National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for refining margins similarly

  1. Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-25

    Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  2. Exploiting structure similarity in refinement: automated NCS and target-structure restraints in BUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, Oliver S. Womack, Thomas O.; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Paciorek, Włodek; Sharff, Andrew; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard

    2012-04-01

    Local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) provide a novel method for exploiting NCS or structural similarity to an external target structure. Two examples are given where BUSTER re-refinement of PDB entries with LSSR produces marked improvements, enabling further structural features to be modelled. Maximum-likelihood X-ray macromolecular structure refinement in BUSTER has been extended with restraints facilitating the exploitation of structural similarity. The similarity can be between two or more chains within the structure being refined, thus favouring NCS, or to a distinct ‘target’ structure that remains fixed during refinement. The local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) approach considers all distances less than 5.5 Å between pairs of atoms in the chain to be restrained. For each, the difference from the distance between the corresponding atoms in the related chain is found. LSSR applies a restraint penalty on each difference. A functional form that reaches a plateau for large differences is used to avoid the restraints distorting parts of the structure that are not similar. Because LSSR are local, there is no need to separate out domains. Some restraint pruning is still necessary, but this has been automated. LSSR have been available to academic users of BUSTER since 2009 with the easy-to-use -autoncs and @@target target.pdb options. The use of LSSR is illustrated in the re-refinement of PDB entries http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -target enables the correct ligand-binding structure to be found, and http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -autoncs contributes to the location of an additional copy of the cyclic peptide ligand.

  3. Rietveld Refinement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profile Chi-squared value 4.944 Progress so far Inverse Modeling Method 2 Fourier Method Data Model Refined Structure 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 1000 2000 3000 4000...

  4. Refiner Crude Oil Inputs

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of GTAB Blending ...

  5. seismic margin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... event tree SMA seismic margins analysis SNF spent nuclear fuel SRTC site rail transfer cart SSC ... Safeguards and Security System Safeguards and Security Entire NA NA NA NA System ...

  6. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in ...

  7. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf (1.16 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP ...

  8. Step 3: Project Refinement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Project Refinement 2 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 5 Operations & Maintenance 2 Options 3 Refinement 1/28/2016 2 3 FUNDING AND FINANCING OPTIONS Project Ownership Financing structure is highly dependent on size of the project and the capital available for a given project: * Tribe owns the project (cash purchase or debt) * Tribe hosts the project and buys the electricity (power purchase agreement) * Tribe partners with private sector and co-owns the project (uncertainties about

  9. Refiners trade hydroprocessing experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-16

    Hydrogen treating and conversion processes less severe than hydrocracking abound in most refineries and therefore were a subject of high interest at the National Petroleum Refiners Association question and answer session on refining technology. The present paper, which is the second abstract of the transcript of the most recent meeting, covers hydroprocessing and some of its mechanical, process, and catalytic aspects.

  10. Table 5.22 Refiner Sales Prices and Refiner Margins for Selected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Prices to Resellers: 2 Aviation Gasoline 0.975 1.055 1.065 0.912 1.007 1.330 1.256 ... Sales Prices to End Users: 2 Aviation Gasoline 1.005 1.116 1.128 .975 1.059 1.306 1.323 ...

  11. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  12. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    . Aluminum promoted b phase formation and modified the grain structure from dendritic to equiaxed. Lead or bismuth reduces the size of grains, but not change the morphology of the structure in Cu-Zn alloys. The grain size of the Cu-Zn-alloy can be reduced from 3000 mm to 300 mm after the addition of aluminum and lead. Similar effects were observed in EnviroBrass III after the addition of aluminum and bismuth. Boron refined the structure of yellow brasses in the presence of iron. At least 50 ppm of iron and 3 ppm of boron are necessary to cause grain refinement in these alloys. Precipitation of iron from the melt is identified as the cause of grain refinement. Boron initiates the precipitation of iron which could not be explained at this time. On the other hand zirconium causes some reduction in grain size in all four alloys investigated. The critical limit for the zirconium was found to be around 100 ppm below which not much refinement could be observed. The mechanism of grain refinement in the presence of zirconium could not be explained. Grain refinement by boron and iron can remain over a long period of time, at least for 72 hours of holding or after remelting few times. It is necessary to have the iron and boron contents above the critical limits mentioned earlier. On the other hand, refinement by zirconium is lost quite rapidly, some times within one hour of holding, mostly due to the loss of zirconium, most probably by oxidation, from the melt. In all the cases it is possible to revive the refinement by adding more of the appropriate refining element. Cooling curve analysis (thermal analysis) can be used successfully to predict the grain refinement in yellow brasses. The precipitation of iron in the liquid metal causes the metal to solidify without undercooling. Absence of this reaction, as indicated by the time-temperature (t-T) and its first derivative (dt/dT) curves, proved to be an indicator of refinement. The viability of the technique as an on-line quality

  13. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  14. CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) is being developed as a DOE...

  15. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  16. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This energy bandwidth analysis provides a realistic estimate of the energy that may be saved in petroleum refining processes by quantifying measures of energy consumption.

  17. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California (2004) ... Photo credit: iStockphoto.com15906809 Petroleum Refining The United States is the largest, most ...

  18. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning.

  19. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universitt Gttingen, Tammannstrae 4, Gttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as a CIF) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  20. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  1. MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Petroleum Refining (123.98 KB) More Documents & Publications Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - ...

  2. ,"U.S. Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars ...

  3. Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidance Tool (REFINe) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Focus Area: Renewable Energy...

  4. ,"U.S. Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...AEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars ...

  5. GRAIN REFINEMENT OF URANIUM BILLETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, L.

    1964-02-25

    A method of refining the grain structure of massive uranium billets without resort to forging is described. The method consists in the steps of beta- quenching the billets, annealing the quenched billets in the upper alpha temperature range, and extrusion upset of the billets to an extent sufficient to increase the cross sectional area by at least 5 per cent. (AEC)

  6. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  7. Marginal Energy Prices - RECS97 Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Marginal Energy Prices - RECS97 Update The original estimation of residential marginal energy prices at the individual household level (as reported in the Marginal Energy Prices ...

  8. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes Prepared by Energetics Incorporated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies Program October 2006 Foreword The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) is a research and development (R&D) program within the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). This program works in collaboration with U.S. industry to improve industrial energy efficiency and

  9. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  10. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  11. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry ...

  12. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  13. Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is challenging at low resolution. We compared refinement methods using synchrotron diffraction data of photosystem I at 7.4 resolution, starting from different initial models...

  14. Refiners Increasingly Employing Catalyst Regeneration as Alternative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    million by the end of 2019. Refiners Benefit from Catalyst Regeneration Technology via Price Reductions and Lower Maintenance Costs The catalyst regeneration technology is the...

  15. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning. ...

  16. Right rock: Finding/refining customer expectations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashby, R.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on methods of finding customer expectations of software and then refining the documentation and software to fit these expectations.

  17. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R.

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  18. Similarity Engine: Using Content Similarity to Improve Memory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Similarity to Improve Memory Resilience. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Similarity Engine: Using Content Similarity to Improve Memory Resilience. Abstract not provided. ...

  19. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  20. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  1. U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

  2. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy Technology Company Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Outline 2 Overall perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few) problem areas. Related industry work: American Petroleum Institute corrosion and materials work on high temperature hydrogen attack. Overall Perspectives 3 Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at

  3. Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining technologies, and Pacific ...

  4. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  5. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  6. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  7. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  8. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  9. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  10. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  11. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on ...

  12. Marginal Energy Price Report - July 1999

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    J:marginalFinalDraftReport7-29-99.wpd DRAFT Marginal Energy Prices Report July 1999 U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Office of ...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Predicting Performance Margins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Predicting Performance Margins Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Top Predicting Performance Margins Project Organization PPM Team Members Publications Future Directions News Predicting Performance Margins Predicting Performance Margins Texture density plots EBSD measurements and CP-FEM predictions of tantalum oligocrystal. Texture density plots Strain field A comparison of measured and predicted surface strain fields at 4.3% applied strain. Strain field Grain boundary structure

  14. Parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement with MOAB.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2008-12-01

    In this report, we present the novel functionality of parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement which we have implemented in MOAB. This report details work done to implement parallel, edge-based, tetrahedral refinement into MOAB. The theoretical basis for this work is contained in [PT04, PT05, TP06] while information on design, performance, and operation specific to MOAB are contained herein. As MOAB is intended mainly for use in pre-processing and simulation (as opposed to the post-processing bent of previous papers), the primary use case is different: rather than refining elements with non-linear basis functions, the goal is to increase the number of degrees of freedom in some region in order to more accurately represent the solution to some system of equations that cannot be solved analytically. Also, MOAB has a unique mesh representation which impacts the algorithm. This introduction contains a brief review of streaming edge-based tetrahedral refinement. The remainder of the report is broken into three sections: design and implementation, performance, and conclusions. Appendix A contains instructions for end users (simulation authors) on how to employ the refiner.

  15. Trends in petroleum refining process technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalczyk, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1990`s, the shift toward reformulated fuels and the unrelenting economic pressures on the petroleum refining industry have led to the ongoing development of a series of technological advances to improve fuels quality and industry operating efficiency. In this paper, ten of the most innovative and high impact recent developments in petroleum refining process technology will be highlighted. Process improvements and innovations have occurred in all facets of petroleum refining operations including fluid catalytic cracking, ether production, desulfurization, hydrocracking, gas processing, environmental control and heavy oil processing. Discussed will be the technical and economic impact of each of these new technologies on the petroleum refinery of the late 20th and early 21st century.

  16. JAPAN: Refining options and liberalization plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Totto, L.; Isaak, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    The reformulation of Japan's petroleum import policy is important to Japan and to the international energy community. The technical and economic factors involved in opening the Japanese market is unknown. Assuming that foreign refiners have the technical capability to meet Japanese product specifications, the prices and volumes that will prove economical to both parties are also little known. Japanese refiners have been investigating the possibility of exporting gasoline and processing crude for China and Malaysia. The study demonstrates that under certain trade policies, Japan could become a significant product exporter. This study's purpose is to investigate the economic efficiency of alternative petroleum supply options, i.e., combining Japan's refining and product imports. An evaluation of the current import program and the technically feasible alternatives will play a major role in a new import policy. For this evaluation, a linear programming (LP) model of Japan's domestic refinery capacity and the petroleum import system was constructed. 3 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-29

    This is a simulation code involving an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrocode with AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) and pluggable physics packages for material strength, heat conduction, radiation diffusion, and laser ray tracing developed a LLNL, UCSD, and Berkeley Lab. The code is an extension of the open source SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Interface) code/library. The code can be used in laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. The code is alsi being appliedmore » to slurry flow (landslides).« less

  18. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  19. The strategic outlook for petroleum refiners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, C.

    1994-12-31

    After several years of acceptable and relatively reliable profitability, refiners were plunged into uncertainty once again following passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in 1990. While many of the original uncertainties that attended these regulations have since been resolved, the industry now must prepare for the new manufacturing, distributions, and transportation challenges that undoubtedly will accompany the first stages of reformulated gasoline (RFG) compliance in early 1995. This impending challenge introduces several fundamental questions: (1) How has the industry changed and adjusted to respond to anticipated future needs? (2) What strategies are refiners employing today? (3) What are industry performance expectations over the next several years?

  20. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  1. Depositional patterns of kerogen, Atlantic Margin, North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armentrout, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    Geochemical and biostratigraphic data from offshore wells along the Atlantic margin of North America define a depositional history dominated by coastal-plain and shallow-shelf facies containing degraded and residual continent-derived kerogen. Exceptions to this generalization are 4 depositional facies containing hydrogen-rich amorphous kerogen assemblages. The rocks containing hydrogen-rich amorphous kerogen assemblages are: (1) Upper Jurassic inner-shelf facies probably deposited in algal-rich lagoonlike environments, (2) Lower Cretaceous nonmarine coaly facies, probably deposited in algal-rich swamplike environments, (3) middle Cretaceous abyssal-plain facies probably deposited by turbidity currents that originated on an algal-rich slope, and (4) Miocene outer-shelf to upper-slope facies probably deposited under algal-rich upwelling systems. Correlations of these facies to seismic packages allows for extrapolation of probable organic facies distribution throughout the continental margin. Such modeling of organic facies distributions in conjunction with plate-tectonic and ocean-circulation models permits refinement of strategies for hydrocarbon exploration.

  2. Environmental regulations and changes in petroleum refining operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidderdale, T.C.M.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. petroleum industry has responded to four major new federal rules on motor gasoline product quality in the last 6 years: Phase 1 Summer Volatility (Rvp) Regulation, June 1989; Phase 2 Summer Volatility (Rvp) regulation, May 1992; oxygenated Gasoline, November 1992; and reformulated Gasoline Phase I Simple Model, December 1994. These regulations have generated significant changes in domestic refinery operations, affecting marginal production costs and market prices, refinery yields, and the seasonality of production. Some changes have been dramatic. The price of motor gasoline has increased by as much as 60 {cents}/gal due to regulations. Refinery yields of motor gasoline (refinery output of motor gasoline as a fraction of refinery inputs or total refinery output), which historically peaked in the early summer to meet high summer driving demand, now are highest during the winter months. These changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the vapor pressure, oxygenated and reformulated gasoline (RFG) product quality regulations. This analysis uses linear regression equations from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the EIA`s Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  3. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  4. Refining New-Physics Searches in B→Dτν with Lattice QCD | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Series: Refiner Crude Oil Inputs Refiner Gross Inputs Refiner Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refiner Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of Motor Gasoline Blending Comp Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of GTAB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of All Other Blending Component Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of Fuel Ethanol

  5. Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    SAMRAI is an object-oriented support library for structured adaptice mesh refinement (SAMR) simulation of computational science problems, modeled by systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). SAMRAI is developed and maintained in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) under ASCI ITS and PSE support. SAMRAI is used in a variety of application research efforts at LLNL and in academia. These applications are developed in collaboration with SAMRAI development team members.

  6. Refining quadrilateral and brick element meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneiders, R.; Debye, J.

    1995-12-31

    We consider the problem of refining unstructured quadrilateral and brick element meshes. We present an algorithm which is a generalization of an algorithm developed by Cheng et. al. for structured quadrilateral element meshes. The problem is solved for the two-dimensional case. Concerning three dimensions we present a solution for some special cases and a general solution that introduces tetrahedral and pyramidal transition elements.

  7. ,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  8. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","5... "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  9. Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductors | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors

  10. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  11. Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Bodman today renewed the call for expanded oil refining capacity in the United States and ... and one way to do that is to strengthen and expand our domestic oil refining capacity. ...

  12. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas,

  13. Genealogy of major U.S. refiners - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    See full Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Previous Release Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Release date: September 18, 2013 figre 1. World energy consumption, 1990-2040. The structure of the U.S. petroleum refining industry has changed substantially over the past several years. In the diagram the companies shown on the right side are presently active in U.S. refining. The transactions over the past 25 years that created these companies also are shown. The

  14. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-09-01

    An overview of applications of the deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method is presented together with recommendations for its optimal usage. Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 . Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  15. Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fromm, C.H.; White, S.L.

    1995-09-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) as applied to petroleum refining should seek opportunities to reduce waste by preventing oil/hydrocarbon loss, by decreasing consumption of auxiliary input materials, and by improving conversion of incoming impurities into useful products. This chapter will focus on P2 techniques that have found or could find applications in minimizing or eliminating reducible solid waste and wastewater from the petroleum refining process. Air emissions are not covered. The following commonly encountered wastes are considered in this chapter: oily sludges; spent caustics; spent catalysts; miscellaneous process wastes; wastewater; maintenance and materials handling wastes. Following a brief description of waste components and sources, specific P2 techniques are presented in tabular form for each of these wastestreams. None of the P2 techniques presented is discussed here in any detail--the intent is to give the reader a menu of potentially effective P2 options to consider, along with the references where a more detailed discussion may be found. Some of the options presented were advanced in the original references merely as suggestions or plans for improvement. No effort was made to verify their efficacy or applicability in this compilation.

  16. COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ENZO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, David C.; Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzo to include the effects of magnetic fields through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. We use a higher order Godunov method for the computation of interface fluxes. We use two constrained transport methods to compute the electric field from those interface fluxes, which simultaneously advances the induction equation and maintains the divergence of the magnetic field. A second-order divergence-free reconstruction technique is used to interpolate the magnetic fields in the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement framework already extant in Enzo. This reconstruction also preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non-cosmological test problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  17. Visualization Tools for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vincent E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki,Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-05-09

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations that must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR visualization research and tools and describe how VisIt currently handles AMR data.

  18. Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-12-06

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

  19. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Countries Name Assessment of...

  20. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 steelmarginalopportunity.pdf (346.86 KB) More Documents & Publications ...

  1. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations: TROPICAL CHANNEL REFINEMENT IN MPAS-A

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-01

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  2. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) | Department of Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) profile.pdf (1.62 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

  3. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for ...

  4. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Reformulated Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  5. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  6. Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

  7. EERE Success Story—Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    W.R. Grace and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are working to establish a bio-oil refining process that users existing petroleum refinery infrastructure.

  8. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  9. The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) mission Authors: Riot, V ; Devries, W ; Bauman, B ; Simms, L ; Carter, D ; Phillion, D ; Olivier, S ...

  10. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NUSDPG","EMAEPPRPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline...

  11. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43....

  12. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  13. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  14. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43....

  15. ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 techvision.pdf (684.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon ...

  16. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Authors: Simms, L ; De Vries, W ; RIot, V ; Olivier, S ; Pertica, A ; Bauman, B ; ...

  17. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California refiningroadmap.pdf (1.34 ...

  18. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  19. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  20. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  1. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  2. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  3. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  4. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

  5. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  6. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  7. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  8. Self-similar radiation from numerical Rosenau-Hyman compactons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rus, Francisco Villatoro, Francisco R.

    2007-11-10

    The numerical simulation of compactons, solitary waves with compact support, is characterized by the presence of spurious phenomena, as numerically induced radiation, which is illustrated here using four numerical methods applied to the Rosenau-Hyman K(p, p) equation. Both forward and backward radiations are emitted from the compacton presenting a self-similar shape which has been illustrated graphically by the proper scaling. A grid refinement study shows that the amplitude of the radiations decreases as the grid size does, confirming its numerical origin. The front velocity and the amplitude of both radiations have been studied as a function of both the compacton and the numerical parameters. The amplitude of the radiations decreases exponentially in time, being characterized by a nearly constant scaling exponent. An ansatz for both the backward and forward radiations corresponding to a self-similar function characterized by the scaling exponent is suggested by the present numerical results.

  9. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  10. Risk Informed Margins Management as part of Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith

    2014-06-01

    The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about Light Water Reactor (LWR) design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as risk informed margins management (RIMM) strategies.

  11. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  12. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  13. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  14. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  15. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners ...87,16127.8,1684.4,1377.2,128.8,497.8,835.6,2030.3,1178.7,674.5,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1...

  16. ,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Distillate Retail Sales by Refiners ...57.7,6018.7,64.6,101.5,691.5,1553.8,1576.9,2030.5,4320.3,1350.4,683.2,792.4,316.4,804.3,37...

  17. Reitveld refinement study of PLZT ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bavbande, D. V.; Bafna, V. H.; Mohan, D.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Mishra, R.

    2013-02-05

    PLZT ceramics of composition Pb{sub 0.93}La{sub 0.07}(Zr{sub 0.60}Ti{sub 0.40})O{sub 3}, have been milled for 6hrs and 24hrs were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The 6hrs milled and 24hrs milled samples are represented as PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded at room temperature. The XRD pattern has been analyzed by employing Rietveld refinement method. Phase identification shows that all the peaks observed in PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics could be indexed to P4mm space group with tetragonal symmetry. The unit cell parameters of 6hrs milled PLZT ceramics are found to be a=b=4.0781(5)A and c=4.0938(7)A and for 24hrs milled PLZT ceramics unit cell parameters are a=b=4.0679(4)A and c=4.1010(5)A . The axial ratio c/a and unit cell volume of PLZT-6 are 1.0038 and 68.09(2)A{sup 3} respectively. In PLZT-24 samples, the axial ratio c/a value is 1.0080 which is little more than that of the 6hr milled PLZT sample whereas the unit cell volume decrease to 67.88 (1) A{sup 3}. An average crystallite size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. Dielectric properties were obtained by measuring the capacitance and tand loss using Stanford LCR meter.

  18. Growth rates of upper Permian carbonate platform, Capitan margin of northern Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, P.M.; Grover, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Subsurface and outcrop studies of the Capitan margin (late Guadalupian, Capitanian) in the northern Delaware basin have revealed that over 80% of the total progradation of the margin, over half the total aggradation of the platform (150 of 290 m), and over two-thirds of the basin fill (190 of 280 m) occurred during an early phase of development equating with Seven Rivers beds on the platform. The amount of progradation varied from 6 km from outcrop data in the Guadalupe Mountains to 19 km along trend to the east from subsurface information. The later phase of Capitan margin development was coincident with Yates and Tansill deposition on the platform and was dominated by aggradation and steepening of the margin. Corresponding to this two-phase model, two third-order cycles of relative sea level occur within the Capitanian on the eustasy curve of Ross and Ross: a Seven Rivers cycle lasting 1.5 m.y. and a Yates-Tansill cycle of 1.0 m.y. Progradation rates for the Capitan range from 2.6 to 8.3 m/1000 years. Similar rates are calculated from high-resolution seismic lines across the Cenozoic margin of northwestern great Bahama Bank. Accumulation rates for the Capitan, uncorrected for compaction, average 125 ..mu..m/year and 335 ..mu..m/year for the early phase shelf and shelf margin, respectively, and 160 ..mu..m/year and 430..mu..m/year for the later phase shelf and shelf margin. These accumulation rates are similar to those of other ancient, prograding platforms.

  19. Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar

    1983-01-01

    A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

  20. Experimental validation of the van Herk margin formula for lung radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecclestone, Gillian; Heath, Emily; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-15

    defined by the ICRU; thus, suitable PTV margins were estimated. The penumbra widths calculated in lung tissue for each plan were found to be very similar to the 6.4 mm value assumed by the margin formula model. The plan conformity correction yielded inconsistent results which were largely affected by image and dose grid resolution while the trajectory modified PTV plans yielded a dosimetric benefit over the standard internal target volumes approach with up to a 5% decrease in the V20 value.Conclusions: The margin formula showed to be robust against variations in tumor size and motion, treatment technique, plan conformity, as well as low tissue density. This was validated by maintaining coverage of all of the derived PTVs by 95% dose level, as required by the formal definition of the PTV. However, the assumption of perfect plan conformity in the margin formula derivation yields conservative margin estimation. Future modifications to the margin formula will require a correction for plan conformity. Plan conformity can also be improved by using the proposed trajectory modified PTV planning approach. This proves especially beneficial for tumors with a large anteriorposterior component of respiratory motion.

  1. May 28 Webinar to Focus on Tribal Energy Project Refinement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register for the Tribal Renewable Energy Project Refinement webinar, which will be held on Wednesday, May 28, 2014, from 11 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. Mountain time.

  2. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  3. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  4. Waste minimization for selected residuals in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    This technical report on residuals in the petroleum refining industry provides an industry overview, process description, and process flow diagrams. It presents residual descriptions for each of the 29 petroleum refining residuals of concern and what source reduction option exist. It reviews the data sources - RCRA Section 2007 surveys, site visits, and journal articles. It also describes major findings and evaluates the quantity and quality of waste minization information for each source.

  5. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Overall Perspectives: Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at ambient to at least 800F and pressures up to at least 3000psia as long as we stay within well-defined limits hpwgw_chevronrefining_niccolls.pdf (373.32 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines A Review of Stress Corrosion

  6. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Belmont Smelting and Refining Works

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Inc - NY 44 Belmont Smelting and Refining Works Inc - NY 44 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Belmont Smelting & Refining Works Inc (NY 0-04) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Brooklyn , New York NY.44-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 NY.44-1 Site Operations: Supplied the MED with construction materials. NY.44-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication of radioactive materials handled at this site NY.44-1 Radioactive

  7. Subcooling margin system for cooling fluid in a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, R. M.; Womack, E. A. Jr.

    1984-11-13

    A monitoring system for providing a display of the margin between actual and saturation pressure as well as a display between actual and saturation temperature for the cooling fluid of a nuclear reactor. The system also has an alarm which is set off whenever the pressure margin to saturation pressure reaches a predetermined limit as well as a temperature margin alarm which sets off an alarm whenever the temperature margin to saturation temperature reaches a predetermined limit.

  8. EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining ...

  9. Refiners Switch to RFG Complex Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    On January 1, 1998, domestic and foreign refineries and importers must stop using the "simple" model and begin using the "complex" model to calculate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), toxic air pollutants (TAP), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from motor gasoline. The primary differences between application of the two models is that some refineries may have to meet stricter standards for the sulfur and olefin content of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) they produce and all refineries will now be held accountable for NOx emissions. Requirements for calculating emissions from conventional gasoline under the anti-dumping rule similarly change for exhaust TAP and NOx. However, the change to the complex model is not expected to result in an increase in the price premium for RFG or constrain supplies.

  10. Hierarchical Marginal Land Assessment for Land Use Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A; Bandaru, Vara Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Marginal land provides an alternative potential for food and bioenergy production in the face of limited land resources; however, effective assessment of marginal lands is not well addressed. Concerns over environmental risks, ecosystem services and sustainability for marginal land have been widely raised. The objective of this study was to develop a hierarchical marginal land assessment framework for land use planning and management. We first identified major land functions linking production, environment, ecosystem services and economics, and then classified land resources into four categories of marginal land using suitability and limitations associated with major management goals, including physically marginal land, biologically marginal land, environmental-ecological marginal land, and economically marginal land. We tested this assessment framework in south-western Michigan, USA. Our results indicated that this marginal land assessment framework can be potentially feasible on land use planning for food and bioenergy production, and balancing multiple goals of land use management. We also compared our results with marginal land assessment from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and land capability classes (LCC) that are used in the US. The hierarchical assessment framework has advantages of quantitatively reflecting land functions and multiple concerns. This provides a foundation upon which focused studies can be identified in order to improve the assessment framework by quantifying high-resolution land functions associated with environment and ecosystem services as well as their criteria are needed to improve the assessment framework.

  11. Reconstructing of a Sequence Using Similar Sequences

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-11-28

    SIMSEQ reconstructs sequences from oligos. Similar known sequences are used as a reference. At present, simulated data are being used to develop the algorithm. SIMSEQ generates an initial random sequence, then generates a second sequence that is 60 to 90 percent similar to the first. Next, the second sequence is chopped into its appropriate oligos. All possible sequences are reconstructed to determine the most similar. Those with the highest similarity are printed as output.

  12. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Toward parallel, adaptive mesh refinement for chemically reacting flow simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devine, K.D.; Shadid, J.N.; Salinger, A.G. Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.

    1997-12-01

    Adaptive numerical methods offer greater efficiency than traditional numerical methods by concentrating computational effort in regions of the problem domain where the solution is difficult to obtain. In this paper, the authors describe progress toward adding mesh refinement to MPSalsa, a computer program developed at Sandia National laboratories to solve coupled three-dimensional fluid flow and detailed reaction chemistry systems for modeling chemically reacting flow on large-scale parallel computers. Data structures that support refinement and dynamic load-balancing are discussed. Results using uniform refinement with mesh sequencing to improve convergence to steady-state solutions are also presented. Three examples are presented: a lid driven cavity, a thermal convection flow, and a tilted chemical vapor deposition reactor.

  14. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  15. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  16. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  17. Regnar -- Development of a marginal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thalund, K.M.; Brodersen, F.P.; Roigaard-Petersen, B.

    1994-12-31

    Regnar is a small marginal field located some 13 km from the main Dan F complex and is the first subsea completion in Danish waters, operated by Maersk Olie og Gas AS. A short lifetime has been predicted for the field which therefore has been developed as a low cost project, using a combination of subsea technology and minimum topside facilities. Regnar consists of a subsea x-mas tree producing through a 6 inch pipeline with a 2 1/2 inch chemical piggyback line to Dan F. The x-mas tree and the subsea choke valve are controlled from a buoy moored nearby the well. The buoy is radio linked to Dan F. The Regnar field was brought on stream on September 26, 1993.

  18. PROP re-refined oil engine test performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linnard, R.E.

    1980-11-01

    Using conventional, commercially-available nonproprietary (to Phillips) additive treatments, engine test programs have successfully demonstrated Phillips Re-refined Oil Process (PROP) oils' compliance with the performance requirements of MIL-L-46152A and API Services SE/CC. This paper reports on the engine testing experience with PROP refined oils as produced in a full-scale 2 MM GPY PROP plant operating with Buyer-collected used oil feedstocks. Comment is also made on the status of the first two PROP plants, one built for the state of North Carolina and the other for Mohawk Oil Company, Ltd., Vancouver B.C., Canada.

  19. Lower Permian facies of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: depositional systems, shelf-margin evolution, paleogeography, and petroleum potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handford, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    A Palo geological study suggests that potential hydrocarbon reservoirs occur in shelf-margin carbonates, delta-front sandstones, and fan-delta arkoses. Zones of porous (greater than 10 percent) dolomite are concentrated near shelf margins and have configurations similar to productive Lower Permian shelf-margin trends in New Mexico. Delta-front sandstones (log-computed porosity of 18 to 25 percent) are similar to producing deltaic sandstones of Morris Buie-Blaco Fields in North-Central Texas. Porous (18 percent) fan-delta sandstones along the south flank of the Amarillo Uplift may form reservoirs similiar to that of the Mobeetie Field on the north side of the Amarillo Uplife in Wheeler County, Texas. Potential hydrocarbon source beds occur in slope and basinal environments. Total organic carbon generally ranges from 1 to 2.3 percent by weight and averages 0.589 percent by weight.

