National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for reflect route distances

  1. Provable Security of On-Demand Distance Vector Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levente, Buttyán

    the route discovery process primarily, and thus, we are not concerned with them in the rest of the paper. R is secure in our model. 1 Introduction Routing is a fundamental networking function, which makes it an ideal discovery part of the routing protocol only. In other words, we are not concerned with the problem

  2. ACRR: Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing with Controlled Route Requests Jayesh Kataria*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanyal, Sugata

    * Mumbai University, India, jayeshkataria@gmail.com P.S. Dhekne BARC, Mumbai, India, dhekne@barc.gov.in Sugata Sanyal TIFR, Mumbai, India, sanyal@tifr.res.in *Corresponding Author Abstract Reactive routing

  3. A methodology for comparing distances traveled by performance-equivalent fixed-route and demand responsive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quadrifoglio, Luca

    -route and a demand responsive service, while ensuring a comparable service to the same set of customers. We consider to our findings, demand responsive transit services perform better for high- quality service levels and low demand density scenarios. Keywords: transit; bus lines; demand responsive services; service level

  4. IP Routing Table Compression Using TCAM and Distance-one Merge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bollapalli, Kalyana Chakravarthy

    2011-02-22

    1 1000 1100 2 2 1100 1100 2 3 1010 1110 3 4 1000 1110 4 5 1111 1111 2 6 1100 1110 4 7 1110 1110 5 8 1010 1111 6 9 1011 1111 6 10 0000 1110 7 11 0010 1110 7 12 0100 1110 7 13 0110 1110 7 14 0100 1100 8 16 Table III.4. Example Routing Table after... Compression Entry Prefix Mask Next Hop 1&2 1000 1000 2 3 1010 1110 3 4&6 1000 1010 4 7 1110 1110 5 8&9 1010 1110 6 10,11,12&13 0000 1000 7 14 0100 1100 8 pruning step of [19] but more efficient. As seen earlier, this approach could also lead to a corrupted...

  5. Detailed Routing Hangzhou, March 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vygen, Jens

    are to blocking the (sub)nets The weights should reflect waste of routing space and electrical capacitance and resistance. Edges on track should be cheapest, orthogonal edges and vias more expensive #12;The key

  6. Routing Thoughts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poggio, T.

    In a parallel machine with many thousands of processors the routing of information between processors is a key task, which turns out to require as much hardware and perhaps more sophistication than local computing itself. ...

  7. Distance-based accessibility indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Csató, László

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to develop a suitable accessibility index for networks where each link has a value such that a smaller number is preferred like distance, cost, or travel time. A measure called distance sum is characterized by three independent properties: anonymity, an appropriately chosen independence axiom, and dominance preservation, which requires that a node not far to any other is at least as accessible. We argue for the need of eliminating the independence property in certain applications. Therefore generalized distance sum, a family of accessibility indices, will be suggested. It is linear, considers the accessibility of vertices besides their distances and depends on a parameter in order to control its deviation from distance sum. Generalized distance sum is anonymous and satisfies dominance preservation if its parameter meets a sufficient condition. Two detailed examples demonstrate its ability to reflect the vulnerability of accessibility to link disruptions.

  8. routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn ANDRE BROIDO, EVI NEMETH, KC CLAFFY measures reflect contributions of opposite sign, and that true measure of variation, or churn, is the sum a standalone prefix to a root prefix) are instances of routing system churn. One advantage of using our notion

  9. Profiling Profitable Bus Routes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervero, Robert

    1992-01-01

    the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard at the city’s southern edge.to downtownand the Naval Shipyard, Route C also interlinks

  10. Buildings on Routes Spring 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Friday Morning Route - F Composting Mon, Wed, Fri Route - H Every Other Week Wednesday Morning Route - I Every Other Week Thursday Afternoon Colter/Mullan/Pryor Miller Dining AJM Johnson/Animal bio Academic

  11. Class network routing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhanot, Gyan (Princeton, NJ); Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  12. Laboratory Shuttle Bus Routes: Combined Routes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate studentScience (SC)Planning Process Combined Routes

  13. Routing for Wireless Multi Hop Networks Unifying and Distinguishing Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Nick

    -to-end communication, wireless communication provides flexible deployment and use, cost reduction, mobility, network dynamic network conditions due to interference, loss of signal power with distance and freedom of mobilityRouting for Wireless Multi Hop Networks ­ Unifying and Distinguishing Features Technical Report

  14. Collective network routing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  15. April 15, 2010 Seismic Reflection IV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    Distance Migration Example 1 Migration Example 2 Migration Example 2 Migration "smiles" DEPTH SECTIONS' Dipping Reflections Move down dip and lengthen; dips become shallower We need to migrate reflections back to their original locations Migration #12;4/15/2010 2 A simple geometric method of migration is possible

  16. Automatic Routing Using Multiple Prefix Labels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.; Ghosh, R.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic Routing Using Multiple Prefix Labels Rumi GhoshWe present Multi-label Automatic Routing (MAR), the firstthe routing is automatic based on the positional labels of

  17. Automatic Incremental Routing Using Multiple Roots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Rumi; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, “Automatic Routing Using MultipleAutomatic Incremental Routing Using Multiple Roots RumiWe present Multi-root Automatic Incremental Rout- ing (

  18. A hydraulic approach to streamflow routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pridal, Daniel Bruce

    1987-01-01

    . Varying Time Step Results 4. Oam Break Simulation Results 5. Stream Routing Reach Summary Page 39 42 46 52 55 . LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Illustration of Open Channel Flow 2. Prism and Wedge Storage . 3. Nodel Time-Distance Grid 4. Prismatic... Representative Cross Section . . . Al. Model Comparisons, Chan. 1, Hydro. 1, S = A2. Nodel Comparisons, Chan. 1, Hydro. 1, S = A3. Model Comparisons, Chan. 1, Hydro. 1, S = A4, Nodel Comparisons, Chan. 1, Hydro. 1, S = A5. Model Comparisons, Chan. 1, Hydro...

  19. The Perception and Cognition of Environmental Distance: Direct Sources of Information"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montello, Daniel R.

    efficiently (time, money, food). Clearly, knowledge of distances in the environment "affects the decision reflect the human desire to minimize functional distance (Deutsch and Isard 1961; Golledge and Stimson

  20. Cognitively Ergonomic Route Alexander Klippel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klippel, Alexander

    Cognitively Ergonomic Route Directions Alexander Klippel C R C - S p a t i a l I n f o r m a t i o principles that allow us to define what makes route directions cognitively ergonomic, technical aspects for cognitively ergonomic route directions (Denis, 1997; Lovelace, Hegarty, & Montello, 1999; Tversky & Lee, 1999

  1. Autonomous routing algorithms for networks with wide-spread failures : a case for differential backlog routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Wajahat Faheem

    2008-01-01

    We study the performance of a differential backlog routing algorithm in a network with random failures. Differential Backlog routing is a novel routing algorithm where packets are routed through multiple paths to their ...

  2. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yun, Jae-Chul (Naperville, IL); Para, Adam (St. Charles, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  3. A Backup Route Aware Routing Protocol Fast Recovery from Transient Routing Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Lixin

    in experimental studies [14], [15]. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), a path vector protocol for interdomain routing al [4] propose a solution using pre-established protection tunnels to reroute traffic during failures

  4. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  5. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  6. Expressive Analytical Model for Routing Protocols infor Routing Protocols in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Christine

    Taesoo Jun Angela Dalton Sh h k B dShreeshankar Bodas Christine Julien Sriram Vishwanath TR-UTEDGE-2007 in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Taesoo Jun, Angela Dalton, Shreeshankar Bodas, Christine Julien, and Sriram, sriram}@ece.utexas.edu Abstract--Many routing protocols exist for mobile ad hoc networks. To select

  7. Accident causation study on roadways with limited sight distance crest vertical curves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Angela May

    1994-01-01

    reflect the driver and vehicle population currently on the transportation network. An accident causation study was conducted to determine if roadways with limited stopping sight distance present a safety hazard for the transportation network. Rural two...

  8. Cooperative Diversity Routing in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Cooperative Diversity Routing in Wireless Networks Mostafa Dehghan and Majid Ghaderi Department routing, cooperative commu- nication, cooperative diversity, wireless networks. I. INTRODUCTION Energy efficiency is a challenging problem in wireless networks, especially in ad hoc and sensor networks, where

  9. Routing Around Decoys Max Schuchard1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicholas J.

    and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities 2: Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science routing systems. We explore China, Syria, Iran, and Egypt as routing capable ad- versaries, and evaluate

  10. Stochastic ship fleet routing with inventory limits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes a stochastic ship routing problem with inventory management. The problem involves finding a set of least costs routes for a fleet of ships transporting a single commodity when the demand for ...

  11. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tool for modeling transportation routing. TRAGIS offers numerous options for route calculation the ability to: · Select an origin and destination from a list of city names; · Automatically calculate, railroad companies, or states; · Calculate highway routes that meet U.S. Department of Transportation

  12. Network Layer Routing -II Yatindra Nath Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh Yatindra Nath

    networks e.g., Ethernet, point-to-point network, networks which have their own routing protocols. Broadcast network Gateway Point-to-point link Network Arbitrary Gateway Gateway Gateway Fig.2.1 4 #12;' & $ within the existing, the routing table entry is updated. 8 #12;' & $ This gives the increamental update of routing

  13. USING JET ROUTES TO MODEL PATH RE-ROUTING IN THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malloy, Brian

    USING JET ROUTES TO MODEL PATH RE-ROUTING IN THE NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM Brian A. Malloy #3; Dean Class Diagram, Object-oriented, Floyd's algorithm, Jet routes, Fix, Airport Fix, National Airspace that the majority of air traÆc must negotiate. These paths, or jet routes, intersect at navigation points or #12;xes

  14. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  15. Reflection beamshifts of visible light due to graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermosa, N

    2015-01-01

    I present theoretical calculations of reflection beamshifts, Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts, due to the presence of a monolayer graphene on a dielectric media when using a beam with wavelength in the visible range. Specifically, I look at beamshifts for different polarization states (p, s, $45^0$, $\\sigma^+$). The Goos-H\\"anchen shifts I calculated are in good agreement with results of a recent experiment. I will discuss other possible experimental routes to determine beamshifts in graphene.

  16. Scanning optical microscope with long working distance objective

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cloutier, Sylvain G. (Newark, DE)

    2010-10-19

    A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light from the sample. The beamsplitter reflects the probe beam into the objective and transmits resultant light. The long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective is also arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light. It focuses the reflected probe beam onto the sample, and collects and substantially collimates the resultant light. The relay optics are arranged to relay the transmitted resultant light from the beamsplitter to the detector.

  17. Zone routing in a torus network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  18. Reflecting to learn mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-09

    The reflective WTLM prompts used in the seminar were developed by our research team or were adapted ..... Narrowing the gap between a vision of reform and teaching practice: Middle level teachers. ... Principles and standards for school.

  19. APDV: Making Distance Vector Routing Scale Using Adaptive Publish-Subscribe Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.; Li, Q.

    2013-01-01

    nodes include in their LCLs only those controllers within rshows the final state of the LCLs for the example network.

  20. UCL CS 6007/GC15/GA07 Brad Karp Coursework 2: Distance-Vector Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Brad

    amritsar bhopal bhuj calcutta darjeeling delhi dwarka indore mumbai mysore patiala patna raipur madurai

  1. UCL CS 6007/GC15 Brad Karp Coursework 2: Distance-Vector Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Brad

    bhuj calcutta darjeeling delhi dwarka indore mumbai mysore patiala patna raipur madurai lucknow jhansi

  2. Outage Optimum Routing for Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Outage Optimum Routing for Wireless Networks B. Amiri, H. R.of wireless network outage probability in a fadinguse analytical calculation of outage probability in wireless

  3. Large Neighborhood Search for LNG Inventory Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-15

    We consider an LNG IRP from the perspective of an vertically integrated oil ...... Maritime inventory routing with multiple products: A case study from the cement.

  4. Selecting Bicycle Commuting Routes Using GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yuanlin; Ye, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    and locational criteria for bicycle facilities: User manualfor the development of bicycle facilities. Was h i n gton,Planning for statewide bicycle routes: the North Carolina

  5. DOE HQ Shuttle Bus Route and Schedule

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of each route. The shuttle bus departure and arrival times may be impacted by traffic, weather, or other logistical interruptions. Headquarters employees are reminded of the...

  6. Three long mountain adventures Below is a detailed description of three long (24 hour) routes undertaken in early summer 2009.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Mark

    Three long mountain adventures Below is a detailed description of three long (24 hour) routes. This was to be the first of my spring/summer mountain trips with fairly little long-distance preparations in the preceeding a mountainous atmosphere once one glances the Langdale Pikes with their rocky tops and the distant cloud topped

  7. Efficient long distance quantum communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreraman Muralidharan; Linshu Li; Jungsang Kim; Norbert Lütkenhaus; Mikhail D. Lukin; Liang Jiang

    2015-09-28

    Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (>1000km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters, as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances.

  8. Long working distance interference microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

    2004-04-13

    Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

  9. Partially Reflected Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Singer; Z. Schuss; D. Holcman

    2007-09-02

    The radiation (reaction, Robin) boundary condition for the continuum diffusion equation is widely used in chemical and biological applications to express reactive boundaries. The underlying trajectories of the diffusing particles are believed to be partially absorbed and partially reflected at the reactive boundary, however, the relation between the reaction (radiation) constant in the Robin boundary condition and the reflection probability is still unclear. In this paper we clarify the issue by finding the relation between the reaction (radiation) constant and the absorption probability of the diffusing trajectories at the boundary. We analyze the Euler scheme for the underlying It\\^o dynamics, which is assumed to have variable drift and diffusion tensor, with partial reflection at the boundary. Trajectories that cross the boundary are terminated with a given probability and otherwise are reflected in a normal or oblique direction. We use boundary layer analysis of the corresponding Wiener path integral to resolve the non-uniform convergence of the probability density function of the numerical scheme to the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation with the Robin boundary condition, as the time step is decreased. We show that the Robin boundary condition is recovered in the limit iff trajectories are reflected in the co-normal direction. We find the relation of the reactive constant to the termination probability. We show the effect of using the new relation in numerical simulations.

  10. The multi-stop aircraft routing problem 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garci?a Castan?eda, Salvador

    1995-01-01

    which facilitate solution. Since the constraint set of the multi-stop aircraft routing problem includes 0/1 mixed rows, we first derive valid inequalities for this type of regions. Then we apply these results to the constraint set of the routing problem...

  11. ICS 351: Today's plan Routing in general

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biagioni, Edoardo S.

    a router is connected, so this algorithm is called Link- State in wireless ad-hoc networks, OLSR stands-vector (Bellman-Ford, Ford-Fulkerson, RIP-style) routing, each router distributes its routing table to its neighbors an alternative is for each router to broadcast its neighborhood connectivity to all routers once

  12. Associative skew clock routing for difficult instances 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Min-seok

    2006-08-16

    including difficult instances based on an improved delay model. Experimental results show that our algorithm can reduce the total clock routing wirelength by 9%Â?15% compared to greedy-DME, which is one of the best zero skew routing algorithms....

  13. Which route to coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nene, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    Two main methods for producing liquid fuels from coal are currently undergoing intensive evaluation. One, direct liquefaction (e.g., SRC-II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal) produces liquid fuels directly from coal; the other, indirect liquefaction (e.g., Lurgi gasifier followed by Fischer-Tropsch, and Shell-Koppers gasifier followed by methanol synthesis and Mobil's MTG process) first gasifies coal and then converts the gaseous material into liquid products. This paper compares both routes basing its assessment on yields, thermal efficiencies, elemental balances, investment, complexity, and state of development. It is shown that direct liquefaction is more efficient and produces more product per investment dollar. Higher efficiency for direct liquefaction is verified bY stoichiometric and thermodynamic analysis. All approaches require about the same capital investment per unit of feed. Indirect liquefaction can be either more or less complex than direct liquefaction, depending upon the process. Direct liquefaction is least developed. 8 refs.

  14. Utility-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    , reliability, and delay as routing metrics. Selecting a partic- ular routing protocol mainly depends the destination. As the routing protocol plays an important role in determining the path, a good application

  15. Trading structure for randomness in wireless opportunistic routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chachulski, Szymon (Szymon Kazimierz)

    2007-01-01

    Opportunistic routing is a recent technique that achieves high throughput in the face of lossy wireless links. The current opportunistic routing protocol, ExOR, ties the MAC with routing, imposing a strict schedule on ...

  16. Reflecting to learn mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-09

    preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge with reflection on writing prompts in mathematics .... 1283). PCK provides a knowledge base for teaching subject matter as well .... ideas did you add to your own mathematics or pedagogical knowledge base? .... Hopefully, I will be able to keep an eye on my terminology.

  17. TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing Conference Call Summaries...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Routing Conference Call Summaries TEC Working Group Topic Groups Routing Conference Call Summaries CONFERENCE CALL SUMMARIES January 31, 2008 December 6, 2007 October 4, 2007...

  18. Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials for Energy Applications Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials for Energy Applications 2012 DOE...

  19. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel ThermoelectricMaterials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking &...

  20. A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol-Gel Process Employing Heterometallic Alkoxides A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol-Gel...

  1. Distance Probes of Dark Energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; et al

    2015-03-15

    We present the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). This document summarizes the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  2. Usefulness of the Interface Fresnel zone for simulating the seismic reflected amplitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Usefulness of the Interface Fresnel zone for simulating the seismic reflected amplitudes Nathalie.favretto@univ-pau.fr 211 route du Bourg, 64230 Beyrie-en-Béarn, France Keywords Fresnel volume, Interface Fresnel zone Abstract The aim of the paper is to emphasize the importance of accounting for the Fresnel volume (FV

  3. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  4. Geologic selection methodology for transportation corridor routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultz, Karin Wilson

    2002-01-01

    A lack of planning techniques and processes on long, linear, cut and cover-tunneling route transportation systems has resulted because of the advancement of transportation systems into underground corridors. The proposed methodology is tested...

  5. Application of network coding for VLSI routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemade, Nikhil Pandit

    2009-05-15

    This thesis studies the applications of the network coding technique for intercon- nect optimization and improving the routability of Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) designs. The goal of the routing process is to connect ...

  6. Routing Through the Mist: Privacy Preserving Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapadia, Apu

    Routing Through the Mist: Privacy Preserving Communication in Ubiquitous Computing Environments National Laboratories. Abstract Ubiquitous computing is poised to revolutionize the way we compute with services and other entities that wander within the ubiquitous computing environment. Keywords Ubiquitous

  7. April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    ;4/21/2010 2 Reflection configurations Reflection attributes Salt tectonics This profile from Germany displays

  8. Estimation and validation of mode distances for the 1993 Commodity Flow Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middendorf, D.P.; Bronzini, M. S.; Peterson, B.; Liu, Cheng; Chin, Shih-Miao

    1995-09-01

    The 1993 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) collected shipment data from a sample of approximately 200,000 domestic business establishments. Each selected establishment provided information on origin, destination, commodity, shipment weight and value, and modes of transport for a sample of its outbound shipments. One data item not reported by CFS participants was shipment distance. This important piece of information was estimated by simulating probable routes using computer models of the highway, rail, air, waterway, and pipeline networks and their interconnections. This paper describes the nature of the shipment distance estimation problem, the procedures used to estimate mode-specific distances between origin and destination ZIP codes, and the techniques used to validate the results.

  9. Metrics and methods for social distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andris, Clio

    2011-01-01

    Distance measures are important for scientists because they illustrate the dynamics of geospatial topologies for physical and social processes. Two major types of distance are generally used for this purpose: Euclidean ...

  10. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  11. The Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    Utility companies typically send their meter readers out each day of the billing cycle in order to determine each customer s usage for the period. Customer churn requires the utility company to periodically remove some customer locations from its meter-reading routes. On the other hand, the addition of new customers and locations requires the utility company to add newstops to the existing routes. A utility that does not adjust its meter-reading routes over time can find itself with inefficient routes and, subsequently, higher meter-reading costs. Furthermore, the utility can end up with certain billing days that require substantially larger meter-reading resources than others. However, remedying this problem is not as simple as it may initially seem. Certain regulatory and customer service considerations can prevent the utility from shifting a customer s billing day by more than a few days in either direction. Thus, the problem of reducing the meterreading costs and balancing the workload can become quite difficult. We describe this Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem in more detail and develop an algorithm for providing solutions to a slightly simplified version of the problem. Our algorithm uses a combination of heuristics and integer programming via a three-stage algorithm. We discuss the performance of our procedure on a real-world data set.

  12. ON PULSAR DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS AND THEIR UNCERTAINTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verbiest, J. P. W.; Lee, K. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Weisberg, J. M.; Chael, A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Lorimer, D. R. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Accurate distances to pulsars can be used for a variety of studies of the Galaxy and its electron content. However, most distance measures to pulsars have been derived from the absorption (or lack thereof) of pulsar emission by Galactic H I gas, which typically implies that only upper or lower limits on the pulsar distance are available. We present a critical analysis of all measured H I distance limits to pulsars and other neutron stars, and translate these limits into actual distance estimates through a likelihood analysis that simultaneously corrects for statistical biases. We also apply this analysis to parallax measurements of pulsars in order to obtain accurate distance estimates and find that the parallax and H I distance measurements are biased in different ways, because of differences in the sampled populations. Parallax measurements typically underestimate a pulsar's distance because of the limited distance to which this technique works and the consequential strong effect of the Galactic pulsar distribution (i.e., the original Lutz-Kelker bias), in H I distance limits, however, the luminosity bias dominates the Lutz-Kelker effect, leading to overestimated distances because the bright pulsars on which this technique is applicable are more likely to be nearby given their brightness.

  13. A novel DHT Routing Protocol for MANETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chellamani, Deepak

    2010-04-30

    . This level of indirection enables data-centric communication where the packet addresses identify data objects instead of nodes [22]. This indirection adapts well with the mobility of the nodes in the MANETs. It assures consistent routing if and only if all.... This level of indirection enables data-centric communication where the packet addresses identify data objects instead of nodes [22]. This indirection adapts well with the mobility of the nodes in the MANETs. It assures consistent routing if and only if all...

  14. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  15. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

    1986-01-01

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  16. Route profile analysis system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Wilson, S.W.

    1982-07-29

    A system for recording terrain profile information is disclosed. The system accurately senses incremental distances traveled by a vehicle along with vehicle inclination, recording both with elapsed time. The incremental distances can subsequently be differentiated with respect to time to obtain acceleration. The computer acceleration can then be used to correct the sensed inclination.

  17. When light reflects from a mirror or glass, the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. In this exercise we will be walking through the proof of this fact.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    1 2 A B C Mirror x L - x L h1 h2 When light reflects from a mirror or glass, the angle of this fact. Physically, light obeys Fermat's Principle, also called The Principle of Least Distance. This principle states that light will always travel the least distance possible (or the shortest path

  18. TigerTransit Routes & Parking Map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    PARKING ZONE & LOT ASSIGNMENTS Parking in Princeton University parking lots is by permit only. To obtain in the assigned lot and zone indicated on the vehicle hangtag. Parking in an unassigned lot within a designated2014­2015 TigerTransit Routes & Parking Map Contact Us Transportation & Parking Services New South

  19. KV04: Baxter Mountain This route visits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiter, Clifford A.

    11 KV04: Baxter Mountain General This route visits Baxter Mountain which is a short hike that has between Hurricane and Green Mountains. The hike is relatively short although there is a good elevation Description The trail begins on Rt9N directly across from Hurricane Mountain Road. From Keene Valley, go north

  20. Channel Routing for Integrated Optics Christopher Condrat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalla, Priyank

    Channel Routing for Integrated Optics Christopher Condrat (chris@g6net.com) Priyank Kalla (kalla, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract--Increasing scope and applications of integrated optics necessitates the development of automated techniques for physical design of optical systems. This paper presents an automated

  1. Route to: WOC Wetlands Oversight Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matrajt, Graciela

    materials be removed from the site (e.g., biological samples, water samples, soil samples, etc.)? Why? If so with the proposed research. We will endeavor to act upon each request as promptly as possible, with the constraints and security personnel. You may request an alternate time for rescheduling at that time. #12;Route to: WOC

  2. Overview: IP routing o Bellman-Ford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biagioni, Edoardo S.

    if M 0new entries to all my, adding cost of reaching that router to see if route is better than what we have to each of the neighbor's metrics 2. for each entry (D, P', M') in the updated neighbor

  3. SIMULATING PEDESTRIAN ROUTE SELECTION WITH IMPERFECT KNOWLEDGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Vicki H.

