based on the polarization state.

  20. Gasification Systems 2013 Project Selections

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy in 2013 selected ten projects that will focus on reducing the cost of gasification with carbon capture for producing electric power, fuels, and chemicals. The projects will...

  1. Carlsbad Field Office Manager Selected

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carlsbad Field Office Manager Selected CARLSBAD, N.M., November 10, 2011 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) Assistant Manager for the River Corridor Joe Franco was selected as Manager for the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), which oversees the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). CBFO Deputy Manager Ed Ziemianski has been acting in the CBFO Manager's position for the past year and will continue to serve as Deputy Manager. In operation since 1999, WIPP is a DOE

  2. STR/ITS: Instrument Selection

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    .. .. /_ .......... - " -( / ./ .. ... ' . .. STATE OF OHIO, IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT FOR THE .SOUTHERN DIS~CT OF EASTERN DIVISION Plaintiff, ) ) } ) ) ) ) civil Action . v. N°'C2-89- UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ) ENERGY, DIVESTED ATO~C ) JUD(~" :. '-.... :..... Judge CORPORATION, et.al, : ) ) 732 ~-:. './I~' _ . * 0dU lJi -------------De-:tendan-ts-.-----),-'-.. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ----' --------~'.-~-~.----------------------) JOINT MOtTES': FOB ENTRY Qf .

  3. Polarization Studies of Resonant Forbidden Reflections in Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, P.; Barois, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Wang, S. T.; Liu, Z. Q.; McCoy, B. K.; Huang, C. C.; Pindak, R.; Caliebe, W.

    2007-11-30

    We report the results of resonant x-ray diffraction experiments performed on thick films of a biaxial liquid crystal made of achiral bent-core molecules. Polarization properties of forbidden reflections are observed as a function of the sample rotation angle {phi} about the scattering vector Q for the first time on a fluid material. The experimental data are successfully analyzed within a tensor structure factor model by taking the nonperfect alignment of the liquid crystal into account. The local structure of the B{sub 2} mesophase is hence determined to be SmC{sub S}P{sub A}.

  4. Fresnel reflection from a cavity with net roundtrip gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Mansuripur, Masud

    2014-03-24

    A planewave incident on an active etalon with net roundtrip gain may be expected to diverge in field amplitude, yet applying the Fresnel formalism to Maxwell's equations admits a convergent solution. We describe this solution mathematically and provide additional insight by demonstrating the response of such a cavity to an incident beam of light. Cavities with net roundtrip gain have often been overlooked in the literature, and a clear understanding of their behavior yields insight to negative refraction in nonmagnetic media, a duality between loss and gain, amplified total internal reflection, and the negative-index lens.

  5. Laser and infrared (selected articles)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-09

    This article reports the author's impressions from a visit to the U.S. in May, 1989. The report describes the rapid deployment in recent years of solid state laser technology in area of application such as high average power, semiconductor laser device pumps, tunability, narrow line width, and other similar solid state laser device, as well as laser materials processing, and so on.

  6. Projects Aimed at Advancing State-of-the-Art Carbon Capture from Coal Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants Selected for Further Development | Department of Energy Aimed at Advancing State-of-the-Art Carbon Capture from Coal Power Plants Selected for Further Development Projects Aimed at Advancing State-of-the-Art Carbon Capture from Coal Power Plants Selected for Further Development August 15, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Four projects aimed at reducing the energy and cost penalties of advanced carbon capture systems applied to power plants have been selected for further

  7. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Hemispheres Reflected by Steel and Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-06-01

    During the period from June 1967 through September 1969 a series of critical experiments was performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory with spherical and hemispherical plutonium assemblies as nested hemishells as part of a Nuclear Safety Facility Experimental Program to evaluate operational safety margins for the Rocky Flats Plant. These assemblies were both bare and fully or partially oil-reflected. Many of these experiments were subcritical with an extrapolation to critical configurations or critical at a particular oil height. Existing records reveal that 167 experiments were performed over the course of 28 months. Unfortunately, much of the data was not recorded. A reevaluation of the experiments had been summarized in a report for future experimental and computational analyses. This report examines only fifteen partially oil-reflected hemispherical assemblies. Fourteen of these assemblies also had close-fitting stainless-steel hemishell reflectors, used to determine the effective critical reflector height of oil with varying steel-reflector thickness. The experiments and their uncertainty in keff values were evaluated to determine their potential as valid criticality benchmark experiments of plutonium.

  8. Diffuse reflectance FTIR of stains on grit blasted metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.; Cox, R.L.

    1997-08-09

    Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of oil contamination on grit-blasted metals. The object of this application is to detect and discriminate between silicone and hydrocarbon oil contamination at levels approaching 10 mg/m{sup 2}. A portable FTIR spectrometer with dedicated diffuse reflectance optics was developed for this purpose. Using translation devices positioned by instructions from the spectrometer operating system, images of macroscopic substrates were produced with millimeter spatial resolution. The pixels that comprise an image are each a full mid-infrared spectrum with excellent signal-to-noise, each determined as individual files and uniquely saved to disc. Reduced spectra amplitudes, based on peak height, area, or other chemometric techniques, mapped as a function of the spatial coordinates of the pixel are used to display the image. This paper demonstrates the application of the technique to the analysis of stains on grit-blasted metals, including the calibration of the method, the inspection of substrates, and the migration of oil contamination.

  9. Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. |

    1998-06-01

    Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

  10. Arizona Recovery Act State Memo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Arizona Recovery Act State Memo Arizona Recovery Act State Memo Arizona has substantial natural resources, including coal, solar, and hydroelectric resources. The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA) is making a meaningful down payment on the nation's energy and environmental future. The Recovery Act investments in Arizona reflect a broad range of clean energy projects, from energy efficiency and the smart grid to transportation, carbon capture and storage, and geothermal energy.

  11. Selective radiative cooling with MgO and/or LiF layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-14

    A selective radiation cooling material which is absorptive only in the 8 to 13 microns wavelength range is accomplished by placing ceramic magnesium oxide and/or polycrystalline lithium fluoride on an infrared-reflective substrate. The reflecting substrate may be a metallic coating, foil or sheet, such as aluminum, which reflects all atmospheric radiation from 0.3 to 8 microns, the magnesium oxide and lithium fluoride being nonabsorptive at those wavelengths. <10% of submicron voids in the material is permissible in which case the MgO and/or LiF layer is diffusely scattering, but still nonabsorbing, in the wavelength range of 0.3 to 8 microns. At wavelengths from 8 to 13 microns, the magnesium oxide and lithium fluoride radiate power through the ''window'' in the atmosphere, and thus remove heat from the reflecting sheet of material and the attached object to be cooled. At wavelengths longer than 13 microns, the magnesium oxide and lithium fluoride reflects the atmospheric radiation back into the atmosphere. This high reflectance is only obtained if the surface is sufficiently smooth: roughness on a scale of 1 micron is permissible but roughness on a scale of 10 microns is not. An infrared-transmitting cover or shield is mounted in spaced relationship to the material to reduce convective heat transfer. If this is utilized in direct sunlight, the infrared transmitting cover or shield should be opaque in the solar spectrum of 0.3 to 3 microns.