  20. Marginal Energy Price Report - July 1999 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Price Report - July 1999 Marginal Energy Price Report - July 1999 Estimated Consumer Marginal Energy Prices for the Commercial and Residental Sectors for use in the Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for four of the High-Priority Appliance Rulemakings marg_eprice_0799.pdf (379.48 KB) More Documents & Publications Marginal Energy Prices - RECS97 Update Standby Rates for Customer-Sited Resources - Issues, Considerations, and the Elements of Model Tariffs, 2009 Solar Real-Time Pricing: Is Real-Time

  1. Quantification of the Variability of Diaphragm Motion and Implications for Treatment Margin Construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rit, Simon; Herk, Marcel van; Zijp, Lambert [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify the variability of diaphragm motion during free-breathing radiotherapy of lung patients and its effect on treatment margins to account for geometric uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three lung cancer patients were analyzed. Each patient had 5-19 cone-beam scans acquired during different treatment fractions. The craniocaudal position of the diaphragm dome on the same side as the tumor was tracked over 2 min in the projection images, because it is both easily visible and a suitable surrogate to study the variability of the tumor motion and its impact on treatment margins. Intra-acquisition, inter-acquisition, and inter-patient variability of the respiratory cycles were quantified separately, as were the probability density functions (PDFs) of the diaphragm position over each cycle, each acquisition, and each patient. Asymmetric margins were simulated using each patient PDF and compared to symmetric margins computed from a margin recipe. Results: The peak-to-peak amplitude variability (1 SD) was 3.3 mm, 2.4 mm, and 6.1 mm for the intra-acquisition, inter-acquisition, and inter-patient variability, respectively. The average PDF of each cycle was similar to the sin{sup 4} function but the PDF of each acquisition was closer to a skew-normal distribution because of the motion variability. Despite large interfraction baseline variability, the PDF of each patient was generally asymmetric with a longer end-inhale tail because the end-exhale position was more stable than the end-inhale position. The asymmetry of the PDF required asymmetric margins around the time-averaged position to account for the position uncertainty but the average difference was 1.0 mm (range, 0.0-4.4 mm) for a sharp penumbra and an idealized online setup correction protocol. Conclusion: The respiratory motion is more irregular during the fractions than between the fractions. The PDF of the respiratory motion is asymmetrically distributed. Both the intra

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  3. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  4. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  5. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  6. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  7. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Retail < or 1% Wholesale < or 1% Retail > 1% Wholesale > 1% 7. U.S. Refiner Residual...

  8. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  9. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  10. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  11. Decontamination of transuranic contaminated metals by melt refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Melt refining of transuranic contaminated metals is a possible decontamination process with the potential advantages of producing metal for reuse and of simplifying chemical analyses. By routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g( about0.1ppm) level by melt refining, scrap metal can be removed from the transuranic waste category. (To demonstrate the effectiveness of this melt refining process, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppm (..mu..g/g) PuO/sub 2/ and melted with various fluxes. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents, and corresponding partition ratios for plutonium were calculated. Some metals were double refined in order to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate the effect of slag weight on the degree of plutonium removal. In general, all four metals could be decontaminated below 1 ppm (..mu..g/g) Pu ( about100 nCi/g) by a single slag treatment. Doubling the slag weight did not improve decontamination significantly; however, double slag treatment using 5 wt.% slag did decontaminate the metals to below 0.1 ppm (..mu..g/g) Pu (10 nCi/g).)

  12. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  13. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  14. ,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by ...928.8,,587,12358.1,196,1145.9,128.8,497.8,,2030.3,,459.7,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1677.4,...

  15. Marginal Energy Prices - RECS97 Update | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An updated estimation of residential marginal energy prices at the individual house level using the 1997 RECS survey data margepricerecs97.pdf (18.15 KB) More Documents & ...

  16. Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rim Margins Lithologically Controlled Fractures caused by igneous activity creates permeability, allowing water to circulate deep beneath the surface thus becoming heated in the...

  17. Marginal pricing of transmission services: An analysis of cost recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Arriaga, I.J.; Rubio, F.J.; Puerta, J.F.; Arceluz, J.; Marin, J.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis of network revenues computed with marginal pricing, and in particular it investigates the reasons why marginal prices fail to recover the total incurred network costs in actual power systems. The basic theoretical results are presented and the major causes of the mismatch between network costs and marginal revenues are identified and illustrated with numerical examples, some tutorial and others of realistic size. The regulatory implications of marginal network pricing in the context of competitive electricity markets are analyzed, and suggestions are provided for the meaningful allocation of the costs of the network among its users.

  18. Dark halos and elliptical galaxies as marginally stable dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Zant, A. A.

    2013-12-10

    The origin of equilibrium gravitational configurations is sought in terms of the stability of their trajectories, as described by the curvature of their Lagrangian configuration manifold of particle positionsa context in which subtle spurious effects originating from the singularity in the two-body potential become particularly clear. We focus on the case of spherical systems, which support only regular orbits in the collisionless limit, despite the persistence of local exponential instability of N-body trajectories in the anomalous case of discrete point particle representation even as N ? ?. When the singularity in the potential is removed, this apparent contradiction disappears. In the absence of fluctuations, equilibrium configurations generally correspond to positive scalar curvature and thus support stable trajectories. A null scalar curvature is associated with an effective, averaged equation of state describing dynamically relaxed equilibria with marginally stable trajectories. The associated configurations are quite similar to those of observed elliptical galaxies and simulated cosmological halos and are necessarily different from the systems dominated by isothermal cores, expected from entropy maximization in the context of the standard theory of violent relaxation. It is suggested that this is the case because a system starting far from equilibrium does not reach a 'most probable state' via violent relaxation, but that this process comes to an end as the system finds and (settles in) a configuration where it can most efficiently wash out perturbations. We explicitly test this interpretation by means of direct simulations.

  19. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  20. Evaluation of Tropical Channel Refinement using MPAS-A Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier studies that

  1. Assessment of Biomass Resources from Marginal Lands in APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the marginal lands in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies and evaluate their biomass productivity potential. Twelve categories of marginal lands are identified using the Global Agro-Ecological Zones system of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

  2. A risk-informed approach to safety margins analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

    2013-07-01

    The Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Pathway is a systematic approach developed to characterize and quantify safety margins of nuclear power plant structures, systems and components. The model has been tested on the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Lab.

  3. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  4. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline *

  5. Decontamination of steel by melt refining: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    It has been reported that a large amount of metal waste is produced annually by nuclear fuel processing and nuclear power plants. These metal wastes are contaminated with radioactive elements, such as uranium and plutonium. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain level. Because of high cost, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low level contaminated metals. It has been shown by some investigators that a melt refining technique can be used for the processing of the contaminated metal wastes. In this process, contaminated metal is melted wit a suitable flux. The radioactive elements are oxidized and transferred to a slag phase. In order to develop a commercial process it is important to have information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Therefore, a literature search was carried out to evaluate the available information on the decontamination uranium and transuranic-contaminated plain steel, copper and stainless steel by melt a refining technique. Emphasis was given to the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Data published in the literature indicate that it is possible to reduce the concentration of radioactive elements to a very low level by the melt refining method. 20 refs.

  6. Mesh refinement for uncertainty quantification through model reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jing Stinis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel way of deciding when and where to refine a mesh in probability space in order to facilitate uncertainty quantification in the presence of discontinuities in random space. A discontinuity in random space makes the application of generalized polynomial chaos expansion techniques prohibitively expensive. The reason is that for discontinuous problems, the expansion converges very slowly. An alternative to using higher terms in the expansion is to divide the random space in smaller elements where a lower degree polynomial is adequate to describe the randomness. In general, the partition of the random space is a dynamic process since some areas of the random space, particularly around the discontinuity, need more refinement than others as time evolves. In the current work we propose a way to decide when and where to refine the random space mesh based on the use of a reduced model. The idea is that a good reduced model can monitor accurately, within a random space element, the cascade of activity to higher degree terms in the chaos expansion. In turn, this facilitates the efficient allocation of computational sources to the areas of random space where they are more needed. For the Kraichnan–Orszag system, the prototypical system to study discontinuities in random space, we present theoretical results which show why the proposed method is sound and numerical results which corroborate the theory.

  7. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  8. Radiotherapy margin design with particular consideration of high curvature CTVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herschtal, Alan; Kron, Tomas; Fox, Chris [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St. Andrews Place, E. Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    In applying 3D conformal radiation therapy to a tumor clinical target volume (CTV), a margin is added around the CTV to account for any sources of error in the application of treatment which may result in misalignment between the CTV and the dose distribution actually delivered. The volume enclosed within the CTV plus the margin is known as the PTV, or planning target volume. The larger the errors are anticipated to be, the wider the margin will need to be to accommodate those errors. Based on the approach of van Herk et al. [''The probability of correct target dosage: Dose-population histograms for deriving treatment margins in radiotherapy,'' Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol., Phys. 47(4), 1121-1135 (2000)] this paper develops the mathematical theory behind the calculation of the margin width required to ensure that the entire CTV receives sufficiently high dose with sufficiently high probability. The margin recipe developed not only considers the magnitude of the errors but also includes a term to adjust for curved CTV surfaces. In doing so, the accuracy of the margin recipe is enhanced yet remains mathematically concise enough to be readily implemented in the clinical setting. The results are particularly relevant for clinical situations in which the uncertainties in treatment are large relative to the size of the CTV.

  9. Marginal erg facies: A trial approach toward a descriptive classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caputo, M.V. ); Langford, R.P. )

    1991-03-01

    During the late 1970s and early 1980s, sedimentologists began recognizing the margins of eolian sand seas as separate, components which differed from interior sand seas in geometry, extent, and facies. Stratigraphers have now observed these differences in eolian rocks. Erg margins may be grouped in five ways: (1) by associations with extradunal environments-coastal plain, lacustrine, periglacial, marine (tidal flat, coastal sabkha, beach, and lagoon), and arid alluvial (alluvial fan, fluvial, playa, inland sabkha); (2) by allocyclic controls-eustasy, plate tectonism, and climate; (3) by autocyclic controls-local tectonism, topography, vegetation, hydrology, structure, sediment source and supply, and wind regime; (4) by geographic position-upwind, downwind, and along-wind margins; and (5) by sedimentary facies-texture and architecture. In contrast with erg interiors, erg margins are characterized by smaller, less complex dune-forms related to thinner sand accumulation; elementary dune architecture; more vegetation and bioturbation; high occurrence of sand sheet, zibar, and serir facies; expansive, low-relief interdunes with widely distributed dunes; and a greater proportion of interbedded extradunal deposits. Some of the published studies on ancient eolian systems have identified erg margin facies that have been influences by marine and arid alluvial processes. Few reports have described lacustrine-eolian and periglacial-eolian interactions. This study is an attempt to organize known features of modern and ancient erg margins into a scheme based on erg margin controls.

  10. Efficient Video Similarity Measurement and Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, S-C S

    2002-12-19

    The amount of information on the world wide web has grown enormously since its creation in 1990. Duplication of content is inevitable because there is no central management on the web. Studies have shown that many similar versions of the same text documents can be found throughout the web. This redundancy problem is more severe for multimedia content such as web video sequences, as they are often stored in multiple locations and different formats to facilitate downloading and streaming. Similar versions of the same video can also be found, unknown to content creators, when web users modify and republish original content using video editing tools. Identifying similar content can benefit many web applications and content owners. For example, it will reduce the number of similar answers to a web search and identify inappropriate use of copyright content. In this dissertation, they present a system architecture and corresponding algorithms to efficiently measure, search, and organize similar video sequences found on any large database such as the web.

  11. ,"Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ...

  12. RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc.Commonwealth of Puerto Rico RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc....

  13. Catalytic hydroprocessing of solvent refined coal to provide a liquid and a solid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, M.J.; Heck, R.H.; Stein, T.R.

    1980-04-29

    In the hydroprocessing of blends of solvent refined coal and recycle solvent, small pore hydrotreating catalysts cause separation of a solid phase from treating blends containing high concentration of solvent refined coal.

  14. Occupational employment survey, booklet of definitions. Petroleum refining, coal products, and related industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The publication gives occupational definitions for 149 occupations in the petroleum refining, coal products, and related industries.

  15. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    69 2.4 PETROLEUM REFINING SECTOR (NAICS 324110) 2.4.1. Overview of the Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Sector Petroleum refining is a complex industry that generates a diverse slate of fuel products and petrochemicals, from gasoline to asphalt. Refining requires a range of processing steps, including distillation, cracking, reforming, and treating. Most of these processes are highly reliant on process heating and steam energy. Petroleum refineries are an essential part of the U.S. economy.

  16. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF PROTOPLANETS IN A MARGINALLY GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2013-02-20

    Core accretion and disk instability require giant protoplanets to form in the presence of disk gas. Protoplanet migration models generally assume disk masses low enough that the disk's self-gravity can be neglected. However, disk instability requires a disk massive enough to be marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU). Even for core accretion, an FU Orionis outburst may require a brief MGU disk phase. We present a new set of three-dimensional, gravitational radiation hydrodynamics models of MGU disks with multiple protoplanets, which interact gravitationally with the disk and with each other, including disk gas mass accretion. Initial protoplanet masses are 0.01 to 10 M {sub Circled-Plus} for core accretion models, and 0.1 to 3 M {sub Jup} for Nice scenario models, starting on circular orbits with radii of 6, 8, 10, or 12 AU, inside a 0.091 M {sub Sun} disk extending from 4 to 20 AU around a 1 M {sub Sun} protostar. Evolutions are followed for up to {approx}4000 yr and involve phases of relative stability (e {approx} 0.1) interspersed with chaotic phases (e {approx} 0.4) of orbital interchanges. The 0.01 to 10 M {sub Circled-Plus} cores can orbit stably for {approx}1000 yr: monotonic inward or outward orbital migration of the type seen in low mass disks does not occur. A system with giant planet masses similar to our solar system (1.0, 0.33, 0.1, 0.1 M {sub Jup}) was stable for over 1000 yr, and a Jupiter-Saturn-like system was stable for over 3800 yr, implying that our giant planets might well survive an MGU disk phase.

  17. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The objective of this study is to generate a marginal opportunity curve for the ITP steel subprogram showing the location of the current portfolio compared against all opportunities for steel manufacturing.

  18. Subsets of Women With Close or Positive Margins After Breast-Conserving Surgery With High Local Recurrence Risk Despite Breast Plus Boost Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupe, Krystine; Truong, Pauline T.; Alexander, Cheryl; Lesperance, Mary; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: (1) To examine the effect of surgical margin status on local recurrence (LR) and survival following breast-conserving therapy; (2) To identify subsets with close or positive margins with high LR risk despite whole breast radiotherapy (RT) plus boost. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 2,264 women with pT1-3, any N, M0 invasive breast cancer, treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast {+-} boost RT. Five-year Kaplan-Meier (KM) LR, breast cancer-specific and overall survival (BCSS and OS) were compared between cohorts with negative (n = 1,980), close (n = 222), and positive (n = 62) margins. LR rates were analyzed according to clinicopathologic characteristics. Multivariable Cox regression modeling and matched analysis of close/positive margin cases and negative margin controls were performed. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Boost RT was used in 92% of patients with close or positive margins. Five-year KM LR rates in the negative, close and positive margin cohorts were 1.3%, 4.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p = 0.001). BCSS and OS were similar in the three margin subgroups. In the close/positive margin cohort, LR rates were 10.2% with age <45 years, 11.8% with Grade III, 11.3% with lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and 26.3% with {>=}4 positive nodes. Corresponding rates in the negative margin cohort were 2.3%, 2.4%, 1.0%, and 2.4%, respectively. On Cox regression analysis of the entire cohort, close or positive margin, Grade III histology, {>=}4 positive nodes, and lack of systemic therapy were significantly associated with higher LR risk. When close/positive margin cases were matched to negative margin controls, the difference in 5-year LR remained significant (4.25% vs. 0.7%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: On univariable analysis, subsets with close or positive margins, in combination with age <45 years, Grade III, LVI, and {>=}4 positive nodes, have 5-year LR >10% despite whole breast plus boost RT. These patients should be considered for

  19. Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of an analysis that focuses on two questions: (1) How are prices for competitive generation services likely to differ from regulated prices if competitive prices are based on marginal costs rather than regulated cost-of-service pricing? (2) What impacts will the competitive pricing of generation services (based on marginal costs) have on electricity consumption patterns, production costs, and the financial integrity of electricity suppliers?

  20. Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Case Study | Department of Energy (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A

  1. Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical Equipment To Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification | Department of Energy Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment To Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment To Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification Reference 1 discussed key elements of the process for developing a margins-based "safety case" to support safe and efficient operation for an extended period. The

  2. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

  3. Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  4. Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

  5. Amphetamine margin in sports. [Effects on performance of highly trained athletes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  6. Monitoring the refinement of crystal structures with {sup 15}N solid-state NMR shift tensor data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalakewich, Keyton; Eloranta, Harriet; Harper, James K.; Iuliucci, Robbie; Mueller, Karl T.

    2015-11-21

    The {sup 15}N chemical shift tensor is shown to be extremely sensitive to lattice structure and a powerful metric for monitoring density functional theory refinements of crystal structures. These refinements include lattice effects and are applied here to five crystal structures. All structures improve based on a better agreement between experimental and calculated {sup 15}N tensors, with an average improvement of 47.0 ppm. Structural improvement is further indicated by a decrease in forces on the atoms by 2–3 orders of magnitude and a greater similarity in atom positions to neutron diffraction structures. These refinements change bond lengths by more than the diffraction errors including adjustments to X–Y and X–H bonds (X, Y = C, N, and O) of 0.028 ± 0.002 Å and 0.144 ± 0.036 Å, respectively. The acquisition of {sup 15}N tensors at natural abundance is challenging and this limitation is overcome by improved {sup 1}H decoupling in the FIREMAT method. This decoupling dramatically narrows linewidths, improves signal-to-noise by up to 317%, and significantly improves the accuracy of measured tensors. A total of 39 tensors are measured with shifts distributed over a range of more than 400 ppm. Overall, experimental {sup 15}N tensors are at least 5 times more sensitive to crystal structure than {sup 13}C tensors due to nitrogen’s greater polarizability and larger range of chemical shifts.

  7. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  8. National Geo-Database for Biofuel Simulations and Regional Analysis of Biorefinery Siting Based on Cellulosic Feedstock Grown on Marginal Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Zhang, Xuesong; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Manowitz, David H.

    2012-04-01

    SQL database hosting. The second resource was the DOE-JGCRI 'Evergreen' cluster, capable of executing millions of simulations in relatively short periods. ARRA funding also supported a PhD student from UMD who worked on creating the geodatabases and executing some of the simulations in this study. Using a physically based classification of marginal lands, we simulated production of cellulosic feedstocks from perennial mixtures grown on these lands in the US Midwest. Marginal lands in the western states of the US Midwest appear to have significant potential to supply feedstocks to a cellulosic biofuel industry. Similar results were obtained with simulations of N-fertilized perennial mixtures. A detailed spatial analysis allowed for the identification of possible locations for the establishment of 34 cellulosic ethanol biorefineries with an annual production capacity of 5.6 billion gallons. In summary, we have reported on the development of a spatially explicit national geodatabase to conduct biofuel simulation studies and provided simulation results on the potential of perennial cropping systems to serve as feedstocks for the production of cellulosic ethanol. To accomplish this, we have employed sophisticated spatial analysis methods in combination with the process-based biogeochemical model EPIC. The results of this study will be submitted to the USDOE Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework as a way to contribute to the development of a sustainable bioenergy industry. This work provided the opportunity to test the hypothesis that marginal lands can serve as sources of cellulosic feedstocks and thus contribute to avoid potential conflicts between bioenergy and food production systems. This work, we believe, opens the door for further analysis on the characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks as major contributors to the development of a sustainable bioenergy economy.

  9. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  10. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in

  11. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  12. ENZO: AN ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Turk, Matthew J.; Norman, Michael L.; Bordner, James; Xu, Hao; Kritsuk, Alexei G.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton; Abel, Tom; Wang, Peng; Skillman, Samuel W.; Wise, John H.; Reynolds, Daniel R.; Collins, David C.; Harkness, Robert P.; Kim, Ji-hoon; Kuhlen, Michael; Goldbaum, Nathan; Hummels, Cameron; Collaboration: Enzo Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the open-source code Enzo, which uses block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for modeling astrophysical fluid flows. The code is Cartesian, can be run in one, two, and three dimensions, and supports a wide variety of physics including hydrodynamics, ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics, N-body dynamics (and, more broadly, self-gravity of fluids and particles), primordial gas chemistry, optically thin radiative cooling of primordial and metal-enriched plasmas (as well as some optically-thick cooling models), radiation transport, cosmological expansion, and models for star formation and feedback in a cosmological context. In addition to explaining the algorithms implemented, we present solutions for a wide range of test problems, demonstrate the code's parallel performance, and discuss the Enzo collaboration's code development methodology.

  13. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  14. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  15. A case study of energy conservation opportunities in copper refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somers, W.E.; Hughen, M.L.; Kurylko, L.; Stone, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    A study of energy usage and distribution in a copper refinery was conducted in an attempt to determine possible cost savings in operations of the plant. The study covered those processes which were the major users of energy, namely, smelting, anode casting, electrolytic refining, steam generation and distribution, and electricity distribution. The study involved obtaining data of mass and energy flows in the refinery; identifying energy conservation opportunities (ECO's); obtaining price, operating costs, and saving potentials; for each conservation measure; and analyzing the economical viability of each conservation proposal. Potential cost savings were found to be substantial in heat recovery from slag and anode furnace hot gases, modification of the central steam supply system, control, and redistribution of electrical loads, insulation of electrolytic tanks, and changes in the atomization of oil.

  16. A Comparative Assessment of Resource Efficiency in Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, G; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Divita, V

    2015-10-01

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory's GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio. (c) 2015 Argonne National Laboratory. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.

  18. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study weremore » incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.« less

  19. Tectonic evolution of Brazilian equatorial continental margin basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azevedo, R.P. )

    1993-02-01

    The structural style and stratigraphic relationships of sedimentary basins along the Brazilian Equatorial Atlantic Continental Margin were used to construct an empirical tectonic model for the development of ancient transform margins. The model is constrained by detailed structural and subsidence analyses of several basins along the margin. The structural framework of the basins was defined at shallow and deep levels by the integration of many geophysical and geological data sets. The Barreirinhas and Para-Maranhao Basins were divided in three tectonic domains: the Tutoia, Caete, and Tromai subbasins. The Caete area is characterized by northwest-southeast striking and northeast-dipping normal faults. A pure shear mechanism of basin formation is suggested for its development. The structure of the Tutoia and Tromai subbasins are more complex and indicative of a major strike-slip component with dextral sense of displacement, during early stages of basin evolution. These two later subbasins were developed on a lithosphere characterized by an abrupt transition (<50 km wide) from an unstretched continent to an oceanic lithosphere. The subsidence history of these basins do not comply with the classical models developed for passive margins or continental rifting. The thermo-mechanical model proposed for the Brazilian equatorial margin includes heterogeneous stretching combined with shearing at the plate margin. The tectonic history comprises: (1) Triassic-Jurassic limited extension associated with the Central Atlantic evolution; (2) Neocomian intraplate deformation consisting of strike-slip reactivation of preexisting shear zones; (3) Aptian-Cenomanian two-phase period of dextral shearing; and (4) Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic sea-floor spreading.

  20. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The DDR

  1. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibilitymore » of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The

  2. Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

    2012-06-28

    The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

  3. Changing tax system challenges producers and refiners in Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1996-03-25

    Over the past several years, economics of the Russian oil industry has undergone considerable change reflecting the radical transformation of the country`s core industry from a wholly state-run and heftily subsidized distribution system toward a formally privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market entrepreneurship. All-out price liberalization, launched by the Russian government at the start of 1992, did not apply to the national oil industry. Domestic oil prices remained tangibly restrained until mid-1993 and were officially deregulated in March 1995. Consequently, rising costs diminished profit margins of Russian oil producers, whose operating costs were never as low as popularly believed. This paper reviews the tax structure of the Russian oil industry showing the effects on exports, gas prices at the pumps, and distribution prices.

  4. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

  5. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ...

  6. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  7. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  8. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  9. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  10. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  11. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  12. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  13. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  14. SIMILARITIES IN POPULATIONS OF STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fall, S. Michael; Chandar, Rupali E-mail: rupali.chandar@utoledo.edu

    2012-06-20

    We compare the observed mass functions and age distributions of star clusters in six well-studied galaxies: the Milky Way, Magellanic Clouds, M83, M51, and Antennae. In combination, these distributions span wide ranges of mass and age: 10{sup 2} {approx}< M/M{sub Sun} {approx}< 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 6} {approx}< {tau}/yr {approx}< 10{sup 9}. We confirm that the distributions are well represented by power laws: dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup {beta}} with {beta} Almost-Equal-To -1.9 and dN/d{tau}{proportional_to}{tau}{sup {gamma}} with {gamma} Almost-Equal-To -0.8. The mass and age distributions are approximately independent of each other, ruling out simple models of mass-dependent disruption. As expected, there are minor differences among the exponents at a level close to the true uncertainties, {epsilon}{sub {beta}} {approx} {epsilon}{sub {gamma}} {approx} 0.1-0.2. However, the overwhelming impression is the similarity of the mass functions and age distributions of clusters in these different galaxies, including giant and dwarf, quiescent and interacting galaxies. This is an important empirical result, justifying terms such as 'universal' or 'quasi-universal'. We provide a partial theoretical explanation for these observations in terms of physical processes operating during the formation and disruption of the clusters, including star formation and feedback, subsequent stellar mass loss, and tidal interactions with passing molecular clouds. A full explanation will require additional information about the molecular clumps and star clusters in galaxies beyond the Milky Way.

  15. Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Gross, Katherine L.; Robertson, G. P.

    2013-01-24

    Long-term measurements of global warming impact coupled with spatially explicit modeling suggests that both climate benefits and the production potential of cellulosic crops grown on marginal lands of the US North Central region are substantial but will be insufficient to meet long-term biofuel needs.

  16. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study Energetics, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies Program September 2005 1 Table of Contents Introduction.....................................................................................................................- 1 - Ore-Based Steelmaking: Bandwidth and Opportunities................................................- 3 - EAF Steelmaking: Bandwidth and

  17. Magmatic-tectonic evolution of a volcanic rifted margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldholm, O. )

    1990-05-01

    Many North Atlantic margins are underlain by huge volcanic edifices near the continent-ocean boundary. A crustal hole drilled at the outer Voering Plateau during ODP (Ocean Drilling Project) Leg 104 has provided important constraints on the breakup history and the subsequent margin evolution by penetrating more than 900 m of igneous rocks and interbedded sediment below a post-early Eocene cover. The recovered basement rocks constitute two different volcanic series. The Upper Series, comprising a seaward-dipping reflector wedge, consists of transitional mid-oceanic tholeiitic lava flows and thin volcaniclastic sediments. Dacitic flows, some dikes and thicker sediments constitute the Lower Series. The margin evolved by Paleocene crustal extension, uplift and pervasive intrusion in the rift zone. Just prior to breakup, magma from shallow crustal melts produced the Lower Series. The Upper Series was constructed during an intense, rapidly waning subaerial surge following breakup in the earliest Eocene. The Upper Series covers both new oceanic crust and large areas of continental crust. The dipping wedge was formed by subsidence due to loading and thermal contraction probably amplified by a tectonic force. When the surge had abated, the injection center subsided and a normal oceanic crust was formed. A direct temporal and compositional relationship exists between the onshore North Atlantic Volcanic Province and the volcanic margins. Whereas the central transverse part of the province, near the Iceland hotspot has been active for 60 m.y., the volcanic margins reflect a 2,000-km-long transient phenomenon lasting only 3 m.y. The breakup volcanism and lack of initial subsidence are related to a regional, about 50C{degree}, increased temperature at the base of the lithosphere (hot carpet) combined with opening in previously extended crust.

  18. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extensionmore » of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.« less

  19. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prince, M.; Sambasivam, Y. )

    1993-02-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation. The initial results show limited effectiveness of biological treatment at conditions employing indigenous bacteria and low (2%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas media. In addition, the indigenous bacteria were seen to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, penanthrene and pyrene which are present at some locations at the site. No apparent degradation of material was seen using conditions of high (30%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas medium under a variety of conditions. In addition, nutrients were rapidly depleted at these sludge concentrations, with the exception of sulfates which were produced when high sludge concentrations were used. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extension of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.

  1. Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

  2. ,"No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Diesel Retail Sales by Refiners ...17.9,1773.9,,,781.9,,3446.1,296.5,,,,129.9,2030.1,,,,182.8,,416.2,,60.5,369.8,1495.2,,76.6...

  3. SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided Simultaneous Integrated Boost Head-And-Neck Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Can, S; Neylon, J; Qi, S; Santhanam, A; Low, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of improved normal tissue sparing for head-and-neck (H'N) image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) by employing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for target level II/III though a GPU-based deformable image registration and dose accumulation framework. Methods: Ten H'N simultaneous integrated boost cases treated on TomoTherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Weekly kVCT scans in addition to daily MVCT scans were acquired for each patient. Reduced margin plans were generated with 0- mm margin for level II and III PTV (while 3-5 mm margin for PTV1) and compared with the standard margin plan using 3-5mm margin to all CTV1-3 (reference plan). An in-house developed GPU-based 3D image deformation tool was used to register and deform the weekly KVCTs with the planning CT and determine the delivered mean/minimum/maximum dose, dose volume histograms (DVHs), etc. Results: Compared with the reference plans, the averaged cord maximum, the right and left parotid doses reduced by 22.7 %, 16.5 %, and 9 % respectively in the reduced margin plans. The V95 for PTV2 and PTV3 were found within 2 and 5% between the reference and tighter margin plans. For the reduced margin plans, the averaged cumulative mean doses were consistent with the planned dose for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 within 1.5%, 1.7% and 1.4%. Similar dose variations of the delivered dose were seen for the reference and tighter margin plans. The delivered maximum and mean doses for the cord were 3.55 % and 2.37% higher than the planned doses; a 5 % higher cumulative mean dose for the parotids was also observed for the delivered dose than the planned doses in both plans. Conclusion: By imposing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for level II and III targets for H'N irradiation, acceptable cumulative doses were achievable when coupled with weekly kVCT guidance while improving normal structure sparing.

  4. On the effect of pulsating flow on surge margin of small centrifugal compressors for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galindo, J.; Climent, H.; Guardiola, C.; Tiseira, A.

    2009-11-15

    Surge is becoming a limiting factor in the design of boosting systems of downsized diesel engines. Although standard compressor flowcharts are used for the selection of those machines for a given application, on-engine conditions widely differ from steady flow conditions, thus affecting compressor behaviour and consequently surge phenomenon. In this paper the effect of pulsating flow is investigated by means of a steady gas-stand that has been modified to produce engine-like pulsating flow. The effect of pressure pulses' amplitude and frequency on the compressor surge line location has been checked. Results show that pulsating flow in the 40-67 Hz range (corresponding to characteristic pulsation when boosting an internal combustion engine) increases surge margin. This increased margin is similar for all the tested frequencies but depends on pulsation amplitude. In a further step, a non-steady compressor model is used for modelling the tests, thus allowing a deeper analysis of the involved phenomena. Model results widely agree with experimental results. (author)

  5. Impact of oxygenates on petroleum refining, review and forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unzelman, G.H.