    SIMULATING PEDESTRIAN ROUTE SELECTION WITH IMPERFECT KNOWLEDGE Keywords: Multi-Agent Systems:Pedestrian choices allows pedestrians to make decisions in a timely and efficient manner. The heuristic function used of the pedestrian. We implement several common heuristic functions using the PLEASE simulation model and allow

  4. A Secure Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klappenecker, Andreas

    't need to pass through firewalls or gateways Routing protocol controls the network but is based DSR uses source routes in data packets Can lead to DoS #12;Attacks using modification ­ Tunneling Two

  5. NextSTEPS White Paper: Three Routes Forward for Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    NextSTEPS White Paper: Three Routes Forward for Biofuels: Incremental, Transitional, and Leapfrog NOT CITE #12;Three Routes Forward for Biofuels: Incremental, Transitional, and Leapfrog 2 Contents ......................................................................................................................................12 1.a. The Need for Low Carbon Biofuels

  6. On-demand loop-free Multipath Routing (ROAM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    wireless data network, comprising: starting a diffusing search if a routerwireless data network, comprising: creating a routing table entry in a routerwireless data network, comprising: creating a routing table entry in a router

  7. Routing Subsea Cables for Scottish Offshore Renewable Search Areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iredale, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    -friendly subsea cable routes around Scotland by preparing a GIS cost surface with ecologically-valued predicted habitats and masked-out obstacles and sensitive species, and compares these paths with routes proposed by other organisations, discussing...

  8. Improving service availability during link failure transients through alternate routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellanki, Siridhar

    2003-01-01

    A link failure in a network results in interruption of service for many end users. Currently, routers observing a link failure, recompute their routing tables to find new routes around the failure. However, the network ...

  9. Energy-Aware Data-Centric Routing in Microsensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Xiuzhen "Susan"

    Energy-Aware Data-Centric Routing in Microsensor Networks Azzedine Boukerche SITE, University their operations. However, low power and in- network data processing make data-centric routing in wire- less sensor to facilitate data-centric routing in wireless microsen- sor networks. Our EAD algorithm makes no assumption

  10. Energy-Efficient Routing Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Maleq

    -configuration. Data-centric routing is a new use- ful paradigm for energy-constrained sensor networks. The data coming config- urations and data-centric routing schemes to minimize en- ergy consumption for both random processes, Opti- mization, Sensor networks, Data-centric routing. I. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW Advances

  11. Using Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction (short paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    for three onion routing protocols that have emerged as enhancements to the Tor anonymizing network; namely, Tor with predistributed Diffie- Hellman values, pairing-based onion routing, and certificateless onionUsing Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction (short paper) Aniket Kate and Ian

  12. A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Joan Feigenbaum1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigenbaum, Joan

    design, Tor [6], consists of over 750 routers, each processing an average of 100KB/s. Onion routingA Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity Joan Feigenbaum1 , Aaron Johnson1 , and Paul@itd.nrl.navy.mil Abstract. Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous communication that is designed for practical use. Until

  13. SGor: Trust graph based onion routing Peng Zhou a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ives, Zachary G.

    routers pose a serious threat to existing onion routing networks (e.g., the Tor network [14]). To thwartSGor: Trust graph based onion routing Peng Zhou a, , Xiapu Luo a , Ang Chen b,1 , Rocky K.C. Chang August 2013 Available online 24 August 2013 Keywords: Trust graph Anonymity Onion routing a b s t r a c

  14. Provably Secure and Practical Onion Routing Michael Backes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    Saarbr¨ucken, Germany mohammadi@cs.uni-saarland.de Abstract--The onion routing network Tor is undoubtedly. INTRODUCTION Over the last few years the onion routing (OR) network Tor [28] has emerged as a successfulProvably Secure and Practical Onion Routing Michael Backes Saarland University and MPI-SWS Saarbr

  15. Anonymity Analysis of Onion Routing in the Universally Composable Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Aaron

    deployed anonymous communications systems. The Tor onion routing network currently comprises some threeAnonymity Analysis of Onion Routing in the Universally Composable Framework Joan Feigenbaum Yale. Specifically we present a probabilistic analysis of onion routing in a black-box model of anonymous

  16. Pairing-Based Onion Routing with Improved Forward Secrecy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    , Security Additional Key Words and Phrases: Onion routing, Tor, pairing-based cryptography, anonymous key29 Pairing-Based Onion Routing with Improved Forward Secrecy ANIKET KATE, GREG M. ZAVERUCHA, and IAN GOLDBERG University of Waterloo This article presents new protocols for onion routing anonymity

  17. Trust-based Anonymous Communication: Adversary Models and Routing Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Aaron

    Mathewson The Tor Project {arma, nickm}@torproject.org ABSTRACT We introduce a novel model of routing parts of the network. We focus on anonymous communication, and in particular onion routing, although we present as an example a new algorithm to select paths in onion routing. We analyze its effectiveness

  18. Solar-aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar-aware Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Thiemo Voigt, Hartmut Ritter and Jochen Schiller energy sources such as solar power may provide unlimited energy resources to a changing subset these nodes is appealing. In this paper, we present solar-aware routing, a rout- ing protocol for wireless

  19. Power-Adaptive Routing Topology for Remote Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    has the same critical limitations including computation and transmission capabilities, and limited-node is not in transmission range of a sending node, the network must have the capability to route a message from the sending be handled. The routing of messages causes a large energy burden on each node along a routing path, as each

  20. Energy Ef cient Routing With Unreliable Links in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    Energy Ef cient Routing With Unreliable Links in Wireless Networks Xiang-Yang Li Dept. of Compt24@iit.edu Abstract Energy ef cient routings and power control tech- niques in wireless networks have wireless link layers by integrating the power control techniques into the energy ef cient routing. We study

  1. Method for route selection of transcontinental natural gas pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    1 Method for route selection of transcontinental natural gas pipelines Fotios G. Thomaidis1@kepa.uoa.gr Abstract. The route of transcontinental natural gas pipelines is characterized by complexity, compared choices. Keywords: Optimum route method, natural gas, transcontinental pipelines, Caspian Region ­ E

  2. Energy-Efficient Localized Routing in Random Multihop Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    Energy-Efficient Localized Routing in Random Multihop Wireless Networks Yu Wang, Senior Member the energy efficiency of routes in multihop wireless networks. Among them, several geographical localized Localized Energy-Aware Restricted Neighborhood routing (LEARN), which can guarantee the energy efficiency

  3. A Routing Table Insertion (RTI) Attack Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Yingfei

    1 A Routing Table Insertion (RTI) Attack on Freenet Technical Report University of Hawaii at Manoa.2.6 Data Retrieval versus Data Insert Routing 2.3. Routing Algorithm Pseudo-Code 3. RTI Attack 3 Experiment 8.2.2. Experiment Results 8.3. General Anonymous P2P Properties 8.4. RTI Attack 8.4.1. Manual RTI

  4. Development of a cell-based stream flow routing model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Rajeev

    2005-08-29

    This study presents the development of a cell-based routing model. The model developed is a two parameter hydrological routing model that uses a coarse resolution stream network to route runoff from each cell in the watershed to the outlet...

  5. EBRP: Energy Band based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durresi, Arjan

    EBRP: Energy Band based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Sasanka Madiraju Cariappa in an intelligent manner. We study the concept of energy fairness in routing in Sensor Networks so as to increase to route data based on the residual energy of the nodes. This algorithm divides the network into different

  6. Better by a HAIR: Hardware-Amenable Internet Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caesar, Matthew

    scaling challenges in the presence of ever-increasing routing table growth and churn. Recent advances, the number of Internet routes and their churn is steadily increasing, with predictions that current router to rate-limit update traffic, and only periodi- cally exchange deltas (differences) of routing state

  7. Improving the Battery Performance of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    Improving the Battery Performance of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols Q. Qi and C. Chakrabarti Department-- In ad-hoc networks formed by battery powered nodes, the network lifetime can be significantly enhanced by incorporateing the battery properties in the routing protocol. In this paper, we propose such a routing mechanism

  8. Formation distance Stphanie Jean-Daubias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Daubias, Stéphanie

    ) dans le temps et dans l'espace de l'apprenant et de l'équipe professorale 3 #12;Deux types de médias en;Formation à distance et espace Plusieurs variantes possibles enseignement entièrement à distance

  9. Distance Education Graduate Program in Environmental Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Distance Education Graduate Program in Environmental Science Soil & Water ScienceSoil & Water (Environmental Science Track). Courses are offered via distance education to accommodate place-bound students and educational opportunities for students seeking careers in soil and water science in land and water resource

  10. Short distance physics with heavy quark potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zantow, F; Karsch, Frithjof; Petreczky, P

    2002-01-01

    We present lattice studies of heavy quark potentials in the quenched approximation of QCD at finite temperatures. Both, the color singlet and color averaged potentials are calculated. While the potentials are well known at large distances, we give a detailed analysis of their short distance behavior (from 0.015 fm to 1 fm) near the critical temperature. At these distances we expect that the T-dependent potentials go over into the zero temperature potential. Indeed, we find evidences that the temperature influence gets suppressed and the potentials starts to become a unique function of the underlying distance scale. We use this feature to normalize the heavy quark potentials at short distances and extract the free energy of the quark system in a gluonic heat bath.

  11. National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James B. Beddow

    2013-03-29

    Executive Summary The energy development assumptions identified in the Department of Energy's position paper, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, projected an exploding demand for wind energy-related workforce development. These primary assumptions drove a secondary set of assumptions that early stage wind industry workforce development and training paradigms would need to undergo significant change if the workforce needs were to be met. The current training practice and culture within the wind industry is driven by a relatively small number of experts with deep field experience and knowledge. The current training methodology is dominated by face-to-face, classroom based, instructor present training. Given these assumptions and learning paradigms, the purpose of the National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative was to determine the feasibility of developing online learning strategies and products focused on training wind technicians. The initial project scope centered on (1) identifying resources that would be needed for development of subject matter and course design/delivery strategies for industry-based (non-academic) training, and (2) development of an appropriate Learning Management System (LMS). As the project unfolded, the initial scope was expanded to include development of learning products and the addition of an academic-based training partner. The core partners included two training entities, industry-based Airstreams Renewables and academic-based Lake Area Technical Institute. A third partner, Vision Video Interactive, Inc. provided technology-based learning platforms (hardware and software). The revised scope yielded an expanded set of results beyond the initial expectation. Eight learning modules were developed for the industry-based Electrical Safety course. These modules were subsequently redesigned and repurposed for test application in an academic setting. Software and hardware developments during the project's timeframe enabled redesign providing for student access through the use of tablet devices such as iPads. Early prototype Learning Management Systems (LMS) featuring more student-centric access and interfaces with emerging social media were developed and utilized during the testing applications. The project also produced soft results involving cross learning between and among the partners regarding subject matter expertise, online learning pedagogy, and eLearning technology-based platforms. The partners believe that the most significant, overarching accomplishment of the project was the development and implementation of goals, activities, and outcomes that significantly exceeded those proposed in the initial grant application submitted in 2009. Key specific accomplishments include: (1) development of a set of 8 online learning modules addressing electrical safety as it relates to the work of wind technicians; (3) development of a flexible, open-ended Learning Management System (LMS): (3) creation of a robust body of learning (knowledge, experience, skills, and relationships). Project leaders have concluded that there is substantial resource equity that could be leverage and recommend that it be carried forward to pursue a Next Stage Opportunity relating to development of an online core curriculum for institute and community college energy workforce development programs.

  12. NIST cooperative laboratory for OSI routing technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, D.

    1994-05-23

    This document is one of two reports on the Integrated ISIS protocol. Required by the IAB/IESG in order for an Internet routing protocol to advance to Draft Standard Status. Integrated ISIS is an Interior Gateway Protocol and is designed to carry both IP and ISO CLNP routing information. Integrated ISIS is currently designated as a Proposed Standard. The protocol was first published in RFC 1195. Internet Draft was published subsequently to RFC 1195 and documents the current version of the protocol. This report documents experience with Integrated ISIS. This includes reports on interoperability testing, field experience and the current state of Integrated ISIS implementations. It also presents a summary of the Integrated ISIS Management Information Base (MIB), and a summary of the Integrated ISIS authentication mechanism.

  13. Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks withDuty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks withDuty-Cycle Wireles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing inTime-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with TEMPLE UNIVERSITY #12;Introduction: utility-based routingIntroduction: utility-based routing

  14. Algorithms for Multiple Vehicle Routing Problems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jung Yun

    2014-06-02

    require a collection of heterogeneous vehicles to visit a set of targets. This dissertation considers three fundamental rout- ing problems involving multiple vehicles that arise in these applications. The main objective of this dissertation is to develop... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1.2 Approximation algorithm for MDMTHPP . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1.3 Optimal constrained forest as a two matroid intersection problem 11 2.2 Single depot multiple terminal Hamiltonian path problems . . . . . . 14 2.2.1 Problem statement...

  15. Improving network routing performance in dynamic environments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yong

    2007-04-25

    - lization and path quality diversity factors (asymmetric topology, Pareto type traffic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 19 Average delay and average loss rate of best-path-only MRC . . . . . 41 20 Routing vector for one pair... are in Mbps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 38 Inhouse traffic end to end delay improvement: asymmetric topol- ogy, Pareto traffic. Topology 1 to 9: 4x2 4x3 4x4 10x2 10x3 10x4 20x2 20x3 20x4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66...

  16. Issues in Security Service Discovery and Routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholander, P.; Tarman, T.

    1999-04-07

    The Security Specification, Version 1.0 allows security services to be provided by many devices in a network. It correctly presumes that if a virtual circuit needs these security services, then network topology and device policy will act to ensure that the appropriate security services are applied to the virtual circuit. This contribution moves that the Security Service Discovery and Routing function be included in the Security Version 2.0 work scope.

  17. QoS Routing in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Husheng

    2010-01-01

    Smart grid is an emerging technology which is able to control the power load via price signaling. The communication between the power supplier and power customers is a key issue in smart grid. Performance degradation like delay or outage may cause significant impact on the stability of the pricing based control and thus the reward of smart grid. Therefore, a QoS mechanism is proposed for the communication system in smart grid, which incorporates the derivation of QoS requirement and applies QoS routing in the communication network. For deriving the QoS requirement, the dynamics of power load and the load-price mapping are studied. The corresponding impacts of different QoS metrics like delay are analyzed. Then, the QoS is derived via an optimization problem that maximizes the total revenue. Based on the derived QoS requirement, a simple greedy QoS routing algorithm is proposed for the requirement of high speed routing in smart grid. It is also proven that the proposed greedy algorithm is a $K$-approximation. ...

  18. Case study: copyright issues in distance education 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huddleston, Michael B

    2006-10-30

    Over the years, much attention has been given to copyright law in literature and as it pertains to textbooks and other original academic works. However, as the focus is narrowed to the copyright law as it relates to distance ...

  19. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  20. Reflections on our Past, Present, and Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reflections on our Past, Present, and Future Reflections on our Past, Present, and Future Print Reflecting on 2014, I'd first point to our impressive science (see many highlights...

  1. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, PE

    2003-09-18

    The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model is used to calculate highway, rail, or waterway routes within the United States. TRAGIS is a client-server application with the user interface and map data files residing on the user's personal computer and the routing engine and network data files on a network server. The user's manual provides documentation on installation and the use of the many features of the model.

  2. Understanding teacher beliefs with reflective tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karwan, Vanessa Ann

    2009-01-01

    fieldbook: Strategies and tools for building a learningBeliefs with Reflective Tools by Vanessa Ann Karwan Doctoraudio-visual technology as a tool for reflection in teacher

  3. Optimization Online - Bound Improvement for LNG Inventory Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feb 14, 2014 ... Bound Improvement for LNG Inventory Routing. Yufen Shao (yufen.shao ***at*** exxonmobil.com) Kevin Furman (kevin.c.furman ***at*** ...

  4. A new reflective optical extensometer (ROX) system for geomechanical deformation measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, S. C.; Sweider, D.; Trettenero, S.; Boro, C.

    1997-03-01

    We have developed an extensometer for measurement of distance and displacements in geotechnical and civil engineering applications. This is an optical extensometer that measures distance using a modulated laser beam. In this design, reflecting targets are placed at desired measurement locations, and distances between each target and an optical head are measure repeatedly using the modulated laser beam. Moreover, all electronic and moving parts are located outside of the hostile or difficult environment as the optical head is connected to the laser, switching and signal analysis hardware using optical fibers. A reference beam is utilized to provide direct correction of system behavior. The system also utilizes movable reflective anchors that can be repositioned if desired. We have installed the system in a field experiment currently being conducted for the Yucca Mountain Site characterization Project, and report preliminary results.

  5. Distance Duality Relation from Strong Gravitational Lensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Kai; Cao, Shuo; Biesiada, Marek; Zheng, Xiaogang; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Under very general assumptions of metric theory of spacetime, photons traveling along null geodesics and photon number conservation, two observable concepts of cosmic distance, i.e. the angular diameter and the luminosity distances are related to each other by the so called distance duality relation (DDR) $D^L=D^A(1+z)^2$. Observational validation of this relation is quite important because any evidence of its violation could be a signal of new physics. In this letter we introduce a new method to test DDR based on strong gravitational lensing systems and supernovae Ia. Using a new compilation of strong lensing systems and JLA compilation of SNe Ia we found no evidence of DDR violation. However, not so much the final result but the method itself is worth attention, because unlike previously proposed techniques, it does not depend on prior assumptions concerning the details of cosmological model and galaxy cluster modelling.

  6. December2010 AboutReflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    in the student-nominated category. In addition we focus on a range of innovations in teaching, learning of Reflections, the newsletter which focuses on teaching, learning and assessment in Queen's and more generally and this time focused on Increasing Students' Satisfaction in the context of the National Student Survey (NSS

  7. A general framework for routing management in multi-service ATM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, David

    . Keywords ATM, TMN, load balancing, performance management, route design, routing, routing management, VPCA general framework for routing management in multi-service ATM networks P. Georgatsos Algosystems This paper presents a framework for routing management in ATM networks supporting guaranteed quality

  8. Nonhyperbolic reflection moveout for orthorhombic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Dajani, A.

    2002-01-01

    Reflection moveout in azimuthally anisotropic media is not only azimuthally dependent but it is also

  9. Peer Pressure: Exerting Malicious Influence on Routers at a Distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicholas J.

    . INTRODUCTION Routers are a critical piece of the Internet infrastructure. They provide path discovery modes, ranging from severe performance degradation to the unrecoverable failure of all active routing

  10. Nash Equilibria in Discrete Routing Games with Convex Latency Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavronicolas, Marios

    Nash Equilibria in Discrete Routing Games with Convex Latency Functions Martin Gairing1 , Thomas L 20537, Nicosia CY-1678, Cyprus. mavronic@ucy.ac.cy Abstract. We study Nash equilibria in a discrete, this is the first time that mixed Nash equilibria for routing games have been studied in combination with non

  11. Provably Secure and Practical Onion Routing Michael Backes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    @cs.uni-saarland.de Abstract The onion routing network Tor is undoubtedly the most widely employed technology for anony- mous and Predictable Malleability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6.2 Security of Tor's Onion AlgorithmsProvably Secure and Practical Onion Routing Michael Backes Saarland University and MPI-SWS, Germany

  12. LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Rob Jansen Aaron Johnson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    servicing the network. I. INTRODUCTION Onion routing [1], particularly as deployed in Tor [2], [3 Laboratory {rob.g.jansen, aaron.m.johnson, paul.syverson}@nrl.navy.mil Paul Syverson Abstract--Tor, the most popular deployed distributed onion routing network, suffers from performance and scalability prob- lems

  13. Visualizing Sparse Internet Events: Network Outages and Route Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    Visualizing Sparse Internet Events: Network Outages and Route Changes Lin Quan · John Heidemann. To understand and man- age network events such as outages, route instability, and spam campaigns, they must- namics of network outages such as January 2011 Egyptian change of government, and the March 2011 Japanese

  14. GreenWave Routing Trees for Wireless Sensor Fikret Sivrikaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bystroff, Chris

    collisions and minimizing retransmissions in the wireless medium [2] [4] [24] [25] [26]. Most algorithms which construct routing trees rooted at sink nodes to route data to and from sensor nodes. First. Many application scenarios for sensor networks are projected such as environment monitoring, disaster

  15. Top-percentile traffic routing problem by Dynamic Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grothey, Andreas

    Top-percentile traffic routing problem by Dynamic Programming Andreas Grothey, Xinan Yang School according to top-percentile pricing. We call this problem the Top-percentile Traffic Routing Problem (Tp problem, which is hard to solve due to the integer variables introduced by top-percentile pricing. Several

  16. N-Vehicle Routing Team NineNines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Alan

    the most economical and "green" route for a distribution center to deliver goods to m addresses with n Trucks #12;Research Paper 1 Title: "Survey of Green Vehicle Routing Problem: Past and future trends of Green Logistics Environmental, ecological effects taken into consideration Concept of Green Vehicle

  17. LEARNING-BASED ROUTE MANAGEMENT IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littman, Michael L.

    and Wade Trappe The nodes in a wireless ad hoc network must act as routers in a self-configuring network to shortest-path routing protocols for managing router congestion and noise in wireless ad hoc networks. iiLEARNING-BASED ROUTE MANAGEMENT IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS BY BRIAN RUSSELL A dissertation

  18. routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn ANDRE BROIDO, EVI NEMETH, KC CLAFFY contributions of opposite sign, and that true measure of variation, or churn, is the sum of their absolute a standalone prefix to a root prefix) are instances of routing system churn. One advantage of using our notion

  19. Optimal Routing in a Small-World Network Jianyang Zeng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Jianyang "Michael"

    of the network) [9]. In order to examine the routing on random graphs, Kleinberg [9] develops a new model basedOptimal Routing in a Small-World Network Jianyang Zeng and Wen-Jing Hsu Abstract Recently a bulk of research [14, 5, 15, 9] has been done on the modelling of the small- world phenomenon, which has been shown

  20. Energy Optimal Routing in Radio Networks Using Geometric Data Structures ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Peter H.

    Energy Optimal Routing in Radio Networks Using Geometric Data Structures ? Ren'e Beier, Peter Sanders, and Naveen Sivadasan Max Planck Insitut f¨ur Informatik Saarbr¨ucken, Germany [rbeier routes between pairs of sites such that the energy consumption for this communication is minimized

  1. DAG-based Multipath Routing for Mobile Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Lynn

    DAG-based Multipath Routing for Mobile Sensor Networks Ki-Sup Hong and Lynn Choi School of Electrical Engineering Korea University Seoul, Korea {mastaks, lchoi@korea.ac.kr} Abstract--We propose a new multipath routing protocol called DMR for mobile sensor networks, where any node can move anytime. DMR

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Curt Schurgers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    by shaping the traffic flow. Several techniques, which rely only on localized metrics are proposed to be unobtrusive, they have a small form-factor and therefore can carry only a small battery. As a result on battery reserve and the energy cost to find the optimal routes [4]. The routing protocol in [5] is based

  3. The Library for Distance Learners: Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    The Library for Distance Learners: Engineering Joining the Library You need your Library card to enter the Library building; to borrow and renew books; to use the Library's photocopying and printing facilities; and to use the Inter-Library Loans and Bath Copies services. All of the Library's electronic

  4. Structural Alignment Using the Generalized Euclidean Distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Steven S.

    : 3217­3228, 2009 Key words: protein folding; structural alignment; RMSD; MRSD; generalized distance configurations, and the so-called thermodynamic hypothesis in protein folding was born. This discovery underpinned the formalism that developed decades later to understand protein folding as a configurational

  5. PREPARING THE VIRTUAL CLASSROOM FOR DISTANCE DELIVERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    of humans and their companion domestic animals and livestock. Students learn that there are certain "at riskPREPARING THE VIRTUAL CLASSROOM FOR DISTANCE DELIVERY: MEDICAL-VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY CLINICS laboratory," library materials, conventional lectures and the 43 virtual patients in the clinics

  6. Reflection positivity in simplicial gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Schrader

    2015-10-21

    Within the context of piecewise linear manifolds we establish reflection positivity with a Hilbert action given in terms of the Regge curvature and a cosmological term. Using this positivity a Hilbert space for a quantum theory is constructed and some field operators and observables are given. The set-up allows to introduce time reversal though no time exists. All constructions are non-perturbative.

  7. Dobrushin Interfaces via Reflection Positivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senya Shlosman; Yvon Vignaud

    2007-04-13

    We study the interfaces separating different phases of 3D systems by means of the Reflection Positivity method. We treat discrete non-linear sigma-models, which exhibit power-law decay of correlations at low temperatures, and we prove the rigidity property of the interface. Our method is applicable to the Ising and Potts models, where it simplifies the derivation of some known results. The method also works for large-entropy systems of continuous spins.