  12. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are typically lower than those in real-world driving.

  13. Merged MMCR-WSR88D Reflectivities at SGP

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dong, Xiquan

    2008-03-05

    There are substantial attenuations of MMCR signals for very large LWP and during precipitation events. We have used the nearest precipitation radar (WSR-88D) to merge two measurements to better represent such selected cases. In the near future, we are going to provide all the cumulus cases from Jan. 1997 to present whenever the two datasets are available. The original 2 data sets:

  14. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  15. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  16. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  17. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  18. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  19. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  20. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  1. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  2. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  3. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  4. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  5. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  6. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  7. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  8. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  9. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (United States) Item Value Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,068,422 Electric ...

  11. STATE OF WASHINGTON August

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STATE OF WASHINGTON August 29, 2012 The Honorable Stephen Chu, Secretary United States Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue Washington, DC 20585 Dear Secretary Chu: As you...

  12. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Partners: Auburn University Cree SAS Institute PPG Industries State of North Carolina ... Consortium Auburn University SAS Institute Cree Lighting PPG Industries State of North ...

  13. United States - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Selected States Comparison Download as CSV a -- No data reported. * Number less than 0.5 rounded to zero. NA Not available. NM Not meaningful due to large relative standard ...

  14. Energy use in state owned facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report contains the energy use data for Wisconsin's 32 largest state-owned government facilities. These facilities account for the majority of both fuels consumed in Wisconsin state buildings and total state-owned gross square footage. Figures for each agency reflect buildings owned but not necessarily occupied by that agency. Information is presented for each of the sixteen years from and including the base year, fiscal 1972--1973 (chosen because it was the last year before the oil embargo). Agencies addressed in this report are the Department of Public Instruction (DPI), the University of Wisconsin System (UWS), the Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS), the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA), and the Department of Administration (DOA). 16 figs., 40 tabs.

  15. Method for discriminative particle selection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a method and means for separating ions or providing an ion beam. The invention generates ions of the isotopes to be separated, and then provides a traveling electric potential hill created by a sequential series of quasi static electric potential hills. By regulating the velocity and potential amplitude of the traveling electric potential hill ionized isotopes are selectively positively or negatively accelerated. Since the ionized isotopes have differing final velocities, the isotopes may be collected separately or used to produce an ion beam of a selected isotope.

  16. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States. Appendix, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Overview of improved oil recovery methods (enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced secondary recovery methods); Benefits of improved oil recovery, selected data for the analyzed states; and List of TORIS fields and reservoirs.

  17. Reduction in Vehicle Temperatures and Fuel Use from Cabin Ventilation, Solar-Reflective Paint, and a New Solar-Reflective Glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.; Rustagi, M.; Olson, K.; Kogler, R.

    2007-05-01

    An analysis to determine the impact of reducing the thermal load on a vehicle using solar-reflective paint and glazing.

  18. V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code April 25, 2013 - 12:14am...

  19. Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations This...

  20. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of ... A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of ...

  1. DOE Announces Selections for SSL Core Technology and Product Development Funding Opportunities (Round 5)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory, on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce its selections for solid-state lighting (SSL) funding opportunities. Fourteen...

  2. DOE Announces Selections for SSL R&D Funding Opportunity (Round 9)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the competitive selection of nine projects for solid-state lighting (SSL), in response to the SSL R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA) DE-FOA...

  3. Conduct and Approval of Select Agent and Toxin Work at Department of Energy Sites

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2013-11-07

    The policy establishes expectations for the operating DOE research laboratories utilizing select agents and toxins (as regulated by the United States Department of Health and Human Services). Supersedes DOE P 434.1.

  4. DOE Announces Selections for SSL Manufacturing R&D (Round 3) Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the competitive selection of three projects for solid-state lighting (SSL), in response to the SSL Manufacturing R&D funding opportunity announcement...

  5. Square grid state in dielectric barrier discharge system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, L. F.; Li, S. F.; Fan, W. L.; Pan, Y. Y.

    2009-12-15

    A square grid state and a hexagonal grid state are observed in a dielectric barrier discharge system. They are selected by different resonance mechanisms, namely, a four-wave interaction for the square grid state and a three-wave interaction for the hexagonal grid state. The spatiotemporal dynamics of the square grid state is studied by an optical method. It is found that the square grid state is an interleaving of three different sublattices, which correspond to a harmonic mode and two subharmonic modes.

  6. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  7. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  8. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  9. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  10. Volume Reflection of a Proton Beam in a Bent Crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, Yu. M.; Petrunin, A. A.; Skorobogatov, V. V.; Gavrikov, Yu. A.; Gelamkov, A. V.; Lapina, L. P.; Schetkovsky, A. I.; Vavilov, S. A.; Baranov, V. I.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Afonin, A. G.; Baranov, V. T.; Chepegin, V. N.; Guidi, V.; Vomiero, A.

    2006-10-06

    Volume reflection predicted in the mid-1980s by Taratin and Vorobiev has been observed for the first time in the interactions of a 70 GeV proton beam with a short bent crystal. Incident protons deviate from convex atomic planes in the bulk of the crystal as a result of coherent interaction with bent lattice around the tangency point of particle trajectory with a curved atomic plane. The deflection angle 2{theta}{sub R} was found to be (39.5{+-}2.0) {mu}rad, or (1.65{+-}0.08){theta}{sub c} in terms of the critical angle for channeling. The process has a large probability with respect to channeling and takes place in the angular range equal to the bend angle of atomic planes. It could possibly open new fields of application of crystals in high-energy particle beam optics.

  11. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffusers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Erik; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-03-01

    Techniques for fabricating well-controlled, random relief, engineered surfaces that serve as substrates for EUV optical devices are accomplished with grayscale exposure. The method of fabricating a multilevel EUV optical element includes: (a) providing a substrate; (b) depositing a layer of curable material on a surface of the substrate; (c) creating a relief profile in a layer of cured material from the layer of curable material wherein the relief profile comprises multiple levels of cured material that has a defined contour; and (d) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. The curable material can comprise photoresist or a low dielectric constant material.

  12. QGESS: Specification for Selected Feedstocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Exhibit 1-1, which is based on the mean of over 6,800 samples of pipeline quality natural gas taken in 26 major metropolitan areas of the United States (U.S.). 1 Exhibit 1-1...

  13. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment for Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, K.L.; Oladosu, G.A.; Wolfe, A.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Dale, V.H.

