Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Grain Refining Aluminum Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

He has had responsibility within Alcoa for optimizing grain refining and alloying ... of grain refinement; Methods of grain refining; Attributes of chemical inoculants ...

2

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

Not Available

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide photochemical diodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor photochemical diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The photochemical diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

Somorjai, Gabor A. (Berkeley, CA); Leygraf, Christofer H. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

Somorjai, Gabor A. (Berkeley, CA); Leygraf, Christofer H. (Berkeley, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Federal/Industry Development of Energy-Conserving Technologies for the Chemical and Petroleum Refining Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory has started a program to identify future RD&D projects that (i) promise cost-effective savings of scarce fuels in the chemical and petroleum refining industries, (ii) are not likely to be pursued by industry alone. This program, sponsored by the Office of Industrial Programs of DOE, defines technology needs from an industry viewpoint, so that recommended projects will complement industry's efforts and result in technologies for which there are clearly identifiable markets. The search for RD&D projects is currently focusing in the following technology categories: (i) reduction of fouling in cooling water systems, (ii) alternatives to conventional distillation and separation, (iii) low level waste heat recovery, (iv) advanced concepts in furnaces and boilers, (v) coal utilization, and (vi) advanced concepts in conversion and processing. The future direction of the program will continue to be dictated largely by industry needs.

Alston, T. G.; Humphrey, J. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Iron (III) Chloride doping of large-area chemical vapor deposition graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical doping is an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. This thesis aims to develop an effective method of doping large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene using Iron (III) Chloride ...

Song, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Iron aluminides and nickel aluminides as materials for chemical air separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a chemical air separation process using a molten salt solution of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite wherein the materials of construction of the containment for the process are chosen from intermetallic alloys of nickel and/or iron aluminide wherein the aluminum content is 28 atomic percent or greater to impart enhanced corrosion resistance.

Kang, Doohee (Macungie, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Biocatalysis in Oil Refining  

SciTech Connect

Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter.

Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Ramirez-Corredores, M. M. [BP Global Fuels Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report and Appendices (CD-ROM)  

SciTech Connect

The main report on this CD assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performace and efficiency improvements. The Appendices on this CD provide supporting information for the analyses and provides and recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of the U.S. Department of Energy BestPractices Steam Program.

Not Available

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Refining Cups  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For use with AOCS Official Method Ca-9a 52. Refining Cups Lab Supplies Lab Supplies Series Methods Refining Cup - 960 mL For use with AOCS Official Method Ca-9a 52. E5323FF88E60507DAA8DE2F0F507CB97 014 1878

11

Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Iron Pyrite Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron pyrite (cubic FeS{sub 2}) is a promising candidate absorber material for earth-abundant thin-film solar cells. In this report, single-phase, large-grain, and uniform polycrystalline pyrite thin films are fabricated on glass and molybdenum-coated glass substrates by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) using the reaction of iron(III) acetylacetonate and tert-butyl disulfide in argon at 300 C, followed by sulfur annealing at 500--550 C to convert marcasite impurities to pyrite. The pyrite-marcasite phase composition depends strongly on the concentration of sodium in the growth substrate and the sulfur partial pressure during annealing. Phase and elemental composition of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The in-plane electrical properties are surprisingly insensitive to phase and elemental impurities, with all films showing p-type, thermally activated transport with a small activation energy ({approx}30 meV), a room- temperature resistivity of {approx}1 {Omega} cm, and low mobility. These ubiquitous electrical properties may result from robust surface effects. These CVD pyrite thin films are well suited to fundamental electrical studies and the fabrication of pyrite photovoltaic device stacks.

Berry, Nicholas; Cheng, Ming; Perkins, Craig L.; Limpinsel, Moritz; Hemminger, John C.; Law, Matt (NREL); (UCI)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

12

Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. Most of the previous investigations on CLC of solid fuels were conducted under atmospheric pressure. A pressurized CLC combined cycle (PCLC-CC) system is proposed as a promising coal combustion technology with potential higher system efficiency, higher fuel conversion, and lower cost for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In this study pressurized CLC of coal with Companhia Valedo Rio Doce (CVRD) iron ore was investigated in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. CVRD iron ore particles were exposed alternately to reduction by 0.4 g of Chinese Xuzhou bituminous coal gasified with 87.2% steam/N{sub 2} mixture and oxidation with 5% O{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at 970 C. The operating pressure was varied between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa. First, control experiments of steam coal gasification over quartz sand were performed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are the major components of the gasification products, and the operating pressure influences the gas composition. Higher concentrations of CO{sub 2} and lower fractions of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} during the reduction process with CVRD iron ore was achieved under higher pressures. The effects of pressure on the coal gasification rate in the presence of the oxygen carrier were different for pyrolysis and char gasification. The pressurized condition suppresses the initial coal pyrolysis process while it also enhances coal char gasification and reduction with iron ore in steam, and thus improves the overall reaction rate of CLC. The oxidation rates and variation of oxygen carrier conversion are higher at elevated pressures reflecting higher reduction level in the previous reduction period. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses show that particles become porous after experiments but maintain structure and size after several cycles. Agglomeration was not observed in this study. An EDX analysis demonstrates that there is very little coal ash deposited on the oxygen carrier particles but no appreciable crystalline phases change as verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Overall, the limited pressurized CLC experiments carried out in the present work suggest that PCLC of coal is promising and further investigations are necessary. (author)

Xiao, Rui; Song, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Shen, Laihong [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Song, Qilei [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Lu, Zuoji [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); GCL Engineering Limited, Zhujiang No. 1, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Chemical Engineering & Processing Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Novel Filter Material Could Cut Natural Gas Refining Costs. calcium atoms in iron-based crystals replaced with praseodymium ...

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

14

Worldwide refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data are presented on refining capacity by country and by company within each country. Capacity data are divided into the following processes: vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Production capacity is divided into: alkylation/polymerization/dimerization; aromatics/isomerization; lubricants; oxygenates; hydrogen; petroleum coke; and asphalts.

NONE

1995-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

15

Metallurgical Silicon Refining by Transient Directional Solidification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Directional solidification is an essential refining step to obtain solar ... The chemical analyses of the ingots show macrosegregation of several ...

16

Sample management and chemical characterization of the Paraho/Sohio/US Navy crude and refined shale oil suite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The role of the EPA/DOE Fossil Fuels Research Materials Facility in this study is to actively support and coordinate the health effects investigations of this oil shale development by acting as a central point for acquisition, cataloging, storage, and distribution of referenceable materials for study. In addition, selected materials are chemically fractionated for bioassay and are characterized in additional detail beyond that of routine stability monitoring. Finally, the Facility is acting as an information transfer agent to insure that the results of the investigations are made available to the oil shale industry and the funding agencies. This paper is concerned with the sample management and characterization aspect of the Facility's role in this study.

Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Yeatts, L.B. Jr.; Clark, B.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram: A Century at Variance with Chemical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, For about a century thermodynamically absurd facts have been propagated in conjunction with the iron-carbon phase diagram. These facts ...

18

Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum Refining Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Manufacturing and Petroleum Refining Industries.Saving Opportunities for Petroleum Refineries. An ENERGYAdministration (EIA), 2002. Petroleum Supply Annual 2001,

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

LYONDELL CHEMICAL CO b Houston Refining LP..... Houston, Texas...270,200 TOTAL SA Total Petrochemicals Inc ...

20

Synthesis, structure refinement at 296 K and physico-chemical characterizations of KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10}  

SciTech Connect

Potassium manganese(III) monohydrogentriphosphate KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10} was synthesized by flux method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, crystallizes in the monoclinic system with centric space group C2/c. The parameters of the unit cell are a = 12.104(1), b = 8.287(1). c = 9.150(1) A, {beta} = 110.97(1) deg. and Z = 4. The structure was solved at 296 K using 893 independent reflections and refined until R(F) = 0.022; wR(F{sup 2}) = 0.045. The atomic arrangement of the title compound consists of MnO{sub 6} octahedra linked by hydrogentriphosphate anions to form a three-dimensional framework containing tunnels parallel to the c-axis where the K{sup +} cations are inserted. The structure of KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10} contains a single Mn site which is surrounded by typical Jahn-Teller [2 + 2 + 2] distorted octahedron. The title material has been also characterized by different physico-chemical techniques: powder X-ray diffraction, IR, NMR and CI spectroscopies and DTA-TGA-DSC thermal analysis.

Mechergui, J. [Chemistry Department, Bizerta Science Faculty, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerta (Tunisia); Belam, W. [Chemistry Department, Bizerta Science Faculty, 7021 Jarzouna, Bizerta (Tunisia)], E-mail: WahidBelam@yahoo.fr

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Galactic Chemical Evolution of the Iron Peak Elements in the Lowest Metallicity Regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use the nucleosynthetic yields of Chieffi & Limongi (2004) in conjunction with a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) to determine the evolution of iron peak element abundances ( Z ?=?21–28) as a function of metallicity. Since we will focus on the extremely metal poor region below [ Fe / H ]?=??1.5 we will consider input from core collapse supernovae (SNe) only

Jennifer Sobeck; Carla Frohlich; Jim Truran; Yeunjin Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Refining and Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... Solar Cell Silicon: Refining and Characterization .... Silicon PV Wafers: Correlation of Mechanical Properties and Crack Propagation with ...

23

Copper Refining Electrolyte Purification by the Use of Molecular ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Copper Refining Electrolyte Purification by the Use of Molecular ... An Experimental Study of Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal from the ...

24

Steel refining with an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

1988-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

25

Introducing backward refinement into B  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The B Method exploits a direct first-order wp predicate-transformer formulation of downward simulation to generate its proof obligations for a refinement, so B's notion of refinement is restricted to that of forward refinement. Therefore some refinements ...

Steve Dunne

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Refining of shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The refining of shale oil is reviewed to assess the current state-of-the-art, especially as to the avaiability of technology suitable for operation on a commercial scale. Oil shale retorting processes as they affect the quality of the crude shale oil for refining, exploratory research on the character and refining of shale oil, and other published refining background leading to the present status are discussed. The initial refining of shale oil requires the removal of a large concentration of nitrogen, an added step not required for typical petroleum crude oils, and recently published estimates show that the total cost of refining will be high. Specific technoloy is reported by industry to be technically proven and available for commercial-scale refining. Although the refining will be more costly than that of petroleum, the viability of a shale oil industry will also be affected greatly by the technology and costs of producing the crude shale oil, environmental costs, and future price and tax treatment, and these are outside the scope of this study of refining.