  8. Reflections for quantum query algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben W. Reichardt

    2010-05-10

    We show that any boolean function can be evaluated optimally by a quantum query algorithm that alternates a certain fixed, input-independent reflection with a second reflection that coherently queries the input string. Originally introduced for solving the unstructured search problem, this two-reflections structure is therefore a universal feature of quantum algorithms. Our proof goes via the general adversary bound, a semi-definite program (SDP) that lower-bounds the quantum query complexity of a function. By a quantum algorithm for evaluating span programs, this lower bound is known to be tight up to a sub-logarithmic factor. The extra factor comes from converting a continuous-time query algorithm into a discrete-query algorithm. We give a direct and simplified quantum algorithm based on the dual SDP, with a bounded-error query complexity that matches the general adversary bound. Therefore, the general adversary lower bound is tight; it is in fact an SDP for quantum query complexity. This implies that the quantum query complexity of the composition f(g,...,g) of two boolean functions f and g matches the product of the query complexities of f and g, without a logarithmic factor for error reduction. It further shows that span programs are equivalent to quantum query algorithms.

  9. Diffraction limited focusing and routing of gap plasmons by a metal-dielectric-metal lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dennis, Brian S.; Czaplewski, David A.; Haftel, Michael I.; Lopez, Daniel; Blumberg, Girsh; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2015-08-12

    Passive optical elements can play key roles in photonic applications such as plasmonic integrated circuits. Here we experimentally demonstrate passive gap-plasmon focusing and routing in two-dimensions. This is accomplished using a high numerical-aperture metal-dielectric-metal lens incorporated into a planar-waveguide device. Fabrication via metal sputtering, oxide deposition, electron- and focused-ion- beam lithography, and argon ion-milling is reported on in detail. Diffraction-limited focusing is optically characterized by sampling out-coupled light with a microscope. The measured focal distance and full-width-half-maximum spot size agree well with the calculated lens performance. The surface plasmon polariton propagation length is measured by sampling light from multiple out-couplermore »slits.« less

  10. Relevance Weighting Using Distance Between Term Occurrences David Hawking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawking, David

    authors. 1 #12;Abstract Recent work has achieved promising retrieval performance using distance between

  11. Mirror: Visually reflecting C{sup ++}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orosco, R.; Campo, M.; Sole, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Reflection is the ability of a system to inspect and change a model of itself. This ability allows to transparently control and extend the functionality of an existing system without performing any changes to the system itself. In dynamic object-oriented languages like CLOS or Smalltalk. the reflective ability is supported directly by the language. In C++, in contrast, reflection must be provided by some form of code annotation and pre-processing. In most cases, this approach either requires modification of the system code, or just supports the reflection of entire classes but not the reflection of determined objects. This work presents the Mirror environment that supports C++ reflective programming through visual association of meta-classes to classes. It allows full transparent reflection of objects using three-dimensional presentations of the different architecture levels. The environment adds reflective ability to C++ classes without any code modification visible to the user, as well as dynamically selective reflection of objects.

  12. Safe Routes to Play? Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes Near Parks in the Los Angeles Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanning, Cooper; Jerrett, Michael; Su, Jason G.; Wolch, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Poison Prevention. 2009. Pedestrian Safety. Pediatrics 124(15 Safe Routes to Play? Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes2012 Safe Routes to Play? Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes

  13. Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production of Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production of...

  14. Long working distance incoherent interference microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); De Boer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-25

    A full-field imaging, long working distance, incoherent interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. A long working distance greater than 10 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-dimensional height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer while being actively probed, and, optionally, through a transparent window. An optically identical pair of sample and reference arm objectives is not required, which reduces the overall system cost, and also the cost and time required to change sample magnifications. Using a LED source, high magnification (e.g., 50.times.) can be obtained having excellent image quality, straight fringes, and high fringe contrast.

  15. What is the distance to the CMB?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, Chris; Umeh, Obinna; Maartens, Roy; Durrer, Ruth E-mail: umeobinna@gmail.com E-mail: Ruth.Durrer@unige.ch

    2014-11-01

    The success of precision cosmology depends not only on accurate observations, but also on the theoretical model --- which must be understood to at least the same level of precision. Subtle relativistic effects can lead to biased measurements if they are neglected. One such effect gives a systematic shift in the distance-redshift relation away from its background value, due to the non-linear relativistic conservation of total photon flux. We also show directly how this shift follows from a fully relativistic analysis of the geodesic deviation equation. We derive the expectation value of the shift using second-order perturbations about a concordance background, and show that the distance to last scattering is increased by 1%. We argue that neglecting this shift could lead to a significant bias in the background cosmological parameters, because it alters the meaning of the background model. A naive adjustment of CMB parameter estimation if this shift is really a correction to the background would raise the H{sub 0} value inferred from the CMB by 5%, potentially removing the tension with local measurements of H{sub 0}. Other CMB parameters which depend on the distance would also be shifted by ? 1? when combined with local H{sub 0} data. While our estimations rely on a simplistic analysis, they nevertheless illustrate that accurately defining the background model in terms of the expectation values of observables is critical when we aim to determine the model parameters at the sub-percent level.

  16. Flow Distances on Open Flow Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Liangzhu; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks, are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. Flow distances (first-passage or total) between any given two nodes $i$ and $j$ are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from $i$ to $j$ under some conditions. They apparently deviate from the conventional random walk distance on a closed directed graph because they consider the openness of the flow network. Flow distances are explicitly expressed by underlying Markov matrix of a flow system in this paper. With this novel theoretical conception, we can visualize open flow networks, calculating centrality of each node, and clustering nodes into groups. We apply fl...

  17. REFLECT HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-D rendering of apumptheDrivingREEEDecemberREFLECT HOME

  18. REFLECT HOME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergyPresidentialThis 3-D rendering of apumptheDrivingREEEDecemberREFLECT

  19. Reflection and Ducting of Gravity Waves Inside the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacGregor, K B

    2011-01-01

    Internal gravity waves excited by overshoot at the bottom of the convection zone can be influenced by rotation and by the strong toroidal magnetic field that is likely to be present in the solar tachocline. Using a simple Cartesian model, we show how waves with a vertical component of propagation can be reflected when traveling through a layer containing a horizontal magnetic field with a strength that varies with depth. This interaction can prevent a portion of the downward-traveling wave energy flux from reaching the deep solar interior. If a highly reflecting magnetized layer is located some distance below the convection zone base, a duct or wave guide can be set up, wherein vertical propagation is restricted by successive reflections at the upper and lower boundaries. The presence of both upward- and downward-traveling disturbances inside the duct leads to the existence of a set of horizontally propagating modes that have significantly enhanced amplitudes. We point out that the helical structure of these ...

  20. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  1. A Reflective Symmetry Descriptor Michael Kazhdan,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that it does. The objective of our work is to define a continuous measure of reflective symmetry (over any on the sphere in proportion to the measure of reflective symmetry about the #12;Fig. 1. A visualization vectors on the sphere in proportion to the measure of reflective symmetry about the plane through

  2. Dynamic vehicle routing for data gathering in wireless networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celik, Guner Dincer

    We consider a dynamic vehicle routing problem in wireless networks where messages arriving randomly in time and space are collected by a mobile receiver (vehicle or a collector). The collector is responsible for receiving ...

  3. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly Print If the promise of nanotechnology is to be fulfilled, nanoparticles will have to be able to make something of themselves. An important...

  4. An overlay architecture for throughput optimal multipath routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Nathaniel M.

    Legacy networks are often designed to operate with simple single-path routing, like shortest-path, which is known to be throughput suboptimal. On the other hand, previously proposed throughput optimal policies (i.e., ...

  5. Pricing in Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problems Miguel Andres Figliozzi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaillet, Patrick

    The Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies Faculty of Economics & Business Sydney, NSW 2006 miguel Martin Hall, College Park, MD 20742 masmah@umd.edu and Patrick Jaillet Massachusetts Institute: Vehicle Routing Problem, Freight Transportation, Carrier Management Strategies, Carrier Profitability

  6. Identification of Robust Terminal-Area Routes in Convective Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Hamsa

    Convective weather is responsible for large delays and widespread disruptions in the U.S. National Airspace System, especially during summer. Traffic flow management algorithms require reliable forecasts of route blockage ...

  7. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by dynamically adjusting local routing strategies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Musselman, Roy Glenn (Rochester, MN); Peters, Amanda (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Swartz, Brent Allen (Chippewa Falls, WI); Wallenfelt, Brian Paul (Eden Prairie, MN)

    2010-03-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Each node implements a respective routing strategy for routing data through the network, the routing strategies not necessarily being the same in every node. The routing strategies implemented in the nodes are dynamically adjusted during application execution to shift network workload as required. Preferably, adjustment of routing policies in selective nodes is performed at synchronization points. The network may be dynamically monitored, and routing strategies adjusted according to detected network conditions.

  8. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by routing through transporter nodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Musselman, Roy Glenn (Rochester, MN); Peters, Amanda (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Swartz, Brent Allen (Chippewa Falls, WI); Wallenfelt, Brian Paul (Eden Prairie, MN)

    2010-11-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. An automated routing strategy routes packets through one or more intermediate nodes of the network to reach a destination. Some packets are constrained to be routed through respective designated transporter nodes, the automated routing strategy determining a path from a respective source node to a respective transporter node, and from a respective transporter node to a respective destination node. Preferably, the source node chooses a routing policy from among multiple possible choices, and that policy is followed by all intermediate nodes. The use of transporter nodes allows greater flexibility in routing.

  9. Lambda network having 2{sup m{minus}1} nodes in each of m stages with each node coupled to four other nodes for bidirectional routing of data packets between nodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napolitano, L.M. Jr.

    1995-11-28

    The Lambda network is a single stage, packet-switched interprocessor communication network for a distributed memory, parallel processor computer. Its design arises from the desired network characteristics of minimizing mean and maximum packet transfer time, local routing, expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. The network is based on fixed degree nodes and has mean and maximum packet transfer distances where n is the number of processors. The routing method is detailed, as are methods for expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. 14 figs.

  10. An Approach towards Reduction of Routing Paths for Mobile Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakurta, P. K. Guha; Sinha, Prothoma; Mallick, Nilesh [Dept. of CSE, NIT, Durgapur, WB-713209 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Subhansu [Dept. of CSE, University of Calcutta, WB-700009 (India)

    2010-10-26

    The foundation of various routing paths for a specific call requesting cell has been proposed in this paper. To improve searching efficiency, the number of routing paths has been reduced to a large extent. Hence, this reduction is based on the computation of frequent item sets. The performance of this proposed model is evaluated with respect to a parameter known as 'Occurrence Index (O{sub i})'. With such reduction, a significant performance gain would be achieved.

  11. Systems for the Intermodal Routing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steven K; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The safe and secure movement of spent nuclear fuel from shutdown and active reactor facilities to intermediate or long term storage sites may, in some instances, require the use of several modes of transportation to accomplish the move. To that end, a fully operable multi-modal routing system is being developed within Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System). This study aims to provide an overview of multi-modal routing, the existing state of the TRAGIS networks, the source data needs, and the requirements for developing structural relationships between various modes to create a suitable system for modeling the transport of spent nuclear fuel via a multimodal network. Modern transportation systems are comprised of interconnected, yet separate, modal networks. Efficient transportation networks rely upon the smooth transfer of cargoes at junction points that serve as connectors between modes. A key logistical impediment to the shipment of spent nuclear fuel is the absence of identified or designated transfer locations between transport modes. Understanding the potential network impacts on intermodal transportation of spent nuclear fuel is vital for planning transportation routes from origin to destination. By identifying key locations where modes intersect, routing decisions can be made to prioritize cost savings, optimize transport times and minimize potential risks to the population and environment. In order to facilitate such a process, ORNL began the development of a base intermodal network and associated routing code. The network was developed using previous intermodal networks and information from publicly available data sources to construct a database of potential intermodal transfer locations with likely capability to handle spent nuclear fuel casks. The coding development focused on modifying the existing WebTRAGIS routing code to accommodate intermodal transfers and the selection of prioritization constraints and modifiers to determine route selection. The limitations of the current model and future directions for development are discussed, including the current state of information on possible intermodal transfer locations for spent fuel.

  12. Distances and absolute magnitudes from trigonometric parallaxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Arenou; X. Luri

    1998-12-04

    We first review the current knowledge of Hipparcos systematic and random errors, in particular small-scale correlations. Then, assuming Gaussian parallax errors and using examples from the recent Hipparcos literature, we show how random errors may be misinterpreted as systematic errors, or transformed into systematic errors. Finally we summarise how to get unbiased estimates of absolute magnitudes and distances, using either Bayesian or non-parametrical methods. These methods may be applied to get either mean quantities or individual estimates. In particular, we underline the notion of astrometry-based luminosity, which avoids the truncation biases and allows a full use of Hipparcos samples.

  13. Synthesis of graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramachandran, Rajendran; Felix, Sathiyanathan [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Joshi, Girish M. [Materials Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Raghupathy, Bala P.C., E-mail: balapraveen2000@yahoo.com [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Research and Advanced Engineering Division (Materials), Renault Nissan Technology and Business Center India (P) Ltd., Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Jeong, Soon Kwan, E-mail: jeongsk@kier.re.kr [Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Grace, Andrews Nirmala, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: A schematic showing the overall reduction process of graphite to reduced graphene platelets by chemical and electrochemical route. - Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by diverse routes viz. chemical and electrochemical methods. • NaBH{sub 4} was effective for removing oxygen functional groups from graphene oxide. • Sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) showed high specific capacitance. • Electrochemical rendered a cheap route for production of graphene in powder form. - Abstract: Graphene platelets were synthesized from graphene oxide by chemical and electrochemical route. Under the chemical method, sodium borohydride and hydrazine chloride were used as reductants to produce graphene. In this paper, a novel and cost effective electrochemical method, which can simplify the process of reduction on a larger scale, is demonstrated. The electrochemical method proposed in this paper produces graphene in powder form with good yield. The atomic force microscopic images confirmed that the graphene samples prepared by all the routes have multilayers of graphene. The electrochemical process provided a new route to make relatively larger area graphene sheets, which will have interest for further patterning applications. Attempt was made to quantify the quantum of reduction using cyclic voltammetry and choronopotentiometry techniques on reduced graphene samples. As a measure in reading the specific capacitance values, a maximum specific capacitance value of 265.3 F/g was obtained in sodium borohydride reduced graphene oxide.

  14. The fuel efficient missile combat crew routing network. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques, E.O. Jr.; Woolley, M.G.

    1980-06-01

    Missile combat crew vehicles are the highest mileage accumulators within SAC and, in the interest of energy conservation, Vice CINCSAC has initiated a long-term study examining utilization of more fuel efficient crew vehicles. This thesis extends the SAC study by determining if alternate dispatch procedures and routes of travel, using currently assigned vehicles, would result in fuel conservation. A network routing model is used to determine the routes of travel for three deployment strategies and five vehicle types at the Minot AFB, ND test base. Fuel efficiency for these fifteen alternatives, measured as gallons of fuel consumed per passenger, is compared with the existing missile combat crew routing network. This study found that ten of the fifteen vehicle/deployment strategy combinations, when employed over the shortest authorized routes of travel that were developed, provided improvement over the fuel efficiency of the MCC routing system that was in effect as of 31 August 1979. The largest potential savings amounted to 52% or 26,255 gallons of fuel per year.

  15. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  16. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  17. Global-scale flow routing using a source-to-sink algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olivera, Francisco; Famiglietti, James; Asante, Kwabena

    2000-01-01

    hydrological and Earth system models. Hydrographs for somehydrological and Earth system models. FLOW ROUTING [1999

  18. Energy Efficiency of Load Balancing in MANET Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelikovsky, Alexander

    Energy Efficiency of Load Balancing in MANET Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky Abstract This paper considers energy constrained routing pro- tocols and workload balancing techniques for improving MANET routing protocols and energy efficiency. We give new routing protocol

  19. O C T O P U SO C T O P U S Scalable Routing ProtocolScalable Routing Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segall, Adrian

    , j}.At the end, the east table of node a is {b, c, d, e, j}. a i f ec g h db j 100 200 300 400 500 with updated information. f c g h a b d 100 200 300 400 500 600 100 200 300 400 h? source access target h? h! hO C T O P U SO C T O P U S Scalable Routing ProtocolScalable Routing Protocol For Wireless Ad Hoc

  20. Improved Long-Distance Wireless Charging Technology September 26, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Improved Long-Distance Wireless Charging Technology September 26, 2013 Project Overview Wireless charging of consumer devices at a long distance with RF technology, would eliminate wires and give freedom

  1. Beyond Kennicott : perceptions of threshold, conceptions of distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bull, Steven Keith

    1997-01-01

    Threshold: The thesis explores descriptions of threshold. Threshold is not an ordinary space. It relates to the here and the there and the understanding of distance. It is the phenomena of distance, no matter how close ...

  2. The solar neighborhood. XXXV. Distances to 1404 M dwarf systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar neighborhood. XXXV. Distances to 1404 M dwarf systems within 25 PC in the southern sky Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The solar neighborhood. XXXV. Distances to...

  3. Perceptions of Distance Education in Newfoundland and Labrador: 1999 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oyet, Alwell

    Perceptions of Distance Education in Newfoundland and Labrador: 1999 ­ 2009 ................................................................................................................. 5 I. Study conducted in 1999 ­ 2000 ........................................................................................................... 80 #12; 5 Perceptions of Distance Education in Newfoundland and Labrador: 1999 2009

  4. OBJECTIVE DISTANCE MEASURES FOR SPECTRAL DISCONTINUITIES IN CONCATENATIVE SPEECH SYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    - efficientscouldimprovetheprediction. StylianouandSyrdal [4] found that the Kullback-Leibler distance between FFT- based power spectra

  5. The reflecting surface of the MAGIC-II Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Bastieri; J. Arnold; C. Baixeras; O. Citterio; F. Dazzi; B. De Lotto; M. Doro; M. Ghigo; E. Giro; F. Goebel; R. Kosyra; E. Lorenz; M. Mariotti; R. Mirzoyan; R. Paoletti; G. Pareschi; D. Pascoli; A. Pepato; L. Peruzzo; A. Saggion; P. Sartori; A. Sillanpää

    2007-09-10

    The MAGIC Collaboration is building a second telescope, MAGIC II, improving the design of the current MAGIC Telescope. MAGIC II is being built at 85 m of distance from MAGIC I, and will also feature a huge reflecting surface of ~240 m$^2$ of area. One of the improvement is the design for the mirror of MAGIC II, that are lighter and larger, being square of 1 m of side and weighting around 15 kg. For the development and production of the new mirrors, two different techniques, both reliable and affordable in price, were selected: the diamond milling of aluminium surfaces and the cold slumping of thin glass panes. As tests for the second one are still ongoing, we present a description of the diamond milling technique, and its application and performance to the produced mirrors.

  6. Preliminaries Conserved Interval Distance between Non-trivial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blin, Guillaume

    Outline Preliminaries Results Conclusion Conserved Interval Distance between Non-trivial Genomes.Rizzi@unitn.it August the 16th Guillaume Blin, Romeo Rizzi Conserved Interval Distance between Non-trivial Genomes #12 Guillaume Blin, Romeo Rizzi Conserved Interval Distance between Non-trivial Genomes #12;Outline

  7. Problems of Distance-Regular Graphs Hiroshi Suzuki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi, Changchang

    ­328. [14] H. Suzuki, The Terwilliger algebra associated with a set of vertices in a distance-regular graph, J. Alg. Combin. 22 (2005), 5-38. [15] P. Terwilliger, Distance-regular graphs and (s, c, a, k)-graphs, J. Combin. Th. (B) 34 (1983), 151­164. [16] P. Terwilliger, A new inequality for distance

  8. Week 4: History / philosophy, distance methods January, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    Week 4: History / philosophy, distance methods Genome 570 January, 2010 Week 4: History Gaylord Simpson (1902-1984) Week 4: History / philosophy, distance methods ­ p.2/73 #12;A horse tree drawn by Simpson Week 4: History / philosophy, distance methods ­ p.3/73 #12;A phylogeny of the living Craniata

  9. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-03-26

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical project. The main point of preference for the offered reactor is its likely cheapness as a power source. Key words: Micro-thermonuclear reactor, Multi-reflex AB-thermonuclear reactor, Self-magnetic AB-thermonuclear reactor, aerospace thermonuclear engine.

  10. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  11. Does Shareholder Voting Reflect Shareholder Preferences?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Listokin, Yair Jason

    2007-01-01

    =980422. Kamar, Ehud. 2006. “Does Shareholder Voting onDoes Shareholder Voting Reflect Shareholder Preferences?contests. The literature that does exist is methodologically

  12. Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janecek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Carlo program simulating light propagation in isotropic orTerms—Lambertian reflection, light collection, Monte Carloy-axis) and fraction specular light (right y- axis) for a

  13. Walk the Line: The Development of Route Selection Standards for Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-level Radioactive Waste in the United States - 13519

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilger, Fred; Halstead, Robert J.; Ballard, James D.

    2013-07-01

    Although storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) are widely dispersed throughout the United States, these materials are also relatively concentrated in terms of geographic area. That is, the impacts of storage occur in a very small geographic space. Once shipments begin to a national repository or centralized interim storage facility, the impacts of SNF and HLRW will become more geographically distributed, more publicly visible, and almost certainly more contentious. The selection of shipping routes will likely be a major source of controversy. This paper describes the development of procedures, regulations, and standards for the selection of routes used to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The paper begins by reviewing the circumstances around the development of HM-164 routing guidelines. The paper discusses the significance of New York City versus the Department of Transportation and application of HM-164. The paper describes the methods used to implement those regulations. The paper will also describe the current HM-164 designated routes and will provide a summary data analysis of their characteristics. This analysis will reveal the relatively small spatial scale of the effects of HM 164. The paper will then describe subsequent developments that have affected route selection for these materials. These developments include the use of 'representative routes' found in the Department of Energy (DOE) 2008 Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the formerly proposed Yucca Mountain geologic repository. The paper will describe recommendations related to route selection found in the National Academy of Sciences 2006 report Going the Distance, as well as recommendations found in the 2012 Final Report of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. The paper will examine recently promulgated federal regulations (HM-232) for selection of rail routes for hazardous materials transport. The paper concludes that while the HM 164 regime is sufficient for certain applications, it does not provide an adequate basis for a national plan to ship spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to centralized storage and disposal facilities over a period of 30 to 50 years. (authors)

  14. The price of commitment in online stochastic vehicle routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers online stochastic multiple vehicle routing with time windows in which requests arrive dynamically and the goal is to maximize the number of serviced customers. Early work has focused on very flexible routing settings where the decision to assign a vehicle to a customer is delayed until a vehicle is actually deployed to the customer. Motivated by real applications that require stability in the decision making, this paper considers a setting where the decision to assign a customer request to a vehicle must be taken when that request is accepted. Experimental results suggest that this constraint severely degrades the performance of existing algorithms. However, the paper shows how the use of stochastic information for vehicle assignment and request acceptance improves decision quality considerably. Moreover, the use of resource augmentation quantifies precisely the cost of commitment in online vehicle routing.

  15. On Routing in Distributed Hash Tables Fabius Klemm, Sarunas Girdzijauskas, Jean-Yves Le Boudec, Karl Aberer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aberer, Karl

    routing, small routing tables, and balanced routing load. We present an elegant new solution to construct active replacement of lost routing entries. To evaluate the performance of routing cost and ta- ble require searching for approximate attribute values or for attribute values in a certain range. A DHT

  16. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Briles, Scott D. (Los Alamos, NM); Neagley, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Platts, David (Santa Fe, NM); Clark, David D. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  17. Space efficient streaming algorithms for the distance to monotonicity and asymmetric edit distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saks, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Approximating the length of the longest increasing sequence (LIS) of a data stream is a well-studied problem. There are many algorithms that estimate the size of the complement of the LIS, referred to as the \\emph{distance to monotonicity}, both in the streaming and property testing setting. Let $n$ denote the size of an input array. Our aim is to develop a one-pass streaming algorithm that accurately approximates the distance to monotonicity, and only uses polylogarithmic storage. For any $\\delta > 0$, our algorithm provides a $(1+\\delta)$-multiplicative approximation for the distance, and uses only $O((\\log^2 n)/\\delta)$ space. The previous best known approximation using poly-logarithmic space was a multiplicative 2-factor. Our algorithm is simple and natural, being just 3 lines of pseudocode. It is essentially a polylogarithmic space implementation of a classic dynamic program that computes the LIS. Our technique is more general and is applicable to other problems that are exactly solvable by dynamic progr...