    2008-02-18

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as ‘available’ for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  14. Biofuel Feedstock Assessment For Selected Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, Keith L; Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Wolfe, Amy K; Perlack, Robert D; Dale, Virginia H; McMahon, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    Findings from biofuel feedstock production assessments and projections of future supply are presented and discussed. The report aims to improve capabilities to assess the degree to which imported biofuel could contribute to meeting future U.S. targets to reduce dependence on imported oil. The study scope was focused to meet time and resource requirements. A screening process identified Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, India, Mexico, and the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) region for initial analysis, given their likely role in future feedstock supply relevant to U.S. markets. Supply curves for selected feedstocks in these countries are projected for 2012, 2017 and 2027. The supply functions, along with calculations to reflect estimated supplies available for export and/or biofuel production, were provided to DOE for use in a broader energy market allocation study. Potential cellulosic supplies from crop and forestry residues and perennials were also estimated for 2017 and 2027. The analysis identified capacity to potentially double or triple feedstock production by 2017 in some cases. A majority of supply growth is derived from increasing the area cultivated (especially sugarcane in Brazil). This is supplemented by improving yields and farming practices. Most future supplies of corn and wheat are projected to be allocated to food and feed. Larger shares of future supplies of sugarcane, soybean and palm oil production will be available for export or biofuel. National policies are catalyzing investments in biofuel industries to meet targets for fuel blending that generally fall in the 5-10% range. Social and environmental concerns associated with rapid expansion of feedstock production are considered. If the 2017 projected feedstock supply calculated as 'available' for export or biofuel were converted to fuel, it would represent the equivalent of about 38 billion gallons of gasoline. Sugarcane and bagasse dominate the available supply, representing 64% of the total. Among the nations studied, Brazil is the source of about two-thirds of available supplies, followed distantly by Argentina (12%), India and the CBI region.

  15. Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using ...

  16. Selected Past Financial Awards | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Financial Opportunities Past Opportunities Selected Past Financial Awards Selected Past Financial Awards Since 2003, DOE has awarded funding to a number of science and ...

  17. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Wednesday, 28 August 2013 00:00 Accentuating the ...

  18. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials

  19. Tetrahydroquinoline Derivatives as Potent and Selective Factor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tetrahydroquinoline Derivatives as Potent and Selective Factor XIa Inhibitors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tetrahydroquinoline Derivatives as Potent and Selective ...

  20. Multivariate calibration techniques applied to NIRA (near infrared reflectance analysis) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C.L.

    1991-02-01

    Multivariate calibration techniques can reduce the time required for routine testing and can provide new methods of analysis. Multivariate calibration is commonly used with near infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two feasibility studies were performed to determine the capability of NIRA, using multivariate calibration techniques, to perform analyses on the types of samples that are routinely analyzed at this laboratory. The first study performed included a variety of samples and indicated that NIRA would be well-suited to perform analyses on selected materials properties such as water content and hydroxyl number on polyol samples, epoxy content on epoxy resins, water content of desiccants, and the amine values of various amine cure agents. A second study was performed to assess the capability of NIRA to perform quantitative analysis of hydroxyl numbers and water contents of hydroxyl-containing materials. Hydroxyl number and water content were selected for determination because these tests are frequently run on polyol materials and the hydroxyl number determination is time consuming. This study pointed out the necessity of obtaining calibration standards identical to the samples being analyzed for each type of polyol or other material being analyzed. Multivariate calibration techniques are frequently used with FTIR data to determine the composition of a large variety of complex mixtures. A literature search indicated many applications of multivariate calibration to FTIR data. Areas identified where quantitation by FTIR would provide a new capability are quantitation of components in epoxy and silicone resins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in oils, and additives to polymers. 19 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. W(310) cold-field emission characteristics reflecting the vacuum states of an extreme high vacuum electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Boklae; Shigeru, Kokubo; Oshima, Chuhei

    2013-01-15

    An extremely high vacuum cold-field electron emission (CFE) gun operating at pressures ranging from {approx}10{sup -8} Pa to {approx}10{sup -10} Pa was constructed. Only the CFE current emitting from W(310) surfaces revealed the existence of a 'stable region' with high current angular density just after tip flash heating. In the 'stable region,' the CFE current was damped very slowly. The presence of non-hydrogen gas eliminated this region from the plot. Improvement of the vacuum prolonged the 90% damping time of the CFE current from {approx}10 min to 800 min. The current angular density I{sup Prime} of CFE current was 60 and 250 {mu}A/sr in the 'stable region' for total CFE currents of 10 and 50 {mu}A, respectively. These results were about three times larger than I{sup Prime} when measured after the complete damping of the CFE current. The CFE gun generated bright scanning transmission electron microscopy images of a carbon nanotube at 30 kV.

  2. State Energy Risk Assessment Initiative - State Energy Risk Profiles...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Mission Energy Infrastructure Modeling and Analysis State Energy Risk Assessment Initiative - State Energy Risk Profiles State Energy Risk Assessment Initiative - State...

  3. State Energy Program Helps States Plan and Implement Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Helps States Plan and Implement Energy Efficiency State Energy Program Helps States Plan and Implement Energy Efficiency The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) State Energy Program ...

  4. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FORCE-REFLECTING TELEOPERATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    For certain applications, such as space servicing, undersea operations, and hazardous material handling tasks in nuclear reactors, the environments can be uncertain, complex, and hazardous. Lives may be in danger if humans were to work under these conditions. As a result, a man-machine system--a teleoperator system--has been developed to work in these types of environments. In a typical teleoperator system, the actual system operates at a remote site; the operator located away from this system usually receives visual information from a video image and/or graphical animation on the computer screen. Additional feedback, such as aural and force information, can significantly enhance performance of the system. Force reflection is a type of feedback in which forces experienced by the remote manipulator are fed back to the manual controller. Various control methods have been proposed for implementation on a teleoperator system. In order to examine different control schemes, a one Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) Force-Reflecting Manual Controller (FRMC) is constructed and integrated into a PC. The system parameters are identified and constructed as a mathematical model. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic controllers are developed and tested experimentally. Numerical simulation results obtained from the mathematical model are compared with those of experimental data for both types of controllers. In addition, the concept of a telesensation system is introduced. A telesensation system is an advanced teleoperator system that attempts to provide the operator with sensory feedback. In this context, a telesensation system integrates the use of a Virtual Reality (VR) unit, FRMC, and Graphical User Interface (GUI). The VR unit is used to provide the operator with a 3-D visual effect. Various commercial VR units are reviewed and features compared for use in a telesensation system. As for the FRMC, the conceptual design of a 3-DOF FRMC is developed in an effort to make the system portable, compact, and lightweight. A variety of design alternatives are presented and evaluated. Finally, a GUI software package is developed to interface with several teleoperation unit components. These components include an industrial robot, electric motor, encoder, force/torque sensor, and CCD camera. The software includes features such as position scaling, force scaling, and rereferencing and is intended to provide a sound basis for the development of a multi-DOF FRMC system in the future.

  5. Selective functionalization of the mesopores of SBA-15

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Webb, Jonathan D.; Seki, Tomohiro; Goldston, Jennifer F.; Pruski, Marek; Crudden, Cathleen M.