Lanning, W.C.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Impact of iron contamination in multicrystalline silicon solarcells: origins, chemical states, and device impacts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synchrotron-based microprobe techniques have been applied to study the distribution, size, chemical state, and recombination activity of Fe clusters in two types of mc-Si materials: block cast mc-Si, and AstroPower Silicon Film(TM) sheet material. In sheet material, high concentrations of metals were found at recombination-active, micron-sized intragranular clusters consisting of micron and sub-micron sized particles. In addition, Fe nanoparticles were located in densities of {approx}2'107 cm-2 along recombination-active grain boundaries. In cast mc-Si,two types of particles were identified at grain boundaries: (1) micron-sized oxidized Fe particles accompanied by other metals (Cr, Mn, Ca, Ti), and (2) a higher number of sub-micron FeSi2 precipitates that exhibited a preferred orientation along the crystal growth direction. In both materials, it is believed that the larger Fe clusters are inclusions of foreign particles, from which Fe dissolves in the melt to form the smaller FeSi2 nanoprecipitates, which by virtue of their more homogeneous distribution are deemed more dangerous to solar cell device performance. Based on this understanding, strategies proposed to reduce the impact of Fe on mc-Si electrical properties include gettering, passivation, and limiting the dissolution of foreign Fe-rich particles in the melt.

Buonassisi, Tonio; Heuer, Matthias; Istratov, Andrei A.; Marcus,Matthew A.; Jonczyk, Ralf; Lai, Barry; Cai, Zhonghou; Schindler, Roland; Weber, Eicke R.

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

28

Volume Refinement Fairing Isosurfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose an interpolating refinement method for two- and three-dimensional scalar fields defined on hexahedral grids. Iterative fairing of the underlying contours (isosurfaces) provides the function values of new grid points. Our method can be considered ... Keywords: adaptive mesh refinement, isosurfaces, subdivision, variational modeling, volume fairing

Martin Bertram

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Optimal refinement of rule bases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a formal analysis of the rule refinement selection problem. There is no satisfactory methodical standard for the optimal refinement of rule bases. Current refinement systems select the best overall rule base refinements out of a ... Keywords: Rule base validation, complex gain calculation, conflicting and alternative rule refinements, evaluation of safety-critical knowledge bases, optimal refinement selection, rule refinement classes, subsumption and synergy

Hans-Werner Kelbassa

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Hydrogen production from the steam-iron process with direct reduction of iron oxide by chemical looping combustion of coal char  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results performed with a fluidized-bed reactor supported the feasibility of the three processes including direct reduction of iron oxide by char, H{sub 2} production by the steam-iron process, and the oxidation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} resulting from the steam-iron process to the original Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by air. Chars resulting from a Chinese lignite loaded with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were used successfully as a reducing material, leading to the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to FeO and Fe for the steam-iron process, which was confirmed by both the off-gases concentrations and X-ray diffractometer analysis. The reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by K-10-char at 1073 K is desirable from the perspective of the carbon conversion rate and high concentration of CO{sub 2}. The carbon in char was completely converted to CO{sub 2} when the mass ratio of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/K-10-char was increased to 10/0.3. The oxidation rate of K-10-char by Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} without a gasifying agent was comparable to the K-10-char steam gasification rate. The fractions of FeO and Fe in the reduced residue were 43 and 57%, respectively, in the case of 3 g of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 0.5 g of K-10-char, which was verified by the total H{sub 2} yield equaling 1000 mL/g K-10-char from the steam-iron process. The time that it took to achieve complete oxidation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by air with an 8.7% O{sub 2} concentration at 1073 K was about 15 min. 53 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

Jing-biao Yang; Ning-sheng Cai; Zhen-shan Li [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity for feedstocks consisting of synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third reporting period, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based FT catalysts with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C{sub 5+}, olefins). During this fourth reporting period, we have determined the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance. More specifically, we have found that the sequence in which promoters are introduced has a marked positive impact on rates and selectivities. Cu or Ru chemical promoters should be impregnated before K to achieve higher Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates. The catalyst prepared in this way was evaluated for 240 h, showing a high catalytic activity and stability after an initial period of time necessary for the formation of the active phases. Concurrently, we are studying optimal activation procedures, which involve the reduction and carburization of oxide precursors during the early stages of contact with synthesis gas. Activation at low temperatures (523 K), made possible by optimal introduction of Cu or Ru, leads to lower catalyst surface area than higher activation temperatures, but to higher reaction rates, because such low temperatures avoid concurrent deactivation during the reduction-carburization processes. In this reporting period, we have measured the evolution of oxide, carbide, and metal phases of the active iron components using advanced synchrotron techniques based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These studies have revealed that Zn inhibits the isothermal reduction and carburization of iron oxide precursors. The concurrent presence of Cu or Ru compensates for these inhibitory effects and lead to the formation of active carbide phases at the low temperatures required to avoid deactivation via carbon deposition or sintering. Finally, we have also examined the kinetic behavior of these materials, specifically the effects of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} on the rates and selectivities of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactions. This has led to a rigorous rate expressions that allows the incorporation of these novel materials into larger scale reactors and to predictions of performance based on the coupling of hydrodynamic and kinetic effects ubiquitous in such reactors.

Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Enrique Iglesia

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

32

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Evaluation of Cold Hearth Refined Inconel Alloy 718  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

refining of superalloys. This ha8 been identified as possibly the be8t way of ... thie material involving chemical and microetructural, as we11 as cl8anliness and.

34

REFINING FLUORINATED COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the method of refining a liquid perfluorinated hydrocarbon oil containing fluorocarbons from 12 to 28 carbon atoms per molecule by distilling between 150 deg C and 300 deg C at 10 mm Hg absolute pressure. The perfluorinated oil is washed with a chlorinated lower aliphatic hydrocarbon, which mairtains a separate liquid phase when mixed with the oil. Impurities detrimental to the stability of the oil are extracted by the chlorinated lower aliphatic hydrocarbon. (AEC)

Linch, A.L.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Developing security protocols by refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a development method for security protocols based on stepwise refinement. Our refinement strategy guides the transformation of abstract security goals into protocols that are secure when operating over an insecure channel controlled by a Dolev-Yao-style ... Keywords: entity authentication, formal development, key establishment, security protocols, stepwise refinement

Christoph Sprenger; David Basin

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Minimally refined biomass fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Weekly Refiner Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refiner Net Production Refiner Net Production (Thousand Barrels per Day) Period: Weekly 4-Week Average Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Product/Region 11/08/13 11/15/13 11/22/13 11/29/13 12/06/13 12/13/13 View History Finished Motor Gasoline 2,168 2,300 2,336 2,359 2,462 2,368 2010-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 54 53 52 67 71 67 2010-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 696 745 722 711 798 790 2010-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 891 916 1,010 1,053 1,011 1,021 2010-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 260 248 245 232 279 235 2010-2013 West Coast (PADD 5) 268 338 308 296 302 255 2010-2013 Reformulated 50 49 49 49 48 49 2010-2013 Blended with Ethanol 50 49 49 49 48 49 2010-2013 Other

38

Iron (Fe)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 19   Linear thermal expansion of iron...Table 19 Linear thermal expansion of iron Temperature Change in length, % (a) Coefficient

39

Refines Efficiency Improvement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

WRI

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Refiner Wholesale Price ...........................  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Prices (cents per gallon) Prices (cents per gallon) Refiner Wholesale Price ........................... 297 299 302 275 289 290 288 262 275 289 280 257 293 282 276 Gasoline Regular Grade Retail Prices Including Taxes PADD 1 .................................................... 363 366 364 355 361 350 355 331 341 355 347 327 362 349 343 PADD 2 .................................................... 355 366 369 340 350 368 352 318 334 355 346 318 357 347 338 PADD 3 .................................................... 346 353 345 326 339 336 337 307 323 341 329 305 343 330 325 PADD 4 .................................................... 322 374 358 348 323 361 362 326 322 351 348 322 351 344 337 PADD 5 .................................................... 390 413 390 384 382 390 385 355 362 384 379 356 394 378 371 U.S. Average ........................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

It's Elemental - The Element Iron  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Manganese Manganese Previous Element (Manganese) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Cobalt) Cobalt The Element Iron [Click for Isotope Data] 26 Fe Iron 55.845 Atomic Number: 26 Atomic Weight: 55.845 Melting Point: 1811 K (1538°C or 2800°F) Boiling Point: 3134 K (2861°C or 5182°F) Density: 7.874 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 8 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Anglo-Saxon word iron. Iron's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for iron, ferrum. Say what? Iron is pronounced as EYE-ern. History and Uses: Archaeological evidence suggests that people have been using iron for at least 5000 years. Iron is the cheapest and one of the most abundant of all metals, comprising nearly 5.6% of the earth's crust and nearly all of the

42

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for the Petroleum and Coal Products Industry, 1994. Petroleum refining is by far the largest component of the petroleum and ...

43

Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity for feedstocks consisting of synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third and fourth reporting periods, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based FT catalysts with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C{sub 5+}, olefins). During this fifth reporting period, we have studied the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance, specifically how their sequence of addition dramatically influences the performance of these materials in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The resulting procedures have been optimized to improve further upon the already unprecedented rates and C{sub 5+} selectivities of the Fe-based catalysts that we have developed as part of this project. During this fifth reporting period, we have also continued our studies of optimal activation procedures, involving reduction and carburization of oxide precursors during the early stages of contact with synthesis gas. We have completed the analysis of the evolution of oxide, carbide, and metal phases of the active iron components during initial contact with synthesis gas using advanced synchrotron techniques based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have confirmed that the Cu or Ru compensates for inhibitory effects of Zn, a surface area promoter. The kinetic behavior of these materials, specifically the effects of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} on the rates and selectivities of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactions has led to a new proposal for the nature of rate-determining steps on Fe and Co Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, and more specifically to the roles of hydrogen-assisted and alkali-assisted dissociation of CO in determining rates and CO{sub 2} selectivities. Finally, we have started an exploratory study of the use of colloidal precipitation methods for the synthesis of small Fe and Co clusters using recently developed methods. During this period, we have had to restrict manpower assigned to this project because some irregularities in reporting and communications have led to the interruption of funding during this period. This has led to less than optimal productivity and to significant disruptions of the technical work. These issues have also led to significant underspending of project funds during this reporting period and to our consequent request for a no-cost extension of one year, which we understand has been granted.

Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Nan Yao; Enrique Iglesia

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates and selectivities for feedstocks consisting of synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third and fourth reporting periods, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based FT catalysts with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C{sub 5+}, olefins). During the fifth reporting period, we studied the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance, specifically how their sequence of addition dramatically influenced the performance of these materials in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. We also continued our studies of the kinetic behavior of these materials. Specifically, the effects of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} on the rates and selectivities of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis reactions led us to propose a new sequence of elementary steps on Fe and Co Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. More specifically, we were focused on the roles of hydrogen-assisted and alkali-assisted dissociation of CO in determining rates and CO{sub 2} selectivities. During this sixth reporting period, we have studied the validity of the mechanism that we propose by analyzing the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} kinetic isotope effect (r{sub H}/r{sub D}) over a conventional iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst Fe-Zn-K-Cu. We have observed experimentally that the use of D{sub 2} instead of H{sub 2} leads to higher hydrocarbons formation rates (inverse kinetic isotopic effect). On the contrary, primary carbon dioxide formation is not influenced. These experimental observations can be explained by the two CO activation pathways we propose. During this reporting period, the experimental kinetic study has been also complemented with periodic, self-consistent, DFT-GGA investigations in a parallel collaboration with the group of Manos Mavrikakis at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. These DFT calculations suggest minimal energy paths for proposed elementary steps on Fe(110) and Co(0001) surfaces. These calculations support our novel conclusions about the preferential dissociation of CO dissociation via H-assisted pathways on Fe-based catalysts. Unassisted CO dissociation also occurs and lead to the formation of CO{sub 2} as a primary oxygen scavenging mechanism after CO dissociation on Fe-based catalysts. Simulations and our experimental data show also that unassisted CO dissociation route is much less likely on Co surfaces and that hydrocarbons form exclusively via H-assisted pathways with the formation of H{sub 2}O as the sole oxygen rejection product. We have also started a study of the use of colloidal precipitation methods for the synthesis of small Fe and Co clusters using recently developed methods to explore possible further improvements in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates and selectivities. We have found that colloidal synthesis makes possible the preparation of small cobalt particles, although large amount of cobalt silicate species, which are difficult to reduce, are formed. The nature of the cobalt precursor and the modification of the support seem to be critical parameters in order to obtain highly dispersed and reducible Co nanoparticles.

Akio; Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Nan Yao; Enrique Iglesia

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study of the catalyst composition, preparation and activation protocol of Fe-based catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) have been carried out in this project. We have studied the effects of different promoters on the catalytic performance of Fe-based catalysts. Specifically, we have focused on how their sequence of addition dramatically influences the performance of these materials in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The resulting procedures have been optimized to improve further upon the already unprecedented rates and C{sub 5+} selectivities of the Fe-based catalysts that we have developed as part of this project. Selectivity to C{sub 5+} hydrocarbon was close to 90 % (CO{sub 2}-free basis) and CO conversion rate was about 6.7 mol h{sup -1} g-at Fe{sup -1} at 2.14 MPa, 508 K and with substoichiometric synthesis gas; these rates were larger than any reported previously for Fe-based FTS catalysts at these conditions. We also tested the stability of Fe-based catalysts during FTS reaction (10 days); as a result, the high hydrocarbon formation rates were maintained during 10 days, though the gradual deactivation was observed. Our investigation has also focused on the evaluation of Fe-based catalysts with hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams (H{sub 2}/CO=1). We have observed that the Fe-based catalysts prepared in this project display also a high hydrocarbon synthesis rate with substoichiometric synthesis gas (H{sub 2}/CO=1) stream, which is a less desirable reactant mixture than stoichiometric synthesis gas (H{sub 2}/CO=2). We have improved the catalyst preparation protocols and achieved the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported at the low temperatures required for selectivity and stability. Also, we have characterized the catalyst structural change and active phases formed, and their catalytic behavior during the activation process to evaluate their influences on FTS reaction. The efforts of this project led to (i) structural evolution of Fe-Zn oxide promoted with K and Cu, and (ii) evaluation of hydrocarbon and CH{sub 4} formation rates during activation procedures at various temperature and H{sub 2}/CO ratios. On the basis of the obtained results, we suggest that lower reactor temperature can be sufficient to activate catalysts and lead to the high FTS performance. In this project, we have also carried out a detailed kinetic and mechanistic study of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis with Fe-based catalysts. We have proposed a reaction mechanism with two CO activation pathways: unassisted and H-assisted. Both routes lead to the formation of the same surface monomers (CH{sub 2}). However, the oxygen removal mechanism is different. In the H-assisted route, oxygen is removed exclusively as water, while oxygen is rejected as carbon dioxide in the unassisted CO dissociation. The validity of the mechanism here proposed has been found to be in agreement with the experimental observation and with theoretical calculations over a Fe(110) surface. Also, we have studied the validity of the mechanism that we propose by analyzing the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} kinetic isotope effect (r{sub H}/r{sub D}) over a conventional iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst Fe-Zn-K-Cu. We have observed experimentally that the use of D{sub 2} instead of H{sub 2} leads to higher hydrocarbons formation rates (inverse kinetic isotopic effect). On the contrary, primary carbon dioxide formation is not influenced. These experimental observations can be explained by two CO activation pathways. We have also explored the catalytic performance of Co-based catalysts prepared by using inverse micelles techniques. We have studied several methods in order to terminate the silanol groups on SiO{sub 2} support including impregnation, urea homogeneous deposition-precipitation, or zirconium (IV) ethoxide titration. Although hydroxyl groups on the SiO{sub 2} surface are difficult to be stoichiometrically titrated by ZrO{sub 2}, a requirement to prevent the formation of strongly-interacting Co oxide species on SiO{sub 2}, modification of ZrO{

Enrique Iglesia; Akio Ishikawa; Manual Ojeda; Nan Yao

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

47

Mechanisms of Iron and Slag Separation in Carbon Composite Iron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

48

Preservation of probabilistic information flow under refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information flow properties, which describe confidentiality requirements, are not generally preserved under behavior refinement. This article describes a formal framework for refinement relations between nondeterministic probabilistic processes that ... Keywords: CSP, Confidentiality, Information flow property, Information theory, Process calculus, Refinement, Security

Thomas Santen

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Nucleic Acid Standards - Refinement Parameters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refinement Parameters Refinement Parameters The DNA/RNA topology and parameter files for X-PLOR are shown below. These were tested with DNA structures and with protein-DNA complexes. X-PLOR topology file X-PLOR parameter files: X-PLOR parameter file For the refinement of high resolution structures (< 1.7 Angstroms) the parameter file with distinct bond distances and bond angles for both C2'-endo and C3'-endo conformations should be considered: X-PLOR parameter file for high resolution structures "New Parameters for the Refinement of Nucleic Acid Containing Structures." Gary Parkinson, Jaroslav Vojtechovsky, Lester Clowney, Axel Brunger*, and Helen M. Berman. (1996) Acta Cryst. D 52, 57-64 Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0939; *The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Molecular and

50

Zone refining of plutonium metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

Blau, M.S.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky Refining District Percent ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky Refining District Percent Utilization of Refinery Operable Capacity (Percent)

52

Electronic structure of superconductivity refined  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials.

53

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Refining Industry Petroleum Refining Industry Carbon Emissions in the Petroleum Refining Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 2911) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 79.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.5% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 16.5 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 6,263 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 28.9% Nonfuel Use of Energy Sources: 3,110 trillion Btu (49.7%) -- Naphthas and Other Oils: 1,328 trillion Btu -- Asphalt and Road Oil: 1,224 trillion Btu -- Lubricants: 416 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 12.75 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey", "Monthly Refinery Report" for 1994, and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998.

54

Vacuum State/Refiner/Location  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Vacuum Vacuum State/Refiner/Location Barrels per Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Barrels per Operating Idle Operating Idle Downstream Charge Capacity Thermal Cracking Delayed Fluid Coking Visbreaking Other/Gas Calendar Day Stream Day Distillation Coking Oil Table 3. Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2013 (Barrels per Stream Day, Except Where Noted) ......................................................... Alabama 120,100 0 130,000 0 48,000 32,000 0 0 0 Goodway Refining LLC 4,100 0 5,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................

55

Are Refiners Entering a Golden Age or a Short Cycle?  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Are Refiners Entering a Golden Age or a Short Cycle? Global Refining Strategies 2007 Barcelona, Spain

56

Method for refining contaminated iridium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

Heshmatpour, Bahman (Waltham, MA); Heestand, Richard L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

58

Refinement of higher-order logic programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A refinement calculus provides a method for transforming specifications to executable code, maintaining the correctness of the code with respect to its specification. In this paper we extend the refinement calculus for logic programs to include higher-order ...

Robert Colvin; Ian Hayes; David Hemer; Paul Strooper

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This article focuses on the costs of producing RFG as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

John Zyren

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Utah Kerosene Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Kerosene Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes; Utah Kerosene Refiner Sales Volumes; Utah Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels ...

62

Table 40. Refiners’ Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 40. Refiners’ Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 1997 Refiner Barrels per Calendar Day Refiner Barrels per

63

Water Quality Criteria Development for Iron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current national water quality criterion for iron — a criterion continuous concentration of 1 mg Fe/L — was derived 25 years ago. Such ambient water quality criteria are typically derived from toxicity tests in which the reagent grade chemical is dissolved in clean laboratory water. However, due to the complexity of iron speciation in freshwater, adverse effects of iron precipitates on habitat quality, and access of organisms to food, standard toxicity assays may not adequately assess the...

2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

64

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen ...  