  18. CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection Up things, on the lighting that illuminates the scene, and on the interaction of light with the objects in the scene. Some of the basic qualitative properties of lighting and object reflectance that we need

  19. The Effect of Metallicity on Cepheid-Based Distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoko Sakai; Laura Ferrarese; Rob Kennicutt; Abi Saha

    2004-02-20

    We have used the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain V and I images of seven nearby galaxies. For each, we have measured a distance using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. By comparing the TRGB distances to published Cepheid distances, we investigate the metallicity dependence of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation. Our sample is supplemented by 10 additional galaxies for which both TRGB and Cepheid distances are available in the literature, thus providing a uniform coverage in Cepheid abundances between 1/20 and 2 (O/H)solar. We find that the difference between Cepheid and TRGB distances decreases monotonically with increasing Cepheid abundance, consistent with a mean metallicity dependence of the Cepheid distance moduli of (delta(m-M))/(delta[O/H]) = -0.24 +- 0.05 mag/dex.

  20. Cepheid Variables and their Application to the Cosmological Distance Scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Samantha L

    2013-05-02

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3. DIFFERENCE IMAGING ANALYSIS OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVA HOST NGC 5584 FOR CEPHEID VARIABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.2 Observations and Data Reduction... and type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). This cosmological distance scale started with a geometric distance measurement of Cepheids, such as parallaxes by [5]. The Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation was characterized by [79] for use as a primary distance...

  1. Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae -- Final Technical Report Filippenko, Alexei Vladimir Univ. California, Berkeley 79...

  2. The Design, Construction, and Operation of Long-Distance High...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Design, Construction, and Operation of Long-Distance High-Voltage Electricity Transmission Technologies Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  3. Network Formation and Routing by Strategic Agents using Local Contracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anshelevich, Elliot

    Network Formation and Routing by Strategic Agents using Local Contracts Elliot Anshelevich1, Murray Hill, NJ. Abstract. The Internet consists of various independent entities that range from small their business goals. For example, customers accept contracts with ISPs to connect them to the Internet while

  4. Nash Equilibria in Discrete Routing Games with Convex Latency Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavronicolas, Marios

    Nash Equilibria in Discrete Routing Games with Convex Latency Functions Martin Gairing Thomas L is determined by an arbitrary non-decreasing, non-constant and convex latency function . In a Nash equilib- rium on the link it chooses. To evaluate Nash equilibria, we formulate Social Cost as the sum of the users

  5. Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Data-centric routing and storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roussos, George

    Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing Data-centric routing and storage Niki Trigoni www.dcs.bbk.ac.uk/~niki niki@dcs.bbk.ac.uk #12;Overview Data-centric approach to tasking a sensor network Directed diffusion #12;Data-centric approach We want to get information from the sensor network about some type of event

  6. Short Paper Chronology of glacial Lake Agassiz meltwater routed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Timothy G.

    Short Paper Chronology of glacial Lake Agassiz meltwater routed to the Gulf of Mexico Timothy G of Mexico Introduction Ice-margin fluctuations, regional geomorphology, and isostatic recovery of the Earth to the Gulf of Mexico, through the eastern outlets to the North Atlantic Ocean, or through the north- western

  7. The Cyclic-Routing UAV Problem is PSPACE-Complete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouaknine, Joël

    The Cyclic-Routing UAV Problem is PSPACE-Complete Hsi-Ming Ho and Joël Ouaknine Department a fixed transit flight time. Given a flock of identical UAVs, can one ensure that every target is repeatedly visited by some UAV at intervals of duration at most the tar- get's relative deadline? The Cyclic

  8. Optimal Energy Routing in Networks with Energy Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Optimal Energy Routing in Networks with Energy Cooperation Berk Gurakan Omur Ozel Sennur Ulukus@umd.edu omur@umd.edu ulukus@umd.edu Abstract--We consider the delay minimization problem in an energy harvesting communication network with energy coopera- tion. We investigate the problems of optimal energy

  9. A Bayesian Decision Model for Intelligent Routing in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marques, Antonio Garcia

    A Bayesian Decision Model for Intelligent Routing in Sensor Networks Roc´io Arroyo-Valles, Antonio are considered in a Bayesian model in order to establish intelligent decision rules that make the network economize in crucial resources. I. INTRODUCTION Recent advances in sensor technology and wireless com

  10. Scalable Onion Routing with Torsk Jon McLachlan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicholas J.

    Scalable Onion Routing with Torsk Jon McLachlan University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 mcla service of the popular Tor anonymity network, that decreases the bandwidth cost of relay selection and maintenance from quadratic to quasilinear while introducing no new attacks on the anonymity provided by Tor

  11. Multi Path Considerations for Anonymized Routing: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunes, Mehmet Hadi

    to the Internet possible for many around the world. Tor network has been built on onion-routing scheme which, Onion-Proxy (OP), which is the Tor software running on end-user computer, connects to a node which can and raising censorship barriers around the world. Tor network has emerged as the most popular option in avail

  12. Multi Path Considerations for Anonymized Routing: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuksel, Murat

    complement underlying onion-routing mechanisms of Tor via exploiting diversity in the Tor network. Our access to the Internet possible for many around the world. Tor network has been built on onion Exit router Onion Proxy Fig. 1. Tor Circuit Establishment user-host creates a TCP connection

  13. The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool: A Web Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casson, William H. Jr.

    2012-08-02

    The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool is a type of Google maps for adversaries. It's a web-based Geospatial application similar to Google Maps. It helps the U.S. government plan operations that predict where an adversary might be. It's easily accessible and maintainble and it's simple to use without much training.

  14. New Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of additional ice reductions in the future, have fueled speculations of potential new trans-Arctic shippingNew Trans-Arctic shipping routes navigable by midcentury Laurence C. Smith1 and Scott R. Stephenson changes in sea ice will realistically impact ship navigation are lacking. To address this deficiency, we

  15. Proactive vs Reactive Approaches to Failure Resilient Routing Sanghwan Lee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelakuditi, Srihari

    a loop-free path to a destination if one such path exists. We also formally analyze routing stability decade and has now become the critical information infrastructure for both personal and business and cultural activities. Service disruption for even a short duration could be catastrophic in the world of e

  16. Managing Routing Disruptions in Internet Service Provider Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rexford, Jennifer

    games, and commercial transactions. This new range of applications cannot tolerate poor network the impact of routing changes in their network. I. INTRODUCTION As the Internet becomes an ever more critical increasing pressure to provide good, predictable performance to a wide range of applications. Unfortunately

  17. Directional Routing over Orthogonal Lines: A Performance Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuksel, Murat

    transmission quality in adverse weather conditions. [15] proposed several ways to mitigate these issues requirements of connectivity and scalabil- ity. Recently, [1] has attempted to mitigate this issue by using, flooding poses an obvious scalability problem. In response, several topology-based routing protocols

  18. Upconversion as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Upconversion as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion Joshua Zide, Matt University of Delaware Energy Institute #12;Efficiency drives reduced $/W.... http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/! Shockley-Queisser Limit! *adopted from http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/MSD-full-spectrum-solar

  19. The period vehicle routing problem with service choice Peter Francis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smilowitz, Karen

    ). Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences, Northwestern University Department in the delivery of groceries (or other products), the collection of waste, or the distribution of equipment of Industrial Engineering, Tel Aviv University 1 #12;The PVRP is a generalization of the classic vehicle routing

  20. INTEGRATING LOCAL AND GLOBAL ROUTING ON SCALE-FREE NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ±cient. The transport e±ciency can be improved by using some local information, such as the geographical locationINTEGRATING LOCAL AND GLOBAL ROUTING ON SCALE-FREE NETWORKS CUN-LAI PU* School of Information Department of Physics, Northeastern University Boston MA 02115, USA Center for Cancer Systems Biology Dana

  1. A PRINCIPLED APPROACH TO MANAGING ROUTING IN LARGE ISP NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    FOR ACCEPTANCE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ADVISOR: PROFESSOR JENNIFER REXFORD JUNE 2009 #12;c propose three abstractions that guide the design and implementation of our system solutions. First, we- Specific BGP" (NS-BGP) model that capture the requirement of customized route selection for different

  2. Simultaneous Routing and Power Allocation in CDMA Wireless Data Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and increasing function of the communica- tions resources allocated the link (this assumption holds for TDMASimultaneous Routing and Power Allocation in CDMA Wireless Data Networks Mikael Johansson* , Lin, in turn, are determined by the allocation of transmit powers across the network. Thus, the optimal network

  3. Title: CanMap RouteLogistics: Ontario Data Creator /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: CanMap RouteLogistics: Ontario Data Creator / Copyright Owner: DMTI Spatial Inc. Publisher and highways as well as streetfiles/names for Ontario. It also includes some topographic features from (west), -74 (east), 57 (north), 41.5 (south) Index Map: N/A Keywords (Place): Ontario #12;Keywords

  4. IP ROUTING ISSUES IN SATELLITE CONSTELLATION NETWORKS A. CLERGET,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Lloyd

    constellation networks; Internet Protocol (IP); routing; tunnelling; Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS); Border Gateway Protocol (BGP); Quality of Service (QoS); multicast. 1 INTRODUCTION Satellite; in conjunction with its terrestrial gateway stations it forms an autonomous system (AS). Over the same period

  5. Routing Correlated Data with Fusion Cost in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yonghe

    Tree (MFST), for energy efficient data gathering with aggregation (fusion) in wireless sensor networks] that energy consumption of a beamforming algorithm for acoustic signal fusion is on the same order1 Routing Correlated Data with Fusion Cost in Wireless Sensor Networks Hong Luo, Jun Luo, Yonghe

  6. Energy Efficient Routing with Adaptive Data Fusion in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yonghe

    Energy Efficient Routing with Adaptive Data Fusion in Sensor Networks Hong Luo College of Computer Adaptive Fusion Steiner Tree (AFST), for energy efficient data gathering in sensor networks that jointly, other networks may require complex operations for data fusion1 . Energy consumption of beamforming

  7. Analysis of routing algorithms for Energy harvesting wireless sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) should satisfy the features of energy con- sumption optimization and extension of network lifetime. A new class of WSN with the ability of harvesting environment power a comprehensive survey on both energy-ecient and energy harvesting routing algorithms in WSN eld. There are few

  8. Distributed Load-Aware Routing in LEO Satellite Evangelos Papapetrou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papapetrou, Evaggelos

    with terrestrial infrastructure. However, over the last years the interest in LEO systems has been renewed algorithm to compute the optimal path for any pair of satellites. In the case of traffic adaptive routing. This reduces the ability of the algorithm to adapt to traffic. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm

  9. Scrolled Sheet Precursor Route to Niobium and Tantalum Oxide Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , this process remains limited in scope mainly to the formation of TiO2 nanotubes and to a single example with MnScrolled Sheet Precursor Route to Niobium and Tantalum Oxide Nanotubes Yoji Kobayashi, Hideo Hata Manuscript Received May 25, 2007 ABSTRACT The nanoscroll-to-nanotube thermal transformation was studied for H

  10. Methods for Optimal Pedestrian Task Scheduling and Routing Srihari Narasimhan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Rong

    Methods for Optimal Pedestrian Task Scheduling and Routing Srihari Narasimhan IPVS, Universit to monitor the movement and behavior of pedestrians, especially where there are a huge number of visitors the pedestrian be- havior. As a result, the congestions as well as the queue sizes at different times can

  11. Dynamic Salting Route Optimisation using Evolutionary Computation Hisashi Handa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Xin

    , if salt is spread when it is not actually required, there are unnecessary financial and environ- mental realises daily dynamic routing and it will yield considerable ben- efits for areas with a marginal ice effective use of resources (i.e. treat- ment vehicles, personnel and de-icing chemical material). The aim

  12. 1 INTRODUCTION Ship weather routing develops an optimum track

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , the term optimum is used to mean maximum safety and crew confort, minimum fuel and oil consumption, minimum for minimization of the vessel's fuel consumption. Numerous variation of this type of method have been presented vessel routing. In addition to time objective, the author tried to minimize fuel consumption

  13. Maximizing Battery Life Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Weifa

    Maximizing Battery Life Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Weifa Liang Department of Computer Abstract--Most wireless ad hoc networks consist of mobile devices which operate on batteries. Power con, for an ad hoc network consisting of the same type of battery mobile nodes, two approximation algorithms

  14. Measurement Aggregation and Routing Techniques for Energy-Efficient Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    Measurement Aggregation and Routing Techniques for Energy-Efficient Estimation in Wireless Sensor measurements. Mecha- nisms that efficiently compress and transport sensor data in the network are needed. We network lifetime. Sensor spatial correlation, measurement accuracies, link qualities and energy reserves

  15. Before the Hurricane Season Determine safe evacuation routes inland.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    Before the Hurricane Season Determine safe evacuation routes inland. Learn location of official. Live in a high-rise. Hurricane winds can knock out electricity to elevators, break windows and more bulletins. Hurricane Watch: Hurricane conditions are possible within the specified coastal area. Because

  16. Polydrug Use among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico: Correlates of Methamphetamine Use and Route of Administration by Gender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    a function of route of administration. Addiction. 2002; 97(Use and Route of Administration by Gender Melanie L. Rusch,use and routes of administration by gender among injection

  17. Hierarchical Bayesian Nonparametric Approach to Modeling and Learning the Wisdom of Crowds of Urban Traffic Route Planning Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jiangbo

    Route prediction is important to analyzing and understanding the route patterns and behavior of traffic crowds. Its objective is to predict the most likely or "popular" route of road segments from a given point in a road ...

  18. Cross-Layer Design of Outage Optimum Routing Metric for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    PAPER Cross-layer design of outage optimum routing metricof wireless ad hoc network outage probability in a fadingJ. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves Outage optimum routing for wireless

  19. Link-State Routing with Hop-by-Hop Forwarding Can Achieve Optimal Traffic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, Mung

    -state routing. Keywords: Interior gateway protocol, traffic engineering, rout- ing, OSPF, optimization, network-to-end tunneling. Such simplicity was thought to come at the expense of optimality. In a procedure known as Traffic

  20. Link-State Routing with Hop-by-Hop Forwarding Can Achieve Optimal Traffic Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rexford, Jennifer

    -state routing. Keywords: Interior gateway protocol, traffic engineering, routing, OSPF, optimization, network in a hop-by-hop fashion without memory or end-to-end tunneling. Such simplicity seems to carry a cost

  1. Deadlock Avoidance in Sequential Resource Allocation Systems with Multiple Resource Acquisitions and Flexible Routings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reveliotis, Spiridon "Spyros"

    resource acquisitions and flexible routings. First, a new siphon-based characterization for the liveness allocations and no routing flexibility. The last part of the paper exploits the aforementioned siphon- based

  2. Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Chapter 9 Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization: iE rE tE i r t 1 2 iH rH tH iE rE tE i r t 1 2 i that n1 sin i = n2 sin t (9.2) 45 #12;46 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION Boundary conditions iH rH tH #12;48 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION and here Ei + Er = Et (9.16) or Hi Z-1 1 + Hr Z-1 1

  3. A Distributed Approach to Dynamic Routing Algorithms Based on Vehicle to Vehicle Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boskovich, Scott Matthew

    2014-01-01

    for route planning in smart cities," Vehicular TrafficManagement for Smart Cities (VTM), 2012 First International

  4. Risk Distance: The Loss of Strength Gradient and Colombia's Geography of Impunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demarest, Geoffrey

    2013-12-31

    The dissertation proposes a theoretical category of distance, risk distance, as a prompt for understanding outcomes in internal armed struggles. Geographers are familiar with cost distance -- conceiving distance according ...

  5. Jots : cultivating reflective learning in scratch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenbaum, Eric (Eric Ross)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis introduces the Jots system, a new technology designed to engage children in reflective learning as they work on design projects. Jots enables children to create brief updates, or "jots," describing their ...

  6. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  7. Diffuse reflectance imaging with astronomical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasinoff, Samuel W.

    Diffuse objects generally tell us little about the surrounding lighting, since the radiance they reflect blurs together incident lighting from many directions. In this paper we discuss how occlusion geometry can help invert ...

  8. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    P describe Green functions QO(u)* *). Note that the matrix is completely determined GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions

  9. Oblique reflections of internal gravity wave beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Hussain H. (Hussain Habibullah)

    2012-01-01

    We study nonlinear effects in reflections of internal gravity wave beams in a continuously stratified liquid which are incident upon a uniform slope at an oblique angle. Wave motion in a stratified fluid medium is unique ...

  10. Bidirectional reflection functions from surface bump maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Max, N.; Springmeyer, R.

    1987-04-29

    The Torrance-Sparrow model for calculating bidirectional reflection functions contains a geometrical attenuation factor to account for shadowing and occlusions in a hypothetical distribution of grooves on a rough surface. Using an efficient table-based method for determining the shadows and occlusions, we calculate the geometric attenuation factor for surfaces defined by a specific table of bump heights. Diffuse and glossy specular reflection of the environment can be handled in a unified manner by using an integral of the bidirectional reflection function times the environmental illumination, over the hemisphere of solid angle above a surface. We present a method of estimating the integral, by expanding the bidirectional reflection coefficient in spherical harmonics, and show how the coefficients in this expansion can be determined efficiently by reorganizing our geometric attenuation calculation.

  11. GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Dawn

    GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic- ularly data-centric storage and information aggregation, rely on efficient routing from one node-to-node routing and data-centric storage and information processing in sensor networks. Un- like previous

  12. GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and DataCentric Storage in Sensor Networks Without

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data­Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic), an infrastructure for node­to­node routing and data­centric storage and information processing in sensor networks, or the U.S. Government or any of its agencies. #12; Keywords: Sensor networks, routing, data­centric

  13. GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic), an infrastructure for node-to-node routing and data-centric storage and information processing in sensor networks University, or the U.S. Government or any of its agencies. #12;Keywords: Sensor networks, routing, data-centric

  14. Power Optimal Routing in Wireless Networks Rajit Manohar and Anna Scaglione

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manohar, Rajit

    Power Optimal Routing in Wireless Networks Rajit Manohar and Anna Scaglione ECE, Cornell University Abstract-- Reducing power consumption and increasing bat- tery life of nodes in an ad-hoc network requires an integrated power control and routing strategy. Power optimal routing selects the multi-hop links that require

  15. Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a Black-box Model JOAN FEIGENBAUM, Yale University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Tor 1. INTRODUCTION Every day, half a million people use the onion-routing network Tor [Dingledine etA Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a Black-box Model JOAN FEIGENBAUM, Yale University a probabilistic analysis of onion routing. The analysis is presented in a black-box model of anonymous

  16. Pairing-Based Onion Routing with Improved Forward Secrecy Aniket Kate Greg M. Zaverucha Ian Goldberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    to scale gracefully. Keywords: onion routing, Tor, pairing-based cryptography, anonymous key agreementPairing-Based Onion Routing with Improved Forward Secrecy Aniket Kate Greg M. Zaverucha Ian {akate,gzaveruc,iang}@cs.uwaterloo.ca Abstract This paper presents new protocols for onion routing

  17. Using Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction # Aniket Kate and Ian Goldberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    for three onion routing protocols that have emerged as enhancements to the Tor anonymizing network; namely, Tor with predistributed Di#e­Hellman values, pairing­based onion routing, and certificateless onion onion routing project--- Tor [41]---has turned out to be a huge success. However, with its latency times

  18. Post-Quantum Forward-Secure Onion Routing (Future Anonymity in Today's Budget)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    satrajitgh@gmail.com aniket@mmci.uni-saarland.de Abstract The onion routing (OR) network Tor provides, and it only introduces manageable communication overhead to the Tor protocol. Keywords: Tor, Onion routingPost-Quantum Forward-Secure Onion Routing (Future Anonymity in Today's Budget) Satrajit Ghosh

  19. Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a Black-box [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --Distributed applications General Terms Algorithms, Security, Theory Keywords Anonymity, onion routing, Tor A full version-1-59593-883-1/07/0010 ...$5.00. 1. INTRODUCTION Every day, thousands of people use the onion-routing net- work Tor [6Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a Black-box Model [Extended Abstract] Joan Feigenbaum

  20. Using Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction Aniket Kate and Ian Goldberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    for three onion routing protocols that have emerged as enhancements to the Tor anonymizing network; namely, Tor with predistributed Diffie-Hellman values, pairing-based onion routing, and certificateless onion onion routing project-- Tor [41]--has turned out to be a huge success. However, with its latency times

  1. Pairing-Based Onion Routing Aniket Kate, Greg Zaverucha, and Ian Goldberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Ian

    . #12;2. We use our protocol to build onion routing circuits for anonymity networks like Tor [7]. OurPairing-Based Onion Routing Aniket Kate, Greg Zaverucha, and Ian Goldberg David R. Cheriton School in onion routing anonymity networks. Instead of iteratively and interactively constructing circuits

  2. Synchronization of Washing Operations with Droplet Routing for Cross-Contamination Avoidance in Digital Microfluidic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Synchronization of Washing Operations with Droplet Routing for Cross-Contamination Avoidance in many areas of biochemistry and biomedical sciences. Since cross-contamination between droplets-droplet routing with sample/reagent drop- let-routing steps by controlling the arrival order of droplets at cross-contamination

  3. Routing Mechanisms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks based on the Energy Drain Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obraczka, Katia

    -points are not directly within their radio range. A critical issue for MANETs is that the activity of #12;nodes is power which nodes can be part of an active route. We describe new route selection mechanisms for MANET routing extends nodal battery life and the duration of paths, while CMDR also minimizes the total transmission

  4. Routing Mechanisms for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks based on the Energy Drain Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obraczka, Katia

    ­points are not directly within their radio range. A critical issue for MANETs is that the activity of #12; nodes is power which nodes can be part of an active route. We describe new route selection mechanisms for MANET routing extends nodal battery life and the duration of paths, while CMDR also minimizes the total transmission

  5. UFO: A Resilient Layered Routing Architecture Yaping Zhu , Andy Bavier , Nick Feamster , Sampath Rangarajan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rexford, Jennifer

    UFO: A Resilient Layered Routing Architecture Yaping Zhu , Andy Bavier , Nick Feamster , Sampath topologies. The paper presents a layered routing architecture called UFO (Underlay Fused with Overlays overlays into the existing routing infrastructure. We call our system UFO (Underlay Fused with Overlays

  6. Consumed-Energy-Type-Aware Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks Shinya Ito and Kenji Yoshigoe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshigoe, Kenji

    Consumed-Energy-Type-Aware Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks Shinya Ito and Kenji Yoshigoe protocol, and several approaches to energy aware routing algorithms in wireless networks have been proposed}@ualr.edu Abstract This study proposes and investigates consumed- energy-type-aware routing (CETAR), a new metric

  7. Energy efficient wireless unicast routing alternatives for machine-to-machine networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uysal-Biyikoglu, Elif

    Review Energy efficient wireless unicast routing alternatives for machine-to-machine networks Neyre: Energy-efficient routing Shortest-path routing Energy-efficient networks M2M M2M applications M2M for large- scale networking of devices without dependence on human interaction. Energy efficiency is one

  8. Energy-Balanced Cooperative Routing in Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    Energy-Balanced Cooperative Routing in Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Siyuan Chen Minsu Huang. In this paper, we aim to study the impact of cooperative routing on balancing the energy distribution among their transmission power, our cooperative routing method can balance the energy among neighboring nodes and maximize

  9. Comparison of two wireless ad hoc routing protocols on a hardware test-bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Timothy X.

    Comparison of two wireless ad hoc routing protocols on a hardware test-bed Shweta Bhandare of the rout- ing protocols is carried out using the Click modular router infrastructure on laptops with wireless ethernet cards running Linux. We demonstrate the working of both ad hoc routing protocols through

  10. Performance of Routing Protocols in HF Wireless Networks Eric E. Johnson*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Balakrishnan* , and Zibin Tang* Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering New Mexico State and Routing Protocol (WARRP) and the Internet standard Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol (RFC-3626 in the Internet. The Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol (RFC-3626) [1] is an optimization

  11. Reflection and transmission of conformal perturbation defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilka Brunner; Cornelius Schmidt-Colinet

    2015-08-18

    We consider reflection and transmission of interfaces which implement renormalisation group flows between conformal fixed points in two dimensions. Such an RG interface is constructed from the identity defect in the ultraviolet CFT by perturbing the theory on one side of the defect line. We compute reflection and transmission coefficients in perturbation theory to third order in the coupling constant and check our calculations against exact constructions of RG interfaces between coset models.