    2014-10-23

    In this study, a method has been developed that permits the highly selective functionalization of the interior and exterior surfaces of the ubiquitous mesoporous material, SBA-15. The key step is reloading the as-synthesized material with structure-directing agent, Pluronic® P123, prior to selective functionalization of the external surface with a silylating agent. This new approach represents a significant improvement over literature procedures. Results from physisorption analyses as well as solid-state NMR permit a detailed, quantitative assessment of functionalized SBA-15. This work also provides insight into the stability of the silyl layer during extraction procedures – an issue often neglected in othermore » studies but of significant importance as decomposition of this layer could result in the introduction of new silanols and reduce the effectiveness of any selective grafting procedure.« less

  6. Fuel Cells in the States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the Fuel Cells in the States States State and Regional State and Regional Initiatives ... Jennifer Gangi Jennifer Gangi Program Director Program Director Fuel Cells 2000 Fuel Cells ...

  7. Selective poly-N-substituted glycine antibiotics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barron, Annelise E; Czyzewski, Ann M; Dohm, Michelle T; Miller, Tyler M; Zuckermann, Tyler M; Patch, James A; Chongsiriwatana, Nathaniel P

    2013-05-21

    Antimicrobial peptoid compounds and related compositions as can be used against bacteria effectively and selectively.

  8. United States National Seismographic Network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN`s) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105{degree}W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN).

  9. Optoelectronic simulation of GaAs solar cells with angularly selective filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, Tobias Hhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Blsi, Benedikt

    2014-02-07

    We discuss the influence of angularly selective filters on thin film gallium arsenide solar cells. For this reason, the detailed balance model was refined to fit our needs with respect to Auger recombination, reflection, transmission, and realistic absorption. For calculating real systems, an approach was made to include optical effects of angularly selective filters into electron-hole dynamic equations implemented in PC1D, a one dimensional solar cell calculation tool. With this approach, we find a relative V{sub oc} increase of 5% for an idealized 100?nm GaAs cell, including Auger recombination.

  10. SF 4400-RSS;SNL RETIREMENT GIFT SELECTION SHEET

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4400-RSS (12-2014) Supersedes (12-2011) Issue SANDIA PROPRIETARY INFORMATION Personally Identifiable Information (when completed) Sandia National Laboratories Retirement Gift Selection Sheet Employee Information Name: SNL ID: Retirement Date: Phone: Years of Service: Example: (1979-2010) Ship to Address Street: City: State: Zip Code: OR - If you prefer the gift to go to the manager to be presented to you (this must be ordered at least 2 months prior to presentation date): Send to Manager: By

  11. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. ); Anderson, G.L. )

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  12. Financial statistics of selected investor-owned electric utilities, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Financial Statistics of Selected Investor-Owned Electric Utilities publication presents summary and detailed financial accounting data on the investor-owned electric utilities. The objective of the publication is to provide the Federal and State governments, industry, and the general public with current and historical data that can be used for policymaking and decisionmaking purposes related to investor-owned electric utility issues.

  13. Shape error analysis for reflective nano focusing optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modi, Mohammed H.; Idir, Mourad

    2010-06-23

    Focusing performance of reflective x-ray optics is determined by surface figure accuracy. Any surface imperfection present on such optics introduces a phase error in the outgoing wave fields. Therefore converging beam at the focal spot will differ from the desired performance. Effect of these errors on focusing performance can be calculated by wave optical approach considering a coherent wave field illumination of optical elements. We have developed a wave optics simulator using Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral to calculate the mirror pupil function. Both analytically calculated and measured surface topography data can be taken as an aberration source to outgoing wave fields. Simulations are performed to study the effect of surface height fluctuations on focusing performances over wide frequency range in high, mid and low frequency band. The results using real shape profile measured with long trace profilometer (LTP) suggest that the shape error of {lambda}/4 PV (peak to valley) is tolerable to achieve diffraction limited performance. It is desirable to remove shape error of very low frequency as 0.1 mm{sup -1} which otherwise will generate beam waist or satellite peaks. All other frequencies above this limit will not affect the focused beam profile but only caused a loss in intensity.

  14. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    A system for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focussed beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focussed beams creates a "light cage" and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained.

  15. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-17

    A system is disclosed for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focused beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focused beams creates a ``light cage`` and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained. 10 figs.

  16. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of Water-Reflected Uranium Oxyfluoride Slabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2009-11-01

    A series of twelve experiments were conducted in the mid 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine the critical conditions of a semi-infinite water-reflected slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). A different slab thickness was used for each experiment. Results from the twelve experiment recorded in the laboratory notebook were published in Reference 1. Seven of the twelve experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments for the inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This evaluation will not only be available to handbook users for the validation of computer codes and integral cross-section data, but also for the reevaluation of experimental data used in the ANSI/ANS-8.1 standard. This evaluation is important as part of the technical basis of the subcritical slab limits in ANSI/ANS-8.1. The original publication of the experimental results was used for the determination of bias and bias uncertainties for subcritical slab limits, as documented by Hugh Clark's paper 'Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems'.

  17. Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

    2010-09-01

    A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

  18. Basin Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. Estimated rail transportation rates for coal, basin to state, EIA data Basin Destination State 2008 2009 2010 2008-2010 2009-2010 Northern Appalachian Basin Delaware 26.24 - W...

  19. Basin Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3. Estimated rail transportation rates for coal, basin to state, EIA data Basin Destination State 2008 2009 2010 2008-2010 2009-2010 Northern Appalachian Basin Delaware 28.49 - W...

  20. State Energy Strategic Plans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Most state energy offices across the country are required to have current and long-term strategic energy management plans in place. These strategic plans help to ensure that state agencies are...

  1. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  2. FY 2005 State Table

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO February 2004 State Tables State Tables Preliminary Preliminary Department of Energy Department of Energy FY 2005 Congressional Budget FY 2005 Congressional Budget Request Request Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO February 2004 State Tables State Tables Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Preliminary Preliminary The numbers depicted in this document represent the gross level of DOE budget authority for the years displayed. The

  3. AASG STATE GDR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003198MLTPL00 AASG State Geothermal Data Repository for the National Geothermal Data System. http://repository.stategeothermaldata.org/repository/

  4. AASG State Geological Survey

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.Contributions to the NGDSAASG State Geological Survey

  5. States & Emerging Energy Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on States & Emerging Energy Technologies.

  6. State Bioenergy Primer: Information and Resources for States on Issues, Opportunities, and Options for Advancing Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrnett, D. S.; Mulholland, D.; Zinsmeister, E.; Doris, E.; Milbrandt, A.; Robichaud. R.; Stanley, R.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-09-01

    One renewable energy option that states frequently consider to meet their clean energy goals is the use of biomass resources to develop bioenergy. Bioenergy includes bioheat, biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts. This document provides an overview of biomass feedstocks, basic information about biomass conversion technologies, and a discussion of benefits and challenges of bioenergy options. The Primer includes a step-wise framework, resources, and tools for determining the availability of feedstocks, assessing potential markets for biomass, and identifying opportunities for action at the state level. Each chapter contains a list of selected resources and tools that states can use to explore topics in further detail.