    1995-09-01

    During the coming decade, oxygenates will continue to impact light oil processing and will steadily change the composition of the US gasoline pool. There are several major driving forces that will sustain the gradual influx of oxygen to US gasoline toward the regulatory limits: (1) the positive environmental characteristics of oxygenated compounds, (2) the high-octane quality of ethers that promote elimination of less desirable hydrocarbons and (3) the competitive need for ultra-clean gasoline to compete with alternatives. From 1995 forward, conventional gasoline will gradually shift to RFG (reformulated gasoline) containing a minimum of 2 wt% oxygen and less aromatics. As a result some processing changes, already in motion in the refining industry, will continue. For example, less severe naphtha reforming and cracking innovations to yield more feed for etherification and alkylation. While alternative fuel and vehicle technology will continue to develop, oxygenates in US gasoline will contribute the major alternative dimension to transportation fuel in the foreseeable future. With RFG, internal-combustion engine emissions will be progressively less toxic and lower in photochemical reactivity. The oxygenate mix will favor methyl ethers in spite of the recent methanol price spike. Ethyl ethers will be used on a more limited basis for specific situations where lower volatility and feedstock economics are an advantage. Downstream blending of ethanol will supplement ethers blended at the refinery in situations where economics are more favorable than refinery ethers. Long-range survival of ethanol, as a direct blending agent or feedstock for refinery ethers, depends on one or more of several factors: future crude oil costs, longevity of subsidies and/or mandates, and new production technology based on cellulose yielding ethanol economically competitive with hydrocarbons.

  6. RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei-Qun; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2005-06-06

    The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

  7. Structural framework, stratigraphy, and evolution of Brazilian marginal basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojeda, H.A.O.

    1982-06-01

    The structural framework of the Brazilian continental margin is basically composed of eight structural types: antithetic tilted step-fault blocks, synthetic untilted step-fault blocks, structural inversion axes, hinges with compensation grabens, homoclinal structures, growth faults with rollovers, diapirs, and igneous structures. The antithetic tilted and synthetic untilted step-fault blocks are considered as synchronous, complementary structural systems, separated by an inversion axis. Two evaporitic cycles (Paripueira and Ibura) were differentiated in the Sergipe-Alagoas type basin and tentatively correlated to the evaporitic section of other Brazilian marginal basis. Four phases are considered in the evolution of the Brazilian marginal basins: pre-rift, rift, transitional, and drift. During the pre-rift phase (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), continental sediments were deposited in peripheral intracratonic basins. In the rift phase (Early Cretaceous), the breakup of the continental crust of the Gondwana continent gave rise to a central graben and rift valleys where lacustrine sediments were deposited. The transitional phase (Aptian) developed under relative tectonic stability, when evaporitic and clastic lacustrine sequences were being deposited. In the drift phase (Albian to Holocene), a regionl homoclinal structure developed, consisting of two distinct sedimentary sequences, a lower clastic-carbonate and an upper clastic. From the Albian to the Holocene Epoch, structures associated to plastic displacement of salt or shale developed in many Brazilian marginal basins. Two phases of major igneous activity occurred: one in the Early Cretaceous associated with the rift phase of the Gondwana continent, and the other in the Tertiary during the migration phase of the South American and African plates.

  8. Hydroprocessing of solvent-refined coal: catalyst-screening results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stiegel, G.J.; Tischer, R.E.; Polinski, L.M.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents the results of screening four catalysts for hydroprocessing a 50 wt% mixture of SRC-I in a prehydrogenated creosote oil using a continuous flow unit. All catalysts employed were nickel-molybdates with varying properties. Reaction conditions were 2000 psi, 8 SCFH of hydrogen, volume hourly space velocity of 0.6 to 1.0 cc of SRC-I/hr/cc of catalyst, and 48 hours at 750/sup 0/F followed by 72 hours at 780/sup 0/F. The results indicate that the Shell 324 catalyst is best for hydrogenation of the feedstock but only marginally better than CB 81-44 for denitrogenation. The CB 81-44 catalyst may be slightly better than Shell 324 for the conversion of the +850/sup 0/F fraction of the feedstock. Desulfurization was uniformly high for all catalysts. Catalysts with a bimodal pore size distribution (i.e., SMR7-6137(1)) appear to be better for denitrogenation than unimodal catalysts (i.e., SMR7-6137(4)) containing the same metals loading. Unimodal catalysts (i.e., Shell 324) with higher metals loadings are comparable to bimodal catalysts (i.e., CB 81-44) containing less metals. The results indicate that pore size distribution and metals loading are important parameters for high activity. Catalysts with a unimodal pore volume distribution are capable of being restored to their original state, while bimodal ones experience a loss in surface area and pore volume and an increase in pellet density. This is attributed to the more efficient use of the interior surface area of the catalyst, which results in higher accumulation of coke and metals. Since coke can be removed via controlled oxidation, the irreversible loss is due to the higher concentrations of metals in the catalyst.

  9. An adaptive mesh-moving and refinement procedure for one-dimensional conservation laws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, R.; Flaherty, J.E.; Arney, D.C. Rensselaer Polytech. Inst., Troy, NY Military Acad., West Point, NY )

    1993-01-01

    We examine the performance of an adaptive mesh-moving and /or local mesh refinement procedure for the finite difference solution of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Adaptive motion of a base mesh is designed to isolate spatially distinct phenomena, and recursive local refinement of the time step and cells of the stationary or moving base mesh is performed in regions where a refinement indicator exceeds a prescribed tolerance. These adaptive procedures are incorporated into a computer code that includes a MacCormack finite difference scheme wih Davis' artificial viscosity model and a discretization error estimate based on Richardson's extrapolation. Experiments are conducted on three problems in order to qualify the advantages of adaptive techniques relative to uniform mesh computations and the relative benefits of mesh moving and refinement. Key results indicate that local mesh refinement, with and without mesh moving, can provide reliable solutions at much lower computational cost than possible on uniform meshes; that mesh motion can be used to improve the results of uniform mesh solutions for a modest computational effort; that the cost of managing the tree data structure associated with refinement is small; and that a combination of mesh motion and refinement reliably produces solutions for the least cost per unit accuracy.

  10. SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level IIIII Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level IIIII ...

  11. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, N. Kishore; Cross, Carl E.

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  12. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from a Barrel of Oil | Department of Energy 6: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains which result in an additional 6% of product. As shown in the figure below, a little more

  13. Margins in high temperature leak-before-break assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budden, P.J.; Hooton, D.G.

    1997-04-01

    Developments in the defect assessment procedure R6 to include high-temperature mechanisms in Leak-before-Break arguments are described. In particular, the effect of creep on the time available to detect a leak and on the crack opening area, and hence leak rate, is discussed. The competing influence of these two effects is emphasized by an example. The application to Leak-before-Break of the time-dependent failure assessment diagram approach for high temperature defect assessment is then outlined. The approach is shown to be of use in assessing the erosion of margins by creep.

  14. Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEntee, Jarlath

    2013-08-30

    Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) is a global leader in hydrokinetic technology and project development. ORPC develops hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of oceans and rivers to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPC’s technology consists of a family of modular hydrokinetic power systems: the TidGen® Power System, for use at shallow to medium-depth tidal sites; the RivGen™ Power System, for use at river and estuary sites; and the OCGen® Power System, presently under development, for use at deep tidal and offshore ocean current sites. These power systems convert kinetic energy in moving water into clean, renewable, grid-compatible electric power. The core technology component for all ORPC power systems is its patented turbine generator unit (TGU). The TGU uses proprietary advanced design cross flow (ADCF) turbines to drive an underwater permanent magnet generator mounted at the TGU’s center. It is a gearless, direct-drive system that has the potential for high reliability, requires no lubricants and releases no toxins that could contaminate the surrounding water. The hydrokinetic industry shows tremendous promise as a means of helping reduce the U.S.’s use of fossil fuels and dependence on foreign oil. To exploit this market opportunity, cross-flow hydrokinetic devices need to advance beyond the pre-commercial state and more systematic data about the structure and function of cross-flow hydrokinetic devices is required. This DOE STTR project, “Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils,” refined the cross-flow turbine design process to improve efficiency and performance and developed turbine manufacturing processes appropriate for volume production. The project proposed (1) to overcome the lack of data by extensively studying the properties of cross flow turbines, a particularly competitive design approach for extracting hydrokinetic energy and (2) to help ORPC mature its pre

  15. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS).

  16. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 26.6 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  17. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 27.4 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  18. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  19. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrino, Joan; Brueske, Sabine; Carole, Tracy; Andres, Howard

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  20. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  1. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  2. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.1 18.7 See footnotes at end of table. 18 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade...

  3. FIA-15-0002 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Springs, Inc. This Decision concerns an Appeal that Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. ... Energy (DOE) in 10 C.F.R. Part 1004. This Appeal, if granted, would require that the OIR ...

  4. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of ... and 10 gallons of diesel fuel are produced from a barrel of crudeoil by U.S. refiners. ...

  5. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  6. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  7. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    88.4 87.8 80.1 70.0 NA 72.6 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  8. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

  9. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  10. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    87.4 86.9 78.3 68.5 W 70.8 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  11. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  12. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    98.0 98.0 86.6 75.0 - 80.1 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  13. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    94.0 93.9 83.2 73.8 - 79.3 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- National Smelting and Refining Co - OH

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    20 Smelting and Refining Co - OH 20 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NATIONAL SMELTING & REFINING CO. (OH.20) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: 6800 Grand Avenue , Cleveland , Ohio OH.20-1 Evaluation Year: 1993 OH.20-2 Site Operations: No indication of other test operations using very limited quantities of slag material. OH.20-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based upon

  16. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude reserves and production Refining and processing Imports/exports & movements Stocks Consumption/sales All petroleum & other liquids data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption & sales Crude reserves & production Imports/exports & movements Prices Projections Recurring Refining & processing Stocks All reports Browse

  17. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guariguata U., G.

    1995-09-01

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments.

  18. Overview of the petroleum potential of active margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Active convergent margins are of two types. Type A, characterized by Ampherer or Alpino-type subduction, is represented by thick- and thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts and the dynamically associated foreland basins that are developed in continental settings. Type B, characterized by Benioff-type subduction, is characterized by the trench, accretionary prism, forearc association developed on present-day active continental margins, notably around the Pacific and northeast Indian Ocean. Prolific hydrocarbon reserves are associated with A-type subduction settings, notably the Zagros fold belt and Persian Gulf, the Rockies and the Alberta basin. By contrast, only minor reserves have been proven in B-type subduction settings despite ample evidence of active seepage and large structures. Key contributing factors to the lack of exploration success are a combination of low geothermal gradients, lack of effective reservoir, and imaging of complex traps whose integrity may be impacted by the active deformation. Notable exceptions are Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Progresso basin, Ecuador, where thick successor basins have been charged with hydrocarbons generated in the underlying accretionary prism.

  19. SU-E-T-573: The Robustness of a Combined Margin Recipe for Uncertainties During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroom, J; Vieira, S; Greco, C [Champalimaud Foundation, Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the variability of a safety margin recipe that combines CTV and PTV margins quadratically, with several tumor, treatment, and user related factors. Methods: Margin recipes were calculated by monte-carlo simulations in 5 steps. 1. A spherical tumor with or without isotropic microscopic was irradiated with a 5 field dose plan2. PTV: Geometric uncertainties were introduced using systematic (Sgeo) and random (sgeo) standard deviations. CTV: Microscopic disease distribution was modelled by semi-gaussian (Smicro) with varying number of islets (Ni)3. For a specific uncertainty set (Sgeo, sgeo, Smicro(Ni)), margins were varied until pre-defined decrease in TCP or dose coverage was fulfilled. 4. First, margin recipes were calculated for each of the three uncertainties separately. CTV and PTV recipes were then combined quadratically to yield a final recipe M(Sgeo, sgeo, Smicro(Ni)).5. The final M was verified by simultaneous simulations of the uncertainties.Now, M has been calculated for various changing parameters like margin criteria, penumbra steepness, islet radio-sensitivity, dose conformity, and number of fractions. We subsequently investigated A: whether the combined recipe still holds in all these situations, and B: what the margin variation was in all these cases. Results: We found that the accuracy of the combined margin recipes remains on average within 1mm for all situations, confirming the correctness of the quadratic addition. Depending on the specific parameter, margin factors could change such that margins change over 50%. Especially margin recipes based on TCP-criteria are more sensitive to more parameters than those based on purely geometric Dmin-criteria. Interestingly, measures taken to minimize treatment field sizes (by e.g. optimizing dose conformity) are counteracted by the requirement of larger margins to get the same tumor coverage. Conclusion: Margin recipes combining geometric and microscopic uncertainties quadratically are

  20. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, G.

    1998-05-01

    A conceptual design and ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation model was developed for a Battelle biomass-based gasification, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefaction and combined-cycle power plant. This model was developed in a similar manner to those coal liquefaction models that were developed under DOE contract DE-AC22-91PC90027. As such, this process flowsheet simulation model was designed to be a research guidance tool and not a detailed process design tool. However, it does contain some process design features, such as sizing the F-T synthesis reactors. This model was designed only to predict the effects of various process and operating changes on the overall plant heat and material balances, utilities, capital and operating costs.

  1. Pattern of Failure After Limited Margin Radiotherapy and Temozolomide for Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, Mark W.; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.; Curran, Walter J.; Crocker, Ian R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the pattern of failure after limited margin radiotherapy for glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 62 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated between 2006 and 2008 with standard fractionation to a total dose of 60Gy with concurrent temozolomide (97%) or arsenic trioxide (3%). The initial clinical target volume included postoperative T2 abnormality with a median margin of 0.7cm. The boost clinical target volume included residual T1-enhancing tumor and resection cavity with a median margin of 0.5cm. Planning target volumes added a 0.3- or 0.5-cm margin to clinical target volumes. The total boost planning target volume (PTV{sub boost}) margin was 1cm or less in 92% of patients. The volume of recurrent tumor (new T1 enhancement) was categorized by the percent within the 60-Gy isodose line as central (>95%), infield (81-95%), marginal (20-80%), or distant (<20%). For comparison, an initial planning target volume with a 2-cm margin and PTV{sub boost} with a 2.5-cm margin were created for each patient. Results: With a median follow-up of 12 months, radiographic tumor progression developed in 43 of 62 patients. Imaging was available for analysis in 41: 38 (93%) had central or infield failure, 2 (5%) had marginal failure, and 1 (2%) had distant failure relative to the 60-Gy isodose line. The treated PTV{sub boost} (median, 140cm{sup 3}) was, on average, 70% less than the PTV{sub boost} with a 2.5-cm margin (median, 477cm{sup 3}) (p < 0.001). Conclusions: A PTV{sub boost} margin of 1cm or less did not appear to increase the risk of marginal and/or distant tumor failures compared with other published series. With careful radiation planning and delivery, it appears that treatment margins for glioblastoma can be reduced.

  2. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M.S.S. )

    1994-07-11

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

  3. An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montijn, C. . E-mail: carolynne.montijn@cwi.nl; Hundsdorfer, W. . E-mail: willem.hundsdorfer@cwi.nl; Ebert, U. . E-mail: ute.ebert@cwi.nl

    2006-12-10

    The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction in the local electric field, coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The model generates field enhancement and steep propagating ionization fronts at the tip of growing ionized filaments. An adaptive grid refinement method for the simulation of these structures is presented. It uses finite volume spatial discretizations and explicit time stepping, which allows the decoupling of the grids for the continuity equations from those for the Poisson equation. Standard refinement methods in which the refinement criterion is based on local error monitors fail due to the pulled character of the streamer front that propagates into a linearly unstable state. We present a refinement method which deals with all these features. Tests on one-dimensional streamer fronts as well as on three-dimensional streamers with cylindrical symmetry (hence effectively 2D for numerical purposes) are carried out successfully. Results on fine grids are presented, they show that such an adaptive grid method is needed to capture the streamer characteristics well. This refinement strategy enables us to adequately compute negative streamers in pure gases in the parameter regime where a physical instability appears: branching streamers.

  4. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Fragility analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindra, M. K.; Hardy, G. S.; Hashimoto, P. S.; Griffin, M. J.

    1987-03-01

    This Fragility Analysis is the third of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 1 is the Summary Report of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 2, Systems Analysis, documents the results of the systems screening for the review. The three volumes are part of the Seismic Margins Program initiated in 1984 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to quantify seismic margins at nuclear power plants. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants.

  5. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operations or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.

  6. Klonos: A Similarity Analysis Based Tool for Software Porting

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-30

    The Klonos is a compiler-based tool that can help users for scientific application porting. The tool is based on the similarity analysis with the help of the OpenUH compiler (a branch of Open64 compiler). This tool combines syntactic and cost-model-provided metrics clusters, which aggregate similar subroutines that can be ported similarity. The generated porting plan, which allows programmers and compilers to reuse porting experience as much as possible during the porting process.

  7. Analysis shows greenhouse gas emissions similar for shale, crude...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Michael Wang, Argonne senior scientist and lead on the GREET model Analysis shows greenhouse gas emissions similar for shale, crude oil By Tona Kunz * October 15, 2015 Tweet ...

  8. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between ... More Documents & Publications Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor ...

  9. A Study of the Viability of Exploiting Memory Content Similarity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Similarity to Improve Resilience to Memory Errors. Abstract not provided. Authors: Levy, Scott N. ; Ferreira, Kurt Brian ; Thompson, Aidan Patrick ; Trott, Christian Robert ;...

  10. Ab initio multireference in-medium similarity renormalization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    group calculations of even calcium and nickel isotopes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab initio multireference in-medium similarity renormalization group ...

  11. Treatment of Passive Component Reliability in Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization FY 2010 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W Youngblood

    2010-09-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, is founded on probabilistic characterizations of SSC performance.

  12. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  13. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pranikar, Jure [Institute Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Primorska, (Slovenia); Turk, Duan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Institute Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, (Slovenia)

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  14. New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a new seismic study today that will help U.S. nuclear facilities in the central and eastern United States reassess seismic hazards. The Central and Eastern United

  15. ,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","6/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","9/1/2016" ,"Next Release

  16. ,"U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","6/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","9/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","10/3/2016" ,"Excel File

  17. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining May 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Implications of Increasing Light Oil Production on the U.S. Refining System i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  18. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- American Smelting and Refining Co - CO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    0-01 Smelting and Refining Co - CO 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: American Smelting and Refining Co (CO.0-01 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - DOE facility Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Grand Junction , Colorado CO.0-01-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CO.0-01-1 Site Operations: Purchased and assayed ores for AEC at Grand Junction Office, Colorado from 1949-1954. CO.0-01-1 CO.0-01-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Operations performed at Grand Junction

  19. Stromatolites, ooid dunes, hardgrounds, and crusted mud beds, all products of marine cementation and microbial mats in subtidal oceanic mixing zone on eastern margin of Great Bahama Bank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dill, R.F.; Kendall, C.S.C.G.; Steinen, R.P.

    1989-03-01

    The interisland channels along the eastern margin of the Great Bahamas Bank contain lithified structures that owe their origin to recent marine cementation. This cementation appears to be commonly associated with a complex microbial community of plants and microorganisms living within a bank-margin oceanographic mixing zone. In this region, reversing tidal and wind-driven currents flow up to 3 knots (150 cm/sec) three hours out of each six-hour tidal period. Here, marine-cement crusted, carbonate mud beds are found interbedded within migrating ooid sand bars and dunes and are associated with growing, lithified stromatolites up to 2 m in height. These laminated mud beds are found with thicknesses of up to 1 m in subtidal depths of 4 to 8 m (12 to 25 ft). The muds appear to be homogeneous, but closer examination by SEM and under a microscope reveals they are composed of pelletoid aggregates of needle-shaped aragonite crystals with diameters of up to 50 ..mu... The size of these soft pellets is similar to the smaller grains of ooid sands that are abundant in the area. This size similarity could explain why both the mud beds are found in similar high-energy hydraulic regimes as the ooid sands, but does not suggest how or why the aggregates of pure aragonite needles form. A high production of ooid sand within this bank margin environment permits the formation of natural levees along the margins of tidal channels. The back sides of these levees are being lithified by marine cements to form hardgrounds. Skeletal and ooid sand dunes stabilized by Thallasia in channel bottoms also are becoming lithified. Grapestones form at the distributaries of flood tidal deltas of ooid sand. All of these features have a common attribute: they are continually in contact with the turbulent mixing-zone waters.

  20. Produce through coiled tubing to keep marginal wells unloaded

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The use of coiled tubing as an alternate production tubing string has been attempted or considered by numerous operators in the past. However, its use has been tempered due to several problems known to be inherent with coiled tubing recompletions. Some of the problems encountered are: Killing the well to allow for tubing installation always carries the risk of formation damage; Candidate wells normally are marginal producers and may not produce sufficient revenue to justify the cost of a major workover; Procedures followed to install surface equipment may be hazardous; Previous installation designs required running the coiled tubing to the top of the tree, affecting the functional loss of all existing wellhead equipment; Often substandard modifications were required to reconnect into existing production facilities. However, a prototype spool and tubing hanger that incorporated modifications designed to solve these problems has been developed jointly by Reeled Tubing, Inc., and Well-head Control Systems. The solution is a new concept in the coiled tubing hanger. The design incorporates a floating element, which is a combination slip bowl, seal element and retaining sub. The entire assembly is installed and activated in the bore of a specially designed spool installed between the primary and secondary master valves of the existing wellhead.

  1. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K.

    1999-08-01

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  2. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  3. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  4. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  5. Tools for macromolecular model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alan; Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A.; Toots, Jaan; Emsley, Paul; Murshudov, Garib, E-mail: garib@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of new tools to facilitate model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions. The recent rapid development of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows structures to be solved by this method at resolutions close to 3 . Here, a number of tools to facilitate the interpretation of EM reconstructions with stereochemically reasonable all-atom models are described. The BALBES database has been repurposed as a tool for identifying protein folds from density maps. Modifications to Coot, including new Jiggle Fit and morphing tools and improved handling of nucleic acids, enhance its functionality for interpreting EM maps. REFMAC has been modified for optimal fitting of atomic models into EM maps. As external structural information can enhance the reliability of the derived atomic models, stabilize refinement and reduce overfitting, ProSMART has been extended to generate interatomic distance restraints from nucleic acid reference structures, and a new tool, LIBG, has been developed to generate nucleic acid base-pair and parallel-plane restraints. Furthermore, restraint generation has been integrated with visualization and editing in Coot, and these restraints have been applied to both real-space refinement in Coot and reciprocal-space refinement in REFMAC.

  6. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may be used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.

  7. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may bemore » used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.« less

  8. EIS-0069: Solvent Refined Coal-II Demonstration Project, Fort Martin, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic and social impacts associated with the construction and short-term operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity facility that will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the solvent refined coal process at Fort Martin, West Virginia.

  9. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.6 92.3 78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

  10. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  11. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  12. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 5.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 - 0.9 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  13. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  15. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - 4.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 - 0.7 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  16. Similarity-Driven Discovery of Zeolite Materials for Adsorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Similarity-Driven Discovery of Zeolite Materials for Adsorption-Based Separations Previous Next List Richard L. Martin, Thomas F. Willems, Li-Chiang Lin, Jihan Kim, Joseph A....

  17. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Methods Development Work

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Curtis L; Ma, Zhegang; Tom Riley; Mandelli, Diego; Nielsen, Joseph W; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes the research activity developed during the Fiscal year 2014 within the Risk Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) campaign. This research activity is complementary to the one presented in the INL/EXT-??? report which shows advances Probabilistic Risk Assessment Analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-7 in conjunction to novel flooding simulation tools. Here we present several analyses that prove the values of the RISMC approach in order to assess risk associated to nuclear power plants (NPPs). We focus on simulation based PRA which, in contrast to classical PRA, heavily employs system simulator codes. Firstly we compare, these two types of analyses, classical and RISMC, for a Boiling water reactor (BWR) station black out (SBO) initiating event. Secondly we present an extended BWR SBO analysis using RAVEN and RELAP-5 which address the comments and suggestions received about he original analysis presented in INL/EXT-???. This time we focus more on the stochastic analysis such probability of core damage and on the determination of the most risk-relevant factors. We also show some preliminary results regarding the comparison between RELAP5-3D and the new code RELAP-7 for a simplified Pressurized Water Reactors system. Lastly we present some conceptual ideas regarding the possibility to extended the RISMC capabilities from an off-line tool (i.e., as PRA analysis tool) to an online-tool. In this new configuration, RISMC capabilities can be used to assist and inform reactor operator during real accident scenarios.

  18. Petroleum possibilities in continental margin off central Chile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, E.

    1986-07-01

    The continental margin off central Chile, from Valparaiso to Valdivia, encompassing an area of 100,000 km/sup 2/, has been the target of exploratory activity by Empresa Nacional del Petroleo since 1970. Exploratory drilling began in 1972. By August 1984, total exploratory efforts had resulted in drilling 14 offshore wells and acquiring 12,130 km of seismic reflection lines. A biogenic gas accumulation was discovered in the F well. Because these attempts to find oil were unsuccessful and because drilling costs have escalated, exploratory activities have been curtailed. Forearc basins off central Chile are characterized by low geothermal gradient and a sedimentary filling of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Tertiary sequences are characterized by low organic carbon content, immature humic-type organic matter, and a biogenic gas potential. Cretaceous sequences are characterized by higher organic carbon content, good reservoir rocks, and fair to good source rocks. The organic matter is sapropelic, with vitrinite and liptinites, and is favorable for oil and gas generation. Seismic and well data suggest that Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rock sequences filling the basins (more than 4000 m thick at the shelf edge) extend 40-70 km beyond the present shelf edge. Mesozoic rocks deposited on the slope may generate petroleum and gas that could migrate upslope and accumulate in traps associated with the faulted basement highs and graben-type depressions existing at the shelf edge. This geologic setting favors the development of large petroleum accumulations along the shelf edge and graben on the sedimentary basins off central Chile.

  19. A residual stress study in similar and dissimilar welds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eisazadeh, Hamid; Goldak, John A.; Aidun, Daryush K.; Coules, Harry E.; Bunn, Jeffrey R; Achuthan, A.

    2016-04-01

    Residual strain distributions in similar and dissimilar welds were measured using neutron diffraction (ND) method. Then, using three strain components, three-dimensional stress states were calculated. The results were used to determine the effect of the martensitic phase transformation and material properties on residual stress (RS) distribution. It was observed that smaller longitudinal RS was induced in the low carbon steel side of dissimilar weld when compared to its similar weld. Also, it was found that the transverse RS near and within the weld zone (WZ) in dissimilar weld exhibited a distinctive trend, with tensile mode reaching the yield strength ofmore » the base metal (BM). In order to characterize the WZ in dissimilar weld, we deployed optical microscopy, hardness, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). This study not only provides further insight into the RS state in similar and dissimilar welds; it also delivers important consequences of phase transformation in the latter case.« less

  20. Anisotropic Margin Expansions in 6 Anatomic Directions for Oropharyngeal Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yock, Adam D. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Beadle, Beth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang, Lifei [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei, E-mail: dong.lei@scrippshealth.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine the expansions in 6 anatomic directions that produced optimal margins considering nonrigid setup errors and tissue deformation for patients receiving image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: For 20 patients who had received IGRT to the head and neck, we deformably registered each patient's daily images acquired with a computed tomography (CT)-on-rails system to his or her planning CT. By use of the resulting vector fields, the positions of volume elements within the clinical target volume (CTV) (target voxels) or within a 1-cm shell surrounding the CTV (normal tissue voxels) on the planning CT were identified on each daily CT. We generated a total of 15,625 margins by dilating the CTV by 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 mm in the posterior, anterior, lateral, medial, inferior, and superior directions. The optimal margins were those that minimized the relative volume of normal tissue voxels positioned within the margin while satisfying 1 of 4 geometric target coverage criteria and 1 of 3 population criteria. Results: Each pair of geometric target coverage and population criteria resulted in a unique, anisotropic, optimal margin. The optimal margin expansions ranged in magnitude from 1 to 5 mm depending on the anatomic direction of the expansion and on the geometric target coverage and population criteria. Typically, the expansions were largest in the medial direction, were smallest in the lateral direction, and increased with the demand of the criteria. The anisotropic margin resulting from the optimal set of expansions always included less normal tissue than did any isotropic margin that satisfied the same pair of criteria. Conclusions: We demonstrated the potential of anisotropic margins to reduce normal tissue exposure without compromising target coverage in IGRT to the head and neck.

  1. A class of self-similar hydrodynamics test problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Scott D; Brown, Lowell S; Nelson, Eric M; Alme, Marv L

    2010-12-08

    We consider self-similar solutions to the gas dynamics equations. One such solution - a spherical geometry Gaussian density profile - has been analyzed in the existing literature, and a connection between it, a linear velocity profile, and a uniform specific internal energy profile has been identified. In this work, we assume the linear velocity profile to construct an entire class of self-similar sol utions in both cylindrical and spherical geometry, of which the Gaussian form is one possible member. After completing the derivation, we present some results in the context of a test problem for compressible flow codes.

  2. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  3. Profiling of selenium removal in hydrogen ambient zone-refined tellurium bar using RF-GDOES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil, G. . E-mail: anilpillai_99@yahoo.com; Reddy, M.R.P.; Prasad, D.S.; Ali, S.T.; Munirathnam, N.R.; Prakash, T.L.

    2007-01-15

    Ultrapure tellurium (Te) metal has become an important metal in the strategic sector for fabricating high performance infrared devices for thermal imaging and night vision cameras. Zone refining (ZR) is a proven technique for purification of Te. Selenium (Se), present as an impurity in Te, is not easily removed by ZR under normal conditions as the segregation coefficient (K) is around 0.44-0.50. Hence, ZR was performed in a hydrogen atmosphere, during which Se gets converted to hydrogen selenide at the molten moving zones and carried away into the sodium hydroxide scrubbers. In this study a radio-frequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometer (RF-GDOES) was used for determining the concentration of Se along the 56 cm Te zone-refined bar. It was observed that the initial concentration of 1100 ppb Se was decreased to 30 ppb after 2 cycles.

  4. Report to the Congress on the storage of refined petroleum products and on regional supply interruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report describes petroleum and petroleum products storage and supply disruption. Information is presented under the following topics: Historical Perspective; Current Patterns of Supply and Disposition of Petroleum Products in the Primary Distribution System; PADD I Clean Products Supply/Demand; 1990 Regional Petroleum Reserve Annual Computation; Market Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the California Motor Gasoline Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the Northeast Distillate Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Storage Stability Characteristics of Petroleum Products and Crude Oil; Effect of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on Demand for Petroleum Product Storage Capacity; and Environmental Regulations on Tanks.