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group

65

Drinking Water Problems: Iron and Manganese  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron and manganese can give water an unpleasant taste, odor and color. In this publication you'll learn how to know whether your water contains iron or manganese and how to eliminate these contaminants with various treatment methods such as aeration and chemical oxidation.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

66

ITP Mining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry: Chapter 4: Iron  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 4 Iron The chemical element iron is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust and the second most abundant metal. About five percent of the Earth's crust is composed of iron. The metal is chemically active and is found in nature combined with other elements in rocks and soils. In its natural state, iron is chemically bonded with oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, or sulfur in a variety of minerals. Forms of Iron Minerals, Ores, and Rocks Iron occurs mainly in iron-oxide ores. Some ores are a mixture of minerals rich in iron. Other iron ores are less rich and have a large number of impurities. The most important iron ore- forming minerals are: * Magnetite - Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) forms magnetic black iron ore. There are large deposits of

67

Iowa Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Iowa Propane (Consumer Grade) Refiner Sales Volumes; Iowa Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, ...

68

Alabama Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Alabama Propane (Consumer Grade) Refiner Sales Volumes; Alabama Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, ...

69

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

CORPORATION / Refiner / Location Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2011 Calendar Day

70

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

CORPORATION / Refiner / Location Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2009 Calendar Day

71

Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics Analysis and Experiments on the Removal of Arsenic from the Crude Tin.

73

Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA)

1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

74

Refined computational models for laminated shells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents refined computational models for non homogeneous, deep, doubly curved shells. The theory is based on a kinematical approach in which the continuity conditions for displacements and shear stresses at layer interfaces and on the bounding ... Keywords: bending-torsion warping coupling, multilayered shells, piezoelectric laminates, shear-membrane refinements, stress computations, triangular C1-C1/2 finite element

M. Touratier

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Chemical and physical aspects of refining coal liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing costs and declining reserves of petroleum are forcing oil importing countries to develop alternate energy sources. The direct liquefaction of coal is currently being investigated as a viable means of producing substitute liquid fuels. The coal liquids derived from such processes are typically high in nitrogen

Y. T. Shah; G. J. Stiegel; S. Krishnamurthy

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

North Dakota Refining Capacity Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

77

Iron Absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Absorption Iron Absorption Name: Mary Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I wrote before to Steve and got a answer back. I would like more information. The cirmcustances were that I first had anaemia and then I went for a gastroscopy. The results of which were I had insufficient acid been produced in the stomach. I was told that acid was nessary for the absorbion of iron and it was because of this that I became anaemic. I was told to eat plently of red meat not too many vegetables. Is there any other information you can give me? Replies: It is very difficult to say for sure without seeing you chart and I am not your doctor. But it sounds to me like you are deficient in the vitamin B12. In your stomach you have 3 basic types of cells. One is called chief cells which secrete the precursor of the enzyme pepsin which begins the breakdown of protein. Another is called the parietal cells which secrete your stomach acid and a substance called intrinsic factor. Now-switch to your bone marrow which is where your red blood cells are made. In order for your red blood cells to mature in the bone marrow, vitamin B12 is necessary. B12 can only be obtained from animal food sources such as meat, milk and eggs. Unfortunately, B12 cannot be absorbed in the stomach without intrinsic factor. If there is sufficient B12 present in the diet, it can be stored in the liver. If you aren't eating enough animal sources your B12 will be taken from your liver until you run out. You could also be deficient in intrinsic factor. So while the outcome is anemia (not enough red blood cells) the problem could be from a few different things. Follow your doctor's recommendations and eat more sources of B12

78

Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal  

SciTech Connect

A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Iron and Prochlorococcus/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron availability and primary productivity in the oceans are intricately linked through photosynthesis. At the global scale we understand how iron addition induces phytoplankton blooms through meso-scale iron-addition ...

Thompson, Anne Williford

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

2011 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining held at the 102nd AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2011 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course Saturday April 30,

82

2013 Short Course Fundamentals of Edible Oil Processing and Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamentals of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course held at the 104th AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2013 Short Course Fundamentals of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Fundamentals of Edible Oil Processing and Refining S

83

2010 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course held at the 101st AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2010 Short Course Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course Saturday, M

84

Iron Aluminides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 4 Chemical compositions of selected Fe 3 Al aluminides.... . . 1.0 0.05 bal (a) Designations used by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN [graphic]...

85

Valero Refining Company - NJ | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Valero Refining Company - NJ Valero Refining Company - NJ Jump to: navigation, search Name Valero Refining Company - NJ Place New Jersey Utility Id 56325 Utility Location Yes Ownership R Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Industrial: $0.0652/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Valero_Refining_Company_-_NJ&oldid=411921" Categories: EIA Utility Companies and Aliases

86

U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

Tancred Lidderdale

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Genealogy Of Major U.S. Refiners  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

A summary presentation iof mergers and acquisitions by U.S. major oil companies (including the U.S. affiliates of foreign major oil companies). The presentation focuses on petroleum refining over the last several years through late 2009.

Neal Davis

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

88

2004: Sign of the Future for Refiners?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

A presentation to the NPRA Annual Meeting discussing the major factors that drove petroleum prices, price differentials, and margins in 2004, and what this might mean for refiners as we look towards the future.

Information Center

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

89

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When...

90

Genealogy of major U.S. refiners  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of major U.S. refiners of major U.S. refiners 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Amoco SOHIO BP ARCO Mapco Williams Clark Refining 1/89 12/98 4/00 3/98 Orion Diamond Shamrock Ultramar k 12/96 7/03 Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS) Total North America UDS 9/97 Valero Salomon (Basis) Valero Williams BP BP b BP-Husky Refining LLC (jv) Husky Huntway 5/97 6/01 9/05 Valero Premcor g Valero Valero Valero 12/01 7/94 e 12/98 f Carlyle Group y Coastal 3/03 d 12/88 a 6/01 o Sun Company Sunoco v 7/07 i 4/08 c 5/04 h Pacific Refining (jv) 12/88 r El Paso 1/04 w 10/98 m 6/00 n 9/89 t 8/94 u See notes, footnotes, and source notes below. PBF Energy 6/10 p 12/10 q 3/11 x 10/11 j 9/00 l 1/01 s Genealogy of major U.S. refiners (continued) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

91

U.S. Crude Oil Imported Acquisition Cost by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Release Date: 1/2/2014: Next Release Date: 2/3/2014: Referring Pages: Refiner Acquisition Cost of Imported Crude Oil ; U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost ...

92

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 4 Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical Guide to Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 4 Refining Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 4 Refining from the book ...

93

Vermont Propane Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Propane (Consumer Grade) Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes; Vermont Propane (Consumer Grade) Refiner Sales Volumes; Vermont Sales to End Users ...

94

Idaho Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Retail Sales by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Idaho Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Refiner Sales Volumes; Idaho Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, ...

95

Idaho Kerosene Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Idaho Kerosene Refiner Sales Volumes; Idaho Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. ...

96

Table 5.22 Refiner Sales Prices and Refiner Margins for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Prices are not adjusted for inflation. See "Nominal Dollars" in Glossary. 6 A volume weighted average of the refiner prices to resellers for ...

97

Changing World Product Markets and Potential Refining Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Changing World Product Markets and Potential Refining Capacity Increases. NPRA Annual Meeting March 2006

98

Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Refining District ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Refining District Percent Utilization of Refinery Operable Capacity (Percent)

99

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District New Mexico Gross Inputs to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units (Thousand Barrels per Day)

100

Texas Inland Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Texas Inland Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

East Coast Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

102

Parallel Cell Projection Rendering of Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a technique used in numerical simulations to automatically refine (or de-refine) certain regions of the physical domain in a finite difference calculation. AMR data consists of nested hierarchies of data grids. As AMR ... Keywords: volume rendering, adaptive mesh refinement, load balancing, multi-grid methods, parallel rendering, visualization

Gunther H. Weber; Martin Ohler; Oliver Kreylos; John M. Shalf; E. Wes Bethel; Bernd Hamann; Gerik Scheuermann

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Refinery Yield of Petroleum Coke (Percent)

104

Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Piping Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy Technology Company Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Outline 2 Overall perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few) problem areas. Related industry work: American Petroleum Institute corrosion and materials work on high temperature hydrogen attack. Overall Perspectives 3 Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at ambient to at least 800F and pressures up to at least 3000psia as long as we stay within well- defined limits H2S contamination presents many more problems, beyond the scope of this talk We will note a couple of specific vulnerabilities Refining tracks materials performance in

105

Norwegian Silicon Refining AS | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refining AS Refining AS Jump to: navigation, search Name Norwegian Silicon Refining AS Place Oslo, Norway Zip 214 Product Oslo-based company with an upgraded metallurgical silicon (UMG) production process called the Stubergh method. Coordinates 59.91228°, 10.74998° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":59.91228,"lon":10.74998,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

106

1995 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected 5 Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently by John Zyren, Charles Dale and Charles Riner Introduction The United States has completed its first summer driving season using reformulated gasoline (RFG). Motorists noticed price increases at the retail level, resulting from the increased cost to produce and deliver the product, as well as from the tight sup- ply/demand balance during the summer. This arti- cle focuses on the costs of producing RFG as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate. RFG Regulatory Requirements The use of RFG is a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The CAAA cover a wide range of programs aimed at improving air qual-

107

Minimally refined biomass fuels: an economic shortcut  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An economic shortcut can be realized if the sugars from which ethanol is made are utilized directly as concentrated aqueous solutions for fuels rather than by further refining them through fermentation and distillation steps. Simple evaporation of carbohydrate solutions from sugar cane or sweet sorghum, or from hydrolysis of starch or cellulose content of many plants yield potential liquid fuels of energy contents (on a volume basis) comparable to highly refined liquid fuels like methanol and ethanol. The potential utilization of such minimally refined biomass derived fuels is discussed and the burning of sucrose-ethanol-water solutions in a small modified domestic burner is demonstrated. Other potential uses of sugar solutions or emulsion and microemulsions in fuel oils for use in diesel or turbine engines are proposed and discussed.

Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

Day, D.E.

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

109

A Cluster Refinement Algorithm for Motif Discovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finding Transcription Factor Binding Sites, i.e., motif discovery, is crucial for understanding the gene regulatory relationship. Motifs are weakly conserved and motif discovery is an NP-hard problem. We propose a new approach called Cluster Refinement ... Keywords: Transcription factor binding site, motif discovery.