  12. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  13. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  14. Reflection and transmission of conformal perturbation defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunner, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    We consider reflection and transmission of interfaces which implement renormalisation group flows between conformal fixed points in two dimensions. Such an RG interface is constructed from the identity defect in the ultraviolet CFT by perturbing the theory on one side of the defect line. We compute reflection and transmission coefficients in perturbation theory to third order in the coupling constant and check our calculations against exact constructions of RG interfaces between coset models.

  15. Ris-R-1518(EN) The necessary distance between large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1518(EN) The necessary distance between large wind farms offshore - study Sten Frandsen. As it is often the need for offshore wind farms, the model handles a regular array-geometry with straight rows distance between large wind farms in the offshore environment. The main results are given in Section 1

  16. A novel molecular index for secondary oil migration distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    alteration of buried organic matter in source rocks, followed by oil expulsion (primary migration) outA novel molecular index for secondary oil migration distance Liuping Zhang1 , Maowen Li2 , Yang migration distances from source rocks to reservoirs can greatly help in the search for new petroleum

  17. On maximal instances for the original syntenic distance Cedric Chauve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chauve, Cedric

    genomes has been introduced by Ferretti, Nadeau and Sanko#11; as an approximation of the evolutionary distance between genomes for which the gene order is not known. This distance is the minimum number of fusions, #12;ssions and translocations required to transform a genome into an other. Kleinberg and Liben

  18. CHAOTIC DATA ENCRYPTION FOR LONG-DISTANCE MONITORING OF NUCLEAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koksal, Can Emre

    matrix = Lorenz system parameter = Lorenz system parameter = excess delayed neutron precursorsCHAOTIC DATA ENCRYPTION FOR LONG-DISTANCE MONITORING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS Günyaz Ablay The Ohio DATA ENCRYPTION FOR LONG-DISTANCE MONITORING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS Günyaz Ablay1 , C. Emre Koksal2

  19. Patterns in Offender Distance Decay and the Geographic Profiling Problem.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Michael

    Patterns in Offender Distance Decay and the Geographic Profiling Problem. Mike O'Leary Towson University 2010 Fall Western Section Meeting Los Angeles, CA October 9-10, 2010 Mike O'Leary (Towson Department for his assistance. Mike O'Leary (Towson University) Offender Distance Decay October 9, 2010 2

  20. Patterns in Offender Distance Decay and the Geographic Profiling Problem.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Michael

    Patterns in Offender Distance Decay and the Geographic Profiling Problem. Mike O'Leary Towson University 2011 Crime Mapping Conference Miami, FL October 19-21, 2011 Mike O'Leary (Towson University Department for his assistance. Mike O'Leary (Towson University) Offender Distance Decay October 21, 2011 2

  1. Introduction The median problem for the reversal distance in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lonardi, Stefano

    genomes E. Ohlebusch, M.I. Abouelhoda, K. Hockel, J. Stallkamp University of Ulm, Germany CPM 2005 The median problem for the reversal distance in circular bacterial genomes #12;Introduction Methods Conclusion General Problem Distances Specific Problem Median Problem Given 3 genomes G1, G2, and G3, find

  2. Kinetic distance and kinetic maps from molecular dynamics simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noe, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing macromolecular kinetics from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations requires a distance metric that can distinguish slowly-interconverting states. Here we build upon diffusion map theory and define a kinetic distance for irreducible Markov processes that quantifies how slowly molecular conformations interconvert. The kinetic distance can be computed given a model that approximates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors (reaction coordinates) of the MD Markov operator. Here we employ the time-lagged independent component analysis (TICA). The TICA components can be scaled to provide a kinetic map in which the Euclidean distance corresponds to the kinetic distance. As a result, the question of how many TICA dimensions should be kept in a dimensionality reduction approach becomes obsolete, and one parameter less needs to be specified in the kinetic model construction. We demonstrate the approach using TICA and Markov state model (MSM) analyses for illustrative models, protein conformation dynamics in bovine...

  3. Origin of deep crustal reflections: Implications of coincident seismic refraction and reflection data in Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holbrook, W.S. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA)); Catchings, R.D. (U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Jarchow, C.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The authors compare seismic refraction and reflection results along the PASSCAL/COCORP 40{degree}N transect in the northern Basin and Range of Nevada in order to determine the origin of the prominent reflections from the deep crystalline crust. Reflection data along the transect show a thick zone of discontinuous, subhorizontal reflections, beginning at 4-6 s two-way traveltime (10-20 km depth) and ending at 9-11 s (27-35 km). Two independently derived velocity models, based on refraction data, are largely similar and agree on many important aspects of the reflectivity-velocity relation. Both models show that the top of the reflective zone lies 3-8 km above a prominent mid-crustal velocity discontinuity, which is interpreted to separate bulk silicic from bulk dioritic-gabbroic crust; in most places, the silicic mid-crust is more strongly reflective than the mafic lower crust. This pattern is expected in areas where ductile shearing is the mechanism responsible for the reflectivity. One of the velocity models, however, suggests that, in places, the strongest reflectivity spans both the middle (6.1-6.3 km/s) and lower (6.6 km/s) crust; this pattern suggests that the combined influence of ductile strain fabrics and mafic intrusions gives rise to crustal reflections. Both models show that the lowermost crust and crust/mantle transition are highly reflective, also suggesting the presence of mafic and/or ultramafic intrusions. Thus the observed reflection patterns suggest that ductile shearing and the intrusion of mantle-derived magma - both of which are likely to have accompanied the extreme Cenozoic extension - are important factors in generating deep crustal reflections.

  4. High reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Mirkarimi, Paul B. (Sunol, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo-Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  5. Process for fabricating high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Mirkarimi, Paul B. (Sunol, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A high reflectance-low stress Mo--Si multilayer reflective coating particularly useful for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength region. While the multilayer reflective coating has particular application for EUV lithography, it has numerous other applications where high reflectance and low stress multilayer coatings are utilized. Multilayer coatings having high near-normal incidence reflectance (R.gtoreq.65%) and low residual stress (.ltoreq.100 MPa) have been produced using thermal and non-thermal approaches. The thermal approach involves heating the multilayer coating to a given temperature for a given time after deposition in order to induce structural changes in the multilayer coating that will have an overall "relaxation" effect without reducing the reflectance significantly.

  6. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. . Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1989-09-01

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  7. Low Latency High Bandwidth Anonymous Overlay Network with Anonymous Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    [3,4,10,7,6,16,14,8,11]. Most of these networks are based on one of two methods: onion routing and DC to be re-configured). Research into the per- formance of Tor [6] and JAP [14] shows a high latency (e.g. around 4 seconds for some Cascades in JAP, around 4.5 seconds for Tor) and either a low (e.g. around 15

  8. Polar Gas to pick route for Arctic Y Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-26

    Polar Gas Project is considering four possible Y line routes to move gas reserves from the Arctic Islands and the MacKenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea areas to southern Canada. All four routes are west of the single line route proposed by Polar Gas Ltd. in 1977 to run from the Arctic Islands to Longlac, Ontario, and would connect with existing pipelines at either Longlac, Winnipeg, Calgary, or Edmonton. Marketable reserves in the High Arctic Islands are estimated at 12.7 trillion cubic feet, not counting 3-6 trillion cubic feet probably contained in recent discoveries; the MacKenzie Delta reserves are estimated at 5.8 trillion cubic feet. The gas will be chilled to 0C for passage through permafrost regions, to prevent thawing of the soil, but the gas will be at higher temperatures in other areas, with various construction techniques used to protect the area of discontinuous permafrost from thawing. More than $70 million has been spent on project studies. An application will be filed in 1981, and the pipeline could be completed in 7-10 years.

  9. Local and global statistical distances are equivalent on pure states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott M. Cohen

    2009-06-10

    The statistical distance between pure quantum states is obtained by finding a measurement that is optimal in a sense defined by Wootters. As such, one may expect that the statistical distance will turn out to be different if the set of possible measurements is restricted in some way. It nonetheless turns out that if the restriction is to local operations and classical communication (LOCC) on any multipartite system, then the statistical distance is the same as it is without restriction, being equal to the angle between the states in Hilbert space.

  10. TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-based Routing in Delay Tolerant Networksbased Routing in Delay Tolerant Networksbas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility-TOUR: Time-sensitive Opportunistic Utility- based Routing in Delay Tolerant Networksbased on utility-based routingIntroduction on utility-based routingIntroduction on utility-based routing

  11. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  12. Method of making reflecting film reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A reflector of the reflecting film type is disclosed and which may be used in a heliostatic system for concentrating solar energy and comprising a reflecting film bonded to an appropriate rigid substrate in such a way that specularity of a very high order is achieved. A method of bonding the reflecting film to the substrate is also disclosed and comprises the steps of initially adhering the film to a smooth, clean flat rigid surface with a non-bonding liquid between the rigid surface and film, and then bonding the substrate and film. The non-bonding liquid has a molecular adhesion greater than any stresses due to handling or curing of the bonding agent which is applied between the film and the opposing surface of the rigid substrate.

  13. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  14. Strong transmission and reflection of edge modes in bounded photonic graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ablowitz, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of linear and nonlinear edge modes in bounded photonic honeycomb lattices formed by an array of rapidly varying helical waveguides is studied. These edge modes are found to exhibit strong transmission (reflection) around sharp corners when the dispersion relation is topologically nontrivial (trivial), and can also remain stationary. An asymptotic theory is developed that establishes the presence (absence) of edge states on all four sides, including in particular armchair edge states, in the topologically nontrivial (trivial) case. In the presence of topological protection, nonlinear edge solitons can persist over very long distances.

  15. A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A reflective optical transport system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from electron plasma waves on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A reflective optical...

  16. Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank Engineering Ltd, 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection...

  17. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS This presentation was delivered...

  18. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    to varying levels solar radiation, and quantify theirproperties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,siding surface. Direct solar radiation to siding, reflected

  19. Account of Nuclear Scattering at Volume Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondarenco, M V

    2011-01-01

    For a particle traversing a bent crystal in the regime of volume reflection we evaluate the probability of interaction with atomic nuclei. Regardless of the continuous potential shape, this probability is found to differ from the corresponding value in an amorphous target by an amount proportional to the crystal bending radius, and the particle deflection angle. Based on this result, we evaluate the rate of inelastic nuclear interactions, and the final beam angular dispersion due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experiments. The impact of multiple Coulomb scattering on the mean volume reflection angle is also discussed.

  20. Emergence of exponentially small reflected waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volker Betz; Alain Joye; Stefan Teufel

    2008-04-23

    We study the time-dependent scattering of a quantum mechanical wave packet at a barrier for energies larger than the barrier height, in the semi-classical regime. More precisely, we are interested in the leading order of the exponentially small scattered part of the wave packet in the semiclassical parameter when the energy density of the incident wave is sharply peaked around some value. We prove that this reflected part has, to leading order, a Gaussian shape centered on the classical trajectory for all times soon after its birth time. We give explicit formulas and rigorous error bounds for the reflected wave for all of these times.

  1. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J. (Lee, NY)

    1989-06-20

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  2. Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with Unreliable Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    Time-Sensitive Utility-Based Routing in Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Networks with Unreliable Links}@ustc.edu.cn Abstract--Utility-based routing is a special routing approach, which takes the reliability and transmission costs into account at the same time. However, the existing utility-based routing algorithms have not yet

  3. Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram Sankararaman, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Petros Maniatis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram. In this paper we address routing-table poisoning attacks against structured overlays, in which adversaries to redi- rect an outgoing link to her, thereby poisoning its routing table. All lookups routed via

  4. Minimum Distance between Bent and 1-resilient Boolean Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    , INDIA. soumen@iitg.ernet.in 2 Applied Statistics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B T Road, Kolkata 700 108, INDIA subho@isical.ac.in Abstract. In this paper we study the minimum distance between

  5. Distance determination to eight galaxies using expanding photosphere method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, Subhash; Kumar, Brijesh, E-mail: email@subhashbose.com, E-mail: bose@aries.res.in [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital 263002 (India)

    2014-02-20

    Type IIP supernovae (SNe) are recognized as independent extragalactic distance indicators; however, keeping in mind the diverse nature of their observed properties as well as the availability of good quality data, more and newer events need to be tested for their applicability as reliable distance indicators. We use early photometric and spectroscopic data of eight Type IIP SNe to derive distances to their host galaxies by using the expanding photosphere method (EPM). For five of these, the EPM is applied for the first time. In this work, we improved EPM application by using SYNOW estimated velocities and by semi-deconvolving the broadband filter responses while deriving color temperatures and blackbody angular radii. We find that the derived EPM distances are consistent with that derived using other redshift-independent methods.

  6. The solar neighborhood. XXXV. Distances to 1404 M dwarf systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar neighborhood. XXXV. Distances to 1404 M dwarf systems within 25 PC in the southern sky Winters, Jennifer G.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Dieterich, Sergio B., E-mail:...

  7. Distance sampling and the challenge of monitoring butterfly populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuker, David

    Distance sampling and the challenge of monitoring butterfly populations Nick J. B. Isaac110 5DD, UK; 5 Institute for Environment, Sustainability and Regeneration, Mellor Building Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS) have been influential in informing our understanding of environmental change

  8. TOWARD THE MINIMUM INNER EDGE DISTANCE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zsom, Andras

    We explore the minimum distance from a host star where an exoplanet could potentially be habitable in order not to discard close-in rocky exoplanets for follow-up observations. We find that the inner edge of the Habitable ...

  9. Distance Learning and the WorldWide Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Albert R.

    /Singapore Distance Learning Project Develop and teach three courses at National University of Singapore and Nanyang. Applied research and development: Support for continuing improvement in education. Daedalus, Fall 1998, p

  10. A GPS Pseudorange Based Cooperative Vehicular Distance Measurement Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Daiqin

    Accurate vehicular localization is important for various cooperative vehicle safety (CVS) applications such as collision avoidance, turning assistant, etc. In this paper, we propose a cooperative vehicular distance measurement ...

  11. Authoring and Presentation Tools for Distance Learning over Interactive TV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdem, Cigdem Eroglu

    questions into interactive exams, and a virtual teacher whose facial animation is automatically generated]: Multimedia Information Systems ­ animations, evaluation/methodology, video. General Terms Management, Design, Human Factors. Keywords Distance education, interactive TV, set-top-box, multimedia presentation. 1

  12. Upper bounds on minimum distance of nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Santosh

    2005-11-01

    The most popular class of quantum error correcting codes is stabilizer codes. Binary quantum stabilizer codes have been well studied, and Calderbank, Rains, Shor and Sloane (July 1998) have constructed a table of upper bounds on the minimum distance...

  13. Cepheid Variables in M33 and the Extragalactic Distance Scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Andrew K.

    2010-01-16

    , they can be used to determine distances to nearby galaxies and calibrate secondary distance indicators, such as type Ia supernovae. A detailed study of Cepheids in nearby galaxies is required in order to properly characterize their properties and variations... be related to other more fundamental quantities. The name ?variable star? can refer to a wide variety of objects, including supernovae, eclipsing binary stars, or even transiting planets. However, this thesis will be focused on a speci c type of variable star...

  14. SBF Distances to Leo and Virgo using the HST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. W. Morris; T. Shanks

    1998-02-05

    We have used archive HST WFPC2 data for three elliptical galaxies (NGC 3379 in the Leo I group, and NGC 4472 and NGC 4406 in the Virgo cluster) to determine their distances using the Surface Brightness Fluctuation (SBF) method as described by Tonry and Schneider (1988). A comparison of the HST results with the SBF distance moduli of Ciardullo et al (1993) shows significant disagreement and suggests that the r.m.s. error on these ground-based distance moduli is actually as large as +-0.25 mag. The agreement is only slightly improved when we compare our results with the HST and ground-based SBF distances from Ajhar et al (1997) and Tonry et al (1997); the comparison suggests that a lower limit on the error of the HST SBF distance moduli is +-0.17 mag. Overall, these results suggest that previously quoted measurement errors may underestimate the true error in SBF distance moduli by at least a factor of 2-3.

  15. CHAPTER 127 Bragg Reflection Breakwater: A New

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    on the seabed can be an effective reflector of surface gravity waves. The reflected wave energy varies of the incident wave energy. Technical Issues At the onset of the research program, there were a num- ber Jenkins Technologies, Carpinteria, CA 2 Engineer, Naval Civil Engineering Lab, Port Hueneme, CA 3

  16. 3D tracking via body radio reflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kabelac, Zachary (Zachary E.)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents WiTrack, a system that tracks the 3D motion of a user from the radio signals reflected off her body. It works even if the person is occluded from the WiTrack device or in a different room. WiTrack does ...

  17. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  18. April 20, 2010 Seismic Reflection V

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    ? Vertical Resolution How thin a layer can we resolve? Dependent on seismic wavelength Reflectors are barely is an example of a "fully interpreted" seismic profile. What is the event history here? #12;4/19/2010 3 Here4/19/2010 1 GG450 April 20, 2010 Seismic Reflection V Data Interpretation I Today's material comes

  19. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  20. An unusual route to polarization reversal in ferroelectric ultrathin nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herchig, R.; Chang, Ch.-M.; Mani, B. K.; Ponomareva, I., E-mail: iponomar@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Ferroelectric nanowires are promising candidates for miniaturized ferroelectric devices. Some potential nanoscale applications of the nanowires, such as ultra high density ferroelectric memory, utilize their reversible polarization. To meet the ever increasing demand for low energy consumption, it is extremely desirable to reduce the operational fields associated with polarization reversal. In this Letter, we use first-principles-based simulations to explore an unusual route to polarization reversal that utilizes a combination of relatively low bias field and THz pulsed radiation. Such an approach allows for lower operational fields and may lead to other potential applications such as THz radiation sensing and remote switches.

  1. Natural fats and oils route to fatty alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchold, H.

    1983-02-21

    The Philippines will be the site for a chemical plant that will use coconut oil to make fatty alcohols by means of a direct hydrogenation route - eliminating an intermediate esterification step. The facility will produce about 65,000 tonnes/yr of coconut fatty acid and 7,900 tonnes/yr of glycerine. About half of the fatty acid produced will be used to make 29,000 tonnes/yr of fatty alcohols. The principles and operation of the process are outlined.

  2. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ionAAEngineEIA'sANewA New Route

  3. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ionAAEngineEIA'sANewA New RouteA

  4. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA New Route to

  5. A New Route to Nano Self-Assembly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA New Route toA

  6. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA New Route toAA

  7. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA New Route

  8. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  9. A probabilistic approach to reduce the route establishment overhead in AODV algorithm for manet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preetha, K G; Jacob, K Poulose

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETS) is a collection of wireless nodes without any infrastructure support. The nodes in MANET can act as either router or source and the control of the network is distributed among nodes. The nodes in MANETS are highly mobile and it maintains dynamic interconnection between those mobile nodes. MANTEs have been considered as isolated stand-alone network. This can turn the dream of networking "at any time and at any where" into reality. The main purpose of this paper is to study the issues in route discovery process in AODV protocol for MANET. Flooding of route request message imposes major concern in route establishment. This paper suggests a new approach to reduce the routing overhead during the route discovery phase. By considering the previous behaviour of the network, the new protocol reduces the unwanted searches during route establishment process

  10. Distances to Galactic high-velocity clouds. Complex C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. P. Wakker; D. G. York; J. C. Howk; J. C. Barentine; R. Wilhelm; R. F. Peletier; H. van Woerden; T. C. Beers; Z. Ivezic; P. Richter; U. J. Schwarz

    2007-10-17

    We report the first determination of a distance bracket for the high-velocity cloud (HVC) complex C. Combined with previous measurements showing that this cloud has a metallicity of 0.15 times solar, these results provide ample evidence that complex C traces the continuing accretion of intergalactic gas falling onto the Milky Way. Accounting for both neutral and ionized hydrogen as well as He, the distance bracket implies a mass of 3-14x10^6 M_sun, and the complex represents a mass inflow of 0.1-0.25 M_sun/yr. We base our distance bracket on the detection of CaII absorption in the spectrum of the blue horizontal branch star SDSS J120404.78+623345.6, in combination with a significant non-detection toward the BHB star BS 16034-0114. These results set a strong distance bracket of 3.7-11.2 kpc on the distance to complex C. A more weakly supported lower limit of 6.7 kpc may be derived from the spectrum of the BHB star BS 16079-0017.

  11. Time-delay Cosmography: Increased Leverage with Angular Diameter Distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jee, Inh; Suyu, Sherry H; Huterer, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Strong lensing time-delay systems constrain cosmological parameters via the so-called time-delay distance and the angular diameter distance to the lens. In previous studies, only the former information was used. In this paper, we show that the cosmological constraints improve significantly when the latter information is also included. Specifically, the angular diameter distance plays a crucial role in breaking the degeneracy between the curvature of the Universe and the time-varying equation of state of dark energy. Using a mock sample of 55 bright quadruple lens systems based on expectations for ongoing/future imaging surveys, we find that adding the angular diameter distance information to the time-delay distance information and the cosmic microwave background data of Planck improves the constraint on the constant equation of state by 30%, on the time variation in the equation of state by a factor of two, and on the Hubble constant in the flat $\\Lambda$CDM model by a factor of two. Therefore, previous forec...

  12. EXPERIMENT #3 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY We will use the reflectance attachment and fiber optics OceanOptics spectrophotometer to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    EXPERIMENT #3 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY We will use the reflectance attachment and fiber optics OceanOptics spectrophotometer to measure the reflectance spectrum of several paint samples in the special optically flat-bottomed cell so that the bottom is completely covered. Scan the reflectance

  13. A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, R.H.; Sweatt, W.

    1985-11-21

    A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

  14. A Self-Adaptive Middleware for Efficient Routing in Distributed Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Sisi; Sun, Jingtao

    2015-01-01

    and D. Rubenstein: Energy-efficient computing for wildlifeIsland Hop- ping: Efficient mobility-assisted forwarding inAdaptive Middleware for Efficient Routing in Distributed

  15. 2012-2013 Keywords: Routing and spectrum allocation (RSA), flexible optical networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varvarigo, Emmanouel "Manos"

    , "Conserving Transmission Power in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks" #12;), flexible optical networks WDM (FWDM) . (RSA) (RWA). FWDM Matlab. 2: Keywords: Routing and spectrum allocation (RSA), flexible optical networks

  16. Comparison of Methanol Exposure Routes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Givens, Melissa; Kalbfleisch, Kristine; Bryson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    of The American Academy of Poison Control Centers nationalRoutes Reported to Texas Poison Control Centers Melissacases reported to Texas Poison Centers. Methods: All cases

  17. Balanced Multipath Source Routing Shreyas Prasad, Andre Schumacher , Harri Haanpaa, and Pekka Orponen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in wireless net- works. E.g. Nasipuri, Casta~neda, and Das [1] extend the DSR [2] route finding process

  18. Evidence against correlations between nuclear decay rates and Earth-Sun distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norman, Eric B.

    2009-01-01

    distance of the source to the Sun. This work was supportedNuclear Decay Rates and Earth-Sun Distance Eric B. Normanand 241 Am and the Earth-Sun distance. We find no evidence

  19. How Pseudo-Boolean Programming can help Genome Rearrangement Distance Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fertin, Guillaume

    How Pseudo-Boolean Programming can help Genome Rearrangement Distance Computation S vialette@lri.fr Abstract. Computing genomic distances between whole genomes is a fundamental problem in comparative genomics. Recent researches have resulted in different genomic distance definitions: number

  20. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  1. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2001-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  2. Painleve VI, Rigid Tops and Reflection Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Levin; M. Olshanetsky; A. Zotov

    2006-06-01

    We show that the Painlev{\\'e} VI equation has an equivalent form of the non-autonomous Zhukovsky-Volterra gyrostat. This system is a generalization of the Euler top in $C^3$ and include the additional constant gyrostat momentum. The quantization of its autonomous version is achieved by the reflection equation. The corresponding quadratic algebra generalizes the Sklyanin algebra. As by product we define integrable XYZ spin chain on a finite lattice with new boundary conditions.

  3. Modeling and Tool Wear in Routing of CFRP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iliescu, D.; Fernandez, A.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.

    2011-01-17

    This paper presents the prediction and evaluation of feed force in routing of carbon composite material. In order to extend tool life and improve quality of the machined surface, a better understanding of uncoated and coated tool behaviors is required. This work describes (1) the optimization of the geometry of multiple teeth tools minimizing the tool wear and the feed force, (2) the optimization of tool coating and (3) the development of a phenomenological model between the feed force, the routing parameters and the tool wear. The experimental results indicate that the feed rate, the cutting speed and the tool wear are the most significant factors affecting the feed force. In the case of multiple teeth tools, a particular geometry with 14 teeth right helix right cut and 11 teeth left helix right cut gives the best results. A thick AlTiN coating or a diamond coating can dramatically improve the tool life while minimizing the axial force, roughness and delamination. A wear model has then been developed based on an abrasive behavior of the tool. The model links the feed rate to the tool geometry parameters (tool diameter), to the process parameters (feed rate, cutting speed and depth of cut) and to the wear. The model presented has been verified by experimental tests.