  7. Highly selective detection of individual

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe V. V. Mkhitaryan1, F. Jelezko2, and V. V. Dobrovitski1'* 1Ames Laboratory US DOE, Ames, Iowa, 50011, USA 2University of Ulm, Institute of Quantum Optics and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, 89081 Ulm, Germany *slava@ameslab.gov ABSTRACT We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected

  8. Alaska - State Energy Profile Overview - U.S. Energy Information

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration (EIA) Alaska - State Energy Profile Overview - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) The page does not exist for . To view this page, please select a state: United States Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New

  9. Wyoming - State Energy Profile Overview - U.S. Energy Information

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration (EIA) State Energy Profile Overview - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) The page does not exist for . To view this page, please select a state: United States Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York

  10. Selective p-i-n photodetector with resonant tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mil'shtein, S.; Wilson, S.; Pillai, A.

    2014-05-15

    There are different fundamental approaches to designing selective photodetectors, where the selectivity of optical spectra is produced by a filtering aperture. However, manufacturing of multilayered filters is cumbersome for epitaxial technology. In the current study, we offer a novel approach in design of selective photodetectors. A p-i-n photodetector with superlattices in top n-layer becomes transparent for photons where h?<state in 40 thick quantum wells. That design provides the cut-off filter wavelengths longer than 850 nm. For photons with h?>>E{sub ng}+E{sub n1}, the light will be absorbed, simultaneously producing high energy (hot) electrons. The designed thickness of the structure does prevent thermal relaxation of high energy electrons by thus enhancing the selectivity of the photodetector. However the most important selectivity element is the resonant tunneling which does happen only for electrons occupying E{sub n1} energy levels as they transfer to levels E{sub i1}aligned under reverse biasing.

  11. Microstructure of selective laser melted nickeltitanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bormann, Therese; Mller, Bert; Kessler, Anja; Thalmann, Peter

    2014-08-15

    In selective laser melting, the layer-wise local melting of metallic powder by means of a scanning focused laser beam leads to anisotropic microstructures, which reflect the pathway of the laser beam. We studied the impact of laser power, scanning speed, and laser path onto the microstructure of NiTi cylinders. Here, we varied the laser power from 56 to 100 W and the scanning speed from about 100 to 300 mm/s. In increasing the laser power, the grain width and length increased from (33 7) to (90 15) ?m and from (60 20) to (600 200) ?m, respectively. Also, the grain size distribution changed from uni- to bimodal. Ostwald-ripening of the crystallites explains the distinct bimodal size distributions. Decreasing the scanning speed did not alter the microstructure but led to increased phase transformation temperatures of up to 40 K. This was experimentally determined using differential scanning calorimetry and explained as a result of preferential nickel evaporation during the fabrication process. During selective laser melting of the NiTi shape memory alloy, the control of scanning speed allows restricted changes of the transformation temperatures, whereas controlling the laser power and scanning path enables us to tailor the microstructure, i.e. the crystallite shapes and arrangement, the extent of the preferred crystallographic orientation and the grain size distribution. - Highlights: Higher laser powers during selective laser melting of NiTi lead to larger grains. Selective laser melting of NiTi gives rise to preferred <111> orientation. The observed Ni/Ti ratio depends on the exposure time. Ostwald ripening explains the bimodal grain size distribution.

  12. ICCS_Project_Selections.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ICCSProjectSelections.pdf ICCSProjectSelections.pdf PDF icon ICCSProjectSelections.pdf More Documents & Publications Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections CCSTF -...

  13. Doubles counting of highly multiplying items in reflective surroundings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A; Tobin, Stephen J

    2010-11-18

    When a neutrons are counted from a spontaneously fissile multiplying item in a reflecting environment the temporal behavior of the correlated signal following neutron birth is complex. At early times the signal is dominated by prompt fission events coming from spontaneous fission bursts and also from prompt fast-neutron induced fission events. At later times neutrons 'returning' from the surroundings induce fission and give rise to an additional chain of correlated events. The prompt and returning components probe the fissile and fertile constituents of the item in different ways and it is potentially beneficial to exploit this fact. In this work we look at how the two components can be represented using a linear combination of two simple functions. Fitting of the composite function to the capture time distribution represents one way of quantifying the proportion of each contribution. Another approach however is to use a dual shift register analysis where after each triggering event two coincidence gates are opened, one close to the trigger that responds preferentially to the prompt dynamics and one later in time which is more sensitive to the returning neutron induced events. To decide on the best gate positions and gate widths and also to estimate the counting precision we can use the analytical fit to work out the necessary gate utilization factors which are required in both these calculations. In this work, we develop the approach. Illustrative examples are given using spent Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Pressurized light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies submersed in borated water and counted in a ring of {sup 3}He gas-filled proportional counters. In this case the prompt component is dominated by {sup 244}Cm spontaneous fission and induced fast neutron fission in for example {sup 238}U while the returning low energy neutrons induce fission mainly in the fissile nuclides such as {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu and {sup 235}U. One requirement is to calculate the Random Triggered Interrogation Gate Utilization Factor needed to make a priori precision estimates but not available from Monte Carlo simulation code MCNPX.

  14. CONCRETE REFLECTED ARRAYS OF U(93.2) METAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackenzie Gorham; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Virginia Dean; Davis Reed

    2010-09-01

    During the period from 1963 1973, experiments involving highly enriched uranium units were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine various critical configurations of three-dimensional arrays. The experiments formed a four-part series, and were reported by several different experimenters; the results of interest for this evaluation are those reported for the fourth experimentation, Critical Three-Dimensional Arrays of Neutron Interacting Units: Part IV, published and performed by D.W.Magnuson (Ref 1). Information is also available in the logbook . This set of experiments utilized subcritical metal units on a split table apparatus to determine critical configurations for 222 arrangements of highly enriched uranium reflected by concrete. Magnuson manipulated the configuration of several uranium cylinders and blocks within a concrete reflector. The different permutations utilized uranium cylinders of two different heights in various positions in the three dimensional array; certain cases also placed thin uranium blocks on top of the cylinders. The thickness of the surrounding concrete, as well as the inner dimensions of the concrete reflector was also varied in certain cases. The variations resulted in fourteen different experimental permutations or configurations. All fourteen configurations were judged to be unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmarks. All experiments were initially evaluated; however only three configurations were evaluated in detail. Configurations 2, 4, 6 and 12 were not evaluated in detail because they are subcritical and configurations 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were also were not evaluated in detail because they were supercritical by more than beta effective (~0.007), or prompt critical. The experiments evaluated in detail for this benchmark were configurations 1, 3, and 11. The experimental report also contains the information for HEU-MET-FAST-056. Closely related work has been recorded in HEU-MET-FAST-053, which is a benchmark evaluation of a different series of three dimensional array experiments with four different moderator materials. HEU-MET-FAST-023 and HEU-MET-FAST-026 are also related because they utilize the same metal cylinders as these experiments.

  15. Coincident P and Sh reflections from basement rocks at Coso geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is being done to improve the statics, velocities, signal character, and migrated signal positions. The main targets of the profiles were (1) exploring the reflection...