  5. Application of a catalyst deactivation model for hydrotreating solvent refined coal feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-10-01

    A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, is applied to upgrading of coal-derived feedstocks prepared from two solvent refined coal fractions. A catalyst deactivation mechanism is proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. The effect of feedstock composition, temperature and pressure on kinetic parameters, and in particular the catalyst deactivation rate, is determined.

  6. Grain refinement of cast zinc through magnesium inoculation: Characterisation and mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhilin; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Feng; Taylor, John A.; Zhang, Mingxing

    2015-08-15

    It was previously found that peritectic-forming solutes are more favourable for the grain refinement of cast Al alloys than eutectic-forming solutes. In this work, we report that the eutectic-forming solute, Mg, can also significantly grain refine cast Zn. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) of a Zn–Mg alloy, in which efficient grain refinement occurred, evidenced an unexpected peak that appeared before the nucleation of η-Zn grains on the DTA spectrum. Based on extensive examination using X-ray diffraction, high resolution SEM and EDS, it was found that: (a) some faceted Zn–Mg intermetallic particles were reproducibly observed; (b) the particles were located at or near grain centres; (c) the atomic ratio of Mg to Zn in the intermetallic compound was determined to be around 1/2. Using tilting selected area diffraction (SAD) and convergent beam Kikuchi line diffraction pattern (CBKLDP) techniques, these faceted particles were identified as MgZn{sub 2} and an orientation relationship between such grain-centred MgZn{sub 2} particles and the η-Zn matrix was determined. Hence, the unexpected peak on the DTA spectrum is believed to correspond to the formation of MgZn{sub 2} particles, which act as effective heterogeneous nucleation sites in the alloy. Together with the effect of Mg solute on restricting grain growth, such heterogeneous nucleation is cooperatively responsible for the grain size reduction in Zn–Mg alloys. - Highlights: • A new eutectic-based grain refiner for the cast Zn was found. • The formation process of an intermetallic compound (MgZn{sub 2}) was characterised. • MgZn{sub 2} can act as potent heterogeneous nucleation sites above the liquidus. • A new OR between MgZn{sub 2} and η-Zn was determined using the CBKLDP technique.

  7. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for stepmore » structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.« less

  8. Source category survey: secondary copper smelting and refining industry. Final report Oct 79-Jan 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, M.K.; Shobe, F.D.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the secondary copper smelting and refining industry to determine the probable impact of the development of new source performance standards under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. The surveyed industry processes copper scrap to produce pure copper or copper alloy, other than brass and bronze. Secondary copper foundries, which melt and cast high-quality copper scrap without refining it, are excluded. Primary copper smelters and refiners, which produce copper from ore, are also excluded, although they also process copper scrap. Process, emissions, and economic data were gathered by literature searches, contacts with representatives of the industry, trade associations, federal government agencies, and state and local air pollution control agencies, and visits to two plants. The industry's production processes, actual and allowable air emissions, and emission control systems are described. State and local emission regulations are compared. Production and capacity are projected to 1989 and the impact of new source performance standards is assessed.

  9. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for step structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.

  10. Surface Protonation at the Rutile (110) Interface: Explicit Incorporation of Solvation Structure within the Refined MUSIC Model Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machesky, Michael L.; Predota, M.; Wesolowski, David J

    2008-11-01

    The detailed solvation structure at the (110) surface of rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) in contact with bulk liquid water has been obtained primarily from experimentally verified classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations of the ab initio-optimized surface in contact with SPC/E water. The results are used to explicitly quantify H-bonding interactions, which are then used within the refined MUSIC model framework to predict surface oxygen protonation constants. Quantum mechanical molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations in the presence of freely dissociable water molecules produced H-bond distributions around deprotonated surface oxygens very similar to those obtained by CMD with nondissociable SPC/E water, thereby confirming that the less computationally intensive CMD simulations provide accurate H-bond information. Utilizing this H-bond information within the refined MUSIC model, along with manually adjusted Ti-O surface bond lengths that are nonetheless within 0.05 {angstrom} of those obtained from static density functional theory (DFT) calculations and measured in X-ray reflectivity experiments (as well as bulk crystal values), give surface protonation constants that result in a calculated zero net proton charge pH value (pHznpc) at 25 C that agrees quantitatively with the experimentally determined value (5.4 {+-} 0.2) for a specific rutile powder dominated by the (110) crystal face. Moreover, the predicted pH{sub znpc} values agree to within 0.1 pH unit with those measured at all temperatures between 10 and 250 C. A slightly smaller manual adjustment of the DFT-derived Ti-O surface bond lengths was sufficient to bring the predicted pH{sub znpc} value of the rutile (110) surface at 25 C into quantitative agreement with the experimental value (4.8 {+-} 0.3) obtained from a polished and annealed rutile (110) single crystal surface in contact with dilute sodium nitrate solutions using second harmonic generation (SHG) intensity measurements as a function of ionic

  11. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joosten, Robbie P.; Womack, Thomas; Vriend, Gert; Bricogne, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of validation and real-space intervention possibilities for improving existing automated (re-)refinement methods. The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data.

  12. Estimation of Inherent Safety Margins in Loaded Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Robb, Kevin R.; Radulescu, Georgeta; Scaglione, John M.

    2016-06-15

    We completed a novel assessment to determine the unquantified and uncredited safety margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and as-loaded calculations) available in as-loaded spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks. This assessment was performed as part of a broader effort to assess issues and uncertainties related to the continued safety of casks during extended storage and transportability following extended storage periods. Detailed analyses crediting the actual as-loaded cask inventory were performed for each of the casks at three decommissioned pressurized water reactor (PWR) sites to determine their characteristics relative to regulatory safety criteria for criticality, thermal, and shielding performance.more » These detailed analyses were performed in an automated fashion by employing a comprehensive and integrated data and analysis tool—Used Nuclear Fuel-Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF-ST&DARDS). Calculated uncredited criticality margins from 0.07 to almost 0.30 Δkeff were observed; calculated decay heat margins ranged from 4 to almost 22 kW (as of 2014); and significant uncredited transportation dose rate margins were also observed. The results demonstrate that, at least for the casks analyzed here, significant uncredited safety margins are available that could potentially be used to compensate for SNF assembly and canister structural performance related uncertainties associated with long-term storage and subsequent transportation. The results also suggest that these inherent margins associated with how casks are loaded could support future changes in cask licensing to directly or indirectly credit the margins. Work continues to quantify the uncredited safety margins in the SNF casks loaded at other nuclear reactor sites.« less

  13. An active metallic nanomatryushka with two similar super-resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, D. J.; Cheng, Y.; Wu, X. W.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-07-07

    The optical properties of a simple metallic nanomatryushka (nanosphere-in-a-nanoshell) with gain have been investigated theoretically. The spaser (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) phenomena can be observed at two critical wavelengths in the active metallic nanomatryushkas. With increasing the gain coefficient of the middle layer, a similar super surface plasmon (SP) resonance is first found at the ???|? mode of the active nanoparticles and then breaks down. With further increasing the gain coefficient, another similar super-resonance occurs at the ???|? mode. The near-field enhancements in the active nanomatryushkas also have been greatly amplified at the critical wavelengths for ???|? and ???|? modes. It is further found that the amplifications of SPs in the active AgSiO?Au nanoshell are strongest in four kinds of nanoshells and hence the largest near fields. The giant near-field enhancement can greatly enhance the Raman excitation and emission.

  14. Naked singularities in self-similar spherical gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ori, A.; Piran, T.

    1987-11-09

    We present general-relativistic solutions of self-similar spherical collapse of an adiabatic perfect fluid. We show that if the equation of state is soft enough (GAMMA-1<<1), a naked singularity forms. The singularity resembles the shell-focusing naked singularities that arise in dust collapse. This solution increases significantly the range of matter fields that should be ruled out in order that the cosmic-censorship hypothesis will hold.

  15. Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment To Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Blanchard; R. Youngblood

    2012-04-01

    In general, the margins-based safety case helps the decision-maker manage plant margins most effectively. It tells the plant decision-maker such things as what margin is present (at the plant level, at the functional level, at the barrier level, at the component level), and where margin is thin or perhaps just degrading. If the plant is safe, it tells the decision-maker why the plant is safe and where margin needs to be maintained, and perhaps where the plant can afford to relax.

  16. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-02: Can Pre-Treatment 4DCT-Based Motion Margins Estimates Be Trusted for Proton Radiotherapy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seco, J; Koybasi, O; Mishra, P; James, S St.; Lewis, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy motion margins are generated using pre-treatment 4DCT data. The purpose of this study is to assess if pre-treatment 4DCT is sufficient in proton therapy to provide accurate estimate of motion margins. A dosimetric assessment is performed comparing pre-treatment margins with daily-customized margins. Methods: Gold fiducial markers implanted in lung tumors of patients were used to track the tumor. A spherical tumor of diameter 20 mm is inserted into a realistic digital respiratory phantom, where the tumor motion is based on real patient lung tumor trajectories recorded over multiple days. Using Day 1 patient data, 100 ITVs were generated with 1 s interval between consecutive scan start times. Each ITV was made up by the union of 10 tumor positions obtained from 6 s scan time. Two ITV volumes were chosen for treatment planning: ITVmean-? and ITVmean+?. The delivered dose was computed on i) 10 phases forming the planning ITV (10-phase - simulating dose calculation based on 4DCT) and ii) 50 phantoms produced from 100 s of data from any other day with tumor positions sampled every 2 s (dynamic - simulating the dose that would actually be delivered). Results: For similar breathing patterns between Day 1 and any other Day N(>1), the 95% volume coverage (D95) for dynamic case was 8.13% lower than the 10-phase case for ITVmean+?. For breathing patterns that were very different between Day 1 and any other Day N(>1), this difference was as high as 24.5% for ITVmean-?. Conclusion: Proton treatment planning based on pre-treatment 4DCT can lead to under-dosage of the tumor and over-dosage of the surrounding tissues, because of inadequate estimate of the range of motion of the tumor. This is due to the shift of the Bragg peak compared to photon therapy in which the tumor is surrounded by an electron bath.

  17. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  18. Adaptive Sampling for High Throughput Data Using Similarity Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulaevskaya, V.; Sales, A. P.

    2015-05-06

    The need for adaptive sampling arises in the context of high throughput data because the rates of data arrival are many orders of magnitude larger than the rates at which they can be analyzed. A very fast decision must therefore be made regarding the value of each incoming observation and its inclusion in the analysis. In this report we discuss one approach to adaptive sampling, based on the new data point’s similarity to the other data points being considered for inclusion. We present preliminary results for one real and one synthetic data set.

  19. TU-F-17A-07: Real-Time Personalized Margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rottmann, J; Berbeco, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To maximize normal tissue sparing for treatments requiring motion encompassing margins. Motion mitigation techniques including DMLC or couch tracking can freeze tumor motion within the treatment aperture potentially allowing for smaller treatment margins and thus better sparing of normal tissue. To enable for a safe application of this concept in the clinic we propose adapting margins dynamically in real-time during radiotherapy delivery based on personalized tumor localization confidence. To demonstrate technical feasibility we present a phantom study. Methods: We utilize a realistic anthropomorphic dynamic thorax phantom with a lung tumor model embedded close to the spine. The tumor, a 3D-printout of a patient's GTV, is moved 15mm peak-to-peak by diaphragm compression and monitored by continuous EPID imaging in real-time. Two treatment apertures are created for each beam, one representing ITV -based and the other GTV-based margin expansion. A soft tissue localization (STiL) algorithm utilizing the continuous EPID images is employed to freeze tumor motion within the treatment aperture by means of DMLC tracking. Depending on a tracking confidence measure (TCM), the treatment aperture is adjusted between the ITV and the GTV leaf. Results: We successfully demonstrate real-time personalized margin adjustment in a phantom study. We measured a system latency of about 250 ms which we compensated by utilizing a respiratory motion prediction algorithm (ridge regression). With prediction in place we observe tracking accuracies better than 1mm. For TCM=0 (as during startup) an ITV-based treatment aperture is chosen, for TCM=1 a GTV-based aperture and for 0margins during radiotherapy and adapt to tracking confidence in real-time. Normal tissue sparing is maximized. The worst case scenario results in delivering a plan

  20. Sedimentary basins on the connugate margins of South America and Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, G.T. )

    1990-05-01

    An Early Cretaceous spreading system formed the South Atlantic by separating South America from Africa along two subparallel major transform fault systems. The distribution of major sedimentary depocenters is controlled by the complex interplay of two factors: the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of sea-floor spreading and the legacy of a Precambrian collage of ancient cores that comprised western Gondwana. Three spreading modes created this configuration: rift, transform, and subduction. Each produces a different geometry and tectonic framework for the accumulation of sediment. Rifted margins (60%) contain basins that are elongate, form with their depocenter axes inboard of the ocean-continent transition, and rest on a tectonically complex, foundered basement. Transform margins have abrupt ocean-continent transitions. Such margins (30%) may be sediment starved or contain a thick sedimentary section controlled by the volcanic ridges of transform faults. Off Tierra del Fuego, Burdwood Bank is bounded on the north by a fossil (aseismic) subduction zone. The associated basin is an elongate, deformed accretionary prism of sediments on a gently dipping, faulted oceanic plate. The South Atlantic margins are divisible into 68 basins or segments that collectively contain over 33 {times} 106 km{sup 3} of syn- and postbreakup sediments. The South American margin contains 22 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 3} in 46 basins, and the African margin, 11 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 3} in 22 basins. Over 65% of the basins have a sediment column greater than 5 km with some depocenters that locally exceed 10 km. The source rock quality and character vary along both margins. The top of the oil generation window averages about 3.3 km; however, due to differing thermal histories, individual basins can depart significantly from this average.

  1. Tectonic significance of Synrift sediment packages across the Congo continental margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, J.P.; Karner, G.D.; Driscoll, N.W. ); Brumbaugh, W.D. ); Cameron, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The tectonic and stratigraphic development of the Congo continental margin reflects the timing, magnitude, and distribution of lithospheric extension responsible for its formation. Details of the lithospheric extension process are recorded in the stratigraphic successions preserved along and across the margin. By using the stratal relationships (e.g., onlap, downlap, and truncation) and lithofacies determined from seismic reflection and exploratory well data as input into our basin-modeling strategy, we have developed an integrated approach to determine the relationship between the timing, magnitude, and distribution of lithospheric extension across the margin. Two hinge zones, an eastern and Atlantic hinge formed along the Congo margin in response to discrete extensional events occurring from the Berriasian to the Aptian. The eastern hinge zone demarcates the eastern limit of the broadly distributed Berriasian extension. This extension resulted in the formation of deep anoxic, lacustrine systems. In contrast, the Atlantic hinge, located [approximately]90 km west of the eastern hinge, marks the eastern limit of a second phase of extension, which began in the Hauterivian. Consequent footwall uplift and rotation exposed the earlier synrift and prerift stratigraphy to at least wave base causing varying amounts of erosional truncation across the Atlantic hinge zone along much of the Gabon, Congo, and Angola margins. The absence of the Melania Formation across the Congo margin implies that uplift of the Atlantic hinge was relatively minor compared to that across the Angola and Gabon margins. In addition, material eroded from the adjacent and topographically higher hinge zones may in part account for the thick wedge of sediment deposited seaward of the Congo Atlantic hinge. A third phase of extension reactivated both the eastern and Atlantic hinge zones and was responsible for creating the accommodation space for Marnes Noires source rock deposition.

  2. Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M.

    2013-07-01

    CVMR{sup R} presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR{sup R} applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR{sup R} will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR{sup R} and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR{sup R} produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR{sup R} process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

  3. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-11-10

    ABSTRACT Several tanks at the Hanford Site (in Washington State, USA) belong to the first generation of underground nuclear waste storage tanks known as single shell tanks (SSTs). These tanks were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and are well beyond their design life. This article discusses the structural analysis approach and modeling challenges encountered during the ongoing analysis of record (AOR) for evaluating the structural integrity of the SSTs. There are several geometrical and material nonlinearities and uncertainties to be dealt with while performing the modern finite element analysis of these tanks. The analysis takes into account the temperature history of the tanks and allowable mechanical operating loads of these tanks for proper estimation of creep strains and thermal degradation of material properties. The loads prescribed in the AOR models also include anticipated loads that these tanks may see during waste retrieval and closure. Due to uncertainty in a number of inputs to the models, sensitivity studies were conducted to address questions related to the boundary conditions to realistically or conservatively represent the influence of surrounding tanks in a tank farm, the influence of backfill excavation slope, the extent of backfill and the total extent of undisturbed soil surrounding the backfill. Because of the limited availability of data on the thermal and operating history for many of the individual tanks, some of the data was assumed or interpolated. However, the models developed for the analysis of record represent the bounding scenarios and include the loading conditions that the tanks were subjected to or anticipated. The modeling refinement techniques followed in the AOR resulted in conservative estimates for force and moment demands at various sections in the concrete tanks. This article discusses the modeling aspects related to Type-II and Type-III SSTs. The modeling techniques, methodology and evaluation criteria developed for

  4. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per barrel in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,16.69,16.42999,16.9899,17.66,18.28,19.0599,19.89,20.72,21.65,22.61,23.51,24.29,24.9,25.6,26.3,27,27.64,28.16

  5. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  6. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  7. ,"U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil",3,"Monthly","7/2016","1/15/1974" ,"Release Date:","9/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","10/3/2016" ,"Excel File

  8. MX-2500 thermal processor for the treatment of petroleum refining wastes and contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanberg, C. )

    1993-05-01

    Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc. (SRS) of Irvine, California is the market leader in supplying hazardous waste and secondary material dewatering and drying services to the petroleum refining industry. In late 1991, SRS introduced the new generation of dryer technology, the MX-2500. The MX-2500 is an electrically heated dryer system that recovers virtually all of the hydrocarbon value of refinery wastes and secondary materials, while producing a solid residue meeting EPA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment levels which allows the refinery to land dispose of the solids, thereby realizing two objectives: waste minimization and oil recovery/recycling. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Managing process innovation through incremental improvements: Empirical evidence in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, J.Z.

    1994-11-01

    This paper developed a present value index (PVI) model to offer a new solution to differing the effects of radical innovation and incremental improvement. After comparing the return from an initial-radical-process innovation and the return from the incremental changes in petroleum refining processes, it was found that incremental improvements generated higher returns than from its initial innovations. The findings suggest that, in contrast to a conventional research and development (R&D) strategy with a focus on state-of-art innovations, manufacturing companies should place sufficient emphasis on incremental capital and operating improvements to fully exploit economic benefits from an innovation. 49 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Refinement of overlapping local/global iteration method based on Monte Carlo/p-CMFD calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Y.; Yun, S.; Cho, N. Z.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the overlapping local/global (OLG) iteration method based on Monte Carlo/p-CMFD calculations is refined in two aspects. One is the consistent use of estimators to generate homogenized scattering cross sections. Another is that the incident or exiting angular interval is divided into multi-angular bins to modulate albedo boundary conditions for local problems. Numerical tests show that, compared to the one angle bin case in a previous study, the four angle bin case shows significantly improved results. (authors)

  11. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  12. European refiners must seek creative processes to justify heavy-ends projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, P.

    1996-12-09

    There are strong reasons for wanting to upgrade the bottom of the crude oil barrel. But European refiners will not find it easy to get approval and funding for major capital investment projects. In most cases, investment justification will have to be creative and may need to rely on factors traditionally considered to be outside the conventional refinery fence. Examples of such creative upgrading schemes are those employed in four gasification projects planned for refineries in Italy. It is clear that the major obstacles to heavy residue processing are not technical, but economic. A review of these obstacles will set the stage for European investment in bottom-of-the-barrel processing.

  13. Quantitative phase analysis of Mg:ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by Rietveld refinement method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaji, V. Senthilkumaran, S. Thangadurai, P.

    2014-04-24

    To quantify the structural phases of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} doped with Mg ions of varying concentrations (3, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and annealed at different temperatures. Magnesia doped zirconia was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method and annealed up to 1000°C. The monoclinic and tetragonal phases present in Mg:ZrO{sub 2} were quantified using Rietveld refinement analysis of the X-ray diffraction data and compared with the Direct method based on peak intensity calculations. Tetragonal phase was dominant in the 600°C annealed Mg:ZrO{sub 2} for all Mg concentrations.

  14. Optimization of leaf margins for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy using a flattening filter-free beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakai, Nobuhide; Sumida, Iori; Otani, Yuki; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Masatoshi

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The authors sought to determine the optimal collimator leaf margins which minimize normal tissue dose while achieving high conformity and to evaluate differences between the use of a flattening filter-free (FFF) beam and a flattening-filtered (FF) beam. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients scheduled for stereotactic body radiotherapy underwent treatment planning for a 7 MV FFF and a 6 MV FF beams to the planning target volume (PTV) with a range of leaf margins (?3 to 3 mm). Forty grays per four fractions were prescribed as a PTV D95. For PTV, the heterogeneity index (HI), conformity index, modified gradient index (GI), defined as the 50% isodose volume divided by target volume, maximum dose (Dmax), and mean dose (Dmean) were calculated. Mean lung dose (MLD), V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for the lung (defined as the volumes of lung receiving at least 20 and 5 Gy), mean heart dose, and Dmax to the spinal cord were measured as doses to organs at risk (OARs). Paired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: HI was inversely related to changes in leaf margin. Conformity index and modified GI initially decreased as leaf margin width increased. After reaching a minimum, the two values then increased as leaf margin increased (V shape). The optimal leaf margins for conformity index and modified GI were ?1.1 0.3 mm (mean 1 SD) and ?0.2 0.9 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?1.0 0.4 and ?0.3 0.9 mm, respectively, for 6 MV FF. Dmax and Dmean for 7 MV FFF were higher than those for 6 MV FF by 3.6% and 1.7%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the ratios of HI, Dmax, and Dmean for 7 MV FFF to those for 6 MV FF and PTV size (R = 0.767, 0.809, and 0.643, respectively). The differences in MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung between FFF and FF beams were negligible. The optimal leaf margins for MLD, V20 Gy, and V5 Gy for lung were ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0.8, and ?2.1 1.2 mm, respectively, for 7 MV FFF compared to ?0.9 0.6, ?1.1 0

  15. Self-similar expansion of a warm dense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djebli, Mourad; Moslem, Waleed M.

    2013-07-15

    The properties of an expanding plasma composed of degenerate electron fluid and non-degenerate ions are studied. For our purposes, we use fluid equations for ions together with the electron momentum equation that include quantum forces (e.g., the quantum statistical pressure, forces due to the electron-exchange and electron correlations effects) and the quasi-neutrality condition. The governing equation is written in a tractable form by using a self-similar transformation. Numerical results for typical beryllium plasma parameters revealed that, during the expansion, the ion acoustic speed decreases for both isothermal and adiabatic ion pressure. When compared with classical hydrodynamic plasma expansion model, the electrons and ions are found to initially escape faster in vacuum creating thus an intense electric field that accelerates most of the particles into the vacuum ahead of the plasma expansion. The relevancy of the present model to beryllium plasma produced by a femto-second laser is highlighted.

  16. Tectonic denudation of upper mantle along passive margins: a model based on drilling (ODP Leg 103) and diving (Galinaute cruise) results, western Galicia Margin, Spain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boillot, G.; Winterer, E.L.; Recq, M.; Girardeau, J.; Kornprobst, J.; Loreau, J.P.; Malod, J.; Mougenot, D.

    1987-05-01

    During ODP Leg 103 (April-June 1985) and the Galinaute cruise (June-July 1986), serpentinized peridotite (clinopyroxene-spinel harzburgite) was recovered within the basement approximately at the boundary between the North Atlantic ocean crust to the west and the thinned continental crust of the Galicia passive margin (Spain) to the east. The exposure of mantle-derived peridotite on the sea floor occurred at the end of the period of rifting, roughly 110 Ma. Ductile shear zones observed in the peridotite are consistent with movements along a deep, low-angle normal fault rooted within the upper mantle and dipping eastward beneath the Galicia margin. To explain the tectonic denudation of the mantle at the ocean-continent boundary, they use a nonuniform stretching model for the lithosphere, set up from Wernicke's model.

  17. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging: First year progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1994-03-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult. The problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technologies for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of pilot scale melting demonstrations (100-500 lbs) to be conducted at selected commercial facilities. This program will identify methods that can be used to recycle stainless steel RSM which will be used to fabricate high and low level waste canisters for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility. This report summarizes the results of an extensive literature review and the first year`s progress on slag design, small-scale melt refining of surrogate-containing stainless steel (presently only a three month effort), and pilot-scale preparation of surrogate master ingots.

  18. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  19. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  20. US imports. Part II. Refined product market shares, then and now

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-08

    Unlike imports of crude oil to the US, which were up 45.7% between 1977 and 1986, imports of petroleum products have fallen by about 8.6% during the same period. The crude oil price crash of 1986 deepened US dependency on imports of crude, from 21.4% in 1977 to 25.4% in 1986, but reduced the dependency in the case of total refined products from 11.32% in 1977 to 11.13% in 1986. Comparing the first four months of 1987 with 1986, US dependency on imported petroleum products is down 2.73 percentage points; import dependency on OPEC petroleum products is down 4.60 percentage points; dependency on Arab OPEC countries product imports is down 1.88 percentage points; and for Eastern Hemisphere exporters, that dependency has fallen 2.17 percentage points. This issue also contains: (1) ED refining netback data from the US Gulf and West coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for early July 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1987 edition. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)more » of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.« less

  2. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  3. Molecular dynamics force-field refinement against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Lynch, Vickie E.

    2015-11-23

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is one of the experimental techniques of choice for probing the dynamics at length and time scales that are also in the realm of full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This overlap enables extension of current fitting methods that use time-independent equilibrium measurements to new methods fitting against dynamics data. We present an algorithm that fits simulation-derived incoherent dynamical structure factors against QENS data probing the diffusive dynamics of the system. We showcase the difficulties inherent to this type of fitting problem, namely, the disparity between simulation and experiment environment, as well as limitations in the simulationmore » due to incomplete sampling of phase space. We discuss a methodology to overcome these difficulties and apply it to a set of full-atom MD simulations for the purpose of refining the force-field parameter governing the activation energy of methyl rotation in the octa-methyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane molecule. Our optimal simulated activation energy agrees with the experimentally derived value up to a 5% difference, well within experimental error. We believe the method will find applicability to other types of diffusive motions and other representation of the systems such as coarse-grain models where empirical fitting is essential. In addition, the refinement method can be extended to the coherent dynamic structure factor with no additional effort.« less

  4. Evaluation of the marginal outage costs in interconnected and composite power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghajar, R.; Billinton, R.

    1995-05-01

    The structure of electric utilities is undergoing dramatic changes as new and expanded service options are added. The concepts of unbundling the electric service and offering customers a range of new services that more closely track actual costs are expanding the options open to customers. Spot pricing provides the economic structure for many of these new service options. An important component of spot prices is the marginal outage cost incurred by customers due to an incremental change in load. This paper presents a formalized approach of calculating the marginal outage cost in interconnected generating systems and composite generation and transmission systems using quantitative reliability techniques. The effects of selected pertinent factors on the marginal outage cost in composite systems are also presented. The proposed methods are illustrated by application to the IEEE-Reliability Test System (IEEE-RTS).

  5. Geologic evolution of the Late Permian Capitan shelf margin, northern Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, G.A. )

    1991-03-01

    A two-phase model, based on outcrop and subsurface data rimming the northern half of the Delaware basin, characterizes the evolution of the late Guadalupian Capitan shelf margin, a margin that prograded up to 19 km basinward while an interval of over 700 m accumulated. Phase 1, during Seven Rivers shelf (early Capitan) deposition, accounts for 70-80% of the total progradation, over 50% of the total aggradation, and corresponds with shelf facies devoid of siliciclastics, emplacement of abundant carbonate debris on the slope and basin margin, and deposition of 50-70% of the Bell Canyon siliciclastic interval in the basin. The clastics bypassed the growing Capitan margin and were equally important to that of the allochthonous carbonate debris in filling accommodation space to facilitate progradation of the margin. The second phase, during Yates-Tansill (middle-upper Capitan) time, was dominated by aggradation, steepening of the shelf margin, deepening of the basin, and deposition of abundant siliciclastics on the shelf. This model differs from previous reconstructions that show uniform growth of the Capitan reef, and it contradicts the long-standing dogma of reciprocal sedimentation. This two-phase growth model adds insight into deposition of the two principle Guadalupian reservoir facies that account for nearly 50% of the Permian basin in-place oil reserves. Offlapping sheets of inner shelf carbonates (e.g., San Andres Formation, McElroy field) relate to periods of shelf progradation whereas widespread sheets of shelf clastics (e.g., Yates Formation, N. Ward Estes field) reflect periods of shelf aggradation. The model should be useful in evaluating the evolution of other shelves, particularly mixed shelves.

  6. Integrating Safety Assessment Methods using the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

    2013-03-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of nuclear power plants (NPPs). As the current light water reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of systems, structures, and components (SSC) degradations or failures that initiate safety significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated primarily based on engineering judgment backed by a set of conservative engineering calculations. The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development (R&D) in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the RISMC Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as margins management strategies. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk

  7. Impact of Millimeter-Level Margins on Peripheral Normal Brain Sparing for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Lijun; Sahgal, Arjun; Larson, David A.; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; Fogh, Shannon; Barani, Igor; Nakamura, Jean; McDermott, Michael; Sneed, Penny

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate how millimeter-level margins beyond the gross tumor volume (GTV) impact peripheral normal brain tissue sparing for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A mathematical formula was derived to predict the peripheral isodose volume, such as the 12-Gy isodose volume, with increasing margins by millimeters. The empirical parameters of the formula were derived from a cohort of brain tumor and surgical tumor resection cavity cases (n=15) treated with the Gamma Knife Perfexion. This was done by first adding margins from 0.5 to 3.0 mm to each individual target and then creating for each expanded target a series of treatment plans of nearly identical quality as the original plan. Finally, the formula was integrated with a published logistic regression model to estimate the treatment-induced complication rate for stereotactic radiosurgery when millimeter-level margins are added. Results: Confirmatory correlation between the nominal target radius (ie, R{sub T}) and commonly used maximum target size was found for the studied cases, except for a few outliers. The peripheral isodose volume such as the 12-Gy volume was found to increase exponentially with increasing Δ/R{sub T}, where Δ is the margin size. Such a curve fitted the data (logarithmic regression, R{sup 2} >0.99), and the 12-Gy isodose volume was shown to increase steeply with a 0.5- to 3.0-mm margin applied to a target. For example, a 2-mm margin on average resulted in an increase of 55% ± 16% in the 12-Gy volume; this corresponded to an increase in the symptomatic necrosis rate of 6% to 25%, depending on the Δ/R{sub T} values for the target. Conclusions: Millimeter-level margins beyond the GTV significantly impact peripheral normal brain sparing and should be applied with caution. Our model provides a rapid estimate of such an effect, particularly for large and/or irregularly shaped targets.