  4. Multiple-reflection optical gas cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A multiple-reflection optical cell for Raman or fluorescence gas analysis consists of two spherical mirrors positioned transverse to a multiple-pass laser cell in a confronting plane-parallel alignment. The two mirrors are of equal diameter but possess different radii of curvature. The spacing between the mirrors is uniform and less than half of the radius of curvature of either mirror. The mirror of greater curvature possesses a small circular portal in its center which is the effective point source for conventional F1 double lens collection optics of a monochromator-detection system. Gas to be analyzed is flowed into the cell and irradiated by a multiply-reflected composite laser beam centered between the mirrors of the cell. Raman or fluorescence radiation originating from a large volume within the cell is (1) collected via multiple reflections with the cell mirrors, (2) partially collimated and (3) directed through the cell portal in a geometric array compatible with F1 collection optics.

  5. The Hubble Constant from the Fornax Cluster Distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Richtler; Georg Drenkhahn; Matias Gomez; Wilhelm Seggewiss

    1999-05-17

    Type Ia supernovae are the best cosmological standard candles available. The intrinsic scatter of their decline-rate- and colour-corrected peak brightnesses in the Hubble diagram is within observational error limits, corresponding to an uncertainty of only 3km/s/Mpc of the Hubble constant. Any additional uncertainty, resulting from peak-brightness calibration, must be kept small by measuring distances to nearby host galaxies most precisely. A number of different distance determinations of the Fornax cluster of galaxies agree well on a distance modulus of 31.35+-0.04mag (18.6+-0.3Mpc). This leads to accurate absolute magnitudes of the well-observed Fornax type Ia SNe SN1980N, SN1981D, and SN1992A and finally to a Hubble constant of H_0=72+-6km/s/Mpc.

  6. Exploring the Graph of Graphs: Network Evolution and Centrality Distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pignolet, Yvonne Anne; Schmid, Stefan; Tredan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The topological structure of complex networks has fascinated researchers for several decades, and today we have a fairly good understanding of the types and reoccurring characteristics of many different complex networks. However, surprisingly little is known today about models to compare complex graphs, and quantitatively measure their similarity and dynamics. In the past a variety of node centralities, i.e., functions which assign values to nodes to represent their importance in the graph. Based on such centralities we propose a natural similarity measure for complex networks: the centrality distance $d_C$, the difference between two graphs with respect to a given node centrality $C$. Centrality distances can take the specific roles of the different nodes in the network into account, and have many interesting applications. As a case study, we investigate the evolution of networks with respect to centrality distances and their approximations based on closeness, betweenness, pagerank, clustering and degree cen...

  7. Distance determinations to shield galaxies from Hubble space telescope imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M.; Cave, Ian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Juërgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-04-10

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ?10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ?}, with a median H I mass of 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ?}. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc.

  8. Development of the table of initial isolation distances and protective action distances for the 2004 emergency response guidebook.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. F.; Freeman, W. A.; Carhart, R. A.; Krumpolc, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2005-09-23

    This report provides technical documentation for values in the Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances (PADs) in the 2004 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG2004). The objective for choosing the PADs specified in the ERG2004 is to balance the need to adequately protect the public from exposure to potentially harmful substances against the risks and expenses that could result from overreacting to a spill. To quantify this balance, a statistical approach is adopted, whereby the best available information is used to conduct an accident scenario analysis and develop a set of up to 1,000,000 hypothetical incidents. The set accounts for differences in containers types, incident types, accident severity (i.e., amounts released), locations, times of day, times of year, and meteorological conditions. Each scenario is analyzed using detailed emission rate and atmospheric dispersion models to calculate the downwind chemical concentrations from which a 'safe distance' is determined. The safe distance is defined as the distance downwind from the source at which the chemical concentration falls below health protection criteria. The American Industrial Hygiene Association's Emergency Response Planning Guideline Level 2 (ERPG-2) or equivalent is the health criteria used. The statistical sample of safe distance values for all incidents considered in the analysis are separated into four categories: small spill/daytime release, small spill/nighttime release, large spill/daytime release, and large spill/nighttime release. The 90th-percentile safe distance values for each of these groups became the PADs that appear in the ERG2004.

  9. EVAPORATION-DRIVEN ASSEMBLY AS A ROUTE TO PHOTONIC MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    .S., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2000 DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfillment College of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2007 Urbana, Illinois #12;iii ABSTRACT. Peaks in the infrared reflectance spectrum from this surface are consistent with the formation

  10. Online Distance Recovery for a Sewer Inspection Robot Marina Kolesnik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolesnik, Marina

    Online Distance Recovery for a Sewer Inspection Robot Marina Kolesnik Institute for Autonomous computation based on images taken in a sewer by a robot-inspector is presented. Modern concrete sewers provide regular marks on the sewer images and can be used for their 3-D interpretation. After each robot

  11. On the White Dwarf distances to Galactic Globular Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Salaris; S. Cassisi; E. Garcia-Berro; J. Isern; S. Torres

    2001-03-20

    We analyze in detail various possible sources of systematic errors on the distances of globular clusters derived by fitting a local template DA white dwarf sequence to the cluster counterpart (the so-called WD-fitting technique). We find that the unknown thickness of the hydrogen layer of white dwarfs in clusters plays a non negligible role. For reasonable assumptions - supported by the few sparse available observational constraints - about the unknown mass and thickness of the hydrogen layer for the cluster white dwarfs, a realistic estimate of the systematic error on the distance is within +-0.10 mag. However, particular combinations of white dwarf masses and envelope thicknesses - which at present cannot be excluded a priori - could produce larger errors. Contamination of the cluster DA sequence by non-DA white dwarfs introduces a very small systematic error of about -0.03 mag in the Mv/(V-I) plane, but in the Mv/(B-V) plane the systematic error amounts to ~ +0.20 mag. Contamination by white dwarfs with helium cores should not influence appreciably the WD-fitting distances. Finally, we obtain a derivative D((m-M)v)/D(E(B-V))~ -5.5 for the WD-fitting distances, which is very similar to the dependence found when using the Main Sequence fitting technique.

  12. Defense from a distance ORNL robotics sensors detect underwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCIENCE Defense from a distance ORNL robotics sensors detect underwater explosive ordnance Modern of the future are not human oriented, but robotics oriented. For robots to perform their mission of safety at the forefront of robotics design, these are the droids we are looking for. ­Dylan Platz Karnowski analyzes

  13. GIS IN LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Distance Education Section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    1 GIS IN LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SWS 5721C Distance Education Section [GIS: Geographic Information, reading material, library of GIS video clips, and GIS resources) Email and discussion board are used communication): Chat sessions: Thursday 8-9 p.m. US Eastern Time. A virtual computer lab is used for GIS

  14. The breakpoint distance for signed sequences (extended abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chauve, Cedric

    of reversals, insertion and deletion between two genomes, G and H with possibly multiple genes from the same the evolutionary distance between genomes in terms of gene order rearrangements has been intensively studied, from in comparative genomics [2]. From an algorithmic point, it can roughly be de#12;ned as follows: given a set

  15. Detecting VoIP Floods Using the Hellinger Distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Haining

    Detecting VoIP Floods Using the Hellinger Distance Hemant Sengar, Student Member, IEEE, Haining running over the TCP/IP suite, it is susceptible to flooding attacks. If flooded, as a time. Because multiple protocols are involved in a VoIP service and most of them are susceptible to flooding

  16. Topographic Distance Functions for Interpolation of Meteorological Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, Bernd

    Topographic Distance Functions for Interpolation of Meteorological Data Burkhard Lehner1 , Georg evapotranspiration ET0. It is usually estimated from other meteorological quantities measured at weather stations for agricultural and urban needs. Also for setting up a land use plan it can be a base for decisions. One important

  17. 75Radiation Dose and Distance This iconic photo was

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on March 15, a few days after the Japan 2011 earthquake, which caused severe damage to the Fukushima Press/Kyodo News) The devastating Japan 2011 earthquake damaged the nuclear reactors in Fukushima, which: Date Distance (km) Location Dose Rate (microSeiverts/hr) March 15 1 km Fukushima #2 plant 8,200 March

  18. Weighted Distance Weighted Discrimination and its Asymptotic Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hao "Helen"

    and Phrases: Fisher consistency; High-dimensional, low-sample size data; Linear discrimination; Non-standard Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 4 School The Support Vector Machine (SVM) (Vapnik 1995) is a powerful classification tool. Distance Weighted

  19. Computing the minimal distance of cyclic codes Jose Felipe Voloch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voloch, Felipe

    , 0 r r and compute a table of all codewords with exactly r nonzero coordinates among its first k below. Chen produced a table of the minimal distances of binary cyclic codes of length at most 65 which shift of c with exactly r nonzero coordinates among its first k coordinates. See [CS, lemma 1

  20. THE FIRST ACCURATE PARALLAX DISTANCE TO A BLACK HOLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A.

    Using astrometric VLBI observations, we have determined the parallax of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg to be 0.418 [plus or minus sign] 0.024 mas, corresponding to a distance of 2.39 [plus or minus sign] 0.14 kpc, ...

  1. TRIUMAH 2012 RESULTS MALES BY AGE * distance measured in miles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    TRIUMAH 2012 RESULTS MALES BY AGE * distance measured in miles Last Name First Name Swim Bike Run+ Ferber Warren 0.364 7.390 2.300 10.054 50+ Luther Richard 0.500 6.900 2.420 9.820 Ages Other Strom Thad 0

  2. Free Energy Surfaces from Single-Distance Information Philipp Schuetz,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    Free Energy Surfaces from Single-Distance Information Philipp Schuetz, Rene´ Wuttke, Benjamin We propose a network-based method for determining basins and barriers of complex free energy surfaces for the iterative determination of individual basins by the minimum-cut-based free energy profile, a barrier

  3. Distance Estimation Using Bidirectional Communications Without Synchronous Clocking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethares, William A.

    Estimation via Asynchronous Clocks (DEVAC) and (2) Distance Estimation via Asynchronous Phase Shift (DEVAPS a reply that acts analogously to the return of the radar. The DEVAPS method operates analogously and frequency accuracy are computed to show the limits of performance with the DEVAPS method. The analytical

  4. The Exemplar Breakpoint Distance for nontrivial genomes cannot be approximated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fertin, Guillaume

    The Exemplar Breakpoint Distance for non­trivial genomes cannot be approximated Guillaume Blin 1 ­ France guillaume.fertin@univ­nantes.fr Abstract. A promising and active field of comparative genomics con­ sists in comparing two genomes by establishing a one­to­one correspon­ dence (i.e., a matching) between

  5. Of mice and men: Algorithms for evolutionary distances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kececioglu, John

    Of mice and men: Algorithms for evolutionary distances between genomes with translocation \\Lambda is combinatorial algorithms for genome rear­ rangement. In the course of its evolution, the genome of an organism is to determine the minimum number of such events that transform one genome to another. This number is called

  6. On the Impact of Cepheid Outliers on the Distance Ladder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, M R; Rozo, E; Marshall, P; Rykoff, E S

    2015-01-01

    Recent work by Efstathiou (2014) highlighted the importance of outliers in the period-luminosity (PL) relation of Cepheid data on the distance ladder. We present a statistical framework designed to address this difficulty, and apply it to the Cepheid data from the Milky Way (MW), the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and the Riess et al. (2011) (hereafter R11) dataset. We consider two possible models of the outlier population in the R11 Cepheid dataset. One of these models exhibits tension between the PL relation of the R11 cepheids and the MW+LMC cepheids, while the other does not. We extend our models to adequately account for tension between the cepheid data sets when appropriate. Our outlier treatment has a significant impact on the distance scales to Supernovae hosts with Cepheid distances, increasing the uncertainty in these distances by a median factor of ~30%. We further find that our Cepheid outlier treatment translates into a modest, but non-negligible increase in the statistical uncertainty of H0, addi...

  7. Detecting Anomalies in Unmanned Vehicles Using the Mahalanobis Distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminka, Gal A.

    the vehicles deviations from nominal behavior. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and UnmannedDetecting Anomalies in Unmanned Vehicles Using the Mahalanobis Distance Raz Lin, Eliyahu Khalastchi 52900 {linraz,galk}@cs.biu.ac.il Abstract-- The use of unmanned autonomous vehicles is becoming more

  8. Modelling long-distance seed dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levey, Douglas, J.; Tewlsbury, Joshua, J.; Bolker, Benjamin, M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Long-distance seed dispersal is difficult to measure, yet key to understanding plant population dynamics and community composition. 2. We used a spatially explicit model to predict the distribution of seeds dispersed long distances by birds into habitat patches of different shapes. All patches were the same type of habitat and size, but varied in shape. They occurred in eight experimental landscapes, each with five patches of four different shapes, 150 m apart in a matrix of mature forest. The model was parameterized with smallscale movement data collected from field observations of birds. In a previous study we validated the model by testing its predictions against observed patterns of seed dispersal in real landscapes with the same types and spatial configuration of patches as in the model. 3. Here we apply the model more broadly, examining how patch shape influences the probability of seed deposition by birds into patches, how dispersal kernels (distributions of dispersal distances) vary with patch shape and starting location, and how movement of seeds between patches is affected by patch shape. 4. The model predicts that patches with corridors or other narrow extensions receive higher numbers of seeds than patches without corridors or extensions. This pattern is explained by edgefollowing behaviour of birds. Dispersal distances are generally shorter in heterogeneous landscapes (containing patchy habitat) than in homogeneous landscapes, suggesting that patches divert the movement of seed dispersers, ‘holding’ them long enough to increase the probability of seed defecation in the patches. Dispersal kernels for seeds in homogeneous landscapes were smooth, whereas those in heterogenous landscapes were irregular. In both cases, long-distance (> 150 m) dispersal was surprisingly common, usually comprising approximately 50% of all dispersal events. 5. Synthesis . Landscape heterogeneity has a large influence on patterns of long-distance seed dispersal. Our results suggest that long-distance dispersal events can be predicted using spatially explicit modelling to scale-up local movements, placing them in a landscape context. Similar techniques are commonly used by landscape ecologists to model other types of movement; they offer much promise to the study of seed dispersal.

  9. Geo-Logical Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks* Dulanjalie C. Dhanapala and Anura P. Jayasumana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayasumana, Anura P.

    Geo-Logical Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks* Dulanjalie C. Dhanapala and Anura P. Jayasumana Abstract-- Geo-Logical Routing (GLR) is a novel technique that combines the advantages of geographic. In logical domain, a node is characterized by a VC vector consisting of minimum number of hops to a set

  10. Multicriteria high-speed rail route selection: application to Malaysia's high-speed rail corridor prioritization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Multicriteria high-speed rail route selection: application to Malaysia's high-speed rail corridor on multicriteria decision analysis in transportation and provides a case study of high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. Keywords: high-speed rail; route selection; multicriteria analysis; Malaysia Introduction High-speed rail

  11. The Structure and Complexity of Nash Equilibria for a Selfish Routing Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoupias, Elias

    The Structure and Complexity of Nash Equilibria for a Selfish Routing Game Dimitris Fotakis1@cti.gr. Abstract. In this work, we study the combinatorial structure and the computational complexity of Nash links, to control the routing of its own assigned traffic. In a Nash equilibrium, each user selfishly

  12. The Structure and Complexity of Nash Equilibria for a Selfish Routing Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavronicolas, Marios

    The Structure and Complexity of Nash Equilibria for a Selfish Routing Game Dimitris Fotakis Spyros the combinatorial structure and the computational complexity of Nash equilibria for a certain game that models own assigned traffic. In a Nash equilibrium, each user selfishly routes its traffic on those links

  13. GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and DataCentric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEM: Graph EMbedding for Routing and Data­Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Without Geographic­ ularly data­centric storage and information aggregation, rely on e#cient routing from one node to another and data­centric storage and information processing in sensor networks. Un­ like previous approaches

  14. DARD: Distributed Adaptive Routing for Datacenter Networks Dept. of Computer Science, Duke University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaowei

    DARD: Distributed Adaptive Routing for Datacenter Networks Xin Wu Dept. of Computer Science, Duke xwy@cs.duke.edu Abstract--Datacenter networks typically have many paths connecting each host pair, a Distributed Adaptive Routing architecture for Datacenter networks. DARD allows each end host to move traffic

  15. Nested Column Generation applied to the Crude Oil Tanker Routing and Scheduling Problem with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lübbecke, Marco

    Nested Column Generation applied to the Crude Oil Tanker Routing and Scheduling Problem with Split, Germany March 7, 2012 Abstract The split pickup split delivery crude oil tanker routing and scheduling, because of the large expenses in crude oil shipping it is attractive to make use of optimization

  16. Boundary Helps: Efficient Routing Protocol using Directional Antennas in Cognitive Radio Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    directions at the boundary area of a primary user. For every optional route between a source node, and piggybacks that information to the source node for route selection. However, it will cause a lot Ying Dai and Jie Wu Department of Computer and Information Sciences Temple University, Philadelphia, PA

  17. Address Assignment and Routing Schemes for ZigBee-Based Long-Thin Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    that the address assignment and thus the tree routing scheme defined in the original ZigBee specification may work Terms--address assignment, long-thin network, routing protocol, wireless sensor network, ZigBee. I [5]. For interoperability among different systems, standards such as ZigBee [17] have been developed

  18. On the Effects of Energy-Aware Traffic Engineering on Routing Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Kwan-Wu

    to maximally switch off redundant network resource at low traffic load to minimize energy usage. These routingOn the Effects of Energy-Aware Traffic Engineering on Routing Reliability Gongqi Lin, Sieteng Soh.lin@postgrad.curtin.edu.au Kwan-Wu Chin School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering University of Wollongong

  19. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF POWER-AWARE ROUTE SELECTION PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    , a hybrid protocol like the CMMBCR (Conditional Max-Min Battery Capacity Routing) mechanism has been devised-Max Battery Cost Routing) scheme tries to consider the remaining battery power of nodes to prolong- gardless of the remaining battery power of nodes. Since the transmission network2002: submitted to World

  20. Design principles and improvement of cost function based energy aware routing algorithms for wireless sensor networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

    Design principles and improvement of cost function based energy aware routing algorithms, design principles and evaluation methods for cost function based routing algorithms. Two energy aware small changes in nodal remaining energy to large changes in the function value. For DCFR, its cost

  1. Zeolite Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Zeolite ­ Salt Occlusion: A Potential Route for the Immobilisation of Iodine-129? Neil C. Hyatt,1 examined as possible starting routes to the long term immobilisation of iodine-129. Heating the salts, where the iodide salt migrates into the zeolite pores. Detailed studies of the Na-A / 5AgI complex

  2. Cross-Contamination Avoidance for Droplet Routing in Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Cross-Contamination Avoidance for Droplet Routing in Digital Microfluidic Biochips Yang Zhao- contamination between droplets of different biomolecules can lead to erroneous outcomes for bioassays, the avoidance of cross- contamination during droplet routing is a key design challenge for biochips. We propose

  3. Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ajay

    Low Power Multilevel Interconnect Networks Using Wave-Pipelined Multiplexed (WPM) Routing Ajay 30332, USA {joshi, vinita, jeff}@ece.gatech.edu Abstract A low power multilevel interconnect architecture that uses wave-pipelined multiplexed (WPM) interconnect routing is proposed in this paper. WPM

  4. Energy-efficient Capacity-constrained Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, S.

    1 Energy-efficient Capacity-constrained Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Maulin Patel*, R of packets, which will waste considerable amount of energy. This paper present a Minimum-cost Capacity-hoc networks; Routing; Maximum Lifetime; Energy efficient; Capacity-constrained I. INTRODUCTION Wireless sensor

  5. Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve Maximum Lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Centralized Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Ultra Low Duty Cycle to Achieve performance because most of them are designed without considering a ultra low duty cycled environment to improve a network lifetime and a routing maintenance cost. We explain the issues of a ultra low duty

  6. Optimal Traffic-Oblivious Energy-Aware Routing For Multihop Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holte, Robert

    Optimal Traffic-Oblivious Energy-Aware Routing For Multihop Wireless Networks Yuxi Li Janelle Harms, harms, holte}@cs.ualberta.ca Abstract-- Energy efficiency is an important issue in multihop wireless a routing scheme to minimize the maximum energy utilization of a multihop wireless network with weak

  7. Reliable and Energy-Efficient Routing for Static Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unreliable Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    Reliable and Energy-Efficient Routing for Static Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Unreliable Links. In this paper, we address the problem of energy efficient reliable routing for wireless ad hoc networks communication, energy efficiency. Ç 1 INTRODUCTION WIRELESS ad hoc networks draw lots of attentions in recent

  8. EAGR: Energy Aware Greedy Routing Scheme for Wireless Ad hoc Networks Sachin Sharma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharmaraja, S.

    EAGR: Energy Aware Greedy Routing Scheme for Wireless Ad hoc Networks Sachin Sharma Tejas Networks, throughput and energy consumption. Keywords: Rate of Energy Consumption, Greedy Routing, Wireless Ad hoc distributed nodes that communicate over a wireless link. In this paper we present a scalable, Energy Aware

  9. Energy Conserving Routing in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks Jae-Hwan Chang and Leandros Tassiulas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Bing

    Energy Conserving Routing in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks Jae-Hwan Chang and Leandros Tassiulas-- energy-sensitive routing, wireless ad-hoc networks, sensor networks I. INTRODUCTION CONSIDER a group of wireless static nodes is considered as it arises in a rapidly deployed, sensor based, monitoring system

  10. Minimum-Energy Cooperative Routing in Wireless Networks with Channel Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghaderi, Majid

    Minimum-Energy Cooperative Routing in Wireless Networks with Channel Variations Mostafa Dehghan as well. Index Terms Cooperative communication, minimum energy routing, variable wireless channels@ucalgary.ca #12;1 I. INTRODUCTION Energy efficient communication is a fundamental problem in wireless networks

  11. DataCentric Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Edward Woodrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinzelman, Wendi

    networks that support efficient data and route discovery based on metadata queries. Most ad hoc routing SPIN­IT (Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation ­ Information Transfer) and SPIN­DL (­ Directory Listing) use descriptive metadata to search the network for data of interest, and to establish

  12. Improved Power-Delay Trade-off in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Using Opportunistic Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yong Hoon

    Improved Power-Delay Trade-off in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Using Opportunistic Routing Won power- delay trade-off than the conventional routing while providing up to a logarithmic boost that the power can be reduced at the expense of increased delay for both scenarios, but better trade-off can

  13. A Taxonomy of Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Gergely Acs, Levente Buttyan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levente, Buttyán

    A Taxonomy of Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks Gergely ´Acs, Levente Butty application scenarios. In this work, we propose a taxonomy of sensor network routing protocols, and classify the mainstream protocols proposed in the literature using this taxonomy. We distinguish five families

  14. Hop-by-hop Computing for Green Internet Routing (Technical report, under revision)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dan

    and traffic traces. We show that with green routing, we can save the power that is consumed by line cardsHop-by-hop Computing for Green Internet Routing (Technical report, under revision) Yuan Yang, even without turning-off network devices. As such, we for the first time design a green Internet

  15. ENERGY-EFFICIENT GEOGRAPHIC ROUTING IN ENVIRONMENTALLY POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    ENERGY-EFFICIENT GEOGRAPHIC ROUTING IN ENVIRONMENTALLY POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Kai Zengt- efficient routing protocols are requisite for the WSN appli- cations. In this paper, we study energy-efficient efficient than the corresponding residual energy based protocols without considering the property

  16. On the Pitfalls of Directional Locationbased Randomized Routing Israat Tanzeena Haque Ioanis Nikolaidis Pawel Gburzynski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gburzynski, Pawel

    , Canada {israat,yannis,pawel}@cs.ualberta.ca Keywords: mobile ad­hoc networks, location­based routing, directional transmission Abstract Many location­based MANET routing algorithms rely on lo- cal decisions based for dealing with highly dynamic topologies due to mobility. In addition, directional transmission

  17. Cryptographic Protocols to Fight Sinkhole Attacks on Tree-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ives, Zachary G.