  16. Reflection Survey At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  17. Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE GTP, 2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011) Exploration Activity Details...

  18. Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  19. Reflection Survey At New River Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At New River Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  20. Reflection Survey At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  1. State and Local Code Implementation: State Energy Officials ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State and Local Code Implementation: State Energy Officials - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Chris Wagner, National Association of State Energy Officials View the Presentation PDF ...

  2. Nevada State Air Regulations and State Implementation Plan Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Nevada and its state implementation plan. Author State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Published State of Nevada, Date Not Provided DOI Not Provided...

  3. Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... HomeSolid-State Lighting Permalink ECIS-Veeco: Research Driving Down the Costs of Efficient LED Lighting Energy, Energy Efficiency, Materials Science, Partnership, Research & ...

  4. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    OR Ohio State Uuiversity, Columbus, OH (*) Stauffer Tenescal Co., Richmond, CA Tocco Induction Heating Division, Cleveland, OH Utica Drop Forge & Tool Co., Utica, NY Tltaniua...

  5. State Energy Strategic Planning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Assistance Program (TAP) presentation at a TAP webinar held on April 3, 2013 and dealing with state energy strategic planning.

  6. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    California (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total...

  7. MIS-based sensors with hydrogen selectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li; ,Dongmei; Medlin, J. William; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Bastasz, Robert J.

    2008-03-11

    The invention provides hydrogen selective metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors which include a layer of hydrogen selective material. The hydrogen selective material can be polyimide layer having a thickness between 200 and 800 nm. Suitable polyimide materials include reaction products of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride 4,4-oxydianiline m-phenylene diamine and other structurally similar materials.

  8. Metallic stereostructured layer: An approach for broadband polarization state manipulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Xiang; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Fan, Ren-Hao; Ma, Guo-Bin; Shu, Da-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-11-17

    In this letter, we report a full-metallic broadband wave plate assembled by standing metallic L-shaped stereostructures (LSSs). We show that with an array of LSSs, high polarization conversion ratio is achieved within a broad frequency band. Moreover, by rotating the orientation of the array of LSSs, the electric components of the reflection beam in two orthogonal directions and their phase difference can be independently tuned. In this way, all the polarization states on the Poincar sphere can be realized. As examples, the functionalities of a quarter wave plate and a half wave plate are experimentally demonstrated with both reflection spectra and focal-plane-array imaging. Our designing provides a unique approach in realizing the broadband wave plate to manipulate the polarization state of light.

  9. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Elyassi, Bahman; Lima, Fernando; Iyer, Aparna; Agrawal, Kumar; Sabnis, Sanket

    2015-04-06

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants in terms of performance and economic aspects of the plants. Specifically, simulation and design optimization studies were performed using the developed stand-alone membrane reactor models to identify the membrane selectivity and permeance characteristics necessary to achieve desired targets of CO2 capture and H2 recovery, as well as guide the selection of the optimal reactor design that minimizes the membrane cost as a function of its surface area required. The isothermal membrane reactor model was also integrated into IGCC system models using both the MATLAB and Aspen software platforms and techno-economic analyses of the integrated plants have been carried out to evaluate the feasibility of replacing current technologies for pre-combustion capture by the proposed novel approach in terms of satisfying stream constraints and achieving the DOE target goal of 90% CO2 capture. The results of the performed analyses based on present value of annuity calculations showed break even costs for the membrane reactor within the feasible range for membrane fabrication. However, the predicted membrane performance used in these simulations exceeded the performance achieved experimentally. Therefore, further work is required to improve membrane performance.

  10. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Funding by State: FY 2013, FY 2014, and FY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 | Department of Energy Funding by State: FY 2013, FY 2014, and FY 2015 Fuel Cell Technologies Office Funding by State: FY 2013, FY 2014, and FY 2015 Competitively Selected Projects and National Lab Core Capabilities - Prime Recipients Only Competitively Selected Projects and National Lab Core Capabilities - Prime Recipients Only View a list of projects, organized by state, funded by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office for fiscal years 2013, 2014, and 2015. PDF icon Fuel Cell Technologies

  11. Appalachian State | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appalachian State Jump to: navigation, search Name Appalachian State Facility Appalachian State Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service...

  12. Energy Standards for State Agencies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    State departments and agencies are encouraged to employ the latest energy-conservation practices in the design, construction, renovation, operation and maintenance of state facilities. All state ...

  13. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  14. State Fact Sheets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy provides joint funding to university, national laboratory, and industrial partners at the state level to research, develop, and demonstrate sustainable bio-based fuels and products. Learn how these states are expanding promising bioenergy research into commercial production.

  15. Grid State Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-09

    This software code is designed to track generator state variables in real time using the Ensemble Kalman Filter method with the aid of PMU measurements. This code can also be used to calibrate dynamic model parameters by augmenting parameters in the state variable vector.

  16. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  17. Influence of the atmosphere on remotely sensed reflection from vegetation surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmer, C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple scattering of solar radiation in a vegetation canopy is modelled equivalent to absorbing and scattering in a turbid medium with direction-dependent cross sections. Perturbations of plant reflection patterns due to atmospheric effects are computed at different altitudes and compared to the angular reflection characteristics caused by Lambertian surfaces of varying albedoes.

  18. FCCU revamp and selection methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Bermudez, M.L. de; Garcia-Martinez, H.

    1996-12-31

    FCC units have been the main contributor to the gasoline pool (55-35%), so any change around these units will have a great effect on the production of this fuel (mainly) and the refineries schemes. Figure 1 shows the world FCCU capacity trend, Rhodes. Among the liquid products of FCCU, gasoline and diesel need to meet with more stringent regulations. That means to change typical FCC configurations (i.e. incorporation of hydrotreaters, revamps to reaction-regeneration section (RRS), main fractionator and vapor recovery unit (VRU)), with the change of catalysts and the capability of using additives, Garcia. Spite of processing heavier feedstocks, the products need to be cleaner, so existing units require to be revamped and the new ones should include the state of the art of the technology related with fuel reformulation and the poor feedstocks processing. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. State of the States 2009: Renewable Energy Development and the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    manual, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.nrel.govapplyingtechnologiesstatelocalactivitieswebinar2009 State of the States 2009: Renewable Energy Development and...

  20. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report from Fuel Cells 2000 describes the state of fuel cell technologies across the United States.

  1. State and Local Solution Center | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State and Local Solution Center April 28 Webinar Video and Presentation Available April 28 Webinar Video and Presentation Available DOE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office hosted a webinar on April 28, 2016, on how to navigate the newly redesigned website. Read more DOE Announces 13 Communities Selected for Remote Alaskan Communities Energy Efficiency Competition DOE Announces 13 Communities Selected for Remote Alaskan Communities Energy Efficiency Competition These 13

  2. Polymer selection and cell design for electric-vehicle supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastragostino, M.; Arbizzani, C.; Paraventi, R.; Zanelli, A.