Gang Li; Tak-Ming Chan; Kwong-Sak Leung; Kin-Hong Lee

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Arnold Schwarzenegger REFINING ESTIMATES OF WATER-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of magnitude of waterrelated energy use do not consider energy that is produced as a byproduct of water supply decrease in a dry year. The amount of water delivered or hydropower produced depends on a number Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor REFINING ESTIMATES OF WATER- RELATED ENERGY USE IN CALIFORNIA

111

SEARCH NAVIGATE REFINE PERSONALIZE SAVE SEARCH OPERATORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SEARCH NAVIGATE REFINE PERSONALIZE SAVE SEARCH OPERATORS Search using AND, OR, NOT, and SAME (same sentence) to create logical search state- ments. Nest search operators inside parentheses. Search exact Web of Science® Quick Reference Card Search over 9,200 journals from over 45 different languages

Russell, Lynn

112

Ontology-based automatic query refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effectiveness of user query plays a vital role in retrieving highly relevant documents in keyword-based search engine. Because of the lack of domain knowledge, users tend to post very short queries, which do not express their information need ... Keywords: automatic query refinement, document retrieval, information retrieval, keywords, ontology, query expansion, retrieval relevancy, search engines, semantic search, user queries

S. Sendhilkumar; G. S. Mahalakshmi; S. N. Rajasekar

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Deriving Efficient Cache Coherence Protocols Through Refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We address the problem of developing efficient cache coherence protocols for use in distributed systems implementing distributed shared memory (DSM) using message passing. A serious drawback of traditional approaches to this problem is that the users ... Keywords: DSM protocols, communication protocols, refinement

Ratan Nalumasu; Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Hydrocarbon Processing`s refining processes `96  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper compiles information on the following refining processes: alkylation, benzene reduction, benzene saturation, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, coking, crude distillation, deasphalting, deep catalytic cracking, electrical desalting, ethers, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, isomerization, resid catalytic cracking, treating, and visbreaking. The application, products, a description of the process, yield, economics, installation, and licensor are given for each entry.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

116

Production of Molybdenum Containing Iron Based Alloys via ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

117

Reduction and Separation of High Iron Content Manganese Ore and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

118

CFD Model Development for Gaseous Reduction of Iron Ore Fines ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

119

NOx Reduction by Sintering Flue Gas Circulation for Iron Ores  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

120

Attrition and carbon formation on iron catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A serious engineering problem that needs to be addressed in the scale-up of slurry-phase, Fischer-Tropsch reactors is attrition of the precipitated iron catalyst. Attrition, which can break down the catalyst into particles too small to filter, results from both mechanical and chemical forces. This study examines the chemical causes of attrition in iron catalysts. A bench-scale, slurry-phase CSTR is used to simulate operating conditions that lead to attrition of the catalyst. The average particle size and size distribution of the catalyst samples are used to determine the effect of slurry temperature, reducing gas, gas flow rate and time upon attrition of the catalyst. Carbon deposition, a possible contributing factor to attrition, has been examined using gravimetric analysis and TEM. Conditions affecting the rate of carbon deposition have been compared to those leading to attrition of the precipitated iron catalyst.

Kohler, S.D.; Harrington, M.S.; Jackson, N.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shroff, M.; Kalakkad, D.S.; Datye, A.K. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Gasification, polygeneration capture interest of refiners  

SciTech Connect

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are moving into the mainstream of international refining. Such plants can turn refinery dregs into the whitest of all products--sparkling electricity--plus hydrogen and synthesis gas. Hydrogen is an indispensable element for cleaning up and improving modern fuels, while syngas is the feedstock for important finished petrochemicals and intermediaries. The status and potential of gasification technologies and projects were covered in a 3 day conference early in October in San Francisco. What made this conference different from others on the subject in the past was recognition that oil and natural gas producers and the international refining industry are becoming major power producers without government subsidies. Such projects can pass the scrutiny of lenders and the test of commerciality. They are not targeted simply for electricity, but also for production of hydrogen, steam, and petrochemical feedstock. The process objective for projects now far exceeds simple cogeneration. It`s now trigeneration, even polygeneration.

Aalund, L.R.

1996-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

122

Global refining industry preparing for future  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 2.1 million b/sd of crude distillation capacity is now under construction or considered likely to be built, more than 80% of which is concentrated in Asia and the Middle East. An overview of global refining centers will illustrate technological trends and the emergence of developing economies, particularly those in the Asia/Pacific region. About 50% of the refineries in the US and Western Europe have capacities greater than 200,000 b/d. Figure 1 lists the capacities and relative conversion capabilities of the world refining centers. The paper discusses bottoms conversion, regulations, investment, grassroots plans, and refinery capacities in the US, Western Europe, Eastern Europe/FSU, Middle East, Asia/Pacific region, and South America/Caribbean.

Martin, T.W. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

123

Parabolic refined invariants and Macdonald polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A string theoretic derivation is given for the conjecture of Hausel, Letellier, and Rodriguez-Villegas on the cohomology of character varieties with marked points. Their formula is identified with a refined BPS expansion in the stable pair theory of a local root stack, generalizing previous work of the first two authors in collaboration with G. Pan. Haiman's geometric construction for Macdonald polynomials is shown to emerge naturally in this context via geometric engineering. In particular this yields a new conjectural relation between Macdonald polynomials and refined local orbifold curve counting invariants. The string theoretic approach also leads to a new spectral cover construction for parabolic Higgs bundles in terms of holomorphic symplectic orbifolds.

Wu-yen Chuang; Duiliu-Emanuel Diaconescu; Ron Donagi; Tony Pantev

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

124

Genealogy of major U.S. refiners - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

See full Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Previous Release Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Release date: September 18, 2013 figre 1. World energy consumption, 1990-2040. The structure of the U.S. petroleum refining industry has changed substantially over the past several years. In the diagram the companies shown on the right side are presently active in U.S. refining. The transactions over the past 25 years that created these companies also are shown. The transactions included here may be as little as a single refinery, or as much as all the refining assets of the parties to the transaction. Transactions that include less than all refining assets are indicated by vertical dotted lines while vertical solid lines indicate that all refining assets are included. Additionally,

125

Washington Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) ... History; Gasoline, All Grades : Through Retail Outlets: ...

126

North Carolina Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Area: ... History; Gasoline, All Grades : Through Retail ...

127

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Gas Plant Production of Propane and Propylene (Thousand Barrels)

128

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Pentanes Plus Stocks at Natural Gas Processing Plants (Thousand Barrels)

129

Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refinement Processing of Inconel Alloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ELECTRON BEAM COLD HEARTH REFINEMENT PROCESSING OF. INCONEL" ALLOY 718 AND NIMONIC* ALLOY PK50. S. Patel+,. 1-C. Elliott+,.

130

P-12: Refinement of Primary and Eutectic Silicon Particles in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evolution of ESR Technology and Equipment for Long Hollow Ingots Manufacture ... Phosphorus Partitioning During EAF Refining of DRI Based Steel.

131

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Refinery and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Refinery and Blender Net Input of Fuel Ethanol (Thousand Barrels per Day)

132

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Ethane-Ethylene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Ethane-Ethylene Stocks at Natural Gas Processing Plants (Thousand Barrels)

133

The development of precipitated iron catalysts with improved stability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Precipitated iron catalysts are expected to be used in the next generation of slurry reactors for the large-scale production of transportation fuels from synthesis gas. These reactors may operate at higher temperatures and lower H {sub 2}: CO ratios relative to the Sasol Arge reactor. The feasibility of iron catalysts has been demonstrated under relatively mild Arge-type conditions but not under the more severe slurry conditions. The goal of this program is to identify the chemical principles governing the deactivation of precipitated iron catalysts during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and to use these chemical principles in the design of catalysts suitable for slurry reactors.

Shah, P.P.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Action Refinement from a Logical Point of View  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Action refinement provides a mechanism to design a complex reactive system hierarchically. This paper is devoted to action refinement from a logical point of view, and to combining the hierarchical implementation of a complex system with the hierarchical ... Keywords: action refinement, modal logics, reactive systems, specification, verification

Mila E. Majster-Cederbaum; Naijun Zhan; Harald Fecher

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Profile of the chemicals industry in California: California industries of the future program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the U.S. Chemical Industry. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence2004. Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry inCalifornia - California Industries of the Future Program.

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Ladle Refining Furnaces for the Steel Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been a tremendous interest in the use of ladle refining furnaces in the last few years. Several units have been or are being constructed in the United States and most steel companies are seriously considering installing them. The purpose of this report is to inform the member companies of EPRI of the development and operations of ladle furnaces and to assist steel companies in determining if ladle furnaces fit their goals and which particular unit would be best for their operation. In this repo...

1990-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

ZIRCONIUM IRON DISPROPORTIONATION DURING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... These Zr3Fe and Zr2Fe button samples were made at LANL by arc melting stoichiometric amounts of zirconium and iron in an argon atmosphere. ...

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

139

Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Characteristic Grids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I consider techniques for Berger-Oliger adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) when numerically solving partial differential equations with wave-like solutions, using characteristic (double-null) grids. Such AMR algorithms are naturally recursive, and the best-known past Berger-Oliger characteristic AMR algorithm, that of Pretorius & Lehner (J. Comp. Phys. 198 (2004), 10), recurses on individual "diamond" characteristic grid cells. This leads to the use of fine-grained memory management, with individual grid cells kept in 2-dimensional linked lists at each refinement level. This complicates the implementation and adds overhead in both space and time. Here I describe a Berger-Oliger characteristic AMR algorithm which instead recurses on null \\emph{slices}. This algorithm is very similar to the usual Cauchy Berger-Oliger algorithm, and uses relatively coarse-grained memory management, allowing entire null slices to be stored in contiguous arrays in memory. The algorithm is very efficient in both space and time. I describe discretizations yielding both 2nd and 4th order global accuracy. My code implementing the algorithm described here is included in the electronic supplementary materials accompanying this paper, and is freely available to other researchers under the terms of the GNU general public license.