  8. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-03-01

    soil surrounding the backfill. The article also discusses the criteria and design standards used for evaluating the structural integrity of these underground concrete tanks. Because of the non-availability of complete data on the thermal and operating history for many of the individual tanks, some of the data was assumed or interpolated. However, the models developed for the analysis of record represent the bounding scenarios and include the worst and extreme loading cases that the tanks were subjected to or anticipated. The modeling refinement techniques followed in the AOR resulted in conservative estimates for force and moment demands at various sections in the concrete tanks. The SSTs are classified into 4 types as per their configuration and capacity. This article discusses the modeling aspects related to two types of SSTs that have been analyzed until now. The TOLA results combined with seismic demands from seismic analysis for the analysis of record indicate that the tanks analyzed are structurally stable as per the evaluation criteria established. These results are presented in a separate article. The modeling techniques, methodology and evaluation criteria developed for evaluating the structural integrity of SSTs at Hanford are in general applicable to any similar tanks or underground concrete storage structures.

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

    2012-08-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

  10. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per barrel in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 16.69 16.43 16.99 17.66 18.28 19.06 19.89 20.72 21.65 22.61 23.51 24.29 24.90 25.60 26.30 27.00 27.64 28.16 AEO 1995 1993 14.90 16.41 16.90 17.45 18.00 18.53 19.13 19.65 20.16 20.63

  11. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  12. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  13. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  14. Early F-type stars - refined classification, confrontation with Stromgren photometry, and the effects of rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, R.O.; Garrison, R.F.

    1989-02-01

    The classification for early F-type stars in the MK spectral classification system presented by Gray and Garrison (1987) is refined. The effect of rotation on spectral classification and ubvy-beta photometry of early F-type stars is examined. It is found that the classical luminosity criterion, the 4417 A/4481 A ratio gives inconsistent results. It is shown that most of the stars in the Delta Delphini class of metallic-line stars are either normal or are indistinguishable from proto-Am stars. It is suggested that the designation Delta Delphini should be dropped. The classifications are compared with Stromgren photometry. The effects of rotation on the delta-c sub 1 index in the early-F field dwarfs is demonstrated. 55 references.

  15. 3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Pellet Injection in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Samtaney; S.C. Jardin; P. Colella; D.F. Martin

    2003-10-20

    We present results of Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulations of the pellet injection process, a proven method of refueling tokamaks. AMR is a computationally efficient way to provide the resolution required to simulate realistic pellet sizes relative to device dimensions. The mathematical model comprises of single-fluid MHD equations with source terms in the continuity equation along with a pellet ablation rate model. The numerical method developed is an explicit unsplit upwinding treatment of the 8-wave formulation, coupled with a MAC projection method to enforce the solenoidal property of the magnetic field. The Chombo framework is used for AMR. The role of the E x B drift in mass redistribution during inside and outside pellet injections is emphasized.

  16. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  17. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  18. A technical and economic assessment of petroleum, heavy oil, shale oil and coal liquid refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikonia, J.G.; Shah, B.R.; Ulowetz, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Decreasing availability of conventional crude oil will result in the utilization of alternative raw materials for the production of transportation fuels. Based on currently available processes and as a result of detailed pilot plant studies, the differences in the technical and economic aspects of refining alternative feedstocks of heavy oil, coal liquids and shale oil have indicated that heavy, hydrogen-deficient materials require more complex and costly upgrading techniques. Compared to the base case of Arabian Light crude oil, the Mexican Maya heavy oil is worth about $4.35/B less, the coal liquid about $2.38/B less and the shale oil about $5.98/B less. All of these alternative fuels can be upgraded into high quality transportation fuels.

  19. A node-centered local refinement algorithm for poisson's equation in complex geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip; Grote, David P.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2004-05-04

    This paper presents a method for solving Poisson's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an irregular bounded three-dimensional region. The method uses a nodal-point discretization and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on Cartesian grids, and the AMR multigrid solver of Almgren. The discrete Laplacian operator at internal boundaries comes from either linear or quadratic (Shortley-Weller) extrapolation, and the two methods are compared. It is shown that either way, solution error is second order in the mesh spacing. Error in the gradient of the solution is first order with linear extrapolation, but second order with Shortley-Weller. Examples are given with comparison with the exact solution. The method is also applied to a heavy-ion fusion accelerator problem, showing the advantage of adaptivity.

  20. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company's Merriam Laboratory for the period April 1, 1979 through June 30, 1979. Experimental work included a number of short residence time runs, but discussion of that work has been delayed until a later report. Experimental work reported focuses on an investigation of the decline in solvent quality experienced by the Wilsonville Pilot Plant during runs in support of the SRC I Demonstration Plant. A four run series was initiated with Wilsonville solvent; both the coal used at Wilsonville (Kentucky 6/11 - Pyro Mine) and Kentucky 9/14 coal from the Colonial Mine were used. The effect of pyrite addition to the Pyro Mine coal was investigated. No solvent quality or coking problems were experienced in the Merriam runs. Significant changes in solvent composition were apparent and equilibrated solvent samples were returned to Wilsonville for solvent quality testing.

  1. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  2. On the Computation of Integral Curves in Adaptive Mesh Refinement Vector Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deines, Eduard; Weber, Gunther H.; Garth, Christoph; Van Straalen, Brian; Borovikov, Sergey; Martin, Daniel F.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2011-06-27

    Integral curves, such as streamlines, streaklines, pathlines, and timelines, are an essential tool in the analysis of vector field structures, offering straightforward and intuitive interpretation of visualization results. While such curves have a long-standing tradition in vector field visualization, their application to Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulation results poses unique problems. AMR is a highly effective discretization method for a variety of physical simulation problems and has recently been applied to the study of vector fields in flow and magnetohydrodynamic applications. The cell-centered nature of AMR data and discontinuities in the vector field representation arising from AMR level boundaries complicate the application of numerical integration methods to compute integral curves. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to alleviate these problems and show its application to streamline visualization in an AMR model of the magnetic field of the solar system as well as to a simulation of two incompressible viscous vortex rings merging.

  3. Effects of gas injection condition on mixing efficiency in the ladle refining process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, S.M.; Chiang, J.D.; Hwang, W.S.

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of injection condition on the mixing efficiency of the gas injection treatment of the ladle refining process in steelmaking. A water modeling approach was employed. A NaCl solution was injected into the vessel and the electric conductivity value of the water solution was measured to represent the concentration of the additive. The results of this investigation reveal that up to a certain level, mixing efficiency is improved as the gas flow rate increases. Off-center injection is better than centerline injection. However, the injection lance should not be too close to the wall. Also, mixing efficiency is improved when the submerged depth of the immersion lance increases. The immersion hood has a optimal size as far as mixing efficiency is concerned. A larger or smaller hood would reduce its efficiency. The submerged depth of the immersion hood should be kept to a minimum to improve mixing efficiency.

  4. Refining the site conceptual model at a former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Johnson, Ray; Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Babits, Steven J.

    2015-07-07

    Milling activities at a former uranium mill site near Riverton, Wyoming, USA, contaminated the shallow groundwater beneath and downgradient of the site. Although the mill operated for <6 years (1958-1963), its impact remains an environmental liability. Groundwater modeling predicted that contaminant concentrations were declining steadily, which confirmed the conceptual site model (CSM). However, local flooding in 2010 mobilized contaminants that migrated downgradient from the Riverton site and resulted in a dramatic increase in groundwater contaminant concentrations. This observation indicated that the original CSM was inadequate to explain site conditions and needed to be refined. In response to the new observationsmore » after the flood, a collaborative investigation to better understand site conditions and processes commenced. This investigation included installing 103 boreholes to collect soil and groundwater samples, sampling and analysis of evaporite minerals along the bank of the Little Wind River, an analysis of evaportranspiration in the shallow aquifer, and sampling naturally organic-rich sediments near groundwater discharge areas. The enhanced characterization revealed that the existing CSM did not account for high uranium concentrations in groundwater remaining on the former mill site and groundwater plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. Observations from the flood and subsequent investigations indicate that additional characterization is still needed to continue refining the CSM and determine the viability of the natural flushing compliance strategy. Additional sampling, analysis, and testing of soil and groundwater are necessary to investigate secondary contaminant sources, mobilization of contaminants during floods, geochemical processes, contaminant plume stagnation, distribution of evaporite minerals and organic-rich sediments, and mechanisms and rates of contaminant transfer from soil to groundwater. Future data collection will be used to

  5. Petroleum refining industry of developed capitalist countries in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokhorova, A.A.

    1994-07-01

    Crude oil is the principal source of energy today and in the immediate future. The increases in the consumption of crude oil (1.7% per year up to 2005) will be offset mainly by additional supplies from the countries of the Near East. Data on the imports of oil by the developed capitalists countries are presented in Table 2. In the United States, according to a projection made by Conoco, by the year 2000 the volume of imports will be twice the volume of domestic production; according to another prediction, the amount of Near East crude will increase from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 2000. Since the mid-1980s, the energy policy of the USA has been based on importing so-called cheap crude. Laws have been passed to mandate not only energy saving, but also cuts in the oil and gas production on U.S. territory. The volume of U.S. oil production will be 20% lower in 2000 than in 1990. Some 90% of the worldwide demand for oil is met by light and medium-density crudes, but such crudes account for only 25% of the oil resources. Projections indicate that the oil supplied to refiners in the future will be heavier and will have higher sulfur contents. The U.S. production of low-sulfur crude will drop off sharply in the next 10-15 years. The drop in oil production of the CIS [former USSR] and the consequent drop in exports from these countries will have a destabilizing effect on the world market. The average price of the {open_quotes}market basket{close_quotes} of OPEC crudes in 1991 was $149/ton (in 1990 $178/ton), in comparison with a 1992 price of $148/ton. This report presents data on refining process capacities and the ratio of secondary capacity to primary distillation capacity.

  6. An enriched finite element model with q-refinement for radiative boundary layers in glass cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, M. Shadi; Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon; Laghrouche, Omar

    2014-02-01

    Radiative cooling in glass manufacturing is simulated using the partition of unity finite element method. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary simplified P{sub 1} approximation for the radiation in non-grey semitransparent media. To integrate the coupled equations in time we consider a linearly implicit scheme in the finite element framework. A class of hyperbolic enrichment functions is proposed to resolve boundary layers near the enclosure walls. Using an industrial electromagnetic spectrum, the proposed method shows an immense reduction in the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a certain accuracy compared to the conventional h-version finite element method. Furthermore the method shows a stable behaviour in treating the boundary layers which is shown by studying the solution close to the domain boundaries. The time integration choice is essential to implement a q-refinement procedure introduced in the current study. The enrichment is refined with respect to the steepness of the solution gradient near the domain boundary in the first few time steps and is shown to lead to a further significant reduction on top of what is already achieved with the enrichment. The performance of the proposed method is analysed for glass annealing in two enclosures where the simplified P{sub 1} approximation solution with the partition of unity method, the conventional finite element method and the finite difference method are compared to each other and to the full radiative heat transfer as well as the canonical Rosseland model.

  7. Refining the site conceptual model at a former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Johnson, Ray; Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Babits, Steven J.

    2015-07-07

    Milling activities at a former uranium mill site near Riverton, Wyoming, USA, contaminated the shallow groundwater beneath and downgradient of the site. Although the mill operated for <6 years (1958-1963), its impact remains an environmental liability. Groundwater modeling predicted that contaminant concentrations were declining steadily, which confirmed the conceptual site model (CSM). However, local flooding in 2010 mobilized contaminants that migrated downgradient from the Riverton site and resulted in a dramatic increase in groundwater contaminant concentrations. This observation indicated that the original CSM was inadequate to explain site conditions and needed to be refined. In response to the new observations after the flood, a collaborative investigation to better understand site conditions and processes commenced. This investigation included installing 103 boreholes to collect soil and groundwater samples, sampling and analysis of evaporite minerals along the bank of the Little Wind River, an analysis of evaportranspiration in the shallow aquifer, and sampling naturally organic-rich sediments near groundwater discharge areas. The enhanced characterization revealed that the existing CSM did not account for high uranium concentrations in groundwater remaining on the former mill site and groundwater plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. Observations from the flood and subsequent investigations indicate that additional characterization is still needed to continue refining the CSM and determine the viability of the natural flushing compliance strategy. Additional sampling, analysis, and testing of soil and groundwater are necessary to investigate secondary contaminant sources, mobilization of contaminants during floods, geochemical processes, contaminant plume stagnation, distribution of evaporite minerals and organic-rich sediments, and mechanisms and rates of contaminant transfer from soil to groundwater. Future data collection will be used to

  8. Geologic hazards on the Atlantic continental margin of the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folger, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Although 46 exploratory holes have failed to reveal commercial hydrocarbon accumulations on the US Atlantic margin, about twice that number were drilled on the contiguous Canadian margin before large reserves were discovered. Thus, despite the initial results, exploration on the US margin will probably continue and additional information will be needed to augment the extensive environmental data base acquired over the past 10 years. The extent, timing, causes, and importance of sediment instability of the Continental Slopes of Georges Bank, Baltimore Canyon Trough and Carolina Trough--where future exploration will take place--remain controversial. Many question remain to be answered regarding such phenomena as creep on the upper slope, mass wasting in canyons and gullies, and slumping associated with faults and salt diapirs. Along the southeastern margin, the distribution of cavernous porosity below the shelf is only broadly known. Caverns pose a potential threat to drilling operations ranging from collapse of rigs to circulation loss and sheared drill strings. In deeper waters of the Continental Slope (700-2000 m), clathrates or frozen gas hydrates are common. The potential hazard of blow-outs from gas trapped beneath this layer are unknown. Additional information is needed to assess the bottom stresses imposed by tidal, storm, and geostrophically-driven currents on offshore rigs and structures, particularly in such areas as Georges Bank, the Carolina Trough, and the Blake Plateau.

  9. Characterization report. Bulgarian petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, N.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Bulgaria. It addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Both short and long term improvement possibilities were established and given to the second round team for detailed evaluation. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment and refinery impact on the environment, a data base was prepared reflecting refinery characteristics and is the subject of a separate report.

  10. Characterization report. Romanian petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Romania. The report addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment, and refinery impact on the environment, a computerized data base was prepared, which is the subject of a separate report.

  11. Characterization report. Polish petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Poland. The report addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment, and refinery impact on the environment, a computerized database was prepared which is the subject of a separate report.

  12. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  13. Local timespace mesh refinement for simulation of elastic wave propagation in multi-scale media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostin, Victor; Lisitsa, Vadim; Reshetova, Galina; Tcheverda, Vladimir

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents an original approach to local timespace grid refinement for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in models with localized clusters of micro-heterogeneities. The main features of the algorithm are the application of temporal and spatial refinement on two different surfaces; the use of the embedded-stencil technique for the refinement of grid step with respect to time; the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based interpolation to couple variables for spatial mesh refinement. The latter makes it possible to perform filtration of high spatial frequencies, which provides stability in the proposed finite-difference schemes. In the present work, the technique is implemented for the finite-difference simulation of seismic wave propagation and the interaction of such waves with fluid-filled fractures and cavities of carbonate reservoirs. However, this approach is easy to adapt and/or combine with other numerical techniques, such as finite elements, discontinuous Galerkin method, or finite volumes used for approximation of various types of linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations.

  14. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  15. On the marginal instability threshold condition of the aperiodic ordinary mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2014-07-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Here, an analytical marginal instability condition is derived for counter-streaming bi-Maxwellian plasma particle distribution functions. The derived marginal instability condition as a function of the temperature anisotropy and plasma beta agrees remarkably well with the numerically determined instability condition. The existence of a new instability domain of the O-mode at small plasma beta values is confirmed with the leading A??{sub ?}{sup ?1}-dependence, if the counter-stream parameter P{sub e} exceeds a critical value. At small plasma beta values at large enough counter-stream parameter, the O-mode also operates for temperature anisotropies A?=?T{sub ?}/T{sub ?}?>?1 even larger than unity, as the parallel counter-stream free energy exceeds the perpendicular bi-Maxwellian free energy.

  16. Workshop on Program for Elimination of Requirements Marginal to Safety: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, M.; Arsenault, F.; Patterson, M.; Gaal, M.

    1993-09-01

    These are the proceedings of the Public Workshop on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Program for Elimination of Requirements Marginal to Safety. The workshop was held at the Holiday Inn, Bethesda, on April 27 and 28, 1993. The purpose of the workshop was to provide an opportunity for public and industry input to the program. The workshop addressed the institutionalization of the program to review regulations with the purpose of eliminating those that are marginal. The objective is to avoid the dilution of safety efforts. One session was devoted to discussion of the framework for a performance-based regulatory approach. In addition, panelists and attendees discussed scope, schedules and status of specific regulatory items: containment leakage testing requirements, fire protection requirements, requirements for environmental qualification of electrical equipment, requests for information under 10CFR50.54(f), requirements for combustible gas control systems, and quality assurance requirements.

  17. Table 5.21 Crude Oil Refiner Acquisition Costs, 1968-2011 (Dollars per Barrel)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Crude Oil Refiner Acquisition Costs, 1968-2011 (Dollars per Barrel) Year Domestic Imported Composite Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 1968E 3.21 14.57 [R] 2.90 13.16 [R] 3.17 14.39 [R] 1969E 3.37 14.58 [R] 2.80 12.11 [R] 3.29 14.23 [R] 1970E 3.46 14.22 [R] 2.96 12.16 [R] 3.40 13.97 [R] 1971E 3.68 14.40 [R] 3.17 12.41 [R] 3.60 14.09 [R] 1972E 3.67 13.77 [R] 3.22 12.08 [R] 3.58 13.43 [R] 1973E 4.17 14.82 [R] 4.08 14.50 [R] 4.15 14.75 [R] 1974 7.18 23.40 [R] 12.52 40.80 [R] 9.07

  18. Dimensional reduction as a tool for mesh refinement and trackingsingularities of PDEs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinis, Panagiotis

    2007-06-10

    We present a collection of algorithms which utilizedimensional reduction to perform mesh refinement and study possiblysingular solutions of time-dependent partial differential equations. Thealgorithms are inspired by constructions used in statistical mechanics toevaluate the properties of a system near a critical point. The firstalgorithm allows the accurate determination of the time of occurrence ofa possible singularity. The second algorithm is an adaptive meshrefinement scheme which can be used to approach efficiently the possiblesingularity. Finally, the third algorithm uses the second algorithm untilthe available resolution is exhausted (as we approach the possiblesingularity) and then switches to a dimensionally reduced model which,when accurate, can follow faithfully the solution beyond the time ofoccurrence of the purported singularity. An accurate dimensionallyreduced model should dissipate energy at the right rate. We construct twovariants of each algorithm. The first variant assumes that we have actualknowledge of the reduced model. The second variant assumes that we knowthe form of the reduced model, i.e., the terms appearing in the reducedmodel, but not necessarily their coefficients. In this case, we alsoprovide a way of determining the coefficients. We present numericalresults for the Burgers equation with zero and nonzero viscosity toillustrate the use of the algorithms.

  19. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  20. Aluminum doped zirconia nanopowders: Wet-chemical synthesis and structural analysis by Rietveld refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srdic, Vladimir V. Rakic, Srdan; Cvejic, Zeljka

    2008-10-02

    Alumina/zirconia nanopowders, with up to 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were prepared by wet-chemical synthesis technique, using controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides. The as-synthesized powders are amorphous, have very high specific surface area and the corresponding particle size smaller than 4 nm. Amorphous powders with 0, 10 and 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallize at 460, 692 and 749 deg. C, respectively, as a single-phase tetragonal zirconia, without any traces of alumina phases. Rietvled refinement of X-ray diffraction data, used for the detailed structural analysis of annealed nanopowders, showed that the high-temperature zirconia phase is stabilized due to the formation of ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions. High solubility of alumina in the tetragonal zirconia (up to 28.6 at% Al{sup 3+}) and stabilization of tetragonal zirconia solid solution up to high temperature (as high as 1150 deg. C) were also confirmed.

  1. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Ronzio, N.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the results of process and cost refinement studies for the manufacture of ultra-clean coal-slurry fuel for direct-fired gas turbines. The work was performed as an extension to an earlier contract in which AMAX R and D supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines program. A conceptual design study and cost estimate supplied to METC at that time indicated that a combined physical and chemical cleaning process could produce ultra-clean fuel at a competitive price. Laboratory and pilot plant studies performed for the contract extension further defined the process conditions and operating and capital costs to prepare coals containing from 0.2 to 1.0% ash as slurry fuels. A base-case fuel containing coal cleaned to 0.5% ash in a 1000 cp slurry containing 55% coal was $4.16 per million Btu when produced in quantities required to fuel a 500 MW gas-turbine generating station. Coal slurry fuel production costs as low as $3.66 per million Btu were projected for coals cleaned to 1.0% ash. 12 refs., 23 figs., 63 tabs.

  2. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1979-June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project for the period March 25, 1979, through June 24, 1979. SRC-I turnaround activities at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant and several other problems delayed successful startup until April 11. Slurry was injected to the Lummus Deashing Unit for the first time April 12. After approximately eight days, slurry feed was diverted because of indications that solids were accumulating in the settler vessel. The Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down from April 28 to May 12, 1979, while the Lummus Unit settler vessel was hydroblasted. Cleaning of the settler vessel was complete May 10. Modifications to the unit were nearly complete at the end of the reporting period. Slurry feed to the Lummus Unit was reestablished June 15. To date, continuous production of specification product at design rates has not been achieved. One material balance run, MBR 79-1, was completed using Kentucky No. 9/14 coal at proposed design conditions for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Process Development Unit P-99 was on-stream for all of the second quarter of 1979, with the exception of a two-week scheduled turn-around. Six different run conditions were tested feeding Pittsburgh Seam coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine.

  3. Refinement, Validation and Application of Cloud-Radiation Parameterization in a GCM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Graeme L. Stephens

    2009-04-30

    The research performed under this award was conducted along 3 related fronts: (1) Refinement and assessment of parameterizations of sub-grid scale radiative transport in GCMs. (2) Diagnostic studies that use ARM observations of clouds and convection in an effort to understand the effects of moist convection on its environment, including how convection influences clouds and radiation. This aspect focuses on developing and testing methodologies designed to use ARM data more effectively for use in atmospheric models, both at the cloud resolving model scale and the global climate model scale. (3) Use (1) and (2) in combination with both models and observations of varying complexity to study key radiation feedback Our work toward these objectives thus involved three corresponding efforts. First, novel diagnostic techniques were developed and applied to ARM observations to understand and characterize the effects of moist convection on the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which it occurs. Second, an in house GCM radiative transfer algorithm (BUGSrad) was employed along with an optimal estimation cloud retrieval algorithm to evaluate the ability to reproduce cloudy-sky radiative flux observations. Assessments using a range of GCMs with various moist convective parameterizations to evaluate the fidelity with which the parameterizations reproduce key observable features of the environment were also started in the final year of this award. The third study area involved the study of cloud radiation feedbacks and we examined these in both cloud resolving and global climate models.

  4. A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

    2009-03-03

    Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

  5. Decontamination of metals by melt refinings/slagging: An annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1993-07-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--500 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development.

  6. Synthesis and Rietveld refinement of the small-pore zeolite SSZ-16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo, R.F.; Zones, S.I.; Medrud, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    Recent research efforts invested in the synthesis of new high-silica zeolites have yielded several novel materials with medium ({approximately}5.6 {Angstrom}) and large ({approximately}7.2 {Angstrom}) pores. Examples include new zeolites with intersecting 10 and 12 member rings-i.e., pores bounded by 10 and 12 tetrahedral (T) atoms respectively-like SSZ-26, NU-87, SSZ-37, SSZ-25, MCM-22, CIT-1 (CON), and the aluminophosphate-based DAF-1 (DFO). However, except for the zeolites SSZ-28 (DDR) and SSZ-13 (CHA), no new high-silica zeolites with small pores have been reported. High-silica small-pore zeolites could be potentially useful for several catalytic reactions including the synthesis of dimethylamine, the reduction of NO{sub x} from combustion gases and the dewaxing of fuels for octane upgrading. The authors present here the synthesis and structural characterization using Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data of the zeolite SSZ-16. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Refined rotational period, pole solution, and shape model for (3200) Phaethon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansdell, Megan; Meech, Karen J.; Kaluna, Heather; Hainaut, Olivier; Buie, Marc W.; Bauer, James; Dundon, Luke

    2014-09-20

    (3200) Phaethon exhibits both comet- and asteroid-like properties, suggesting it could be a rare transitional object such as a dormant comet or previously volatile-rich asteroid. This justifies detailed study of (3200) Phaethon's physical properties as a better understanding of asteroid-comet transition objects can provide insight into minor body evolution. We therefore acquired time series photometry of (3200) Phaethon over 15 nights from 1994 to 2013, primarily using the Tektronix 2048 2048 pixel CCD on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. We utilized light curve inversion to (1) refine (3200) Phaethon's rotational period to P = 3.6032 0.0008 hr; (2) estimate a rotational pole orientation of ? = +85 13 and ? = 20 10; and (3) derive a shape model. We also used our extensive light curve data set to estimate the slope parameter of (3200) Phaethon's phase curve as G ? 0.06, consistent with C-type asteroids. We discuss how this highly oblique pole orientation with a negative ecliptic latitude supports previous evidence for (3200) Phaethon's origin in the inner main asteroid belt as well as the potential for deeply buried volatiles fueling impulsive yet rare cometary outbursts.

  8. Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous facies relationships in a passive margin basin, western North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prather, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    Correlation of facies from hydrocarbon-bearing continent and transitional marine sandstones to time-equivalent high-energy shelf-margin carbonates provide insight into hydrocarbon habitats of the Baltimore Canyon basin. These facies occur within a thick (>10,000 ft) prograded wedge of shelf sediments in this passive margin basin. Wells drilled to test structural closures in shallow-water (<600 ft) areas of Baltimore Canyon penetrate clastic facies which are time-equivalent to the downdip carbonate facies tested in deep-water wells. Numerous hydrocarbon shows, including a noncommercial gas and gas-condensate accumulation, occur with sandstone units that were deposited in prograding continental/fluvial and transitional marine environments located updip of the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian carbonate shelf edge. The continental and transitional facies are overlain by a fine-grained deltaic complex which forms a regionally extensive top seal unit. The deltaic complex was deposited during aggradation of the Kimmeridgian through Berriasian shelf-margin carbonates penetrated by the deep-water wells.

  9. Core design of long life-cycle fast reactors operating without reactivity margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aristova, E. N.; Baydin, D. F.; Gol'din, V. Y.; Pestryakova, G. A.; Stoynov, M. I.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we consider a possibility of designing a fast reactor core that operates without reactivity margin for a long time. This study is based on the physical principle of fast reactor operating in a self-adjustable neutron-nuclear regime (SANNR-1) introduced by L.P. Feoktistov (1988-1993) and improved by V. Ya. Gol'din SANNR-2 (1995). The mathematical modeling of active zones of fast reactors in SANNR modes is held by authors since 1992. The numerical simulation is based on solving the neutron transport equation coupled with quasi-diffusion equations. The calculations have been performed using standard 26 energy groups. We use a hierarchy of spatial models of 1D, 1.5D, 2D, and 3D geometries. The spatial models of higher dimensionality are used for verification of results. The calculations showed that operation of the reactor in this mode increases its efficiency, safety and simplifies management. It is possible to achieve continuous work of the reactor in SANNR-2 during 7-10 years without fuel overloads by means of further optimization of the mode. Small reactivity margin is used only for the reactor start up. After first 10-15 days the reactor in SANNR-2 operates without reactivity margin. (authors)

  10. Higher U.S. Crop Prices Trigger Little Area Expansion so Marginal Land for Biofuel Crops Is Limited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinton, S.; Babcock, Bruce; James, Laura; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-06-12

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food price increases and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states

  11. Petropower energia project under way in Chile promises refiner better economics at lower cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    Construction of the Republic of Chile`s first public/private industrial partnership project is well under way. Ground was broken for the $232-million Petropower Energia Limitada project early this year, shortly after the final contract between the parties - Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc. (FWPS); Petrox S.A. Refineria de Petroleo and Empresa Nacional del Petroleo (ENAP) - was signed. The Petropower project, located adjacent to Petrox`s 84,000-b/d refinery in Talcahuano, represents the first project ever to combine petroleum coking technology with cogeneration technology in a single project financing. Petropower is 85% owned by FWPS, 7.5% by ENAP, the Chilean national oil company and parent of Petrox S.A. When completed in mid-1998, the Petropower project will enable Petrox to refine heavier crudes and enhance the refinery`s flexibility and economics. The project will consist of a delayed coking facility (a 12,000-b/d delayed coking unit and a 7,000-b/d hydrotreating plant) and a 67-MW (59 MW net) cogeneration plant. The coke produced will fuel a Foster Wheeler proprietary-design circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boiler which will generate all the high-pressure steam and electric power needs of the Petrox refinery. This unit will be the first circulating fluidized-bed boiler to be built in Latin America. The cogeneration facility, using limestone as a reagent and equipped with a baghouse, will control SO{sub x} emissions from combustion of the green coke fuel and easily meet all Chilean environmental standards. Moreover, by constructing the cogeneration facility, Petrox will not have to proceed with capital improvements to existing facilities to ensure a reliable source of steam and electricity, resulting in substantial savings for Petrox. The cogeneration plant provides a permanent {open_quotes}disposal{close_quotes} for all coke produced by the delayed coker, thereby solving any future problems of unwanted or excess coke.

  12. OPEC and lower oil prices: Impacts on production capacity, export refining, domestic demand and trade balances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Isaak, D.; Totto, L.; Wilson, T.