    Cryptographic Protocols to Fight Sinkhole Attacks on Tree-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks in limiting network degradation caused by sinkhole attacks on tree-based routing topologies in Wireless Sensor in improving resilience against sinkhole attacks, even in the presence of some collusion. I. INTRODUCTION

  18. Cryptographic Protocols to Fight Sinkhole Attacks on Tree-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Fessant, Fabrice - Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique, Centre de recherche INRIA Saclay

    Cryptographic Protocols to Fight Sinkhole Attacks on Tree-based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks in limiting network degradation caused by sinkhole attacks on tree-based routing topologies in Wireless Sensor are effective in improving resilience against sinkhole attacks, even in the presence of some collusion. I

  19. Optical Signal Processing in All-Optical Packet Routing Systems S. J. Ben Yoo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    Optical Signal Processing in All-Optical Packet Routing Systems S. J. Ben Yoo Department@ece.ucdavis.edu, Abstract: This paper discusses important signal processing functions in all-optical packet routing systems. We will pay special attention to all-optical time-to-live, optical performance monitoring, optical

  20. Asymptotically Optimal Power-Aware Routing for Multihop Wireless Networks with Renewable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srikant, Rayadurgam

    1 Asymptotically Optimal Power-Aware Routing for Multihop Wireless Networks with Renewable Energy the performance of multihop radio networks in the presence of energy constraints, and design routing algorithms to optimally utilize the available energy. The energy model allows vastly different energy sources

  1. MPLS-based Request Routing Arup Acharya, Anees Shaikh, Renu Tewari, Dinesh Verma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -performance, off-the- shelf switching hardware, while also providing the flexibility of a content-based router of networks to Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) to provide flexible routing and sophis- ticated traffic by grouping re- lated packets using a shared, fixed-size label, allowing the packets to be routed and treated

  2. A Novel Cross-Layer QoS Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Kin K.

    is comprised of wireless mesh routers (WMRs) and wireless access points (APs) (Fig. 1). WMRs form a mesh. The challenge is twofold. First, QoS routing with Wireless Backhaul Mesh Network Wireless Mesh Router CellularA Novel Cross-Layer QoS Routing Algorithm for Wireless Mesh Networks Chi Harold Liu, Kin K. Leung

  3. A Hierarchical Manufacturing Route Planner Based on Heuristic Algorithm: Design and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Hierarchical Manufacturing Route Planner Based on Heuristic Algorithm: Design and Evaluation Dr: kmalaubidy@hotmail.com Abstract: This paper presents the design and evaluation of a manufacturing route planner for flexible manufacturing systems. The aim of the planner is to find the optimal manufacturing

  4. 12003 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing M.Atiquzzaman, Univ. of Oklahoma, June 2003.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

    12003 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing M.Atiquzzaman, Univ. of Oklahoma, June Fu) School of Computer Science University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019-6151. Email: atiq@ou.edu #12;22003 Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing M.Atiquzzaman, Univ. of Oklahoma, June 2003

  5. Conveying Route Information On Mobile Devices Using Communicative Acts William A Mackaness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conveying Route Information On Mobile Devices Using Communicative Acts William A Mackaness Simply displaying a map is far from sufficient when conveying route information on a mobile device/worry, and irritation. Given that mobile devices support a variety of media (non-linguistic auditory acts, spoken

  6. A Realistic Framework for Delay-Tolerant Network Routing in Open Terrains with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Realistic Framework for Delay-Tolerant Network Routing in Open Terrains with Continuous Churn to classify routing protocols based on the difference in their behavior under churn. Keywords: Delay model churn in the network, by having these nodes enter the terrain as a Poisson process and exit

  7. Shadow Prices vs. Vickrey Prices in Multipath Routing Parthasarathy Ramanujam, Zongpeng Li, Lisa Higham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zongpeng

    Shadow Prices vs. Vickrey Prices in Multipath Routing Parthasarathy Ramanujam, Zongpeng Li, Lisa}@ucalgary.ca Abstract--Shadow price and Vickrey price are two classic metrics that can be applied to measure routing. We show that Vickrey prices provide upper-bounds for shadow prices in general, and the fine

  8. Short Paper: Jamming-Resilient Multipath Routing Leveraging Availability-Based Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Wenyuan

    Short Paper: Jamming-Resilient Multipath Routing Leveraging Availability-Based Correlation Hossen availability is maintained. Prior work in multipath selection improves routing by choosing node- disjoint paths selection based on the knowledge of a path's availability history. Us- ing Availability History Vectors

  9. Hydro: A Hybrid Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    1 Hydro: A Hybrid Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks Stephen Dawson instances of point-to-point traffic. We present Hydro, a hybrid routing protocol that combines local agility. Evaluations across testbeds and deployments demonstrate the performance and functionality of Hydro across

  10. DAILY FLOW ROUTING WITH THE MUSKINGUM-CUNGE METHOD IN THE PECOS RIVER RIVERWARE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that is a general river basin modeling tool that runs in an object-oriented modeling environment. While for each river reach must also run one model timestep at a time. The resulting routing method in RiverDAILY FLOW ROUTING WITH THE MUSKINGUM-CUNGE METHOD IN THE PECOS RIVER RIVERWARE MODEL Craig B

  11. Is there a route to a UK Feed in Tariff for renewable energy?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Is there a route to a UK Feed in Tariff for renewable energy? ICEPT Discussion Paper October 2010 University #12;2 Is there a route to a UK Feed in Tariff for renewable energy? Introduction This discussion paper is concerned with the potential to change the way the UK provides support for renewable energy

  12. Social Welfare Based Routing in Ad hoc Networks Mingming Lu and Jie Wu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    is to save energy. Existing energy-efficient routing protocols save energy by selecting the lowest energy cost route. However, energy saving is not equal to energy efficiency. Consider a large number, and hence most packets transmitted through this path are lost, it is energy waste rather than energy saving

  13. DEAR: Delay-bounded Energy-constrained Adaptive Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Jian "Neil"

    DEAR: Delay-bounded Energy-constrained Adaptive Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Shi Bai¶, Weiyi in wireless sensor networks. In this work, we study Delay-bounded Energy-constrained Adaptive Routing (DEAR) problem with reli- ability, differential delay, and transmission energy consumption constraints

  14. The Two-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Jesus Gonzalez Feliu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    . The aim of this paper is twofold. First, the new family of Multi- Echelon Vehicle Routing ProblemsThe Two-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem Jesus Gonzalez Feliu1 , Guido Perboli1 and traffic planning strategies as well as by companies to model their distribution systems. Unfortunately

  15. Design and Performance Analysis of an Aeronautical Routing Protocol with Ground Station Updates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narra, Hemanth

    2011-08-31

    Aeronautical routing protocol (AeroRP) is a position-based routing protocol developed for highly dynamic airborne networks. It works in conjunction with the aeronautical network protocol (AeroNP). AeroRP is a multi-modal protocol that operates...

  16. Spherical Representation and Polyhedron Routing for Load Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    -Andreev-Thurston Theorem for any 3-connected planar graphs. In our paper we use discrete Ricci flow to develop, to prevent some nodes running out of battery immaturely. In terms of routing, we hope that the selected routes are `load balanced' such that the node residual battery levels are as uniform as possible

  17. Exploiting Overhearing: Flow-Aware Routing for Improved Lifetime in Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mans, Bernard

    neighboring flows and adapt their local routing dynamically. By combining this awareness with battery- aware flow and neighborhood is then presented in Section II-D. By combining the flow awareness with batteryExploiting Overhearing: Flow-Aware Routing for Improved Lifetime in Ad Hoc Networks Nirisha

  18. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  19. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N. (Sunol, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  20. Spin, Statistics, and Reflections, II. Lorentz Invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernd Kuckert; Reinhard Lorenzen

    2005-12-21

    The analysis of the relation between modular P$_1$CT-symmetry -- a consequence of the Unruh effect -- and Pauli's spin-statistics relation is continued. The result in the predecessor to this article is extended to the Lorentz symmetric situation. A model $\\G_L$ of the universal covering $\\widetilde{L_+^\\uparrow}\\cong SL(2,\\complex)$ of the restricted Lorentz group $L_+^\\uparrow$ is modelled as a reflection group at the classical level. Based on this picture, a representation of $\\G_L$ is constructed from pairs of modular P$_1$CT-conjugations, and this representation can easily be verified to satisfy the spin-statistics relation.

  1. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  2. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  3. Category:Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPID Roadmap Contact Properties JumpReflection Survey

  4. Solvothermal routes for synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Nelson Simmons

    2005-03-01

    Control of the synthesis of nanomaterials to produce morphologies exhibiting quantized properties will enable device integration of several novel applications including biosensors, catalysis, and optical devices. In this work, solvothermal routes to produce zinc oxide nanorods are explored. Much previous work has relied on the addition of growth directing/inhibiting agents to control morphology. It was found in coarsening studies that zinc oxide nanodots will ripen to nanorod morphologies at temperatures of 90 to 120 C. The resulting nanorods have widths of 9-12 nm average dimension, which is smaller than current methods for nanorod synthesis. Use of nanodots as nuclei may be an approach that will allow for controlled growth of higher aspect ratio nanorods.

  5. Mapping bedrock beneath glacial till using CDP seismic reflection methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiswetter, Dean; Black, Ross A.; Steeples, Don W.

    1994-03-01

    This paper is a case history demonstrating the applicability of the common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to image bedrock beneath glacial till in northwestern Iowa. Reflections from the base of the 40-m thick ...

  6. Transmission and reflection properties of layered left-handed materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jianbing James, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the reflection and transmission properties of layered left-handed materials (LHM). In particular, the reflection properties of (LHM) slabs are studied for the Goos-Hanchen (GH) lateral shift ...

  7. THE TOWER, REFLECTED IN THE TOWER GARDEN PONDS THE GENERAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE TOWER, REFLECTED IN THE TOWER GARDEN PONDS THE GENERAL UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS INFORMATION O Box 7216, Austin TX 78713- 7216. Cover: The Tower, reflected in one of the Tower Garden ponds

  8. Computational 3D and reflectivity imaging with high photon efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Dongeek

    2014-01-01

    Imaging the 3D structure and reflectivity of a scene can be done using photon-counting detectors. Traditional imagers of this type typically require hundreds of detected photons per pixel for accurate 3D and reflectivity ...

  9. inside/out : mirrors for reflective, creative thinking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portocarrero, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    In this document I present three tools for reflective, creative thinking: Pillow-Talk, the NeverEnding Drawing Machine and Calliope. These tools make use of the "distorted mirror" metaphor for self-reflection. They are ...

  10. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  11. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. On the Mechanism of the Volume Reflection of Relativistic Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kovalev, Gennady V

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of the volume reflection of positively and negatively charged relativistic particles in a bent crystal have been analyzed. It has been shown that the empty core effect is significant for the negatively charged particles. The average reflection angle of the negatively charged particles has been determined and the conditions for the observation of the reflection and refraction are discussed.

  13. Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications John D. Pye1 , Clifford K. Ho2 2 6125 8778, john.pye@anu.edu.au. 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. ckho of the solar-weighted reflectivity of the receiver component in CSP systems. Such reflectivity measurement

  14. COS Coating Reflectivity Specification Date: August 2, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS Coating Reflectivity Specification Date: August 2, 1999 Document Number: COS-08-0008 Revision for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Reviewed: Approved: COS Coating Reflectivity Specification Size Code Indent No Astronomy Revision A COS Coating Reflectivity Specfication University of Colorado at Boulder Page i Table

  15. Seismic Reflection Results: Stewart Gulch Region, Boise, Idaho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    Seismic Reflection Results: Stewart Gulch Region, Boise, Idaho Report Prepared for The Terteling) Boise State University Boise, Idaho 83725 Technical Report BSU CGISS 96-04 1 December 1996 #12;SEISMIC REFLECTION RESULTS: STEWART GULCH REGION, BOISE, IDAHO 1 SEISMIC REFLECTION RESULTS: STEWART GULCH REGION

  16. Reflection of a TE-polarised Gaussian beam from a layered structure under conditions of resonance excitation of waveguide modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokolov, V I; Marusin, N V; Molchanova, S I; Savelyev, A G; Khaydukov, E V; Panchenko, V Ya [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    The problem of reflection of a TE-polarised Gaussian light beam from a layered structure under conditions of resonance excitation of waveguide modes using a total internal reflection prism is considered. Using the spectral approach we have derived the analytic expressions for the mode propagation lengths, widths and depths of m-lines (sharp and narrow dips in the angular dependence of the specular reflection coefficient), depending on the structure parameters. It is shown that in the case of weak coupling, when the propagation lengths l{sub m} of the waveguide modes are mainly determined by the extinction coefficient in the film, the depth of m-lines grows with the mode number m. In the case of strong coupling, when l{sub m} is determined mainly by the radiation of modes into the prism, the depth of m-lines decreases with increasing m. The change in the TE-polarised Gaussian beam shape after its reflection from the layered structure is studied, which is determined by the energy transfer from the incident beam into waveguide modes that propagate along the structure by the distance l{sub m}, are radiated in the direction of specular reflection and interfere with a part of the beam reflected from the working face of the prism. It is shown that this interference can lead to the field intensity oscillations near m-lines. The analysis of different methods for determining the parameters of thin-film structures is presented, including the measurement of mode angles ?{sub m} and the reflected beam shape. The methods are based on simultaneous excitation of a few waveguide modes in the film with a strongly focused monochromatic Gaussian beam, the waist width of which is much smaller than the propagation length of the modes. As an example of using these methods, the refractive index and the thickness of silicon monoxide film on silica substrate at the wavelength 633 nm are determined. (fibre and integrated-optical structures)

  17. An Accurate Distance to High-Velocity Cloud Complex C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Thom; J. E. G. Peek; M. E. Putman; Carl Heiles; K. M. G. Peek; R. Wilhelm

    2008-04-23

    We report an accurate distance of d = 10+/-2.5kpc to the high-velocity cloud Complex C. Using high signal-to-noise Keck/HIRES spectra of two horizontal-branch stars, we have detected CaII K absorption lines from the cloud. Significant non-detections toward a further 3 stars yield robust lower distance limits. The resulting HI mass of Complex C is 4.9^{+2.8}_{-2.2} x 10^6 Msun; a total mass of 8.2^{+4.6}_{-2.6} x 10^6 Msun is implied, after corrections for helium and ionization. At 10kpc, Complex C has physical dimensions 3x15 kpc, and if it is as thick as it is wide, then the average density is log ~ -2.5. We estimate the contribution of Complex C to the mass influx may be as high as ~0.14 Msun/yr.

  18. A New Resource for College Distance Education Astronomy Laboratory Exercises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogt, Nicole P; Muise, Amy Smith

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces a set of distance education astronomy laboratory exercises for use by college students and instructors and discuss first usage results. This General Astronomy Education Source (GEAS) exercise set contains eight two-week projects designed to guide students through both core content and mathematical applications of general astronomy material. Projects are divided between hands-on activities and computer-aided analyses of modern astronomical data. The suite of online resources includes student and instructor guides, laboratory report templates, learning objectives, video tutorials, plotting tools, and web-based applications that allow students to analyze both images and spectra of astronomical objects. A pilot usage study indicates that distance learners using these materials perform as well or better than a comparison cohort of on-campus students. We are actively seeking collaborators to use these resources in astronomy courses and other educational venues.

  19. Distance Priors from \\emph{Planck} 2015 data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qing-Guo Huang; Ke Wang; Sai Wang

    2015-09-03

    We update the distance priors by adopting $Planck~ \\textrm{TT,TE,EE}+\\textrm{lowP}$ data released in 2015, and our results impose at least $30\\%$ tighter constraints than those from $Planck~ \\textrm{TT}+\\textrm{lowP}$. Combining the distance priors with the combination of supernova Union~2.1 compilation of 580 SNe (Union~2.1) and low redshift Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) data, we constrain the cosmological parameters in the freely binned dark energy (FBDE) and FBDE$+\\Omega_k$ models respectively, and find that the equations of state of dark energy in both models are consistent with $w=-1$. Furthermore, we show that the tension with the BAO data at $z=2.34$ from Ly$\\alpha$ forest (Ly$\\alpha$F) auto-correlation and Combined Ly$\\alpha$F cannot be relaxed in the FBDE and FBDE$+\\Omega_k$ models.

  20. Gromov-Hausdorff Distance for Quantum Metric Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc A. Rieffel

    2003-02-20

    By a quantum metric space we mean a C^*-algebra (or more generally an order-unit space) equipped with a generalization of the Lipschitz seminorm on functions which is defined by an ordinary metric. We develop for compact quantum metric spaces a version of Gromov-Hausdorff distance. We show that the basic theorems of the classical theory have natural quantum analogues. Our main example involves the quantum tori, $A_{\\th}$. We show, for consistently defined ``metrics'', that if a sequence $\\{\\th_n\\}$ of parameters converges to a parameter $\\th$, then the sequence $\\{A_{\\th_n}\\}$ of quantum tori converges in quantum Gromov-Hausdorff distance to $A_{\\th}$.

  1. A characterization of Q-polynomial distance-regular graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurisic, Aleksandar; Zitnik, Arjana

    2009-01-01

    We obtain the following characterization of $Q$-polynomial distance-regular graphs. Let $\\G$ denote a distance-regular graph with diameter $d\\ge 3$. Let $E$ denote a minimal idempotent of $\\G$ which is not the trivial idempotent $E_0$. Let $\\{\\theta_i^*\\}_{i=0}^d$ denote the dual eigenvalue sequence for $E$. We show that $E$ is $Q$-polynomial if and only if (i) the entry-wise product $E \\circ E$ is a linear combination of $E_0$, $E$, and at most one other minimal idempotent of $\\G$; (ii) there exists a complex scalar $\\beta$ such that $\\theta^*_{i-1}-\\beta \\theta^*_i + \\theta^*_{i+1}$ is independent of $i$ for $1 \\le i \\le d-1$; (iii) $\\theta^*_i \

  2. Light deflection in Weyl gravity: critical distances for photon paths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Pireaux

    2004-03-16

    The Weyl gravity appears to be a very peculiar theory. The contribution of the Weyl linear parameter to the effective geodesic potential is opposite for massive and nonmassive geodesics. However, photon geodesics do not depend on the unknown conformal factor, unlike massive geodesics. Hence light deflection offers an interesting test of the Weyl theory. In order to investigate light deflection in the setting of Weyl gravity, we first distinguish between a weak field and a strong field approximation. Indeed, the Weyl gravity does not turn off asymptotically and becomes even stronger at larger distances. We then take full advantage of the conformal invariance of the photon effective potential to provide the key radial distances in Weyl gravity. According to those, we analyze the weak and strong field regime for light deflection. We further show some amazing features of the Weyl theory in the strong regime.

  3. Electrical probe diagnostics for the laminar flame quenching distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karrer, Maxime; Makarov, Maxime; Bellenoue, Marc; Labuda, Sergei; Sotton, Julien

    2010-02-15

    A simplified theory, previously developed for the general case of weakly ionized gas flow, is used to predict electrical probe response when the flame is quenched on the probe surface. This theory is based on the planar model of space charge sheaths around the measuring electrode. For the flame quenching case, by assuming that the sheath thickness is comparable with the thermal boundary layer thickness, probe current can be related to flame quenching distance. The theoretical assumptions made to obtain the analytical formulation of probe current were experimentally proved by using direct visualization and high-frequency PIV. The direct visualization method was also used to validate the results of flame quenching distance values obtained with electrical probe. The electrical probe diagnostics have been verified for both head-on and sidewall flame quenching regimes and for stoichiometric methane/air and propane/air mixtures in a pressure range of 0.05-0.6 MPa. (author)

  4. THE MEMBERSHIP AND DISTANCE OF THE OPEN CLUSTER COLLINDER 419

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Gies, Douglas R.; Parks, J. Robert; Grundstrom, Erika D.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Berger, David H.; Mason, Brian D.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Turner, Nils H. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.ed E-mail: erika.grundstrom@vanderbilt.ed E-mail: dberger@sysplan.co E-mail: theo@chara-array.or

    2010-09-15

    The young open cluster Collinder 419 surrounds the massive O star, HD 193322, that is itself a remarkable multiple star system containing at least four components. Here we present a discussion of the cluster distance based upon new spectral classifications of the brighter members, UBV photometry, and an analysis of astrometric and photometric data from the third U. S. Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog and Two Micron All Sky Survey Catalog. We determine an average cluster reddening of E(B - V) = 0.37 {+-} 0.05 mag and a cluster distance of 741 {+-} 36 pc. The cluster probably contains some very young stars that may include a reddened M3 III star, IRAS 20161+4035.

  5. Distance-redshift relations in an anisotropic cosmological model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menezes, R. S. Jr. [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Pigozzo, C.; Carneiro, S., E-mail: rsmjr@ifba.edu.br, E-mail: cpigozzo@ufba.br, E-mail: saulo.carneiro.ufba@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we study an anisotropic model generated from a particular Bianchi type-III metric, which is a generalization of Gödel's metric and an exact solution of Einstein's field equations. We analyse type Ia supernova data, namely the SDSS sample calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and we verify in which ranges of distances and redshifts the anisotropy could be observed. We also consider, in a joint analysis, the position of the first peak in the CMB anisotropy spectrum, as well as current observational constraints on the Hubble constant. We conclude that a small anisotropy is permitted by the data, and that more accurate measurements of supernova distances above z = 2 might indicate the existence of such anisotropy in the universe.

  6. Short distance signatures in Cosmology: Why not in Black Holes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Casadio; Laura Mersini

    2002-08-07

    Current theoretical investigations seem to indicate the possibility of observing signatures of short distance physics in the Cosmic Microwave Background spectrum. We try to gain a deeper understanding on why all information about this regime is lost in the case of Black Hole radiation but not necessarily so in a cosmological setting by using the moving mirror as a toy model for both backgrounds. The different responses of the Hawking and Cosmic Microwave Background spectra to short distance physics are derived in the appropriate limit when the moving mirror mimics a Black Hole background or an expanding universe. The different sensitivities to new physics, displayed by both backgrounds, are clarified through an averaging prescription that accounts for the intrinsic uncertainty in their quantum fluctuations. We then proceed to interpret the physical significance of our findings for time-dependent backgrounds in the light of nonlocal string theory.

  7. UAV-Aided Cross-Layer Routing for MANETs Yuan Guo Xiaolong Li Homayoun Yousefi'zadeh Hamid Jafarkhani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun

    UAV-Aided Cross-Layer Routing for MANETs Yuan Guo Xiaolong Li Homayoun Yousefi'zadeh Hamid,xiaolonl,hyousefi,hamidj]@uci.edu Abstract--In this paper, we present UAV-aided Cross-Layer Routing Protocol (UCLR) that aims at improving the routing performance of a ground MANET network with aid from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV

  8. On selection of candidate paths for proportional routing q Srihari Nelakuditi a,*, Zhi-Li Zhang b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    On selection of candidate paths for proportional routing q Srihari Nelakuditi a,*, Zhi-Li Zhang b on the core routers. On the other hand, proportional routing schemes proportion incoming flows among a set of candidate paths. Two key questions that arise under proportional routing are how to select candidate paths

  9. Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram Sankararaman, Joseph M. Hellerstein, Petros Maniatis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellerstein, Joseph M.

    Induced Churn as Shelter from Routing-Table Poisoning Tyson Condie, Varun Kacholia, Sriram, induced churn, utilizes periodic routing-table re- sets, unpredictable identifier changes, and a rate limit on routing-table updates. Induced churn leaves adversaries at the mercy of chance: they have

  10. Evaluating a Master's Degree Program via Distance Education 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Kemp, Janie; Treviñ o, Polly; Tong, Fuhui; Castillo, Raymond

    2010-10-22

    -1 Evaluating a Master?s Degree Program via Distance Education Dr. Rafael Lara-Alecio Janie Kemp Polly Trevi?o Fuhui Tong Raymond Castillo TTVN Conference Galveston, TX January 18, 2006 Texas A&M University Bilingual Education Program Dept... and High School Levels Online Program Texas A&M University Bilingual Education Programs ? Undergraduate Program ? Currently 105 undergraduate students working toward teaching degree and certification in Bil/ESL ? Master?s Program ? First Master?s...