Jonathan Thornburg

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Effects of Fuel's Distribution on NOx Emissions in Iron Ore Sintering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The law of NOx emission in the sintering process indicates that the NOx mainly emits ... Effects of Reducer and Slag Concentrations in the Iron-carbon Nuggets ... Factors Affecting the Mixing Characteristics of Molten Steel in the RH Refining Process ... Simulation Calculation on Calciotherimic Reduction of Titanium Dioxide.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Cast Irons - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2011 ... Processing, Microstructure and Properties of Cast Irons and Cast and Forged Specialty Steels: Cast Irons Sponsored by: MS&T Organization

142

Carbide/nitride grain refined rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnet and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a permanent magnet wherein 1) a melt is formed having a base alloy composition comprising RE, Fe and/or Co, and B (where RE is one or more rare earth elements) and 2) TR (where TR is a transition metal selected from at least one of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Al) and at least one of C and N are provided in the base alloy composition melt in substantially stoichiometric amounts to form a thermodynamically stable compound (e.g. TR carbide, nitride or carbonitride). The melt is rapidly solidified in a manner to form particulates having a substantially amorphous (metallic glass) structure and a dispersion of primary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates. The amorphous particulates are heated above the crystallization temperature of the base alloy composition to nucleate and grow a hard magnetic phase to an optimum grain size and to form secondary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates dispersed at grain boundaries. The crystallized particulates are consolidated at an elevated temperature to form a shape. During elevated temperature consolidation, the primary and secondary precipitates act to pin the grain boundaries and minimize deleterious grain growth that is harmful to magnetic properties.

McCallum, R. William (Ames, IA); Branagan, Daniel J. (Ames, IA)

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

143

A generic theorem prover of CSP refinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We describe a new tool called Csp-Prover which is an interactive theorem prover dedicated to refinement proofs within the process algebra Csp. It aims specifically at proofs for infinite state systems, which may also involve infinite non-determinism. Semantically, Csp-Prover supports both the theory of complete metric spaces as well as the theory of complete partial orders. Both these theories are implemented for infinite product spaces. Technically, Csp-Prover is based on the theorem prover Isabelle. It provides a deep encoding of Csp. The tool’s architecture follows a generic approach which makes it easy to adapt it for various Csp models besides those studied here: the stable failures model F and the traces model T. 1

Yoshinao Isobe; Markus Roggenbach

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

Visualization Tools for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations that must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR visualization research and tools and describe how VisIt currently handles AMR data.

Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vincent E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki,Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

2007-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

146

Renewable Energy Project Refinement Webinar | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewable Energy Project Refinement Webinar Renewable Energy Project Refinement Webinar Renewable Energy Project Refinement Webinar May 28, 2014 11:00AM MDT Attendees will become familiar with the three components of project refinement: project financing strategies, off-taker agreements, and vendor selection. Project refinement obstacles, particularly financing, can deter the deployment of renewable energy projects on tribal lands. Attendees will learn about the financial resources and ownership options available-including venture capital and innovative financing-that can help Tribes overcome longstanding barriers and attract higher levels of private investment. Finally, attendees will learn how project refinement can accelerate renewable energy development and, with it, tribal economic and community development. There is no cost to attend the webinar, but

147

A CSP Account of Event-B Refinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Event-B provides a flexible framework for stepwise system development via refinement. The framework supports steps for (a) refining events (one-by-one), (b) splitting events (one-by-many), and (c) introducing new events. In each of the steps events can moreover possibly be anticipated or convergent. All such steps are accompanied with precise proof obligations. Still, it remains unclear what the exact relationship - in terms of a behaviour-oriented semantics - between an Event-B machine and its refinement is. In this paper, we give a CSP account of Event-B refinement, with a treatment for the first time of splitting events and of anticipated events. To this end, we define a CSP semantics for Event-B and show how the different forms of Event-B refinement can be captured as CSP refinement.

Schneider, Steve; Wehrheim, Heike; 10.4204/EPTCS.55.9

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Chemical Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Science Chemical Science Compton double ionization of helium in the region of the cross-section maximum B. Krässig, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, E.P. Kanter, H. Schmidt-Böcking, W. Schmitt, S.H. Southworth, Th. Weber, and L. Young Crystal structure analysis of microporous Na16Nb12.8Ti3.2O44.8(OH)3.2l8H2O and Na/Nb/Zr/O/H2O phases A. Tripathi, J. Parise, M. Nyman, T.M. Nenoff, and W. Harrison Double K-photoionization of heavy atoms R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, E.P. Kanter, B. Krässig, and S.H. Southworth Forward-backward asymmetries of atomic photoelectrons S.H. Southworth, B. Krässig, E.P. Kanter, J.C. Bilheux, R.W. Dunford, D.S. Gemmell, S. Hasegawa, and L. Young In situreduction of various iron oxides to form high-surface-area Fe-metal catalysts as studied by high-resolution powder diffraction

149

Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Policy Impacts Website: web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTENERGY2/0,,contentMDK:2298 Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/renewable-energy-financial-instrument Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Training & Education Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) aims to assist policy in identifying appropriate financial instruments to scale-up

150

High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Grain-refined Inconel 617 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cr-depleted zone of grain-refined alloy was thicker than that of the ... Intergranular Thermal Residual Strain in Rolled and Texture-free ?-Uranium.

151

Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

152

Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

153

Table 31. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Monthly February 2012 76 Table 31. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State

154

WPSR provides comprehensive crude oil and refined products ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA's Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) is the most comprehensive weekly data available for U.S. crude oil and refined petroleum product balances.

155

Refiner Prices of Gasoline, All Grades - Sales for Resale  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type ... Download Series History: Definitions, Sources & Notes: ... Alabama: 2.759: 2.740: 2.731: ...

156

Massachusetts Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Area: ... History; Gasoline, All Grades : Through Retail Outlets: ...

157

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases (Thousand Barrels)

158

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Natural Gas Liquids ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Oklahoma-Kansas-Missouri Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases Stocks at Natural Gas Processing Plants (Thousand Barrels)

159

Production, Refining and Recycling of Rare Earth Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This symposium is targeting on overview of the current state of the art for production, refining and recycling of the rare earth metals. In addition the symposium is ...

160

Rising challenges for the petroleum refiners in managing corrosion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Materials Aspects of Corrosion and Fouling in Oil Refining and Exploration.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

Giles, K.A. [Barnes and Click Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refining of Investment Casting ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refining of Investment Casting Superalloys in a Large Production EB Furnace. Janine C. Borofka. Axe1 Johnson Metals, Inc.

163

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Friedman, S. ,"Conversion of Anthraxylon - Kinetics ofiv- LBL 116807 CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COALand Mechanisms of Coal Conversion to Clean Fuel,iI pre-

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Effect of Sonotrode Design on Simultaneous Grain Refinement and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P-18: Phosphorus Partitioning During EAF Refining of DRI Based Steel ... P-8: Evolution of ESR Technology and Equipment for Long Hollow Ingots Manufacture.

165

Massachusetts Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Massachusetts Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 ... No.1 and No. 2 ...

166

Neutral Oil Loss During Alkali Refining - ResearchGate  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Neutral Oil Loss During Alkali Refining. Albert J. Dijkstra. Journal of Oil & Fat Industries (Impact ... Experiments with cotton oil and soybean o ...

167

Studies on Refining Cobalt Salt Solution by Extraction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cobalt sulfate solution was refined by PC88A levextrel Resins which produced from HPD-100 type of ethylene benzene -divinylbenzene porous adsorption resin  ...

168

Table 40. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 40. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2005 Companies with Capacity Over 100,000 bbl/cd

169

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 5. Refiners' Total Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2006 Companies with Capacity Over 100,000 bbl/cd

170

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refining District Minnesota-Wisconsin-North Dakota-South Dakota Gas Plant Production of Propane and Propylene (Thousand Barrels per Day)

171

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov December 2012 This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Patent Details U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,553; titled "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid

172

Photodegradation of mutagens in solvent-refined coal liquids  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate any changes in the chemical composition and microbial mutagenicities of two representative solvent-refined coal (SRC) liquids as a function of exposure time to sunlight and air. This information was desired to assess potential health hazards arising from ground spills of these liquids during production, transport and use. Results of microbial mutagenicity assays using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, conducted after exposure, showed that the mutagenicities of both an SRC-II fuel oil blend and an SRC-I process solvent decreased continuously with exposure time to air and that the decrease was accelerated by simultaneous exposure to simulated sunlight. The liquids were exposed as thin layers supported on surfaces of glass, paper, clay or aluminum; but the type of support had little effect on the results. The contrast between these results and the reported increases of mutagenesis in organisms exposed simultaneously to coal liquids and near-ultraviolet light suggested that short-lived mutagenic intermediates, e.g., organic free radicals, were formed in the liquids during exposure to light. The highest activities of microbial mutagenicity in the SRC liquids were found in fractions rich in amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (amino PAH). After a 36-hour exposure of the fuel oil blend to air in the dark, the mutagenicity of its amine-rich fraction was reduced by 65%; whereas a 36-hour exposure in the light reduced the mutagenicity of this fraction by 92%. Similar rates of reduction in mutagenicity were achieved in exposures of the process solvent. The mutagenicities of other chemical fractions remained low during exposure.

Kalkwarf, D.R.; Stewart, D.L.; Pelroy, R.A.; Weimer, W.C.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

iron and steel making  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas-Solid Reaction Will Help Solid-Solid Reaction—Novel Iron Ore Agglomerate Bearing Semi-Coal-Char (Keynote) [pp. 97-104] T. Usui, H. Konishi, and N.

174

Improving Ariadne's Bundle by Following Multiple Threads in Abstraction Refinement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors propose a scalable abstraction-refinement method for model checking invariant properties on large sequential circuits, which is based on fine-grain abstraction and simultaneous analysis of all abstract counterexamples of the shortest length. ... Keywords: Abstraction refinement, binary decision diagram (BDD), formal verification, model checking, satisfiability (SAT)

Chao Wang; Bing Li; HoonSang Jin; G. D. Hachtel; F. Somenzi

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Green Vegetable Oil ProcessingChapter 9 Physical Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Green Vegetable Oil Processing Chapter 9 Physical Refining Processing eChapters Processing 7E84B6524348AB59C4DF2B6D388E2582 AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 9 Physical Refining from the book ...