    1988-12-01

    The East-West Center has received a research grant from the US Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis to study the impact of lower oil prices on OPEC production capacity, on export refineries, and petroleum trade. The project was later extended to include balance-of-payments scenarios and impacts on OPEC domestic demand. As the study progressed, a number of preliminary presentations were made at the US Department of Energy in order to receive feedback from DOE officials and to refine the focus of our analysis. During one of the presentations on June 4, 1987, the then Director of Division of Oil and Gas, John Stanley-Miller, advised us to focus our work on the Persian Gulf countries, since these countries were of special interest to the United States Government. Since then, our team has visited Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia and obtained detailed information from other countries. The political turmoil in the Gulf, the Iran/Iraq war, and the active US military presence have all worked to delay the final submission of our report. Even in countries where the United States has close ties, access to information has been difficult. In most countries, even mundane information on petroleum issues are treated as national secrets. As a result of these difficulties, we requested a one-year no cost extension to the grant and submitted an Interim Report in May 1988. As part of our grant extension request, we proposed to undertake additional tasks which appear in this report. 20 figs., 21 tabs.

  13. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks - 12288

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karri, Naveen K.; Rinker, Michael W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2012-07-01

    The single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site (in Washington State, USA) were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and are well beyond their estimated 25 year design life. This article discusses the structural analysis approach and modeling challenges encountered during the ongoing analysis of record for evaluating the structural integrity of the single-shell tanks. There are several geometrical and material nonlinearities and uncertainties to be dealt with while performing the modern finite element analysis of these tanks. The analysis takes into account the temperature history of the tanks and allowable mechanical operating loads for proper estimation of creep strains and thermal degradation of material properties. The loads prescribed in the analysis of record models also include anticipated loads that may occur during waste retrieval and closure. Due to uncertainty in a number of modeling details, sensitivity studies were conducted to address questions related to boundary conditions that realistically or conservatively represent the influence of surrounding tanks in a tank farm, the influence of backfill excavation slope, the extent of backfill and the total extent of undisturbed soil surrounding the backfill. Because of the limited availability of data on the thermal and operating history for many of the individual tanks, some of the data was assumed or interpolated. However, the models developed for the analysis of record represent the bounding scenarios and include the loading conditions that the tanks were subjected to or anticipated. The modeling refinement techniques followed in the analysis of record resulted in conservative estimates for force and moment demands at various sections in the concrete tanks. This article discusses the modeling aspects related to Type-II and Type-III single-shell tanks. The modeling techniques, methodology and evaluation criteria developed for evaluating the structural integrity of single-shell tanks at Hanford are in general

  14. On the Use of ARM Data in the Validation and Refinement of a GCM Radiation Parameterization Scheme

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Use of ARM Data in the Validation and Refinement of a GCM Radiation Parameterization Scheme G. L. Stephens, R. T. Austin, P. M. Gabriel, and N. B. Wood Colorado State University Department of Atmospheric Science Fort Collins, Colorado Introduction Data provided under the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy have been analyzed with the goal of evaluating a radiation parameterization scheme currently used in both cloud resolving models and general

  15. Study of deactivation and regeneration of catalysts used in the LC-fining of solvent refined coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL); Guin, J.A.; Nalitham, R.; mohsin, A.; Tarrer, A.R.; Potts, J.D.; Hastings, K.E.

    1981-03-29

    Batch experiments as well as results from LC-Fining catalytic upgrading of coal extracts indicate deactivation of the Shell 324 Ni/Mo catalyst in the presence of solvent refined coal (SRC). At increased levels of SRC loading, deactivation increases. The chief cause of catalyst deactivation appears to be coking. The Shell 324 catalyst can be substantially regenerated after the upgrading reaction by medium temperature ashing followed by presulfiding.

  16. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  17. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using Hig Angle Wells Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-11-21

    The Yowlumne field is a giant field in the southern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. It is a deep (13,000 ft) waterflood operation that produces from the Miocene- aged Stevens Sand. The reservoir is interpreted as a layered, fan-shaped, prograding turbidite complex containing several lobe-shaped sand bodies that represent distinct flow units. A high ultimate recovery factor is expected, yet significant quantities of undrained oil remain at the fan margins. The fan margins are not economic to develop using vertical wells because of thinning pay, deteriorating rock quality, and depth. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the northeast distal fan margin through the use of a high- angle well completed with multiple hydraulic- fracture treatments. A high-angle well offers greater pay exposure than can be achieved with a vertical well. Hydraulic-fracture treatments will establish vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at a cost of approximately two vertical wells. The near-horizontal well penetrated the Yowlumne sand; a Stevens sand equivalent, in the distal fan margin in the northeast area of the field. The well was drilled in a predominately westerly direction towards the interior of the field, in the direction of improving rock quality. Drilling and completion operations proved to be very challenging, leading to a number of adjustments to original plans. Hole conditions resulted in obtaining less core material than desired and setting intermediate casing 1200 ft too high. The 7 in. production liner stuck 1000 ft off bottom, requiring a 5 in. liner to be run the rest of the way. The cement job on the 5 in. liner resulted in a very poor bond, which precluded one of three hydraulic fracture treatments originally planned for the well. Openhole logs confirmed most expectations going into the project about basic

  18. Tenvig offshore A/S solution to development of marginal oilfields in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, A.

    1980-06-12

    The Tenvig offshore A/S solution to development of marginal oilfields in the North Sea consists of a tanker about the size of a VLCC, a turret platform moored with anchors and equipped with processing equipment for oil and gas treatment, living quarters, and helicopter landing facilities. The platform is permanently moored at the field during depletion and is connected to a subsea completion. Offloading the oil from the tanker can be done via a subsea pipeline to a nearby loading buoy or directly to shuttle tankers.

  19. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  20. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R.; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  1. Tectonic controls on carbonate platform evolution in southern Papua New Guinea: Passive margin to foreland basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigram, C.J., Davies, P.J.; Feary, D.A.; Symonds, P.A. )

    1989-03-01

    The middle Oligocene collision of the northern margin of the Australian craton with a complex subduction system resulted in emplacement of a thrust mass and formation of a foreland basin that extended from the Coral Sea to the Indian Ocean. The distribution of carbonate-platform facies in southwestern Papua New Guinea reflects the transition from an Eocene passive margin setting to the early stages of foreland basin evolution. The initial basin configuration, with terrigenous sedimentation confined to the proximal foredeep, allowed carbonate deposition in the shallow environment adjacent to the peripheral forebulge. Subsequent southward migration of the basin resulted in a rapid increase in the area and thickness of carbonate-platform deposition. When the proximal foredeep became filled by detritus shed from the emerging orogen, clastic sediments buried the platform and terminated carbonate deposition. The history of the southern Papua New Guinea carbonate platform illustrates the paradox of carbonate deposition within the foreland basin, whereby basin configuration initially encourages thick and extensive carbonate deposition but inevitably leads to terrigenous inundation and the demise of the carbonate platform.

  2. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  3. Seismic stratigraphy of Long Island platform, United States Atlantic Continental Margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jowett, R.A.; Hutchinson, D.R.

    1987-09-01

    Approximately 2000 km of single- and multichannel seismic reflection profiles collected over the Long Island platform on the US Atlantic continental margin show that the basement beneath the platform was rifted prior to the separation of Africa from North America and that it subsided after the separation. Postrift sediment thicknesses range from less than 1 km in the northwest part of the platform to several kilometers in the southeast, near the Atlantis and Nantucket rift basins. Flanking the platform are the Georges Bank basin to the east and Baltimore Canyon Trough to the south, where sedimentary rocks are 10-15 km thick. Nine major unconformities have been delineated in analysis of the seismic profiles. The most conspicuous unconformities are correlated with the end of rifting and the upper surfaces of the Bathonian, Tithonian, Albian, Turonian-Coniacian, Maestrichtian, upper Eocene, mid-Oligocene, and mid-Miocene sections. Ages are determined by tracing reflectors and unconformities to the COST (Continental Offshore Stratigraphic Test), AMCOR (Atlantic Margin Coring Project), and coastal wells. Several of these unconformities coincide with pronounced fluctuations in the Vail curve of relative sea level.

  4. Fission track analysis, rift shoulder uplift, and tectonic modeling of the Norwegian Continental Margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andriessen, P.; Van Der Beek, P.; Cloetingh, S.; Rohrman, M. )

    1993-09-01

    Apatite fission track analysis from southern Norway and Sweden, across the Permian Carboniferous Oslo rift, are presented and discussed in relation to different rifting scenarios. Vertical and horizontal apatite fission tack profiles in middle and southern Norway unravel the post-Carboniferous history of the Fennoscandian shield. Fission track apatite ages range from 240 Ma in the south to 160 Ma in the north, and according to spontaneous fission track length measurements, they must be interpreted as mixed ages, indicating minor amounts of Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary cover. Apatite fission track length and age modeling suggest rapid cooling and uplift in the Tertiary for the southernmost part of Norway, suggesting a differential uplift of the basement. the obtained data are important for the reconstruction of burial and thermal histories of Cenozoic sedimentary basins of the Norwegian continental margin in the northern North Sea, where diverse rifting events, intraplate stress regimes, and inversion tectonics are involved. Fission track analysis puts constraints on tectonic modeling of uplift of rift flanks and the Norwegian continental margin and yields information for these assessment of hydrocarbon potentials of the sedimentary basins.

  5. Marginal Misses After Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Chen, Leon M.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To describe the spatial distribution of local-regional recurrence (LRR) among patients treated postoperatively with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 90 consecutive patients treated by gross total resection and postoperative IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck from January 2003 to July 2009 were reviewed. Sites of disease were the oral cavity (43 patients), oropharynx (20 patients), larynx (15 patients), and hypopharynx (12 patients). Fifty patients (56%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Seventeen of 90 patients treated with postoperative IMRT experienced LRR, yielding a 2-year estimate of local regional control of 80%. Among the LRR patients, 11 patients were classified as in-field recurrences, occurring within the physician-designated clinical target volume, and 6 patients were categorized as marginal recurrences. There were no out-of-field geographical misses. Sites of marginal LRRs included the contralateral neck adjacent to the spared parotid gland (3 patients), the dermal/subcutaneous surface (2 patients), and the retropharyngeal/retrostyloid lymph node region (1 patient). Conclusions: Although the incidence of geographical misses was relatively low, the possibility of this phenomenon should be considered in the design of target volumes among patients treated by postoperative IMRT for head and neck cancer.

  6. Deep structure of the Texas Gulf passive margin and its Ouachita-Precambrian basement: Results of the COCORP San Marcos arch survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culotta, R.; Latham, T.; Oliver, J.; Brown, L.; Kaufman, S. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Sydow, M. (Pennzoil, Houston, TX (United States))

    1992-02-01

    This COCORP deep seismic survey provides a comprehensive image of the southeast-Texas part of the Gulf passive margin and its accreted Ouachita arc foundation. Beneath the updip limit of the Cenozoic sediment wedge, a prominent antiformal structure is imaged within the interior zone of the buried late Paleozoic Ouachita orogen. The structure appears to involve Precambrian Grenville basement. The crest of the antiform is coincident with the Cretaceous-Tertiary Luling-Mexia-Talco fault zone. Some of these faults dip to the northwest, counter to the general regional pattern of down-to-the-basin faulting, and appear to sole into the top of the antiform, suggesting that the Ouachita structure has been reactivated as a hingeline to the subsiding passive margin. The antiform may be tied via this fault system and the Ouachita gravity gradient to the similar Devils River, Waco, and Benton uplifts, interpreted as Precambrian basement-cored massifs. Above the Paleozoic sequence, a possible rift-related graben is imaged near the updip limit of Jurassic salt. Paleoshelf edges of the major Tertiary depositional sequences are marked by expanded sections disrupted by growth faults and shale diapirs. Within the Wilcox Formation, the transect crosses the mouth of the 900-m-deep Yoakum Canyon, a principal pathway of sediment delivery from the Laramide belt to the Gulf. Beneath the Wilcox, the Comanchean (Lower Cretaceous) shelf edge, capped by the Stuart City reef, is imaged as a pronounced topographic break onlapped by several moundy sediment packages. Because this segment of the line parallels strike, the topographic break may be interpreted as a 2,000-m-deep embayment in the Cretaceous shelf-edge, and possibly a major submarine canyon older and deeper than the Yoakum Canyon.

  7. Development of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for Multiphysics and Multifidelity Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turinsky, Paul

    2015-02-09

    This project investigated the development and utilization of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for nuclear systems simulation applications. AMoR refers to utilization of several models of physical phenomena which differ in prediction fidelity. If the highest fidelity model is judged to always provide or exceeded the desired fidelity, than if one can determine the difference in a Quantity of Interest (QoI) between the highest fidelity model and lower fidelity models, one could utilize the fidelity model that would just provide the magnitude of the QoI desired. Assuming lower fidelity models require less computational resources, in this manner computational efficiency can be realized provided the QoI value can be accurately and efficiently evaluated. This work utilized Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) to evaluate the QoI, by convoluting the GPT solution with the residual of the highest fidelity model determined using the solution from lower fidelity models. Specifically, a reactor core neutronics problem and thermal-hydraulics problem were studied to develop and utilize AMoR. The highest fidelity neutronics model was based upon the 3D space-time, two-group, nodal diffusion equations as solved in the NESTLE computer code. Added to the NESTLE code was the ability to determine the time-dependent GPT neutron flux. The lower fidelity neutronics model was based upon the point kinetics equations along with utilization of a prolongation operator to determine the 3D space-time, two-group flux. The highest fidelity thermal-hydraulics model was based upon the space-time equations governing fluid flow in a closed channel around a heat generating fuel rod. The Homogenous Equilibrium Mixture (HEM) model was used for the fluid and Finite Difference Method was applied to both the coolant and fuel pin energy conservation equations. The lower fidelity thermal-hydraulic model was based upon the same equations as used for the highest fidelity model but now with coarse spatial

  8. Study on Evaluation of Project Management Data for Decommissioning of Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant - 12234

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usui, Hideo; Izumo, Sari; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shibahara, Yuji; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake

    2012-07-01

    Some of nuclear facilities that would no longer be required have been decommissioned in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). A lot of nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned in JAEA in near future. To implement decommissioning of nuclear facilities, it was important to make a rational decommissioning plan. Therefore, project management data evaluation system for dismantling activities (PRODIA code) has been developed, and will be useful for making a detailed decommissioning plan for an object facility. Dismantling of dry conversion facility in the uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge began in 2008. During dismantling activities, project management data such as manpower and amount of waste generation have been collected. Such collected project management data has been evaluated and used to establish a calculation formula to calculate manpower for dismantling equipment of chemical process and calculate manpower for using a green house (GH) which was a temporary structure for preventing the spread of contaminants during dismantling. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to dismantling of equipment, the relation of dismantling manpower to each piece of equipment was evaluated. Furthermore, the relation of dismantling manpower to each chemical process was evaluated. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to use of the GH, relations of GH installation manpower and removal manpower to GH footprint were evaluated. Furthermore, the calculation formula for secondary waste generation was established. In this study, project management data related to dismantling of equipment and use of the GH were evaluated and analyzed. The project management data, manpower for dismantling of equipment, manpower for installation and removal of GH, and secondary waste generation from GH were considered

  9. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2012-05-08

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the demonstrated range of

  10. Stability of linear systems in second-order form based on structure preserving similarity transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard

    2015-10-31

    This paper deals with two stability aspects of linear systems of the form I ¨ x +B˙ x +Cx = 0 given by the triple (I;B;C). A general transformation scheme is given for a structure and Jordan form preserving transformation of the triple. We investigate how a system can be transformed by suitable choices of the transformation parameters into a new system (I;B1;C1) with a symmetrizable matrix C1. This procedure facilitates stability investigations. We also consider systems with a Hamiltonian spectrum which discloses marginal stability after a Jordan form preserving transformation.

  11. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: Mid-course Refinements of Financing Strategies Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 29, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9, 2012 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: Mid-course Refinements of Financing Strategies Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  Have you made any adjustments to your financing strategies based on implementation experience? * Program Experience and Lessons:  New York: Jeff Pitkin, NYSERDA  San Diego: Jeremy Hutman, CCSE * Discussion:  What has caused programs to refine financing strategies?  What are lessons for

  12. Improvement of the thermal margins in the Swedish Ringhals-3 PWR by introducing new fuel assemblies with thorium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, C. W.; Demaziere, C.; Nylen, H.; Sandberg, U.

    2012-07-01

    Thorium is a fertile material and most of the past research has focused on breeding thorium to fissile material. In this paper, the focus is on using thorium to improve the thermal margins by homogeneously distributing thorium in the fuel pellets. A proposed uranium-thorium-based fuel assembly is simulated for the Swedish Ringhals-3 PWR core in a realistic demonstration. All the key safety parameters, such as isothermal temperature coefficient of reactivity, Doppler temperature of reactivity, boron worth, shutdown margins and fraction of delayed neutrons are studied in this paper, and are within safety limits for the new core design using the uranium-thorium-based fuel assemblies. The calculations were performed by the two-dimensional transport code CASMO-4E and the two group steady-state three dimensional nodal code SIMULATE-3 from Studsvik Scandpower. The results showed that the uranium-thorium-based fuel assembly improves the thermal margins, both in the pin peak power and the local power (Fq). The improved thermal margins would allow more flexible core designs with less neutron leakage or could be used in power uprates to offer efficient safety margins. (authors)

  13. An examination of content similarity within the memory of HPC applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Scott N.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Trott, Christian Robert

    2013-01-01

    Memory content similarity has been e ectively exploited for more than a decade to reduce memory consumption. By consolidating duplicate and similar pages in the address space of an application, we can reduce the amount of memory it consumes without negatively a ecting the application's perception of the memory resources available to it. In addition to memory de-duplication, there may be many other ways that we can exploit memory content similarity to improve system characteristics. In this paper, we examine the memory content similarity of several HPC applications. By characterizing the memory contents of these applications, we hope to provide a basis for ef- forts to e ectively exploit memory content similarity to improve system performance beyond memory deduplication. We show that several applications exhibit signi cant similarity and consider the source of the similarity.

  14. A Freestream-Preserving High-Order Finite-Volume Method for Mapped Grids with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzik, S; McCorquodale, P; Colella, P

    2011-12-16

    A fourth-order accurate finite-volume method is presented for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on mapped grids that are adaptively refined in space and time. Novel considerations for formulating the semi-discrete system of equations in computational space combined with detailed mechanisms for accommodating the adapting grids ensure that conservation is maintained and that the divergence of a constant vector field is always zero (freestream-preservation property). Advancement in time is achieved with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

  15. System-area operating margin assessment and security enhancement against voltage collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berizzi, A.; Bresesti, P.; Marannino, P.; Granelli, G.P.; Montagna, M.

    1996-08-01

    The (very) short term reactive power scheduling function, to be adopted by ENEL Spa, takes into account the voltage stability requirements in a preventive application of the security function. In this environment the procedure determines the voltage collapse distance of the global system and of the areas controlled by the Secondary Voltage Regulation (SVR) both in short (24 hours ahead) and in a very short term (few hours or fractions of hour ahead). The procedure also schedules the control actions to be taken in emergency states in a preventive way. Area or system-wise indicators, based on nodal sensitivities and/or eigen (singular) value analysis, provide effective measures of the margins of the system with respect to the risk of voltage collapse and the related corrective actions. Applications of the procedure to the EHV network and to a subtransmission area of the ENEL system are presented in the paper.

  16. Front and Center: Bringing Marginalized Girls into Focus in STEM and CTE Education

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This week, as part of the President’s commitment to equal opportunity for all students, the White House Domestic Policy Council and the Council on Women and Girls, the Department of Education, and the Georgetown University Law Center on Poverty and Inequality highlighted programs that focus on developing the talent of girls of color and low-income girls in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and career technical education (CTE) careers. We heard from the educators, innovators, researchers, scientists, and marginalized girls themselves who are dedicated to increasing the participation of low-income girls and girls of color in post-secondary education and in-demand careers within high-growth industry sectors.

  17. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  18. Marginal instability threshold condition of the aperiodic ordinary mode in equal-mass plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2014-10-15

    The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability for counter-streaming bi-Maxwellian plasma particle distribution functions has recently received renewed attention due to its importance for the solar wind plasma. Here, the analytical marginal instability condition is derived for magnetized plasmas consisting of equal-mass charged particles, distributed in counter-streams with equal temperatures. The equal-mass composition assumption enormously facilitates the theoretical analysis due to the equality of the values of the electron and positron (positive and negative ion) plasma and gyrofrequencies. The existence of a new instability domain of the O-mode at small plasma beta values is confirmed, when the parallel counter-stream free energy exceeds the perpendicular bi-Maxwellian free energy.

  19. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  20. Ideas underlying quantification of margins and uncertainties(QMU): a white paper.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helton, Jon Craig; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2006-09-01

    This report describes key ideas underlying the application of Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) to nuclear weapons stockpile lifecycle decisions at Sandia National Laboratories. While QMU is a broad process and methodology for generating critical technical information to be used in stockpile management, this paper emphasizes one component, which is information produced by computational modeling and simulation. In particular, we discuss the key principles of developing QMU information in the form of Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty, the need to separate aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in QMU, and the risk-informed decision making that is best suited for decisive application of QMU. The paper is written at a high level, but provides a systematic bibliography of useful papers for the interested reader to deepen their understanding of these ideas.

  1. Geometry, lateral variability, and preservation of downlapped regressive shelf deposits, eastern Tyrrhenian Margin, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, M.E. ); Trincardi, F. )

    1990-05-01

    The shelf of the eastern Tyrrhenian margin changes substantially in width, shelf-break depth, and sea-floor steepness over relatively short distances, largely due to marked lateral changes in geologic structure. Remnants of late Pleistocene prograded coastal deposits are locally preserved on the middle and outer parts of this complex shelf. Through the authors studies of these prograded deposits they recognize two major controls on the distribution, lateral extent, thickness, and preservation potential. First, prograded (downlapped) deposits formed only where the physiographic shelf break was deeper than the lowstand shoreline, thus providing accommodation space for the lowstand deposits. Second, the proximity and relative size of sediment sources and the local coastal dispersal system influenced the geometry of the deposit. Mid-shelf and shelf-margin bodies composed of seaward-steepening downlapping reflectors were deposited as thin-to-thick continuous prograding sheets over an irregular eroded shelf surface and onto the shelf edge during the last fall and lowstand of sea level. A dearth of sediment at the end of lowstand conditions led to a switch from deposition to erosion. During sea level rise, shoreface erosion produced a major marine erosional (ravinement) surface landward of the 120-m isobath, and much, and in many places all, of the downlapping deposit was removed. Preservation of downlapping deposits is largely a function of their thickness. Thick continuous deposits are common on the shelf edge, whereas on the mid-shelf only thin remnants are preserved locally where depressions or morphologic steps were present in the shelf surface.

  2. RECONSTRUCTING PALEO-SMT POSITIONS ON THE CASCADIA MARGIN USING MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Joel; Phillips, Stephen

    2014-09-30

    Magnetic susceptibility (κ) is a mixed signal in marine sediments, representing primary depositional and secondary diagenetic processes. Production of hydrogen sulfide via anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) at the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) and organoclastic sulfate reduction above the SMT can result in the dissolution of iron oxides, altering κ in sediments in methane gas and gas hydrate bearing regions. We investigated records of κ on the Cascadia margin (ODP Sites 1249 and 1252; IODP Site 1325) using a Zr/Rb heavy mineral proxy from XRF core scanning to identify intervals of primary detrital magnetic susceptibility and intervals and predict intervals affected by magnetite dissolutions. We also measured total sulfur content, grain size distributions, total organic carbon (TOC) content, and magnetic mineral assemblage. The upper 100 m of Site 1252 contains a short interval of κ driven by primary magnetite, with multiple intervals (> 90 m total) of decreased κ correlated with elevated sulfur content, consistent with dissolution of magnetite and re-precipitation of pyrite. In the upper 90 m of Site 1249, κ is almost entirely altered by diagenetic processes, with much of the low κ explained by a high degree of pyritization, and some intervals affected by the precipitation of magnetic iron sulfides. At Site 1325, κ between 0-20 and 51-73 mbsf represents primary mineralogy, and in the interval 24-51 mbsf, κ may be reduced due to pyritization. This integrated approach allows for a prediction of primary κ and the amount of κ loss at each site when compared to actual κ measurements. In the case of magnetite dissolution and full pyritization, these drawdowns in κ are supported by sulfur measurements, and the exposure times of magnetite to hydrogen sulfide can be modeled. The presence of methane and methane hydrates at these sites, as well as large variations in TOC content, suggest that the past migration rates of the SMT and variation in sulfate

  3. The Development of Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis Simulations for Inclusion in Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Diego Mandelli; Ronald L. Boring; Curtis L. Smith; Rachel B. Shirley

    2015-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy is sponsoring the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program, which has the overall objective of supporting the near-term and the extended operation of commercial nuclear power plants. One key research and development (R&D) area in this program is the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization pathway, which combines probabilistic risk simulation with thermohydraulic simulation codes to define and manage safety margins. The R&D efforts to date, however, have not included robust simulations of human operators, and how the reliability of human performance or lack thereof (i.e., human errors) can affect risk-margins and plant performance. This paper describes current and planned research efforts to address the absence of robust human reliability simulations and thereby increase the fidelity of simulated accident scenarios.

  4. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Annual technical progress report, January 1979-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This report discusses the effects on SRC yields of seven process variables (reactor temperature, SRT, hydrogen partial pressure, recycle ash and coal concentrations, gas velocity and coal type) predicted by second-order regression models developed from a data base containing pilot plant data with both Kentucky and Powhatan coals. The only effect of coal type in the model is a shift in each yield by a constant factor. Although some differences were found between the models developed from the Kentucky data base (1) (which we call Kentucky models) and the pooled coal models, the general conclusions of the previous report are confirmed by the new models and the assumption of similar behavior of the two coals appears to be justified. In some respects the dependence of the yields (MAF coal basis) on variables such as pressure and temperature are clearer than in the previous models. The principal trends which emerge are discussed.

  5. Stereotactic Radiosurgery of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastases: Prospective Evaluation of Target Margin on Tumor Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Clara Y.H.; Chang, Steven D.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Adler, John R.; Harsh, Griffith R.; Lieberson, Robert E.; Soltys, Scott G.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Given the neurocognitive toxicity associated with whole-brain irradiation (WBRT), approaches to defer or avoid WBRT after surgical resection of brain metastases are desirable. Our initial experience with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) targeting the resection cavity showed promising results. We examined the outcomes of postoperative resection cavity SRS to determine the effect of adding a 2-mm margin around the resection cavity on local failure (LF) and toxicity. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 120 cavities in 112 patients treated from 1998-2009. Factors associated with LF and distant brain failure (DF) were analyzed using competing risks analysis, with death as a competing risk. The overall survival (OS) rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method; variables associated with OS were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards and log rank tests. Results: The 12-month cumulative incidence rates of LF and DF, with death as a competing risk, were 9.5% and 54%, respectively. On univariate analysis, expansion of the cavity with a 2-mm margin was associated with decreased LF; the 12-month cumulative incidence rates of LF with and without margin were 3% and 16%, respectively (P=.042). The 12-month toxicity rates with and without margin were 3% and 8%, respectively (P=.27). On multivariate analysis, melanoma histology (P=.038) and number of brain metastases (P=.0097) were associated with higher DF. The median OS time was 17 months (range, 2-114 months), with a 12-month OS rate of 62%. Overall, WBRT was avoided in 72% of the patients. Conclusion: Adjuvant SRS targeting the resection cavity of brain metastases results in excellent local control and allows WBRT to be avoided in a majority of patients. A 2-mm margin around the resection cavity improved local control without increasing toxicity compared with our prior technique with no margin.

  6. Shelf margin bioherms and associated facies in the Lower Permian Hueco Group (Late Wolfcampian), Hueco Mountains, West Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahlman, G.P.; Tasker, D.R.; St. John, J.W.; Werle, K.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Late Wolfcampian phylloid algal/Tubiphytes biohermal complexes are exposed in three erosional oilers lying about 3 miles west of and parallel to the main Hueco Mountains in far West Texas. The biohermal complexes are located paleogeographically along the shelf margin between the Diablo Platform and Orogrande Basin. Based on fusulinids the shelf margin buildups correlate with well-bedded shelf carbonates of the type Hueco Group in the main Hueco Mountains. The phylloid algal/Tubiphytes shelf margin bioherms contain an upward shallowing facies succession, which, in ascending order, consists of: (1) phylloid algal wackestone-bafflestone, (2) phylloid algal-fusulinid bafflestone-packstone, and (3) Tubiphytes boundstone and Tubiphytes-fusulinid-phylloid algal packstone-grainstone. The crest of the southernmost outlier has a different type of bioherm that consists of nodular boundstones composed of calcisponges, encrusting bryozoans and laminar red algae. The shelf margin complexes prograded over slope facies of dark-gray cherty limestones, which generally lack skeletal fossils, but contain common ichnofossils in upper slope beds. Overlapping tongues and channels of lithoclastic-skeletal packstones and grainstones extend seaward from the phylloid algal/Tubiphytes bioherms into the dark-gray slope facies. Proximal backreef facies consist of mainly skeletal-peloidal packstones and wackestones. The Hueco Mountains outlier exposures are important because: (1) they confirm a Late Wolfcampian shelf margin with distinct topographic relief in the southern Orogrande Basin, and (2) they provide an easily accessible field laboratory where Wolfcampian shelf-to-basin facies relationships and shelf margin bioherms can be studied. Wolfcampian bioherms represent a significant stage in the evolutionary history of Late Paleozoic reef communities and form important petroleum reservoirs in the adjacent Permian Basin.

  7. Gold Nanoparticles Self-Similar Chain Structure Organized by DNA Origami

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gold Nanoparticles Self-Similar Chain Structure Organized by DNA Origami Authors: Ding, B., Deng, Z., Yan, H., Cabrini, S., Zukerman, R., and Boker, J. Title: Gold Nanoparticles Self-Similar Chain Structure Organized by DNA Origami Source: Journal of the American Chemical Society Year: 2010 Volume: 132 Pages: 3248-3249 ABSTRACT: Here we demonstrate Au nanoparticle self-similar chain structure organized by triangle DNA origami with well-controlled orientation and <10 nm spacing. We show for

  8. Long distance symmetries for nuclear forces and the similarity renormalization group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpigel, S.; Timoteo, V. S.; Arriola, E. R.

    2013-03-25

    In this work we study the emergence of long distance symmetries for nuclear forces within the framework of the similarity renormalization group approach.