    2000-02-01

    Supercapacitors are devices for applications requiring high operating power levels, such as secondary power sources in electric vehicles (EVs) to provide peak power for acceleration and hill climbing. While electronically conducting polymers yield different redox supercapacitor configurations, devices with the n-doped polymer as the negative electrode and the p-doped polymer as the positive one are the most promising for EV applications. Indeed, this type of supercapacitor has a high operating potential, is able to deliver all the doping charge and, when charged, has both electrodes in the conducting (p- and n-doped) states. This study reports selection criteria for polymer materials and cell design for high performance EV supercapacitors and experimental results of selected polymer materials.

  3. Mode-locked solid state lasers using diode laser excitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holtom, Gary R.

    2012-03-06

    A mode-locked laser employs a coupled-polarization scheme for efficient longitudinal pumping by reshaped laser diode bars. One or more dielectric polarizers are configured to reflect a pumping wavelength having a first polarization and to reflect a lasing wavelength having a second polarization. An asymmetric cavity provides relatively large beam spot sizes in gain medium to permit efficient coupling to a volume pumped by a laser diode bar. The cavity can include a collimation region with a controlled beam spot size for insertion of a saturable absorber and dispersion components. Beam spot size is selected to provide stable mode locking based on Kerr lensing. Pulse durations of less than 100 fs can be achieved in Yb:KGW.

  4. EERE Success Story-Two Colorado-Based Electric Cooperatives Selected as

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Wind Cooperatives of the Year. | Department of Energy Two Colorado-Based Electric Cooperatives Selected as 2014 Wind Cooperatives of the Year. EERE Success Story-Two Colorado-Based Electric Cooperatives Selected as 2014 Wind Cooperatives of the Year. March 24, 2015 - 10:55am Addthis Huerfano River Wind project; Photo courtesy of San Isabel Electric Association , Inc. Huerfano River Wind project; Photo courtesy of San Isabel Electric Association , Inc. Tri-State Generation and

  5. Multipartite secure state distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duer, W.; Briegel, H.-J.; Calsamiglia, J.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce the distribution of a secret multipartite entangled state in a real-world scenario as a quantum primitive. We show that in the presence of noisy quantum channels (and noisy control operations), any state chosen from the set of two-colorable graph states (Calderbank-Shor-Steane codewords) can be created with high fidelity while it remains unknown to all parties. This is accomplished by either blind multipartite entanglement purification, which we introduce in this paper, or by multipartite entanglement purification of enlarged states, which offers advantages over an alternative scheme based on standard channel purification and teleportation. The parties are thus provided with a secret resource of their choice for distributed secure applications.

  6. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal

  7. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Origin State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal

  8. State Biomass Contacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Most state governments have designated contacts for biomass conversion programs. The following contacts used by the Bioenergy Technologies Office may also be good contacts for you to find out about...

  9. United States Government

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    States Government Department of Energy memorandum Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 DATE: REPLY TO ATTN OF: SUBJECT: JAN 1 7 2014 CBFO:OESH:GTB:MN:14-1404:UFC...

  10. Distribution System State Estimation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This Notice shall be affixed to any reproductions of these data in whole or in part. Executive Summary State estimation is a key enabler for any number of "smart grid" applications ...

  11. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation ... Station Unit 1, Unit 2 2,330 19,200 20.0 Exelon Nuclear Byron Generating Station Unit 1, ...

  12. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Primary energy source Summer capacity (mw) Share of State total (percent) Net generation ... Limerick Unit 1, Unit 2 2,264 18,926 24.3 Exelon Nuclear PPL Susquehanna Unit 1, Unit 2 ...

  13. State Nuclear Profiles 2010

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Share of State total (percent) Net generation (thousand mwh) New Jersey nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010 Oyster Creek Unit 1 615 4,601 14.0 Exelon ...

  14. NetState

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information tomore » the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.« less

  15. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    81278 United States Government Department of Energy memorandum - ?71 S.EP 23 F; i: 54 DATE: SEP 1 8 1991 REPLY TO ATTNOF: EM-421 (P. Blom, 3-8148) SUBJECT: Approved Categorical...

  16. Ethane ignition and oxidation behind reflected shock waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Vries, Jaap; Hall, Joel M.; Simmons, Stefanie L.; Kalitan, Danielle M.; Petersen, Eric L.; Rickard, Matthew J.A.

    2007-07-15

    Several diluted C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/O{sub 2}/Ar mixtures of varying concentrations and equivalence ratios (0.5<{phi}<2.0) were studied at temperatures between 1218 and 1860 K and at pressures between 0.57 and 3.0 atm using a shock tube. The argon dilution ranged from 91 to 98% by volume. Reaction progress was monitored using chemiluminescence emission from OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} at 307 and 431 nm, respectively. The dependence of ignition delay time on temperature, activation energy, and reactant concentrations is given in a master correlation of all the experimental data. The overall activation energy was found to be 39.6 kcal/mol over the range of conditions studied. For the first time in a shock-tube C{sub 2}H{sub 6} oxidation study, detailed species profile data and quantitative OH{sup *} time histories were documented, in addition to ignition delay times, and compared against modern detailed mechanisms. Because of the comprehensive scope of the present study and the high precision of the experimental data, several conclusions can be drawn that could not have been reached from earlier studies. Although there is some discrepancy among previous ethane oxidation data, the present work clearly shows the convergence of ignition delay time measurements to those herein and the remarkable accuracy of current kinetics models over most of the parameter space explored, despite the variation in the literature data. However, two areas shown to still need more measurements and better modeling are those of higher pressures and fuel-rich ethane-air mixtures. After appropriate OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} submechanisms are added, two modern chemical kinetics mechanisms containing high-temperature ethane chemistry are compared to the data to gauge the current state of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} oxidation modeling over the conditions of this study. The reproduction of the OH{sup *} and CH{sup *} profiles, together with {tau}{sub ign} predictions by these models, are compared against the profiles and ignition times found in the experimental data. The models are then used to identify some key reactions in ethane oxidation and CH formation under the conditions of this study. (author)

  17. FY 2006 State Table

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Tables Preliminary Department of Energy FY 2006 Congressional Budget Request Office of Management, Budget and Evaluation/CFO February 2005 State Tables Preliminary Printed with soy ink on recycled paper The numbers depicted in this document represent the gross level of DOE budget authority for the years displayed. The figures include both the discretionary and mandatory funding in the budget. They do not consider revenues/receipts, uses of prior year balances, deferrals, rescissions, or

  18. FY 2007 State Table

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    state tables preliminary Department of Energy FY 2007 Congressional Budget Request February 2006 Printed with soy ink on recycled paper Office of Chief Financial Officer state tables preliminary The numbers depicted in this document represent the gross level of DOE budget authority for the years displayed. The figures include both the discretionary and mandatory funding in the budget. They do not consider revenues/receipts, uses of prior year balances, deferrals, rescissions, or other