176

Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

None

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Augmenting Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement with Proof Templates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Existing software model checkers based on predicate abstraction and refinement typically perform poorly at verifying the absence of buffer overflows, with analyses depending on the sizes of the arrays checked. We observe that many of these analyses can ... Keywords: safety verification, counterexample-guided abstraction refinement, proof templates, software model checkers, predicate abstraction, buffer overflows verification, array traversal idioms, PtYasm, Verisec suite

T. E. Hart; K. Ku; A. Gurfinkel; M. Chechik; D. Lie

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Hierarchical Partitioning Techniques for Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the design and preliminary evaluation of hierarchical partitioning and load-balancing techniques for distributed structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) applications. The overall goal of these techniques is to enable the load distribution ... Keywords: distributed computing, dynamic load balancing, hierarchical partitioning algorithm, structured adaptive mesh refinement

Xiaolin Li; Manish Parashar

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 More Documents & Publications Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Table 24. Refining Industry Energy Consumption  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- Corrections to Tables 24 to 32 - Corrections to Tables 24 to 32 Table 24. Refining Industry Energy Consumption 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2002- 2025 Carbon Dioxide Emissions 4/ (million metric tons) 190.4 185.7 188.0 191.3 207.3 215.6 220.0 222.8 225.1 226.3 228.0 230.7 234.1 237.5 238.5 239.4 239.4 238.6 240.6 240.5 242.2 244.2 245.9 246.3 246.6 1.2% Table 25. Food Industry Energy Consumption 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2002- 2025 Carbon Dioxide Emissions 3/ (million metric tons) 87.8 89.4 87.5 87.8 89.2 90.2 90.9 91.4 92.2 93.5 94.5 95.7 96.7 97.7 98.6 99.6 100.8 101.9 102.9 104.1 105.4 107.0 108.7 110.3 112.1 1.0% Table 26. Paper Industry Energy Consumption 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

182

Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B Steve Schneider refinement in the context of CSP B. Our motivation to include this notion of refinement within the CSP B to change the events of a CSP process and the B machines when refining a system. Notions of refinement based

Doran, Simon J.

183

Iron Pots and Kettles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Pots and Kettles Iron Pots and Kettles Nature Bulletin No. 544-A November 16, 1974 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation IRON POTS AND KETTLES At Possum Trot Hill, on US 150 west of Danville, a huge iron kettle squats as a monument to what was once an important industry in Illinois. It is one of 80 used from 1824 to 1831 for boiling down brine from salt springs in that vicinity. Salt was a luxury then. About a bushel was produced from one kettleful (100 gallons) of brine and that was worth more than 100 bushels of oats. Those 80 monsters came from Kentucky where iron works had been established to make the utensils and implements desperately needed by pioneer families. About half of them had come up through the Cumberland Gap, on horseback, with only a rifle, an ax, a pot for cooking, some bedding and the clothes on their backs. Every family, in addition to a skillet or spider, and a Dutch oven, coveted a big kettle for making salt, soap, candles and maple syrup, butchering hogs, rendering lard, boiling clothes on wash day, and dyeing homespun material for garments.

184

Three faces of US refining: Margins by gasoline customer type  

SciTech Connect

While it is well known that the US gasoline market has become more volatile in recent years, it is less widely appreciated that the deeply structured, term-contract-oriented companies within the refining and marketing sectors are likely to obtain the best profit margins. This issue stratifies refining margins by class of wholesale-gasoline trade. This issue also presents the following: (a) ED refining netback data series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of September 8, 1989; and (b) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, September 1989 edition. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

1989-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

185

Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal  

SciTech Connect

A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

,"Weekly Refiner Net Production"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refiner Net Production" Refiner Net Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Weekly Refiner Net Production",21,"Weekly","12/13/2013","6/4/2010" ,"Release Date:","12/18/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","12/27/2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_wprodr_s1_w.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_wprodr_s1_w.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/18/2013 10:39:21 AM"

187

Refining Primary Lead by Granulation–Leaching–Electrowinning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For example, smelters of complex concentrates may have iron, copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, arsenic, antimony, tin, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, silver, and gold,  ...

188

2012 Short Course Edible Oils Refining Update: From the Fundamentals to New Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Edible Oils Refining Update: From the Fundamentals to New Technologies held at the 103rd AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2012 Short Course Edible Oils Refining Update: From the Fundamentals to New Technologies Edible Oils Refining Update: From the Fund

189

Developing Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Developing Refined Products Storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve May 12, 2009 - 3:14pm Addthis Statement of David F. Johnson, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Petroleum Reserves before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate. Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee, I am pleased to be here today to discuss the issue of developing refined products storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. As you know, the SPR was established by Congress through passage of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act in 1975 in response to the Arab oil embargoes. The primary policy of the U.S. petroleum stockpiling program has been to store crude oil. The SPR has served to protect our Nation from crude oil supply interruptions for over three

190

Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity May 18, 2006 - 10:43am Addthis Highlights President Bush's Four-Point Plan to Combat High Energy Prices PORT ARTHUR, TX - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today renewed the call for expanded oil refining capacity in the United States and discussed additional steps the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to prepare for the upcoming hurricane season. Secretary Bodman made the statements after touring the Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas. "We need a more robust energy sector; and one way to do that is to strengthen and expand our domestic oil refining capacity. We're hopeful that Motiva will continue to work to expand their capacity to 600,000

191

Evaluation of Electron-Beam Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR) of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EVALUATION OF ELECTRON-BEAM COLD HEARTH REFINING (EBCHR) OF. VIRGIN AND REVERT IN738LC. P.N. Quested*, M. McLean* and M.R. Winstonet.

192

Polygons in Buildings and their Refined Side Lengths  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1999. [Bro] K. Brown, Buildings, Springer, 1989. [BuBI] D.AMS, 2001. [D] M. Davis, Buildings are CAT(0), in “Geometryat Springerlink.com POLYGONS IN BUILDINGS AND THEIR REFINED

Kapovich, Michael; Leeb, Bernhard; Millson, John J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

California Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

California Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1990's ...

194

California Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

California Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's:

195

,"U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Refiner...

196

Tennessee Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Tennessee Propane Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ... No.1 and No. 2 ...

197

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects 00516 North Dakota Refining...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the North Dakota Refining Capacity study is to assess the feasibility of increasing the oil refinery capacity in North Dakota, and, if possible, determine the scale of such an...

198

CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I. Solvent Refined Coal II. Catalysts III. Purpose andSondreal, E.A. , "Viscosity of Coal Liquids - The Effect ofAnthraxylon - Kinetics of Coal Hydrogenation," Ind. and Eng.

Tanner, K.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Data refinement in a market research applications' data production process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this contribution, we will show how empirically collected field data for a market research application are refined in a stepwise manner and enriched into end-user market reports and charts. The collected data are treated by selections, transformations, ...

Thomas Ruf; Thomas Kirsche

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Query reformulation and refinement using NLP-based sentence clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed an interactive query refinement tool that helps users search a knowledge base for solutions to problems with electronic equipment. The system is targeted towards non-technical users, who are often unable to formulate precise problem ...

Frédéric Roulland; Aaron Kaplan; Stefania Castellani; Claude Roux; Antonietta Grasso; Karin Pettersson; Jacki O'Neill

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

MODIS Cloud-Top Property Refinements for Collection 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the Collection-6 refinements in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational cloud-top properties algorithm. The focus is on calibration improvements and on cloud macrophysical properties including ...

Bryan A. Baum; W. Paul Menzel; Richard A. Frey; David C. Tobin; Robert E. Holz; Steve A. Ackerman; Andrew K. Heidinger; Ping Yang

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Are Refiners Entering a Golden Age or a Short Cycle?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

A presentation exploring the factors driving higher prices, margins, and light-heavy price differentials in today's market, and what these observations may imply about future profitability in the refining industry.

Joanne Shore

2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

203

Basics of Edible Oil Processing and Refining Short Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organizer: Dr. Sefa Koseoglu, Filtration and Membrane World LLC, USA. This is a must for engineers, chemists, and any other technicians who want to get a good understanding of edible oil refining/processing. ...

204

Michigan Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand Gallons ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Michigan Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1990's: 3,004.6:

205

South Dakota Gasoline Midgrade Bulk Sales (Volume) by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

South Dakota Gasoline Midgrade Bulk Sales (Volume) by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9;

206

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Former Corporation/Refiner Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd) New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 12. Refinery Sales During 2012 Antelope Refining LLC Garco Energy LLC 3/12 Douglas, WY 3,800 Delta Air Lines/Monroe Energy LLC ConocoPhillips Company 4/12 Trainer, PA 185,000 Phillips 66 Company ConocoPhillips Company 5/12 Belle Chasse, LA 252,000 Billings, MT 59,000 Ferndale, WA 101,000 Linden, NJ 238,000 Ponca City, OK 198,400 Rodeo, CA 120,200 Sweeny, TX 247,000 Westlake, LA 239,400 Wilmington, CA 139,000 Nustar Asphalt LLC (50% Nustar Energy LP and 50% Lindsay Goldberg LLC) Nustar Energy LP/Nustar Asphalt Refining LLC 9/12 Paulsboro, NJ 70,000 Savannah, GA 28,000 Carlyle Group/Philadelphia Energy Solutions Refining and Marketing LLC Sunoco Inc./Sunoco Inc. R&M

207

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Iron Based Flow Batteries for Low Cost...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EnergyOffice of Electricity's Energy Storage Program. Iron Based Flow Batteries for Low Cost Grid Level Energy Storage J.S. Wainright, R. F. Savinell, P.I.s Dept. of Chemical...

208

Study on Apprasial Model of Iron Ores Based on Multi-level Fuzzy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

209

Study on Swelling Behavior of Iron Ore Pellets in Direct Reduction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

210

EPRI BWR Iron Control Monitoring Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the state of iron control in U.S. BWRs as of July 1999 and documents the implementation and performance status of new iron control technologies. Issues involving the relationship between iron control and radiation dose control, iron control with deep beds, iron control with filters, and iron addition are documented, and areas for future research are noted.

1999-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

211

Chemical leukoderma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the first report, to date, of chemical leukoderma that wasreview on biological, chemical and clinical aspects. Pigment4. Briganti S, et al. Chemical and instrumental approaches

O'Reilly, Kathryn E; Patel, Utpal; Chu, Julie; Patel, Rishi; Machler, Brian C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Regional differences for cost of crude oil to refiners widened in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The cost of crude oil to refiners varies across regions based on the different types of crude oil available to refiners and transportation bottlenecks in that region.