  9. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    An updated partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for XFEL snapshot diffraction data is presented and confirmed by observing anomalous density for S atoms at an X-ray wavelength of 1.3 . Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating the R{sub split} value) of 3.15% to 1.46 resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will

  10. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Research and development report No. 53, interim report No. 31, August 1976-July 1977. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. [Fate of 36 trace elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-03-01

    Results are presented on a study of the distribution and fate of 34 trace elements in the Solvent Refined Coal Process at the pilot plant located at Fort Lewis, Washington, and operated by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. under contract with the US Department of Energy. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine Ti, V, Ca, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Br, Co, Ni, Cr, Fe, Na, Rb, Cs, K, Sc, Tb, Eu, Sm, Ce, La, Sr, Ba, Th, Hf, Ta, Ga, Zr, and Cu in feed coals, process solvent, Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), mineral residues, wet filter cake, by-product solvents, process and effluent waters and by-product sulfur. The sample points were chosen such that the major process streams were adequately described and that the major input and output materials were included. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure the toxic elements Pb, Cd, Be in plant-derived solvents, effluent water and Hamer Marsh water. Specific methods were developed for analysis of a wide range of material compositions. The neutron activation analysis procedures were divided into short and long irradiation procedures for elements with short half lives (less than 3 hours) and intermediate to long half lives ( 8 hours to 5.2 years). Data are presented for a third equilibrium set of samples from the SRC-I process and compared to two similar sets analyzed previously. A material balance (or budget) was calculated for each element from the concentration data and the yields of each process fraction. Data are also presented on a study of carbon monoxide addition to the hydrogen stream and its effect on trace elements, and trace element data on a study of thirty-six plant effluent water samples taken during an SRC-I production run.

  11. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment to Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. P. Blanchard; R. W. Youngblood

    2014-06-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway of the DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program focuses on advancing the state of the art in safety analysis and risk assessment to support decision-making on nuclear power plant operation well beyond the originally designed lifetime of the plants (i.e., beyond 60 years). Among the issues being addressed in RISMC is the significance of SSC aging and how confident we are about our understanding of its impact on the margin between the loads SSCs are expected to see during normal operation and accident conditions, and the SSC capacities (their ability to resist those loads) as the SSCs age. In this paper, a summary is provided of a case study that examines SSC aging from an environmental qualification (EQ) perspective. The case study illustrates how the state of knowledge regarding SSC margin can be characterized given the overall integrated plant design, and was developed to demonstrate a method for deciding on which cables to focus, which cables are not so important from an environmental qualification margin standpoint, and what plant design features or operating characteristics determine the role that environmental qualification plays in establishing a safety case on which decisions regarding margin can be made. The selection of cables for which demonstration of margin with respect to aging and environmental challenges uses a technique known as Prevention Analysis. Prevention Analysis is a Boolean method for optimal selection of SSCs (that is, those combinations of SSCs both necessary and sufficient to meet a predetermined selection criterion) in a manner that allows demonstration that plant-level safety can be demonstrated by the collection of selected SSCs alone. Choosing the set of SSCs that is necessary and sufficient to satisfy the safety objectives, and demonstrating that the safety objectives can be met effectively, determines where resources are best allocated to assure SSC

  12. Delaware basin/Central basin platform margin: The development of a subthrust deep-gas province in the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purves, W.J. ); Ting, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    A deep-gas-prone province was identified along the Delaware basin/Central Basin platform margin, a margin conventionally interpreted to be bounded by high-angle normal or high-angle reverse structures. Redefinition of the tectonic style between the Delaware basin and the adjacent platform resulted in the identification of this Delaware basin/Central Basin platform subthrust province and a giant prospect within it. Definition of a giant-sized gas prospect in northern Pecos County, Texas, revealed that portions of this margin may be characterized by shingled, low-angle, eastward-dipping, basement involved thrust faults. Interpretations suggest that hidden, subthrust footwall structures may trend discontinuously for greater than 100 mi along this structural margin. Subthrust footwall structures formed as basinal buttress points for the Central Basin platform to climb over the Delaware basin. In this area, structural relief of over 19,000 ft over a 10-mi width is believed due to stacking of low-angle thrust sheets. Seismic resolution of this subthrust margin has been complexed by allochtonous hanging-wall gravity-glide blocks and folds and by velocity changes in overlying syn- and posttectonic sediments associated with basin-to-shelf lithofacies changes. Statistical studies indicate that this deep-gas province has a play potential of greater than 10 tcf of gas, with individual prospect sizes exceeding 1 tcfg. The prospects defined along this trend are deep (approximately 20,000 ft) subthrust structural traps that are indigenously sourced and reservoired by dual-matrix porosity. Vitrinite supported maturation modeling suggests that these subthrust structures formed prior to catagenic conversion of the oldest source rocks to oil and later to gas. Tectonically fractured Ordovician Ellenburger and Devonian sediments are considered the principal reservoirs. Shales overlying reservoir intervals form vertical seals.

  13. Margin of Safety Definition and Examples Used in Safety Basis Documents and the USQ Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, R. A.

    2013-10-03

    The Nuclear Safety Management final rule, 10 CFR 830, provides an undefined term, margin of safety (MOS). Safe harbors listed in 10 CFR 830, Table 2, such as DOE-STD-3009 use but do not define the term. This lack of definition has created the need for the definition. This paper provides a definition of MOS and documents examples of MOS as applied in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved safety basis for an existing nuclear facility. If we understand what MOS looks like regarding Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) parameters, then it helps us compare against other parameters that do not involve a MOS. This paper also documents parameters that are not MOS. These criteria could be used to determine if an MOS exists in safety basis documents. This paper helps DOE, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and its contractors responsible for the safety basis improve safety basis documents and the unreviewed safety question (USQ) process with respect to MOS.

  14. Large-scale simulation of methane dissociation along the West Spitzbergen Margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.

    2009-07-15

    Vast quantities of methane are trapped in oceanic hydrate deposits, and there is concern that a rise in the ocean temperature will induce dissociation of these hydrate accumulations, potentially releasing large amounts of methane into the atmosphere. The recent discovery of active methane gas venting along the landward limit of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) on the shallow continental slope west of Spitsbergen could be an indication of this process, if the source of the methane can be confidently attributed to dissociating hydrates. In the first large-scale simulation study of its kind, we simulate shallow hydrate dissociation in conditions representative of the West Spitsbergen margin to test the hypothesis that the observed gas release originated from hydrates. The simulation results are consistent with this hypothesis, and are in remarkable agreement with the recently published observations. They show that shallow, low-saturation hydrate deposits, when subjected to temperature increases at the seafloor, can release significant quantities of methane, and that the releases will be localized near the landward limit of the top of the GHSZ. These results indicate the possibility that hydrate dissociation and methane release may be both a consequence and a cause of climate change.

  15. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this papermore » we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.« less

  16. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakeman, J.D. Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the physical discretization error and the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity of the sparse grid. Utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.

  17. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  18. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Its Application to Grain Refinement of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tekeli, Sueleyman; Gueral, Ahmet

    2011-12-10

    Microstructure of a metal can be considerably changed by severe plastic deformation techniques such as high pressure torsion, extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). Among these methods, ECAP is particularly attractive because it has a potential for introducing significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructure into bulk materials. Typically, it reduces the grain size to the submicrometer level or even nanometer range and thus produces materials that are capable of exhibiting unusual mechanical properties. In the present study, a test unites for equal channel angular pressing was constructed and this system was used for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. After the optimization tests, it was seen that the most effective lubricant for the dies was MoS{sub 2}, the pressing pressure was around 25-35 ton and the pressing speed was 2 mm/s. By using these parameters, the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was successfully ECAPed up to 14 passes at 200 deg. C using route C. After ECAP tests, the specimens were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), hardness and macrostructural investigations. It was seen that the plastic deformation in the ECAPed specimens occurred from edge to the centre like whirlpool. In addition, the deformation intensity increased with increasing pass number. The grain size of the specimens effectively also decreased with increasing pass number. That is, while the grain size of unECAPed specimen was 10 {mu}m, this value decreased to 300 nm after 14 passes. At the beginning, while there was a banding tendency in the grains toward deformation direction, homogeneous and equiaxed grains were formed with increasing pass number. This grain refinement was as a result of an interaction between shear strain and thermal recovery during ECAP processing. Hardness measurements showed that the hardness values increased up to 4 passes, decreased effectively at 6th pass, again increased at 8th pass and after this pass, the hardness again decreased due to

  19. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.

  20. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definitionmore » of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.« less

  1. Refinement of the Kansas City Plant site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.E.; Hall, S.C.; Baker, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents a refinement of the site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) at the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP). This refinement was prompted by a review of the literature and the results of a limited study that was conducted to evaluate whether pools of DNAPL were present in contaminated locations at the KCP. The field study relied on the micropurge method of sample collection. This method has been demonstrated as a successful approach for obtaining discrete samples within a limited aquifer zone. Samples were collected at five locations across 5-ft well screens located at the base of the alluvial aquifer at the KCP. The hypothesis was that if pools of DNAPL were present, the dissolved concentration would increase with depth. Four wells with highly contaminated groundwater were selected for the test. Three of the wells were located in areas where DNAPL was suspected, and one where no DNAPL was believed to be present. The results demonstrated no discernible pattern with depth for the four wells tested. A review of the data in light of the available technical literature suggests that the fine-grained nature of the aquifer materials precludes the formation of pools. Instead, DNAPL is trapped as discontinuous ganglia that are probably widespread throughout the aquifer. The discontinuous nature of the DNAPL distribution prevents the collection of groundwater samples with concentrations approaching saturation. Furthermore, the results indicate that attempts to remediate the aquifer with conventional approaches will not result in restoration to pristine conditions because the tortuous groundwater flow paths will inhibit the efficiency of fluid-flow-based treatments.

  2. Influence of heterogeneity on second-kind self-similar solutions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    origin (a point of zero permeability); (b) a second-kind self-similar solution is found using a phase-plane analysis for viscous gravity currents that propagate toward the origin. ...

  3. Stability analysis of self-similar behaviors in perfect fluid gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuda, Eiji; Tomimatsu, Akira

    2006-06-15

    Stability of self-similar solutions for gravitational collapse is an important problem to be investigated from the perspectives of their nature as an attractor, critical phenomena, and instability of a naked singularity. In this paper we study spherically symmetric non-self-similar perturbations of matter and metrics in spherically symmetric self-similar backgrounds. The collapsing matter is assumed to be a perfect fluid with the equation of state P={alpha}{rho}. We construct a single wave equation governing the perturbations, which makes their time evolution in arbitrary self-similar backgrounds analytically tractable. Further we propose an analytical application of this master wave equation to the stability problem by means of the normal mode analysis for the perturbations having the time dependence given by exp(i{omega}log vertical t vertical bar), and present some sufficient conditions for the absence of nonoscillatory unstable normal modes with purely imaginary {omega}.

  4. NREL Report Finds Similar Value in Two CSP Technologies - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Report Finds Similar Value in Two CSP Technologies Findings demonstrate increasing importance for systems with thermal energy storage February 11, 2014 Parabolic troughs and dry-cooled towers deliver similar value for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants, despite different solar profiles, a new report by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has found. The report, "Estimating the Performance and Economic Value of Multiple Concentrating Solar Power

  5. Baleen whales host a unique gut microbiome with similarities to both

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carnivores and herbivores (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Baleen whales host a unique gut microbiome with similarities to both carnivores and herbivores Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Baleen whales host a unique gut microbiome with similarities to both carnivores and herbivores Mammals host gut microbiomes of immense physiological consequence, but the determinants of diversity in these communities remain poorly understood. Diet appears to be the dominant

  6. Characterization report. CSFR petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information. [Czecho-Slovakian Federal Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, P.D.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of CSFR. It addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Both short and long term improvement possibilities were established and given to the second round team for detailed evaluation. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment and refinery impact on the environment, a data base has been organized for use in a linear programming model.

  7. Investigation of Rossby-number similarity in the neutral boundary layer using large-eddy simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohmstede, W.D.; Cederwall, R.T.; Meyers, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    One special case of particular interest, especially to theoreticians, is the steady-state, horizontally homogeneous, autobarotropic (PLB), hereafter referred to as the neutral boundary layer (NBL). The NBL is in fact a 'rare' atmospheric phenomenon, generally associated with high-wind situations. Nevertheless, there is a disproportionate interest in this problem because Rossby-number similarity theory provides a sound approach for addressing this issue. Rossby-number similarity theory has rather wide acceptance, but because of the rarity of the 'true' NBL state, there remains an inadequate experimental database for quantifying constants associated with the Rossby-number similarity concept. Although it remains a controversial issue, it has been proposed that large-eddy simulation (LES) is an alternative to physical experimentation for obtaining basic atmospherc 'data'. The objective of the study reported here is to investigate Rossby-number similarity in the NBL using LES. Previous studies have not addressed Rossby-number similarity explicitly, although they made use of it in the interpretation of their results. The intent is to calculate several sets of NBL solutions that are ambiguous relative to the their respective Rossby numbers and compare the results for similarity, or the lack of it. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Measuring semantic similarities by combining gene ontology annotations and gene co-function networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Jiajie; Uygun, Sahra; Kim, Taehyong; Wang, Yadong; Rhee, Seung Y.; Chen, Jin

    2015-02-14

    Background: Gene Ontology (GO) has been used widely to study functional relationships between genes. The current semantic similarity measures rely only on GO annotations and GO structure. This limits the power of GO-based similarity because of the limited proportion of genes that are annotated to GO in most organisms. Results: We introduce a novel approach called NETSIM (network-based similarity measure) that incorporates information from gene co-function networks in addition to using the GO structure and annotations. Using metabolic reaction maps of yeast, Arabidopsis, and human, we demonstrate that NETSIM can improve the accuracy of GO term similarities. We also demonstrate that NETSIM works well even for genomes with sparser gene annotation data. We applied NETSIM on large Arabidopsis gene families such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases to group the members functionally and show that this grouping could facilitate functional characterization of genes in these families. Conclusions: Using NETSIM as an example, we demonstrated that the performance of a semantic similarity measure could be significantly improved after incorporating genome-specific information. NETSIM incorporates both GO annotations and gene co-function network data as a priori knowledge in the model. Therefore, functional similarities of GO terms that are not explicitly encoded in GO but are relevant in a taxon-specific manner become measurable when GO annotations are limited.

  9. Measuring semantic similarities by combining gene ontology annotations and gene co-function networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peng, Jiajie; Uygun, Sahra; Kim, Taehyong; Wang, Yadong; Rhee, Seung Y.; Chen, Jin

    2015-02-14

    Background: Gene Ontology (GO) has been used widely to study functional relationships between genes. The current semantic similarity measures rely only on GO annotations and GO structure. This limits the power of GO-based similarity because of the limited proportion of genes that are annotated to GO in most organisms. Results: We introduce a novel approach called NETSIM (network-based similarity measure) that incorporates information from gene co-function networks in addition to using the GO structure and annotations. Using metabolic reaction maps of yeast, Arabidopsis, and human, we demonstrate that NETSIM can improve the accuracy of GO term similarities. We also demonstratemore » that NETSIM works well even for genomes with sparser gene annotation data. We applied NETSIM on large Arabidopsis gene families such as cytochrome P450 monooxygenases to group the members functionally and show that this grouping could facilitate functional characterization of genes in these families. Conclusions: Using NETSIM as an example, we demonstrated that the performance of a semantic similarity measure could be significantly improved after incorporating genome-specific information. NETSIM incorporates both GO annotations and gene co-function network data as a priori knowledge in the model. Therefore, functional similarities of GO terms that are not explicitly encoded in GO but are relevant in a taxon-specific manner become measurable when GO annotations are limited.« less

  10. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trehu, Anne; Kannberg, Peter

    2011-06-30

    bringing methane into the ridge formed by the toe-thrust. Because of the small anomaly due to this process and the uncertainty in thermal conductivity, we did not model this process explicitly. In the NE part of the K-G basin seismic grid, a number of local heat flow lows and highs are observed, which can be attributed to topographic refraction and to local fluid flow along faults, respectively. No regional anomaly can be resolved. Because of lack of continuity between the K-G basin sites within the seismic grid and those ~70 km to the NE in water depths of 1200 to 1500 m, we do not speculate on the reason for higher heat flow at these depths. The Mahanadi basin results, while limited in geographic extent, are similar to those for the KG basin. The Andaman basin exhibits much lower apparent heat flow values, ranging from 0.015 to 0.025 W/m2. Heat flow here also appears to increase with increasing water depth. The very low heat flow here is among the lowest heat flow observed anywhere and gives rise to a very thick hydrate stability zone in the sediments. Through 1D models of sedimentation (with extremely high sedimentation rates as a proxy for tectonic thickening), we concluded that the very low heat flow can probably be attributed to the combined effects of high sedimentation rate, low thermal conductivity, tectonic thickening of sediments and the cooling effect of a subducting plate in a subduction zone forearc. Like for the K-G basin, much of the local variability can be attributed to topography. The regional increase in heat flow with water depth remains unexplained because the seismic grid available to us did not extend far enough to define the local tectonic setting of the slope basin controlling this observational pattern. The results are compared to results from other margins, both active and passive. While an increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth is widely observed, it is likely a result of different processes in different places. The very low

  11. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne Trehu; Peter Kannberg

    2011-06-30

    a role in bringing methane into the ridge formed by the toe-thrust. Because of the small anomaly due to this process and the uncertainty in thermal conductivity, we did not model this process explicitly. In the NE part of the K-G basin seismic grid, a number of local heat flow lows and highs are observed, which can be attributed to topographic refraction and to local fluid flow along faults, respectively. No regional anomaly can be resolved. Because of lack of continuity between the K-G basin sites within the seismic grid and those {approx}70 km to the NE in water depths of 1200 to 1500 m, we do not speculate on the reason for higher heat flow at these depths. The Mahanadi basin results, while limited in geographic extent, are similar to those for the K-G basin. The Andaman basin exhibits much lower apparent heat flow values, ranging from 0.015 to 0.025 W/m{sup 2}. Heat flow here also appears to increase with increasing water depth. The very low heat flow here is among the lowest heat flow observed anywhere and gives rise to a very thick hydrate stability zone in the sediments. Through 1D models of sedimentation (with extremely high sedimentation rates as a proxy for tectonic thickening), we concluded that the very low heat flow can probably be attributed to the combined effects of high sedimentation rate, low thermal conductivity, tectonic thickening of sediments and the cooling effect of a subducting plate in a subduction zone forearc. Like for the K-G basin, much of the local variability can be attributed to topography. The regional increase in heat flow with water depth remains unexplained because the seismic grid available to us did not extend far enough to define the local tectonic setting of the slope basin controlling this observational pattern. The results are compared to results from other margins, both active and passive. While an increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth is widely observed, it is likely a result of different processes in

  12. Issues affecting the refining sector of the petroleum industry. Hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, May 19, 1992 and May 28, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this hearing is to look at the challenges facing the petroleum refining industry that are a direct result of recent Federal Government policy changes. A major challenge is the form of compliance with the new Federal environmental laws. The biggest challenge will be the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Compliance will require the refining industry to change both the way it operates and the motor fuels that it produces. The witnesses first address how these new laws affect refinery operations, refinery output, and the distribution of refined products. Secondly, what will it cost the refining industry to implement these laws and how will this affect the cost of refined products. Thirdly, how will these laws affect the structure and competitiveness of the refining industry. Statements of various senators and industry representatives are included in the hearing. Statistical data for 1989 is presented showing the scope of industry activities. 8 figs., 16 refs., 32 tabs.

  13. SU-E-J-30: Benchmark Image-Based TCP Calculation for Evaluation of PTV Margins for Lung SBRT Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, M; Chetty, I; Zhong, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumor control probability (TCP) calculated with accumulated radiation doses may help design appropriate treatment margins. Image registration errors, however, may compromise the calculated TCP. The purpose of this study is to develop benchmark CT images to quantify registration-induced errors in the accumulated doses and their corresponding TCP. Methods: 4DCT images were registered from end-inhale (EI) to end-exhale (EE) using a demons algorithm. The demons DVFs were corrected by an FEM model to get realistic deformation fields. The FEM DVFs were used to warp the EI images to create the FEM-simulated images. The two images combined with the FEM DVF formed a benchmark model. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images, created from the EI and simulated images, were used to develop IMRT plans. Two plans with 3 and 5 mm margins were developed for each patient. With these plans, radiation doses were recalculated on the simulated images and warped back to the EI images using the FEM DVFs to get the accumulated doses. The Elastix software was used to register the FEM-simulated images to the EI images. TCPs calculated with the Elastix-accumulated doses were compared with those generated by the FEM to get the TCP error of the Elastix registrations. Results: For six lung patients, the mean Elastix registration error ranged from 0.93 to 1.98 mm. Their relative dose errors in PTV were between 0.28% and 6.8% for 3mm margin plans, and between 0.29% and 6.3% for 5mm-margin plans. As the PTV margin reduced from 5 to 3 mm, the mean TCP error of the Elastix-reconstructed doses increased from 2.0% to 2.9%, and the mean NTCP errors decreased from 1.2% to 1.1%. Conclusion: Patient-specific benchmark images can be used to evaluate the impact of registration errors on the computed TCPs, and may help select appropriate PTV margins for lung SBRT patients.

  14. Quantification of margins and uncertainty for risk-informed decision analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin, Kenneth Fredrick

    2010-09-01

    QMU stands for 'Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties'. QMU is a basic framework for consistency in integrating simulation, data, and/or subject matter expertise to provide input into a risk-informed decision-making process. QMU is being applied to a wide range of NNSA stockpile issues, from performance to safety. The implementation of QMU varies with lab and application focus. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program develops validated computational simulation tools to be applied in the context of QMU. QMU provides input into a risk-informed decision making process. The completeness aspect of QMU can benefit from the structured methodology and discipline of quantitative risk assessment (QRA)/probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). In characterizing uncertainties it is important to pay attention to the distinction between those arising from incomplete knowledge ('epistemic' or systematic), and those arising from device-to-device variation ('aleatory' or random). The national security labs should investigate the utility of a probability of frequency (PoF) approach in presenting uncertainties in the stockpile. A QMU methodology is connected if the interactions between failure modes are included. The design labs should continue to focus attention on quantifying uncertainties that arise from epistemic uncertainties such as poorly-modeled phenomena, numerical errors, coding errors, and systematic uncertainties in experiment. The NNSA and design labs should ensure that the certification plan for any RRW is supported by strong, timely peer review and by an ongoing, transparent QMU-based documentation and analysis in order to permit a confidence level necessary for eventual certification.

  15. Developing a marginal field using new techniques-South Monagas Unit, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skirvin, T.M.; Sven Hagen, E.; McGee, R.A.; Hinrichs, P.D.; Medina, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992 the Venezuelan national oil company, PDVSA, awarded operating service agreements to foreign oil companies for reactivation of marginal oil fields. The South Monagas Unit contains three oil and gas fields, Uracoa, Bombal, and Tucupita, that were not producing prior to the award of the contract As of October 1995, production from Uraroa had exceeded 20 MBbls/day of heavy oil from 26 vertical and 11 horizontal wells. Initial uncertainties about heavy oil treatment capability, water and gas production, oil flow rates, and ultimate recoverable reserves led to a phased development plan that has incrementally reduced the risk of financial exposure over time. The first phase of development utilized conventional geologic techniques and vertical wells to test treatment facilities, mud and gravel-pack technologies, and flow rates. Positive results led to the next phase of development which focused on reservoir performance and well optimization. A horizontal well drilling program was implemented in December 1993. A milestone in this program was the first gravel-pack horizontal well in Venezuela, completed in February, 1995. A pilot 2-D seismic program in late 1994 confined that high-quality seismic could be acquired to significantly enhance the development of Uracoa. A 175 W 3-D survey was shot and processed in mid-1995. Concurrently, borehole imaging logs were acquired in vertical wells to determine internal reservoir heterogeneity and sand depositional models. The sequence stratigraphic model that evolved, based on outcrop field analogs, 3-D seismic stratigraphy, and regional well control, is being used to optimize field development. In addition, new exploration concepts are being tested without risk using strategically located water injection wells as test wells.

  16. Developing a marginal field using new techniques-South Monagas Unit, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skirvin, T.M.; Sven Hagen, E.; McGee, R.A.; Hinrichs, P.D. ); Medina, P.A. )

    1996-01-01

    In 1992 the Venezuelan national oil company, PDVSA, awarded operating service agreements to foreign oil companies for reactivation of marginal oil fields. The South Monagas Unit contains three oil and gas fields, Uracoa, Bombal, and Tucupita, that were not producing prior to the award of the contract As of October 1995, production from Uraroa had exceeded 20 MBbls/day of heavy oil from 26 vertical and 11 horizontal wells. Initial uncertainties about heavy oil treatment capability, water and gas production, oil flow rates, and ultimate recoverable reserves led to a phased development plan that has incrementally reduced the risk of financial exposure over time. The first phase of development utilized conventional geologic techniques and vertical wells to test treatment facilities, mud and gravel-pack technologies, and flow rates. Positive results led to the next phase of development which focused on reservoir performance and well optimization. A horizontal well drilling program was implemented in December 1993. A milestone in this program was the first gravel-pack horizontal well in Venezuela, completed in February, 1995. A pilot 2-D seismic program in late 1994 confined that high-quality seismic could be acquired to significantly enhance the development of Uracoa. A 175 W 3-D survey was shot and processed in mid-1995. Concurrently, borehole imaging logs were acquired in vertical wells to determine internal reservoir heterogeneity and sand depositional models. The sequence stratigraphic model that evolved, based on outcrop field analogs, 3-D seismic stratigraphy, and regional well control, is being used to optimize field development. In addition, new exploration concepts are being tested without risk using strategically located water injection wells as test wells.

  17. A passive margin-type submarine fan complex, Permian Ecca Group, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickens, H.D. ); Bouma, A.H. )

    1991-03-01

    A submarine fan complex, comprising five arenaceous fan systems separated by basinal shale units, occurs in the southwestern part of the intracratonic Karoo basin in South Africa. Although basin development is related to a subduction zone bordering the palaeo-Pacific ocean to the south of Gondwanaland and the evolution of the Cape Fold Belt, the entire Lower Permian Ecca Group basin-fill succession reflects depositional characteristics of a passive-margin setting. The submarine fan complex, 250 m thick, originated from sediments supplied by Mississippi-type deltas dominating the Ecca coastline. The fine grain-size and low sand/shale ratio of the submarine fan and deltaic deposits reflect the maturity of the ancient river systems. Outcrops of the fan complex are well exposed and cover an area of 650 km{sup 2}. The strata are not affected by folding, and deep erosion allows three-dimensional viewing of mid-fan to outer-fan deposits. Features of interest include stacked lobe deposits displayed along 2.5 km of a 60 m high cliff section, and a transverse cliff section through channel-fill deposits 500 m wide. Paleocurrent directions reveal that each sequence had its own main source area located to the northwest and south of its present geographic location. The cyclic nature of the fan complex is attributed to relative sea-level changes; deposition took place on the basin floor in water depths that do not exceed 500 m. Shoaling of the basin to wave base depths is reflected in the pro-delta and delta front deposits overlying the uppermost fan sequence. Major factors in controlling direction of fan progradation were delta switching and basin floor topography.

  18. Late Permian to mid-Cretaceous carbonate platform along the passive margin of the southeastern Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derin, B.; Garfunkel, Z.

    1988-08-01

    Starting from the Late Permian and throughout most of the Mesozoic, up to 5 km of shallow-water carbonates formed in a subsiding belt along the northern fringe of the Arabo-African continent, passing inland into thinner and clastic-rich sections. This sedimentation pattern was established in the Late Permian and evolved in several distinct stages that depended on global oscillations of sea level and local tectonic events. In Middle Triassic to early Liassic times, several pulses of faulting and magmatism, interpreted as rifting, occurred along the subsiding belt of carbonate deposition and produced a passive continental margin. Tectonic activity ended by the Roarcian, and since then a rather uniform shallow-water carbonate shelf formed. It was delimited by shoals of high-energy sediments and fringing reefs, inland of which low-energy carbonate muds and sometimes dolomite accumulated. By the Late Jurassic a more than 1.5 km-high continental slope developed, separating the shallow-water domain from a starved deep-water basin. In latest Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous time the activity of an intraplate hot spot caused extensive magmatism, uplifting, and erosion. The eroded material formed a thick sediment body in front of the continental slope. Since late Valanginian time, renewed regional subsidence and a rise in sea level led to a new phase of carbonate deposition over a wide shallow-water shelf. This was fringed by an accentuated continental slope covered by a basinward-thinning wedge-shaped apron of calciclastic sediments. This region was terminated by Senonian and later deformation related to plate collision in the Alpine orogenic belt.

  19. SU-E-T-160: Evaluation of Accuracy for Target Margin Size Obtained From CBCT On Lung SBRT Based On Film Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Lee, M; Kim, M; Suh, T; Park, J; Park, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To analysis delivered dose on target using gafchromic films for evaluating accuracy of target margin size obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) Methods: The phantom consists of measurement part and driving part. The motor of Quasar motion phantom (Modus Medical Devices Inc, London, ON, Canada) was used for driving part and we developed measurement part which consist of cork cylindrical body and acrylic target with radiochromic film inserted into central and both ends of acrylic target. In this study lung SBRT cases through both four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and CBCT were selected. Target contouring including margin based on 4DCT is defined with a 1 cm margin around gross tumor volume (GTV) in all directions except for inferior direction. The moving range in inferior direction was larger than other directions thus, including 2 cm margin. In case of CBCT, the margin means blurring of target on CBCT images. This study was compared margin size determined through 4DCT and that of based on CBCT and we also evaluated dose profile and the length of margin in superior-inferior direction on CBCT compared with 4DCT. Results: The length of target including margin was 2.48 cm (based on CBCT) and 2.66 cm (based on 4DCT), respectively in superior-inferior direction. The difference of delivered dose on target between two margins was only within 1%. Conclusions: This study has shown the feasibility of determining target margin using CBCT for delivering more accurate prescription dose to lung cancer.

  20. Soil Carbon Change and Net Energy Associated with Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: A Regional Modeling Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandaru, Varaprasad; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Link, Robert P.; Zhang, Xuesong; Post, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    The use of marginal lands (MLs) for biofuel production has been contemplated as a promising solution for meeting biofuel demands. However, there have been concerns with spatial location of MLs, their inherent biofuel potential, and possible environmental consequences with the cultivation of energy crops. Here, we developed a new quantitative approach that integrates high-resolution land cover and land productivity maps and uses conditional probability density functions for analyzing land use patterns as a function of land productivity to classify the agricultural lands. We subsequently applied this method to determine available productive croplands (P-CLs) and non-crop marginal lands (NC-MLs) in a nine-county Southern Michigan. Furthermore, Spatially Explicit Integrated Modeling Framework (SEIMF) using EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) was used to understand the net energy (NE) and soil organic carbon (SOC) implications of cultivating different annual and perennial production systems.