  11. Time, Distance, Velocity, Redshift: a personal guided tour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kiang

    2003-08-01

    An attempt to answer the question 'Can we observe galaxies that recede faster than light ?' led to a re-examination of the notions of time, distance, velocity and redshift as they occur in newtonian physics, special relativity, general relativity and cosmology. A number of misconceptions were uncovered. It was found that, once freed of special relativity preconceptions, the above question is easily and unequivocally answered

  12. AN IMPROVED METHOD TO TEST THE DISTANCE-DUALITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xi; Yu, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Tong-Jie [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)] [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Song, E-mail: tjzhang@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Aerospace Engineering, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), Harbin Heilongjiang 150001 (China)] [Department of Aerospace Engineering, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), Harbin Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2013-11-10

    Many researchers have performed cosmological-model-independent tests for the distance-duality (DD) relation. Theoretical work has been conducted based on the results of these tests. However, we find that almost all of these tests were perhaps not cosmological-model-independent after all, because the distance moduli taken from a given type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) compilation are dependent on a given cosmological model and Hubble constant. In this Letter, we overcome these defects and by creating a new cosmological-model-independent test for the DD relation. We use the original data from the Union2 SNe Ia compilation and the angular diameter distances from two galaxy cluster samples compiled by De Filippis et al. and Bonamente et al. to test the DD relation. Our results suggest that the DD relation is compatible with observations, and the spherical model is slightly better than the elliptical model at describing the intrinsic shape of galaxy clusters if the DD relation is valid. However, these results are different from those of previous work.

  13. A short working distance multiple crystal x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, B.; Seidler, G. T.; Webb, Z. W.; Bradley, J. A.; Nagle, K. P. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Heald, S. M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratories, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gordon, R. A. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada); Chou, I. M. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia 20192 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    For x-ray spot sizes of a few tens of microns or smaller, a millimeter-sized flat analyzer crystal placed {approx}1 cm from the sample will exhibit high energy resolution while subtending a collection solid angle comparable to that of a typical spherically bent crystal analyzer (SBCA) at much larger working distances. Based on this observation and a nonfocusing geometry for the analyzer optic, we have constructed and tested a short working distance (SWD) multicrystal x-ray spectrometer. This prototype instrument has a maximum effective collection solid angle of 0.14 sr, comparable to that of 17 SBCA at 1 m working distance. We find good agreement with prior work for measurements of the Mn K{beta} x-ray emission and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering for MnO, and also for measurements of the x-ray absorption near-edge structure for Dy metal using L{alpha}{sub 2} partial-fluorescence yield detection. We discuss future applications at third- and fourth-generation light sources. For concentrated samples, the extremely large collection angle of SWD spectrometers will permit collection of high-resolution x-ray emission spectra with a single pulse of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The range of applications of SWD spectrometers and traditional multi-SBCA instruments has some overlap, but also is significantly complementary.

  14. All-optical routing of single photons with multiple input and output ports by interferences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei-Bin Yan; Bao Liu; Ling Zhou; Heng Fan

    2014-09-23

    We propose a waveguide-cavity coupled system to achieve the routing of photons by the phases of other photons. Our router has four input ports and four output ports. The transport of the coherent-state photons injected through any input port can be controlled by the phases of the coherent-state photons injected through other input ports. This control can be achieved when the mean numbers of the routed and control photons are small enough and require no additional control fields. Therefore, the all-optical routing of photons can be achieved at the single-photon level.

  15. Connectivity-Enhanced Route Selection and Adaptive Control for the Chevrolet Volt: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Wood, E.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3% respectively. These represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  16. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by semi-randomly varying routing policies for different packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Musselman, Roy Glenn (Rochester, MN); Peters, Amanda (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Swartz, Brent Allen (Chippewa Falls, WI); Wallenfelt, Brian Paul (Eden Prairie, MN)

    2010-11-23

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Nodes vary a choice of routing policy for routing data in the network in a semi-random manner, so that similarly situated packets are not always routed along the same path. Semi-random variation of the routing policy tends to avoid certain local hot spots of network activity, which might otherwise arise using more consistent routing determinations. Preferably, the originating node chooses a routing policy for a packet, and all intermediate nodes in the path route the packet according to that policy. Policies may be rotated on a round-robin basis, selected by generating a random number, or otherwise varied.

  17. Patrick Lin Startup Internship Program Reflection: CoClear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    supply chain. I also liked how the company had an inherent social mission to reduce the rate of climate change by allowing companies to understand their impacts on the environment. Better yet, their life cycle ingredients from Indonesia instead of Mexico, routing products through distribution center A instead of B

  18. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  19. The application of network coding to multicast routing in wireless networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jennings, Michael (Michael Vincent)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis considers the application of network coding and opportunistic routing to improve the performance of multicast flows in wireless networks. Network coding allows routers to randomly mix packets before forwarding ...

  20. A Multi-Objective Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Infrastructure Routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Walter

    2012-07-16

    An algorithm is presented that is capable of producing Pareto-optimal solutions for multi-objective infrastructure routing problems: the Multi-Objective Ant Colony Optimization (MOACO). This algorithm offers a constructive search technique...

  1. Content-Based Routing with On-Demand Multicast Eiko Yoneki and Jean Bacon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Content-Based Routing with On-Demand Multicast Eiko Yoneki and Jean Bacon University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory J J Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0FD, UK {eiko.yoneki, jean.bacon

  2. Routing Vehicles with Motion, Resource and Mission Constraints: Algorithms and Bounds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manyam, Satyanarayana Gupta

    2015-04-20

    ). Simulation results are presented to show that this method significantly improved the existing lower bounds. The second problem we consider is the routing of UAVs in GPS denied environments and with limited communication range. Two different architectures...

  3. A Novel Route to Enantioenriched ?-Allyl ?-Fluoroketones via Palladium Catalyzed Decarboxylation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, Briana R.

    2008-08-21

    This thesis details the development of a novel catalytic asymmetric route to ?-fluorinated ketones. Enantioenriched ?-fluoroketones were produced in good yields and high enantiomeric ratios via palladium-catalyzed decarboxylation of cyclic ?...

  4. Exploring the Role of a Planetary GIS in the Route Selection of Martian Rovers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strang, Adam L

    2009-11-26

    The route management of a Martian rover is both complex and perilous. Its perambulations subject to myriad constraints: all the while looking to operate at maximum efficacy within an alien environment under the duress of a prohibitively limited...

  5. Constraint-Based Routing Models for the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Steven K

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a historic programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing, tracking, and transportation risk analysis of radiological materials in the United States. In order to address these program goals, DOE has funded the development of several tools and related systems designed to provide insight to planners and other professionals handling radioactive materials shipments. These systems include the WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System) platform. WebTRAGIS is a browser-based routing application developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focused primarily on the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel from US nuclear reactors via railway, highway, or waterway. It is also used for the transport planning of low-level radiological waste to depositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. One particular feature of WebTRAGIS is its coupling with high-resolution population data from ORNL s LandScan project. This allows users to obtain highly accurate population count and density information for use in route planning and risk analysis. To perform the routing and risk analysis WebTRAGIS incorporates a basic routing model methodology, with the additional application of various constraints designed to mimic US Department of Transportation (DOT), DOE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Aside from the routing models available in WebTRAGIS, the system relies on detailed or specialized modal networks for the route solutions. These include a highly detailed network model of the US railroad system, the inland and coastal waterways, and a specialized highway network that focuses on the US interstate system and the designated hazardous materials and Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) -designated roadways. The route constraints in WebTRAGIS rely upon a series of attributes assigned to the various components of the different modal networks. Routes are determined via a constrained shortest-path Dijkstra algorithm that has an assigned impedance factor. The route constraints modify the various impedance weights to bias or prefer particular network characteristics as desired by the user. Both the basic route model and the constrained impedance function calculations are determined by a series of network characteristics and shipment types. The study examines solutions under various constraints modeled by WebTRAGIS including possible routes from select shut-down reactor sites in the US to specific locations in the US. For purposes of illustration, the designated destinations are Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. To the degree that routes express sameness or variety under constraints serves to illustrate either a) the determinism of particular transport modes by either configuration or regulatory compliance, and/or b) the variety of constrained routes that are regulation compliant but may not be operationally feasible.

  6. Simulating service reliability of a high frequency bus route using automatically collected data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milkovits, Martin Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    High frequency bus routes are subject to a variety of influences that can affect the quality of service provided to passengers. Since they have short headways and high passenger demand interaction between buses can easily ...

  7. Congestion-aware traffic routing for large-scale mobile agent systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sejoon

    2012-01-01

    Traffic congestion is a serious world-wide problem. Drivers have little knowledge of historical and real-time traffic congestion for the paths they take and often tend to drive suboptimal routes. Congestion phenomena are ...

  8. The development and evaluation of alternative designs for the Texas Farm-To-Market route marker 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenno, David W

    1994-01-01

    This thesis documents the development and evaluation of alternative designs for the Texas Fann-to-Market (FM) Highway route marker. Previous research by the Texas Transportation Institute has shown that some portion of the driving population has...

  9. The DYMO Routing Protocol in VANET Scenarios Christoph Sommer and Falko Dressler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breu, Ruth

    The DYMO Routing Protocol in VANET Scenarios Christoph Sommer and Falko Dressler Computer Networks and Communication Systems Dept. of Computer Sciences, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany {christoph.sommer

  10. A survey of routing techniques in store-and-forward and wormhole interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, David Michael; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of algorithms for directing messages through networks of varying topology. These are commonly referred to as routing algorithms in the literature that is presented. In addition to providing background on networking terminology and router basics, the paper explains the issues of deadlock and livelock as they apply to routing. After this, there is a discussion of routing algorithms for both store-and-forward and wormhole-switched networks. The paper covers both algorithms that do and do not adapt to conditions in the network. Techniques targeting structured as well as irregular topologies are discussed. Following this, strategies for routing in the presence of faulty nodes and links in the network are described.

  11. Diff-Max: Separation of routing and scheduling in backpressure-based wireless networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seferoglu, Hulya

    Backpressure routing and scheduling, with throughput-optimal operation guarantee, is a promising technique to improve throughput in wireless multi-hop networks. Although backpressure is conceptually viewed as layered, the ...

  12. Route 66, where are you? : four cities and the development of a shared cultural resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodge, Anne Clayton

    2006-01-01

    Although small towns, rural areas, state organizations, and federal programs are all pursuing the redevelopment of the Route 66 corridor, this paper focuses on how four urban communities currently are engaging with this ...

  13. Vehicle routing and scheduling for the ultra short haul transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barry C.

    1979-01-01

    A method of vehicle routing and scheduling for an air based intraurban transportation system is developed. The maximization of level of service to passengers in a system operating under time varying demand is considered ...

  14. Density-based vs. Proximity-based Anycast Routing for Mobile Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenders, Vincent

    Density-based vs. Proximity-based Anycast Routing for Mobile Networks Vincent Lenders, Martin May of Technology (ETH) Z¨urich, Switzerland Email: {lenders, may, plattner}@tik.ee.ethz.ch Abstract-- Existing

  15. TDROP: A routing protocol for physically hierarchical ad hoc mobile networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Zaheer

    2000-01-01

    Many protocols for routing in mobile ad hoc networks have been proposed. None of these protocols differentiates mobile nodes based on their physical characteristics and also there is only one proposal for connecting ad hoc ...

  16. Leveraging infrastructure : sustainable bus rapid transit route planning in Beirut, Lebanon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabti, Jumana M., 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis applies the concepts of urban design, public transportation planning, economic development, and sustainability, to the routing and site plan of a two-kilometer bus rapid transit (BRT) line segment into downtown ...

  17. High speed, long distance, data transmission multiplexing circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariotti, Razvan (Boulder, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A high speed serial data transmission multiplexing circuit, which is operable to accurately transmit data over long distances (up to 3 Km), and to multiplex, select and continuously display real time analog signals in a bandwidth from DC to 100 Khz. The circuit is made fault tolerant by use of a programmable flywheel algorithm, which enables the circuit to tolerate one transmission error before losing synchronization of the transmitted frames of data. A method of encoding and framing captured and transmitted data is used which has a low overhead and prevents some particular transmitted data patterns from locking an included detector/decoder circuit.

  18. Large Distance Continuous Variables Communication with Concatenated Swaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhammad Asjad; Stefano Zippilli; Paolo Tombesi; David Vitali

    2015-04-01

    The radiation-pressure interaction between electromagnetic fields and mechanical resonators can be used to efficiently entangle two light fields which couple to a single mechanical mode. We analyze the performance of this process under realistic optomechanical conditions, and we determine the effectiveness of the resulting entanglement as a resource for quantum teleportation of continuous-variable light signals, over large distances, mediated by concatenated swap operations. We study the sensitiveness of the protocol to the quality factor of the mechanical systems, and its performance in non-ideal situations in which losses and reduced detection efficiencies are taken into account.

  19. Gamma ray burst distances and the timescape cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter R. Smale

    2011-08-22

    Gamma ray bursts can potentially be used as distance indicators, providing the possibility of extending the Hubble diagram to redshifts ~7. Here we follow the analysis of Schaefer (2007), with the aim of distinguishing the timescape cosmological model from the \\LambdaCDM model by means of the additional leverage provided by GRBs in the range 2 < z < 7. We find that the timescape model fits the GRB sample slightly better than the \\LambdaCDM model, but that the systematic uncertainties are still too little understood to distinguish the models.

  20. The development of a flood routing model for the flow analyses of mine tailings materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokohl, Don Richard

    1984-01-01

    Flood, West Virginia Aberfsn Flow Slide, Wales Mochikoshi Tailings Dam, Japan A LITERATURE REVIEW OF EXISTING FLOOD ROUTING MODELS Theoretical Flood Routing Analysis Models Models Developed for Turbulent Flow Analysis U. S. Army Corps of Engineers... Front of Water Retaining Dam Showing Breach Formation 13 Characteristics of Bingham Plastic Model Characteristics of Modified Ramberg-Osgood Nodel Weight versus Velocity for Bunker Hill Tailings Vened Coaxial Viscometer 23 25 27 28 Comparison...

  1. Composition and microstructure of zirconium and hafnium germanates obtained by different chemical routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utkin, A.V. Prokip, V.E.; Baklanova, N.I.

    2014-01-15

    The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. The products were characterized using high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal (TG/DTA) analysis. To investigate the phase composition and stoichiometry of compounds the unit cell parameters were refined by full-profile Rietveld XRD analysis. The morphology of products and its evolution during high-temperature treatment was examined by SEM analysis. It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. The ceramic route requires a multi-stage high-temperature treatment to obtain zirconium and hafnium germanates of 95% purity or more. Also, there are strong diffusion limitations to obtain hafnium germanate Hf{sub 3}GeO{sub 8} by ceramic route. On the contrary, the co-precipitation route leads to the formation of nanocrystalline single phase germanates of stoichiometric composition at a relatively low temperatures (less than 1000 °C). The results of quantitative XRD analysis showed the hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds in contrast to zirconium germanates that form a set of solid solutions. This distinction may be related to the difference in the ion radii of Zr and Hf. - Graphical abstract: The phase composition and morphology of zirconium and hafnium germanates synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes were studied. It was stated that there is the strong dependence of the phase composition and morphology of products on the preparation route. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zr and Hf germanates were synthesized by ceramic and co-precipitation routes. • The morphology of products depends on the synthesis parameters. • Zirconium germanates forms a set of solid solutions. • Hafnium germanates are stoichiometric compounds.

  2. Oscillatory instability and routes to chaos in Rayleigh-Bénard convection: effect of external magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yada Nandukumar; Pinaki Pal

    2015-10-19

    We investigate oscillatory instability and routes to chaos in Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection of electrically conducting fluids in presence of external horizontal magnetic field. Three dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the governing equations are performed for the investigation. DNS shows that oscillatory instability is inhibited by the magnetic field. The supercritical Rayleigh number for the onset of oscillation is found to scale with the Chandrasekhar number $\\mathrm{Q}$ as $\\mathrm{Q}^{\\alpha}$ in DNS with $\\alpha = 1.8$ for low Prandtl numbers ($\\mathrm{Pr}$). Most interestingly, DNS shows $\\mathrm{Q}$ dependent routes to chaos for low Prandtl number fluids like mercury ($\\mathrm{Pr} = 0.025$). For low $\\mathrm{Q}$, period doubling routes are observed, while, quasiperiodic routes are observed for high $\\mathrm{Q}$. The bifurcation structure associated with $\\mathrm{Q}$ dependent routes to chaos is then understood by constructing a low dimensional model from the DNS data. The model also shows similar scaling laws as DNS. Bifurcation analysis of the low dimensional model shows that origin of different routes are associated with the bifurcation structure near the primary instability. These observations show similarity with the previous results of convection experiments performed with mercury.

  3. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  4. A bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) is a seismic reflec-tivity phenomenon that is widely accepted as indicating the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) continental slope surface to the seafloor. This research indicates have various migration pathways to the mod- ern seafloor and that delivery rates, as well as fluid the over- pressured zone frequently form the migration routes for hydrocarbons, formation fluids

  5. Total internal reflection photonic crystal prism Ethan Schonbrun1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Total internal reflection photonic crystal prism Ethan Schonbrun1 , Maxim Abashin2 , John Blair3 of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, 80309 ethan

  6. KP solitons and Mach reflection in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuji Kodama

    2012-10-01

    This gives a survey of our recent studies on soliton solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with an emphasis on the Mach reflection problem in shallow water.

  7. Reflection and transmission coefficients of a fracture in transversely ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-11-28

    dependent reflection and transmission coefficients. On the other hand, velocity discontinuities generate an energy loss at the interface. The specific viscosity ...

  8. Ion reflection, gyration, and dissipation at supercritical shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosling, J.T.; Robson, A.E.

    1984-04-01

    This brief review emphasizes the following points: (1) Ion reflection is the dominant ion dissipation mechanism at nearly perpendicular, supercritical shocks. (2) An increasing fraction of the ions incident on a supercritical shock is reflected as the Mach number increases. The actual fraction reflected can be predicted using the Rankine-Hugoniot conservation relations. (3) The effective temperature associated with the dispersion in velocity space associated with ion reflection accounts for a large fraction of the temperature rise observed across supercritical, quasi-perpendicular shocks.

  9. Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Seismic...

  10. The effect of weak lensing on distance estimates from supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Mathew; Maartens, Roy [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Bacon, David J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Campbell, Heather; D'Andrea, Chris B. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Chris [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Bassett, Bruce A. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Cinabro, David [Wayne State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Finley, David A.; Frieman, Joshua A. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Galbany, Lluis [CENTRA Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Olmstead, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shapiro, Charles [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, La Canada Flintridge, CA 91109 (United States); Sollerman, Jesper, E-mail: matsmith2@gmail.com [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 608 Type Ia supernovae from the SDSS-II and BOSS surveys, combined with a sample of foreground galaxies from SDSS-II, we estimate the weak lensing convergence for each supernova line of sight. We find that the correlation between this measurement and the Hubble residuals is consistent with the prediction from lensing (at a significance of 1.7?). Strong correlations are also found between the residuals and supernova nuisance parameters after a linear correction is applied. When these other correlations are taken into account, the lensing signal is detected at 1.4?. We show, for the first time, that distance estimates from supernovae can be improved when lensing is incorporated, by including a new parameter in the SALT2 methodology for determining distance moduli. The recovered value of the new parameter is consistent with the lensing prediction. Using cosmic microwave background data from WMAP7, H {sub 0} data from Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, we find the best-fit value of the new lensing parameter and show that the central values and uncertainties on ? {sub m} and w are unaffected. The lensing of supernovae, while only seen at marginal significance in this low-redshift sample, will be of vital importance for the next generation of surveys, such as DES and LSST, which will be systematics-dominated.

  11. V838 Mon: light echo evolution and distance estimate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisa A. Crause; Warrick A. Lawson; John W. Menzies; Fred Marang

    2005-01-22

    Following its 2002 February eruption, V838 Mon developed a light echo that continues to expand and evolve as light from the outburst scatters off progressively more distant circumstellar and/or interstellar material. Multi-filter images of the light echo, obtained with the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) 1.0-m telescope between 2002 May and 2004 December, are analysed and made available electronically. The expansion of the light echo is measured from the images and the data compared with models for scattering by a thin sheet and a thin shell of dust. From these model results we infer that the dust is likely in the form of a thin sheet distant from the star, suggesting that the material is of interstellar origin, rather than being from earlier stages in the star's evolution. Although the fit is uncertain, we derive a stellar distance of ~ 9 kpc and a star-dust distance of ~ 5 pc, in good agreement with recent results reported from other methods. We also present JHKL and Cousins UBVRI photometry obtained at the SAAO during the star's second, third and fourth observing seasons post-outburst. These data show complex infrared colour behaviour while V838 Mon is slowly brightening in the optical.

  12. Nonlinear, noniterative, single-distance phase retrieval and developmental biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moosmann, Julian; Altapova, Venera; Haenschke, Daniel; Hofmann, Ralf; Baumbach, Tilo

    2012-05-17

    For coherent X-ray imaging, based on phase contrast through free-space Fresnel propagation, we discuss two noniterative, nonlinear approaches to the phase-retrieval problem from a single-distance intensity map of a pure-phase object. On one hand, a perturbative set-up is proposed where nonlinear corrections to the linearized transport-of-intensity situation are expanded in powers of the object-detector distance z and are evaluated in terms of the linear estimate. On the other hand, a nonperturbative projection algorithm, which is based on the (linear and local) contrast-transfer function (CTF), works with an effective phase in Fourier space. This effective phase obeys a modified CTF relation between intensity contrast at z > 0 and phase contrast at z= 0: Unphysical singularities of the local CTF model are cut off to yield 'quasiparticles' in analogy to the theory of the Fermi liquid. By identifying the positions of the zeros of the Fourier transformed intensity contrast as order parameters for the dynamical breaking of scaling symmetry we investigate the phase structure of the forward-propagation problem when interpreted as a statistical system. Results justify the quasiparticle approach for a wide range of intermediary phase variations. The latter algorithm is applied to data from biological samples recorded at the beamlines TopoTomo and ID19 at ANKA and ESRF, respectively.

  13. Impact of receptor-ligand distance on adhesion cluster stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Erdmann; U. S. Schwarz

    2007-07-16

    Cells in multicellular organisms adhere to the extracellular matrix through two-dimensional clusters spanning a size range from very few to thousands of adhesion bonds. For many common receptor-ligand systems, the ligands are tethered to a surface via polymeric spacers with finite binding range, thus adhesion cluster stability crucially depends on receptor-ligand distance. We introduce a one-step master equation which incorporates the effect of cooperative binding through a finite number of polymeric ligand tethers. We also derive Fokker-Planck and mean field equations as continuum limits of the master equation. Polymers are modeled either as harmonic springs or as worm-like chains. In both cases, we find bistability between bound and unbound states for intermediate values of receptor-ligand distance and calculate the corresponding switching times. For small cluster sizes, stochastic effects destabilize the clusters at large separation, as shown by a detailed analysis of the stochastic potential resulting from the Fokker-Planck equation.

  14. Choosing good distance metrics and local planners for probabilistic roadmap motion planning methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayazit, Osman Burchan

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative evaluation of different distance metrics and local planners within the context of probabilistic roadmap methods for motion planning. Both C-space and Workspace distance metrics and local planners are considered...

  15. Hybrid intensity and time-of-flight signal processing techniques for intelligent distance sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiromi, Itariu

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of "smart" consumer electronics, distance sensing is an increasingly important field in optical sensing. A novel approach to active infrared(IR) 1D distance sensing is proposed, employing both intensity and ...

  16. Yet Another Secure Distance-Bounding Protocol Ventzislav Nikov and Marc Vauclair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Yet Another Secure Distance-Bounding Protocol Ventzislav Nikov and Marc Vauclair NXP Semiconductors, Leuven, Belgium, ventzislav.nikov@nxp.com, marc.vauclair@nxp.com Abstract. Distance-bounding protocols

  17. A systematic determination of legends for destination and distance signs in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClure, Wesley Glen

    1998-01-01

    Destination and Distance signs are guide signs which are commonly used along rural highways in Texas to display the names of the destinations to be found along a highway, the direction to travel, and the distance in miles ...

  18. Motion Segmentation of Truncated Signed Distance Function based Volumetric Samunda Perera, Nick Barnes, Xuming He

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohli, Pushmeet

    Motion Segmentation of Truncated Signed Distance Function based Volumetric Surfaces Samunda Perera. Introduction The Truncated Signed Distance Function (TSDF) based volumetric surface representation format [4 the problem of segmenting such a volumetric surface reconstruction of a scene into distinctively moving

  19. Recap Dictionaries Wildcard queries Edit distance Spelling correction Soundex Introduction to Information Retrieval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Dictionaries Wildcard queries Edit distance Spelling correction Soundex Skip pointers 16 28 72 5 51 98 2 4 8 16

  20. Type IIP supernovae as cosmological probes: A SEAM distance to SN 1999em

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baron, E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    Type IIP Supernovae as Cosmological Probes: A SEAM Distanceintrinsic brightness, supernovae make excellent cosmologicalstars: atmospheres — supernovae: 1999em Distances from