  19. FY 2008 State Table

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Table Preliminary Department of Energy FY 2008 Congressional Budget Request February 2007 Office of Chief Financial Officer State Table Preliminary Printed with soy ink on recycled paper The numbers depicted in this document represent the gross level of DOE budget authority for the years displayed. The figures include both the discretionary and mandatory funding in the budget. They do not consider revenues/receipts, uses of prior year balances, deferrals, rescissions, or other adjustments

  20. FY 2009 State Table

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Tables Preliminary February 2008 Office of Chief Financial Officer Department of Energy FY 2009 Congressional Budget Request State Tables Preliminary The numbers depicted in this document represent the gross level of DOE budget authority for the years displayed. The figures include both the discretionary and mandatory funding in the budget. They do not consider revenues/receipts, use of prior year balances, deferrals, rescissions, or other adjustments appropriated as offsets to the DOE

  1. FY 2010 State Table

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Tables Preliminary May 2009 Office of Chief Financial Officer FY 2010 Congressional Budget Request State Tables Preliminary The numbers depicted in this document represent the gross level of DOE budget authority for the years displayed. The figures include both the discretionary and mandatory funding in the budget. They do not consider revenues/receipts, use of prior year balances, deferrals, rescissions, or other adjustments appropriated as offsets to the DOE appropriations by the

  2. FY 2011 State Table

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Tables Department of Energy FY 2011 Congressional Budget Request DOE/CF-0054 March 2010 Office of Chief Financial Officer State Tables Printed with soy ink on recycled paper The numbers depicted in this document represent the gross level of DOE budget authority for the years displayed. The figures include both the discretionary and mandatory funding in the budget. They do not consider revenues/receipts, use of prior year balances, deferrals, rescissions, or other adjustments appropriated

  3. FY 2012 State Table

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request State Tables P li i Preliminary February 2012 Office of Chief Financial Officer DOE/CF-0066 Department of Energy FY 2012 Congressional Budget Request State Tables P li i Preliminary The numbers depicted in this document represent the gross level of DOE budget authority for the years displayed. The figures include both the discretionary and mandatory funding in the budget. They displayed. The figures include both the discretionary and

  4. FY 2013 State Table

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request State Tables P li i Preliminary February 2012 Office of Chief Financial Officer DOE/CF-0079 Department of Energy FY 2013 Congressional Budget Request State Tables P li i Preliminary The numbers depicted in this document represent the gross level of DOE budget authority for the years displayed. The figures include both the discretionary and mandatory funding in the budget. They displayed. The figures include both the discretionary and

  5. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  6. State of the Lab!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect State of the Art for Autonomous Detection Systems using Genomic Sequencing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: State of the Art for Autonomous Detection Systems using Genomic Sequencing Authors: Detter, John C. [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-07-09 OSTI Identifier: 1087610 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-25114 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: DHS

  7. State Energy Finance Programs

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Startup America Policy Challenge: Clean Energy Startup America Policy Challenge: Clean Energy December 15, 2011 - 12:05pm Addthis The Startup America Policy Challenge wants your ideas on how we can accelerate innovation in clean energy and position the United States to lead in this critical sector. | Photo Courtesy of JBEI. The Startup America Policy Challenge wants your ideas on how we can accelerate innovation in clean energy and position the United States to lead in this critical sector. |

  8. DOE signs Record of Decision selecting Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Treatment of High Level Waste Calcine NEWS MEDIA CONTACT: Brad Bugger (208) 526-0833 Danielle Miller (208) 526-5709 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: December 28, 2009 DOE signs Record of Decision selecting Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology for Treatment of High Level Waste The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has signed the Record of Decision (ROD) for the treatment of high level waste calcine at the Department�s Idaho Site, meeting a legal commitment to the State of Idaho for a decision no

  9. DOE signs Record of Decision selecting Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Treatment of High Level Waste Calcine DOE signs Record of Decision selecting Hot Isostatic Pressing Technology for Treatment of High Level Waste Calcine The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has signed the Record of Decision (ROD) for the treatment of high level waste calcine at the Department's Idaho Site, meeting a legal commitment to the State of Idaho for a decision no later than the end of 2009. Hot Isostatic Pressing Unit DOE today announced its decision to treat high-level waste

  10. Characterization of a chiral phase in an achiral bent-core liquid crystal by polarization studies of resonant x-ray forbidden reflections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponsinet, V.; Pindak, R.; Barois, P.; Pan, L.; Wang, S.; Huang, C.C.; Wang, S.T.; Baumeister, U. and Weissflog, W.

    2011-07-15

    The chiral antiferroelectric structure of an achiral bent-core liquid crystal is characterized by resonant x-ray scattering at chlorine K edge. The 'forbidden' reflections resulting from the glide or screw symmetry elements are restored by the anisotropy of the tensor structure factor, which we calculate for two possible structural models. A careful analysis of the polarization states of the restored 'forbidden' reflections enables an unambiguous identification of a chiral structure (i.e., the so-called anticlinic, antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-C{sub A}P{sub A}) coexisting with the achiral synclinic antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-C{sub S}P{sub A}. The method proves to be quite powerful as it identifies the chiral structure within coexisting phases despite an imperfect orientation of the sample. The volume fraction of the chiral phase and the distribution of alignment are extracted from the data.

  11. Time-resolved infrared reflectance studies of the dehydration-induced transformation of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate form

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Edward J. Mausolf; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Bruce K. McNamara

    2015-09-08

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparationmore » and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm–1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm–1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. As a result, the phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with only one in the hexahydrate.« less

  12. Time-Resolved Infrared Reflectance Studies of the Dehydration-Induced Transformation of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to the Trihydrate Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-10-01

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. The phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with but one in the hexahydrate.

  13. Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    metamaterials (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Selective radiative heating of nanostructures using hyperbolic metamaterials Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM) are of great interest due to their ability to break the diffraction limit for imaging and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer. Here we demonstrate that an annular, transparent HMM enables selective heating of a

  14. CCPI Round 2 Selections | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CCPI Round 2 Selections CCPI Round 2 Selections In October 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy announced its second round of project selections in the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). CCPI is a $2 billion, 10-year program to develop and demonstrate a new generation of power plant technologies. These power plants will be fueled by coal, the nation's most used fuel for electric power generation, but will achieve substantially reduced emissions of sulfur, nitrogen and mercury compounds. Some of

  15. Enhancements to Natural Attenuation: Selected Case Studies |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selected Case Studies More Documents & Publications Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil ...

  16. Successful Selection of LED Streetlight Luminaires: Optimizing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This March 6, 2013 webcast reviewed the factors involved in successful selection of LED streetlight luminaires. Presenters Eric Haugaard of Cree Lighting and Chad Stalker of ...

  17. Santa Fe Community College selects new president

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Santa Fe Community College Selects New President Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: Dec. 2015-Jan. 2016...

  18. Solar Selective Absorption Coatings - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Solar Selective Absorption Coatings Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL ...

  19. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

  20. Pump Selection Considerations: Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 * October 2005 Pump Selection Considerations Understanding Your Pumping System ... The properties of the fluids being pumped can significantly affect the choice of pump. ...