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Technical Basis Guide Describing How to Perform Safety Margin Configuration Risk Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; James Knudsen; Bentley Harwood

    2013-08-01

    The INL has carried out a demonstration of the RISMC approach for the purpose of configuration risk management. We have shown how improved accuracy and realism can be achieved by simulating changes in risk as a function of different configurations in order to determine safety margins as the plant is modified. We described the various technical issues that play a role in these configuration-based calculations with the intent that future applications can take advantage of the analysis benefits while avoiding some of the technical pitfalls that are found for these types of calculations. Specific recommendations have been provided on a variety of topics aimed at improving the safety margin analysis and strengthening the technical basis behind the analysis process.

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) PathwayTechnical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Cristian Rabiti; Richard Martineau

    2012-11-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As the current Light Water Reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) degradations or failures that initiate safety-significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly over-design portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as safety margin. Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated, primarily based on engineering judgment.

  3. Marginally trapped submanifolds in Lorentzian space forms and in the Lorentzian product of a space form by the real line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anciaux, Henri; Godoy, Yamile

    2015-02-15

    We give local, explicit representation formulas for n-dimensional spacelike submanifolds which are marginally trapped in the Minkowski space ℝ{sub 1}{sup n+2}, the de Sitter space dS{sup n+2}, the anti-de Sitter space AdS{sup n+2} and the Lorentzian products S{sup n+1} × ℝ and ℍ{sup n+1} × ℝ of the sphere and the hyperbolic space by the real line.

  4. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Button, Michael R. Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses.

  5. Dynamics Of A Laser-Induced Plume Self-Similar Expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennaceur-Doumaz, D.; Djebli, M.

    2008-09-23

    The dynamics of a laser ablation plume during the first stage of its expansion, just after the termination of the laser pulse is modeled. First, we suppose the laser fluence range low enough to consider a neutral vapor. The expansion of the evaporated material is described by one-component fluid and one-dimensional Euler equations. The vapor is assumed to follow an ideal gas flow. For high energetic ions, the charge separation can be neglected and the hydrodynamics equations can be solved using self-similar formulation. The obtained ordinary differential equations are solved numerically. Secondly, the effect of ionization is investigated when the evaporated gas temperature is sufficiently high. In this case, Saha equation is included in the formulation of the model. We find a self-similar solution for a finite value of the similarity variable which depends on the laser ablation parameters.

  6. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Reiner; T.E. Curry; M.A. de Figueiredo; H.J. Herzog; S.D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger

    2006-04-01

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'. There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (<10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Local-global alignment for finding 3D similarities in protein structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zemla, Adam T.

    2011-09-20

    A method of finding 3D similarities in protein structures of a first molecule and a second molecule. The method comprises providing preselected information regarding the first molecule and the second molecule. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Longest Continuous Segments (LCS) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Global Distance Test (GDT) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Local Global Alignment Scoring function (LGA_S) analysis. Verifying constructed alignment and repeating the steps to find the regions of 3D similarities in protein structures.

  8. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants | Department of Energy Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants At lower-intermediate exhaust temperatures, N2O is emitted in two peaks. This presentation uses a global model for the primary and secondary peaks to explain the chemical reactions. deer12_bartova.pdf

  9. A model of the methane cycle, permafrost, and hydrology of the Siberian continental margin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Archer, D.

    2014-06-03

    A two-dimensional model of a passive continental margin was adapted to the simulation of the methane cycle on Siberian continental shelf and slope, attempting to account for the impacts of glacial/interglacial cycles in sea level, alternately exposing the continental shelf to freezing conditions with deep permafrost formation during glacial times, and immersion in the ocean in interglacial times. The model is used to gauge the impact of the glacial cycles, and potential anthropogenic warming in the deep future, on the atmospheric methane emission flux, and the sensitivities of that flux to processes such as permafrost formation and terrestrial organic carbonmore » (Yedoma) deposition. Hydrological forcing drives a freshening and ventilation of pore waters in areas exposed to the atmosphere, which is not quickly reversed by invasion of seawater upon submergence, since there is no analogous saltwater pump. This hydrological pump changes the salinity enough to affect the stability of permafrost and methane hydrates on the shelf. Permafrost formation inhibits bubble transport through the sediment column, by construction in the model. The impact of permafrost on the methane budget is to replace the bubble flux by offshore groundwater flow containing dissolved methane, rather than accumulating methane for catastrophic release when the permafrost seal fails during warming. By far the largest impact of the glacial/interglacial cycles on the atmospheric methane flux is attenuation by dissolution of bubbles in the ocean when sea level is high. Methane emissions are highest during the regression (soil freezing) part of the cycle, rather than during transgression (thawing). The model-predicted methane flux to the atmosphere in response to a warming climate is small, relative to the global methane production rate, because of the ongoing flooding of the continental shelf. A slight increase due to warming could be completely counteracted by sea level rise on geologic time

  10. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  11. A procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of CFD calculations based on grid refinement studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eça, L.; Hoekstra, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper offers a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity as a result of a fluid flow computation; the procedure requires solutions on systematically refined grids. The error is estimated with power series expansions as a function of the typical cell size. These expansions, of which four types are used, are fitted to the data in the least-squares sense. The selection of the best error estimate is based on the standard deviation of the fits. The error estimate is converted into an uncertainty with a safety factor that depends on the observed order of grid convergence and on the standard deviation of the fit. For well-behaved data sets, i.e. monotonic convergence with the expected observed order of grid convergence and no scatter in the data, the method reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index. Examples of application of the procedure are included. - Highlights: • Estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity. • Least squares fits to power series expansions to handle noisy data. • Excellent results obtained for manufactured solutions. • Consistent results obtained for practical CFD calculations. • Reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index for well-behaved data sets.

  12. A top-down assessment of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Schneider; B. Carlsen; E. Tavrides; C. van der Hoeven; U. Phathanapirom

    2013-11-01

    Land, water and energy use are key measures of the sustainability of uranium production into the future. As the most attractive, accessible deposits are mined out, future discoveries may prove to be significantly, perhaps unsustainably, more intensive consumers of environmental resources. A number of previous attempts have been made to provide empirical relationships connecting these environmental impact metrics to process variables such as stripping ratio and ore grade. These earlier attempts were often constrained by a lack of real world data and perform poorly when compared against data from modern operations. This paper conditions new empirical models of energy, water and land use in uranium mining, milling, and refining on contemporary data reported by operating mines. It shows that, at present, direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 1% of the electrical energy produced by the once-through fuel cycle. Projections of future energy intensity from uranium production are also possible by coupling the empirical models with estimates of uranium crustal abundance, characteristics of new discoveries, and demand. The projections show that even for the most pessimistic of scenarios considered, by 2100, the direct energy use from uranium production represents less than 3% of the electrical energy produced by the contemporary once-through fuel cycle.

  13. Structure of 2 molar NaOH in aqueous solution from neutron diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, Sylvia E.; Imberti, Silvia; Soper, Alan K.; Botti, Alberto; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2006-09-01

    Neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution has been used to investigate aqueous solutions of 2M NaOH in the liquid state. The data were modeled using empirical potential structure refinement which allows for the extraction of the ion-water and water-water correlations. The data show that the ion-water radial distribution functions are in accordance with those found by previous studies on NaOH solutions and follow a trend which is dependent on the concentration of the solute. In particular, the shape of the hydroxide hydration shell is found to be concentration independent, but the number of water molecules occupying this shell increases with dilution. Additionally, the water-water correlations show that there is still a measurable effect on water structure with the addition of ions at this concentration, as the second shell in the water oxygen radial distribution function is compressed relative to the first shell. The data are also used to discuss the recent claims that the published radial distribution functions of water are unreliable, showing that data taken at different neutron sources, with different diffraction geometry and systematic errors lead to the same structural information when analyzed via a realistic modeling regime.

  14. Initial chemical and biological characterization of hydrotreated solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquids: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, W.C.; Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Craun, J.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of both chemical and biomedical research performed on a solvent refined coal (SRC-II) research material (distillate blend) which was produced by the pilot plant facility at Fort Lewis, Washington. Samples of this distillate blend were subjected to research-scale hydrotreatment by Universal Oil Products, Inc., prior to chemical and biological analysis at PNL. The samples are considered to be, in general, generically representative of raw or hydrotreated materials which might be produced by demonstration or commercial-scale facilities. The above described feedstock and hydrotreated materials were analyzed for chemical composition both prior to and after chemical fractionation. The fractionation procedure used was an acid-base-neutral solvent extraction. The fractions produced, as well as the unfractionated materials, were subjected to microbial mutagenesis testing (Ames assay) and to further chemical analysis. The principal components of the unmodified distillate blend are two and three ringed aromatic and heteroatomic species together with high concentrations of phenolic and polynuclear aromatic components relative to typical levels found in petroleum crudes. The Ames assay mutagenic response for the unfractionated material, as well as the fractions produced by the solvent separation, was reduced considerably in the hydrotreated materials compared to that of the feedstock. Total mutagenic response for the hydrotreated products was approximately 1% of that in the untreated feedstock. The concentrations of two important genetically active compound classes, the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and the primary aromatic amines, were considerably reduced in both of the hydrotreated products compared to the feedstock.

  15. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. II. Black holes, naked singularities, and wormholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeda, Hideki; Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-15

    We use a combination of numerical and analytical methods, exploiting the equations derived in a preceding paper, to classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=({gamma}-1){mu} with 0<{gamma}<2/3. The expansion of the Friedmann universe is accelerated in this case. We find a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions representing a black hole embedded in a Friedmann background. This suggests that, in contrast to the positive pressure case, black holes in a universe with dark energy can grow as fast as the Hubble horizon if they are not too large. There are also self-similar solutions which contain a central naked singularity with negative mass and solutions which represent a Friedmann universe connected to either another Friedmann universe or some other cosmological model. The latter are interpreted as self-similar cosmological white hole or wormhole solutions. The throats of these wormholes are defined as two-dimensional spheres with minimal area on a spacelike hypersurface and they are all nontraversable because of the absence of a past null infinity.

  16. Naked singularities in non-self-similar gravitational collapse of radiation shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, P.S.; Dwivedi, I.H. )

    1992-03-15

    Non-self-similar gravitational collapse of imploding radiation is shown to give rise to a strong curvature naked singularity. The conditions are specified for the singularity to be globally naked and the strength of the same is examined along nonspacelike curves and along all the families of nonspacelike geodesics terminating at the singularity in the past.

  17. Parallel seed-based approach to multiple protein structure similarities detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapuis, Guillaume [INRIA/IRISA and Univ. of Rennes, Rennes Cedex (France); Le Boudic-Jamin, Mathilde [INRIA/IRISA and Univ. of Rennes, Rennes Cedex (France); Andonov, Rumen [INRIA/IRISA and Univ. of Rennes, Rennes Cedex (France)] (ORCID:0000000348427102); Djidjev, Hristo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lavenier, Dominique [INRIA/IRISA and Univ. of Rennes, Rennes Cedex (France)] (ORCID:000000032557680X)

    2015-01-01

    Finding similarities between protein structures is a crucial task in molecular biology. Most of the existing tools require proteins to be aligned in order-preserving way and only find single alignments even when multiple similar regions exist. We propose a new seed-based approach that discovers multiple pairs of similar regions. Its computational complexity is polynomial and it comes with a quality guaranteethe returned alignments have both root mean squared deviations (coordinate-based as well as internal-distances based) lower than a given threshold, if such exist. We do not require the alignments to be order preserving (i.e., we consider nonsequential alignments), which makes our algorithm suitable for detecting similar domains when comparing multidomain proteins as well as to detect structural repetitions within a single protein. Because the search space for nonsequential alignments is much larger than for sequential ones, the computational burden is addressed by extensive use of parallel computing techniques: a coarse-grain level parallelism making use of available CPU cores for computation and a fine-grain level parallelism exploiting bit-level concurrency as well as vector instructions.

  18. Parallel seed-based approach to multiple protein structure similarities detection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapuis, Guillaume; Le Boudic-Jamin, Mathilde; Andonov, Rumen; Djidjev, Hristo; Lavenier, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Finding similarities between protein structures is a crucial task in molecular biology. Most of the existing tools require proteins to be aligned in order-preserving way and only find single alignments even when multiple similar regions exist. We propose a new seed-based approach that discovers multiple pairs of similar regions. Its computational complexity is polynomial and it comes with a quality guarantee—the returned alignments have both root mean squared deviations (coordinate-based as well as internal-distances based) lower than a given threshold, if such exist. We do not require the alignments to be order preserving (i.e., we consider nonsequential alignments), which makesmore » our algorithm suitable for detecting similar domains when comparing multidomain proteins as well as to detect structural repetitions within a single protein. Because the search space for nonsequential alignments is much larger than for sequential ones, the computational burden is addressed by extensive use of parallel computing techniques: a coarse-grain level parallelism making use of available CPU cores for computation and a fine-grain level parallelism exploiting bit-level concurrency as well as vector instructions.« less

  19. Influence of heterogeneity on second-kind self-similar solutions for viscous gravity currents

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Zhong; Christov, Ivan  C.; Stone, Howard  A.

    2014-04-16

    We report experimental, theoretical and numerical results on the effects of horizontal heterogeneities on the propagation of viscous gravity currents. We use two geometries to highlight these effects: (a) a horizontal channel (or crack) whose gap thickness varies as a power-law function of the streamwise coordinate; (b) a heterogeneous porous medium whose permeability and porosity have power-law variations. We demonstrate that two types of self-similar behaviours emerge as a result of horizontal heterogeneity: (a) a first-kind self-similar solution is found using dimensional analysis (scaling) for viscous gravity currents that propagate away from the origin (a point of zero permeability); (b)more » a second-kind self-similar solution is found using a phase-plane analysis for viscous gravity currents that propagate toward the origin. These theoretical predictions, obtained using the ideas of self-similar intermediate asymptotics, are compared with experimental results and numerical solutions of the governing partial differential equation developed under the lubrication approximation. All three results are found to be in good agreement.« less

  20. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  1. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  2. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  3. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  4. Weekly Refiner Net Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Finished Motor Gasoline 1,393 1,411 1,540 1,466 1,508 1,516 2010-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) ... Notes: Finished motor gasoline does not include adjustments for fuel ethanol and motor ...

  5. Refining climate models

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Warren, Jeff; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Ricciuto, Daniel

    2014-06-26

    Using dogwood trees, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers are gaining a better understanding of the role photosynthesis and respiration play in the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. Their findings will aid computer modelers in improving the accuracy of climate simulations.

  6. ,"Weekly Refiner Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...2,4636,4056,98,482,3,1609,568 41082,2437,159,766,1005,226,280,122,103,19,2315,368,368,0,1947,4465,3923,138,404,-15,1577,528 41089,2342,143,828,865,225,281,107,90,17,2235,383,383,0,...

  7. Refining climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Jeff; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Ricciuto, Daniel

    2012-10-31

    Using dogwood trees, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers are gaining a better understanding of the role photosynthesis and respiration play in the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. Their findings will aid computer modelers in improving the accuracy of climate simulations.

  8. Regional diagenetic variations in Middle Pennsylvanian foreland basin sandstones of the southern Appalachians: Comparison to passive margin Cenozoic sandstones of the Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliken, K.L. . Dept. of Geological Science)

    1992-01-01

    Water/rock interactions recorded by authigenic phases in lithic-rich sandstones of the southern Appalachian basin, in the region of the Pine Mountain Overthrust (PMO), began with early post-depositional burial, extended through deeper burial and temperatures > 100 C during the Alleghenian orogeny, and continued through uplift and exposure at the modern weathering surface. Early-formed carbonate in the form of highly localized calcite concretions preserves IGVs greater than 30% and has widely ranging trace element concentrations. Later-formed calcite is characterized by relative low trace element concentrations in sandstones of low IGV. Precipitation of kaolinite cement and grain replacements partially overlapped formation of early carbonate and quartz cement. Dissolution and albitization of detrital feldspars are the primary types of grain alteration observed. Complete loss of the detrital feldspar assemblage is observed only around the eastern end of the PMO where a portion of the feldspar loss is recorded as quartz-replaced grains. Compaction due to ductile behavior of phyllosilicate-rich rock fragments and pressure solution of detrital quartz has reduced IGV to an average of around 11% below the PMO and 6% above the fault. In general, these foreland basin sandstones manifest authigenic phases and sequences of diagenetic events similar to those observed in the passive margin Gulf of Mexico sedimentary basin. The most striking diagenetic differences between the two basins are seen in terms of the comparative amounts of compaction (greater in the foreland basin) and grain alteration (less in the foreland basin) which most likely relate to primary differences in the texture and mineralogy of the sediments.

  9. A study of the viability of exploiting memory content similarity to improve resilience to memory errors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levy, Scott; Ferreira, Kurt B.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Thompson, Aidan P.; Trott, Christian

    2014-12-09

    Building the next-generation of extreme-scale distributed systems will require overcoming several challenges related to system resilience. As the number of processors in these systems grow, the failure rate increases proportionally. One of the most common sources of failure in large-scale systems is memory. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime for transparently exploiting memory content similarity to improve system resilience by reducing the rate at which memory errors lead to node failure. We evaluate the viability of this approach by examining memory snapshots collected from eight high-performance computing (HPC) applications and two important HPC operating systems. Based on themore » characteristics of the similarity uncovered, we conclude that our proposed approach shows promise for addressing system resilience in large-scale systems.« less

  10. Even perturbations of the self-similar Vaidya space-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, Brien C.; Waters, Thomas J.

    2005-05-15

    We study even parity metric and matter perturbations of all angular modes in self-similar Vaidya space-time. We focus on the case where the background contains a naked singularity. Initial conditions are imposed, describing a finite perturbation emerging from the portion of flat space-time preceding the matter-filled region of space-time. The most general perturbation satisfying the initial conditions is allowed to impinge upon the Cauchy horizon (CH), where the perturbation remains finite: There is no 'blue-sheet' instability. However, when the perturbation evolves through the CH and onto the second future similarity horizon of the naked singularity, divergence necessarily occurs: This surface is found to be unstable. The analysis is based on the study of individual modes following a Mellin transform of the perturbation. We present an argument that the full perturbation remains finite after resummation of the (possibly infinite number of) modes.

  11. Electromagnetic radiation due to naked singularity formation in self-similar gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuda, Eiji; Yoshino, Hirotaka; Tomimatsu, Akira

    2005-04-15

    Dynamical evolution of test fields in background geometry with a naked singularity is an important problem relevant to the Cauchy horizon instability and the observational signatures different from black hole formation. In this paper we study electromagnetic perturbations generated by a given current distribution in collapsing matter under a spherically symmetric self-similar background. Using the Green's function method, we construct the formula to evaluate the outgoing energy flux observed at the future null infinity. The contributions from 'quasinormal' modes of the self-similar system as well as 'high-frequency' waves are clarified. We find a characteristic power-law time evolution of the outgoing energy flux which appears just before naked singularity formation and give the criteria as to whether or not the outgoing energy flux diverges at the future Cauchy horizon.

  12. A study of the viability of exploiting memory content similarity to improve resilience to memory errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Scott; Ferreira, Kurt B.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Thompson, Aidan P.; Trott, Christian

    2014-12-09

    Building the next-generation of extreme-scale distributed systems will require overcoming several challenges related to system resilience. As the number of processors in these systems grow, the failure rate increases proportionally. One of the most common sources of failure in large-scale systems is memory. In this paper, we propose a novel runtime for transparently exploiting memory content similarity to improve system resilience by reducing the rate at which memory errors lead to node failure. We evaluate the viability of this approach by examining memory snapshots collected from eight high-performance computing (HPC) applications and two important HPC operating systems. Based on the characteristics of the similarity uncovered, we conclude that our proposed approach shows promise for addressing system resilience in large-scale systems.

  13. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture. Semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Ames, L.B.; Ronzio, N.J.

    1985-03-01

    The Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has initiated a program to determine the feasibility and potential applications for direct firing of coal and coal-derived fuels in heat engines, specifically gas turbines and diesel engines. AMAX Extractive Research and Development, Inc. supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines programs. One of the lots was of ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (UCCSF) for which a two-stage caustic and acid leaching procedure was developed to chemically clean the coal. As a part of the contract, AMAX R and D developed a conceptual design and preliminary cost estimate for a commercial-scale process for UCCSF manufacture. The contract was extended to include the following objectives: define chemical cleaning and slurry preparation process conditions and costs more precisely; investigate methods to reduce the product cost; and determine the relationship, in dollars per million Btu, between product cost and fuel quality. Laboratory investigations have been carried out to define the chemical cleaning process conditions required to generate fuels containing from 0.17 to 1.0% ash. Capital and operating cost refinements are to be performed on the basis of the preferred process operating conditions identified during the laboratory investigations. Several such areas for cost reductions have been identified. Caustic strengths from 2 to 7% NaOH are currently anticipated while 25% NaOH was used as the basis for the preliminary cost estimate. In addition, leaching times for each of the process steps have been reduced to half or less of the times used for the preliminary cost estimate. Improvement of fuel quality has been achieved by use of a proprietary hot-water leaching step to reduce the residual alkali content to less than 250 ppM (Na/sub 2/O plus K/sub 2/O) on a dry coal basis. 2 refs., 3 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. A recombination outside the BB deletion refines the location of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa locus RP3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, R.; Bingham, E.; Forsythe, P.; McHenry, C.

    1996-07-01

    Genetic loci for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) have been mapped between Xp11.22 and Xp22.13 (RP2, RP3, RP6, and RP15). The RP3 gene, which is responsible for the predominant form of XLRP in most Caucasian populations, has been localized to Xp21.1 by linkage analysis and the map positions of chromosomal deletions associated with the disease. Previous linkage studies have suggested that RP3 is flanked by the markers DXS1110 (distal) and OTC (proximal). Patient BB was though to have RP because of a lesion at the RP3 locus, in addition to chronic granulomatous disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), mild mental retardation, and the McLeod phenotype. This patient carried a deletion extending {approximately}3 Mb from DMD in Xp21.3 to Xp21.1, with the proximal breakpoint located {approximately}40 kb centromeric to DXS1110. The RP3 gene, therefore, is believed to reside between DXS1110 and the proximal breakpoint of the BB deletion. In order to refine the location of RP3 and to ascertain patients with RP3, we have been analyzing several XLRP families for linkage to Xp markers. Linkage analysis in an American family of 27 individuals demonstrates segregation of XLRP with markers in Xp21.1, consistent with the RP3 subtype. One affected male shows a recombination event proximal to DXS1110. Additional markers within the DXS1110-OTC interval show that the crossover is between two novel polymorphic markers, DXS8349 and M6, both of which are present in BB DNA and lie centromeric to the proximal breakpoint. This recombination places the XLRP mutation in this family outside the BB deletion and redefines the location of RP3. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of heavy oil upgrading/refining process designs for HRI Dynacracking and UOP Aurabon Process. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, H.; Adams, D.G.; Fox, J.V.

    1984-04-01

    The process designs examined consist of two non-commercialized heavy oil upgrading processes; namely, the Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) Dynacracking Process and the UOP Process Division (UOP) Aurabon Process. The latter process design includes, besides the Aurabon Process, an integrated hydrotreating section which does have commercial stature. The Dynacracking Process designs cover six cases involving three heavy crude feedstocks. The Aurabon Complex designs are based on four cases, two for each of two heavy crude feedstocks. The engineering support services involved engineering review and assessment of data, drawings, reports and other information generated by the two process designers. Background information, the review and assessment methodology employed for evaluating the process designs, and a detailed discussion of the process design data generated by both process contractors are presented in this report. Significant findings for both processes may be summarized as follows: (1) The process designs were executed using sound engineering principles and practices; (2) Both processes may be deemed to perform in accordance with their process design; (3) a wide variety of heavy oil charge stocks can be upgraded by either process to products generally suitable for further refinery processing; (4) no insurmountable operating or environmental problems are anticipated; (5) the estimated capital investments and operating utility requirements are indicative of the increased cost to process contaminated heavy crudes; (6) the cost differential between the higher quantity lighter crudes and the poorer quality heavy crudes must be sufficient to justify these higher expenditures; and (7) both processes merit consideration by refiners contemplating contaminated heavy oil upgrading. 53 references, 40 tables.

  16. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.; Mizia, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

  17. Evaluation of overall setup accuracy and adequate setup margins in pelvic image-guided radiotherapy: Comparison of the male and female patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laaksomaa, Marko; Kapanen, Mika; Tulijoki, Tapio; Peltola, Seppo; Hydynmaa, Simo; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated adequate setup margins for the radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumors based on overall position errors of bony landmarks. We also estimated the difference in setup accuracy between the male and female patients. Finally, we compared the patient rotation for 2 immobilization devices. The study cohort included consecutive 64 male and 64 female patients. Altogether, 1794 orthogonal setup images were analyzed. Observer-related deviation in image matching and the effect of patient rotation were explicitly determined. Overall systematic and random errors were calculated in 3 orthogonal directions. Anisotropic setup margins were evaluated based on residual errors after weekly image guidance. The van Herk formula was used to calculate the margins. Overall, 100 patients were immobilized with a house-made device. The patient rotation was compared against 28 patients immobilized with CIVCO's Kneefix and Feetfix. We found that the usually applied isotropic setup margin of 8 mm covered all the uncertainties related to patient setup for most RT treatments of the pelvis. However, margins of even 10.3 mm were needed for the female patients with very large pelvic target volumes centered either in the symphysis or in the sacrum containing both of these structures. This was because the effect of rotation (p ? 0.02) and the observer variation in image matching (p ? 0.04) were significantly larger for the female patients than for the male patients. Even with daily image guidance, the required margins remained larger for the women. Patient rotations were largest about the lateral axes. The difference between the required margins was only 1 mm for the 2 immobilization devices. The largest component of overall systematic position error came from patient rotation. This emphasizes the need for rotation correction. Overall, larger position errors and setup margins were observed for the female patients with pelvic cancer than for the male patients.

  18. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC): Integrated Treatment of Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainty in Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. W. Youngblood

    2010-10-01

    The concept of “margin” has a long history in nuclear licensing and in the codification of good engineering practices. However, some traditional applications of “margin” have been carried out for surrogate scenarios (such as design basis scenarios), without regard to the actual frequencies of those scenarios, and have been carried out with in a systematically conservative fashion. This means that the effectiveness of the application of the margin concept is determined in part by the original choice of surrogates, and is limited in any case by the degree of conservatism imposed on the evaluation. In the RISMC project, which is part of the Department of Energy’s “Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program” (LWRSP), we are developing a risk-informed characterization of safety margin. Beginning with the traditional discussion of “margin” in terms of a “load” (a physical challenge to system or component function) and a “capacity” (the capability of that system or component to accommodate the challenge), we are developing the capability to characterize probabilistic load and capacity spectra, reflecting both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in system response. For example, the probabilistic load spectrum will reflect the frequency of challenges of a particular severity. Such a characterization is required if decision-making is to be informed optimally. However, in order to enable the quantification of probabilistic load spectra, existing analysis capability needs to be extended. Accordingly, the INL is working on a next-generation safety analysis capability whose design will allow for much more efficient parameter uncertainty analysis, and will enable a much better integration of reliability-related and phenomenology-related aspects of margin.

  19. Savannah River reactor process water heat exchanger tube structural integrity margin Task Number 92-005-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertz, G.E.; Barnes, D.M.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1992-02-01

    Twelve process water heat exchangers are designed to remove heat generated in the reactor tank. Each heat exchanger has approximately 9000, 1/2 inch diameter {times} 0.049 inches thick tubes. Minimum structural tubing requirements and the leak rate through postulated tubing defects are developed in this report A comparison of the structural requirements and the defect size calculated to produce leak rates of 0.5 lbs./day demonstrate adequate structural margins against gross tube rupture. Commercial nuclear experience with pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator plugging criteria are used for guidance in performing this analysis. It is important to note that the SRS reactors are low energy systems with normal operating pressures of 203 psig at 130{degree}F while the PWR is a high energy system with operating pressures near 2200 psig at 600{degree}F. Clearly the PVM steam generator has loadings which are more severe than the SRS heat exchangers. Consistent with the Regulatory Guide 1.121 criteria both wastage (wall thinning) and cracking are addressed. Structural limits on wall thinning and crack size are developed to preclude gross rupture. ASME Section XI criteria, with the factors of safety recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.121 are used to develop the allowable crack size criteria. Normal operating conditions (pressure, dead weight, and hydraulic drag) are considered with seismic and water hammer accident conditions. Both the wall thinning and crack size criteria are developed for the end-of-evaluation period. Allowances for corrosion, wear, or crack growth have not been included in this analysis Structurally, the tubing is over designed and can tolerate large defects with adequate margins against gross rupture. The structural margins of heat exchanger tubing are evident by contrasting the tubing`s structural capacity, per the ASME Code, with its operating conditions/configuration.

  20. Savannah River reactor process water heat exchanger tube structural integrity margin Task Number 92-005-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertz, G.E.; Barnes, D.M.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1992-02-01

    Twelve process water heat exchangers are designed to remove heat generated in the reactor tank. Each heat exchanger has approximately 9000, 1/2 inch diameter {times} 0.049 inches thick tubes. Minimum structural tubing requirements and the leak rate through postulated tubing defects are developed in this report A comparison of the structural requirements and the defect size calculated to produce leak rates of 0.5 lbs./day demonstrate adequate structural margins against gross tube rupture. Commercial nuclear experience with pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator plugging criteria are used for guidance in performing this analysis. It is important to note that the SRS reactors are low energy systems with normal operating pressures of 203 psig at 130{degree}F while the PWR is a high energy system with operating pressures near 2200 psig at 600{degree}F. Clearly the PVM steam generator has loadings which are more severe than the SRS heat exchangers. Consistent with the Regulatory Guide 1.121 criteria both wastage (wall thinning) and cracking are addressed. Structural limits on wall thinning and crack size are developed to preclude gross rupture. ASME Section XI criteria, with the factors of safety recommended by Regulatory Guide 1.121 are used to develop the allowable crack size criteria. Normal operating conditions (pressure, dead weight, and hydraulic drag) are considered with seismic and water hammer accident conditions. Both the wall thinning and crack size criteria are developed for the end-of-evaluation period. Allowances for corrosion, wear, or crack growth have not been included in this analysis Structurally, the tubing is over designed and can tolerate large defects with adequate margins against gross rupture. The structural margins of heat exchanger tubing are evident by contrasting the tubing's structural capacity, per the ASME Code, with its operating conditions/configuration.