213

Arkansas Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Retail Sales by Refiners (Thousand ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: Arkansas Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Refiner Sales Volumes; Arkansas Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 ...

214

Plutonium Tricks Cells by "Pretending" to be Iron | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Chemical Detour to Quantum Criticality A Chemical Detour to Quantum Criticality Metallic Glass: A Crystal at Heart Brain Iron as an Early Predictor of Alzheimer's Disease Osmosis in Colloidal Suspensions Building a Better Battery Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Plutonium Tricks Cells by "Pretending" to be Iron JULY 14, 2011 Bookmark and Share Structural models of bovine serum transferrins derived from x-ray studies at the Advanced Photon Source. Natural di-iron transferrin (yellow) and one mixed iron plutonium transferrin (green) are recognized and taken in by cells, while the other mixed plutonium iron transferrin (red) and di-plutonium transferrin (blue) are not recognized.

215

An introduction to the special section on application of leading pretreatments to switchgrass by the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- mochemical approaches in particular, did an effective job of mak- ing biomass susceptible to enzyme attack by the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI) Pretreatment is among the most costly steps in the overall bio- logical conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Pre

California at Riverside, University of

216

Laboratory study related to the production and properties of pig iron nuggets  

SciTech Connect

Pig iron nuggets were produced in a laboratory-scale furnace at Michigan Technological University. The process was intended to replicate Kobe Steel's ITmk3 direct ironmaking process. These nuggets were produced from pellets that were made from a mixture of iron oxide, coal, flux and a binder and heated in a furnace with a chamber temperature of 1450{sup o}C. The pellets then self-reduced to produce a solid, high-density, highly metallized (96.5% Fe) pig iron. During the nugget production process, a separate liquid slag phase formed that cleanly separated from the molten metal. The physical and chemical properties of the pig iron nuggets were similar to pig iron produced by blast furnaces, which is distinct from direct reduced iron (DRI).

Anameric, B.; Kawatra, S.K. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Iron pages of HTSC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental data are presented on the superconducting and electronic properties of iron-based high-temperature superconductors in the normal and superconducting states. The following topics are discussed: lattice structure; structure of magnetic vortices; magnetic penetration depth; Fermi surface; isotope effect; and critical magnetic fields both in oxide compounds of 1111 type and oxide-free compounds of 122, 111, and 011 types as a function of the doping level, temperature, and external pressure.

Gasparov, V. A., E-mail: vgasparo@issp.ac.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Refining Crude Oil - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy -  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oil and Petroleum Products > Refining Crude Oil Oil and Petroleum Products > Refining Crude Oil Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Emissions Come From Outlook for Future Emissions Recycling and Energy Nonrenewable Sources Oil and Petroleum Products Refining Crude Oil Where Our Oil Comes From Imports and Exports Offshore Oil and Gas Use of Oil Prices and Outlook Oil and the Environment Gasoline Where Our Gasoline Comes From Use of Gasoline Prices and Outlook

219

Refinement and Verification of Real-Time Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses highly general mechanisms for specifying the refinement of a real-time system as a collection of lower level parallel components that preserve the timing and functional requirements of the upper level specification. These mechanisms are discussed in the context of ASTRAL, which is a formal specification language for real-time systems. Refinement is accomplished by mapping all of the elements of an upper level specification into lower level elements that may be split among several parallel components. In addition, actions that can occur in the upper level are mapped to actions of components operating at the lower level. This allows several types of implementation strategies to be specified in a natural way, while the price for generality (in terms of complexity) is paid only when necessary. The refinement mechanisms are first illustrated using a simple digital circuit; then, through a highly complex phone system; finally, design guidelines gleaned from these specifications are presented.

Kolano, Paul Z; Kemmerer, Richard A; Mandrioli, Dino

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Algebraic specification and program development by stepwise refinement (Extended Abstract)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Various formalizations of the concept of "refinement step" as used in the formal development of programs from algebraic specifications are presented and compared. 1 Introduction Algebraic specification aims to provide a formal basis to support the systematic development of correct programs from specifications by means of verified refinement steps. Obviously, a central piece of the puzzle is how best to formalize concepts like "specification", "program" and "refinement step". Answers are required that are simple, elegant and general and which enjoy useful properties, while at the same time taking proper account of the needs of practice. Here I will concentrate on the last of these concepts, but first I need to deal with the other two. For "program", I take the usual approach of algebraic specification whereby programs are modelled as many-sorted algebras consisting of a collection of sets of data values together with functions over those sets. This level of abstraction is commens...

Donald Sannella

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's  

SciTech Connect

As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

Not Available

1990-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

222

Differential Characterization of Ikperejere Iron shale and Iron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kaolinite was found in the iron shale. Trace elements were Mn, Mg, Ti, Ca, Na .... High Temperature Exposure of Oil Well Cements · In-Situ EBSD Investigation of ...

223

National oil companies' presence to hike US refining competition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that the downstream segment of the U.S. petroleum business is virtually certain to become more competitive because of the growing presence of national oil companies in the country's refining industry. That's a forecast by New York investment firm Kidder Peabody. It cites a plan by Mexico's Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) to form a joint venture with Shell Oil Co. covering Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery as the latest example of national oil companies' movement into U.S. refining.

Not Available

1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

224

Grain Refinement in TiC-Ni3Al Composites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to develop composites of TiC-Ni{sub 3}Al with refined grain microstructures for application in diesel engine fuel injection devices. Grain refinement is important for improved wear resistance and high strength for the applications of interest. Attrition milling effectively reduces the initial particle size and leads to a reduction of the final grain size. However, an increase in the oxygen content occurs concomitantly with the grinding operation and decreased densification of the compacts occurs during sintering.

Tiegs, T.N.

2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

225

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

227

In Situ Iron Oxide Emplacement for Groundwater Arsenic Remediation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron oxide-bearing minerals have long been recognized as an effective reactive media for arsenic-contaminated groundwater remediation. This research aimed to develop a technique that could facilitate in situ oxidative precipitation of Fe3+ in a soil (sand) media for generating a subsurface iron oxide-based reactive barrier that could immobilize arsenic (As) and other dissolved metals in groundwater. A simple in situ arsenic treatment process was successfully developed for treating contaminated rural groundwater using iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS). Using imbibition flow, the system facilitated the dispersive transport of ferrous iron (Fe2+) and oxidant solutions in porous sand to generate an overlaying blanket where the Fe2+ was oxidized and precipitated onto the surface as ferric oxide. The iron oxide (FeOx) emplacement process was significantly affected by (1) the initial surface area and surface-bound iron content of the sand, (2) the pH and solubility of the coating reagents, (3) the stability of the oxidant solution, and (4) the chemical injection schedule. In contrast to conventional excavate-and-fill treatment technologies, this technique could be used to in situ replace a fresh iron oxide blanket on the sand and rejuvenate its treatment capacity for additional arsenic removal. Several bench-scale experiments revealed that the resultant IOCS could treat arsenic-laden groundwater for extended periods of time before approaching its effective life cycle. The adsorption capacity for As(III) and As(V) was influenced by (1) the amount of iron oxide accumulated on the sand surface, (2) the system pH, and (3) competition for adsorption sites from other groundwater constituents such as silicon (Si) and total dissolved solids (TDS). Although the IOCS could be replenished several times before exhaustion, the life cycle of the FeOx reactive barrier may be limited by the gradual loss of hydraulic conductivity induced by the imminent reduction of pore space over time.

Abia, Thomas Sunday

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

This patent-pending technology, “Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process,” provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen.

229

Enzymes of respiratory iron oxidation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes experimental progress in characterizing and identifying redox proteins in a number of iron-oxidizing bacteria. Sections of the paper are entitled (1) In Situ electrolysis was explored to achieve enhanced yields of iron-oxidizing bacteria, (2)Structure/function studies were performed on redox-active biomolecules from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, (3) Novel redox-active biomolecules were demonstrated in other iron autotrophs, and (4) New probes of metalloprotein electron-transfer reactions were synthesized and characterized.

Blake, R. II.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering  

SciTech Connect

The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Testing for Refinement in CSP Ana Cavalcanti1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Testing for Refinement in CSP Ana Cavalcanti1 and Marie-Claude Gaudel2 1 University of York Abstract. CSP is a well-established formalism for modelling and verifi- cation of concurrent reactive work on algebraic reasoning and model checking. Testing techniques based on CSP models, however, have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Department of Computing Stepwise Refinement in Event-B||CSP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Event-B||CSP Part 1: Safety Steve Schneider, Helen Treharne and Heike Wehrheim March 12th 2011 #12;Stepwise Refinement in Event-B CSP Part 1: Safety Steve Schneider1 Helen Treharne1 Heike Wehrheim2 1, 2011 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 CSP 3 2.1 Notation

Doran, Simon J.

233

GRAIN REFINEMENT OF CAST URANIUM BY HEAT TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

The thermal cycling, irradiation behavior, and fabrication characteristics of U are strongly dependent upon grain size; a smaller grain size yields the better properties. Grain refinement of cast U may be accomplished either by hot working in the high alpha temperature range or by heat treatment; refinement by the latter method was the object of this investigation. The variables studied were time, temperature, specimen size, multiple quenching, and alphaannealing after quenching. The results of the investigation have led to the following conclusions, within the scope of the experimental conditions. The grain size of cast U may be appreciably refined by beta-quenching. Time and temperature in the beta phase are not significant in determining the final alpha grain size. Multiple beta-quenches (two to four times) produce better grain size refinement than a single quench. Alpha-annealing after beta-quenching causes recrystallization, but does not greatly affect the grain size. Gamma-quenching is not recommended as a practical heat treatment. (auth)

Powell, G.W.; Klein, J.L.; Krashes, D.

1957-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Development via refinement in probabilistic b: foundation and case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In earlier work, we introduced probability to the B by providing a probabilistic choice substitution and by extending B's semantics to incorporate its meaning [8]. This, a first step, allowed probabilistic programs to be written and ... Keywords: B, generalised substitutions, probability, program correctness, randomised algorithms, refinement, weakest preconditions

Thai Son Hoang; Zhendong Jin; Ken Robinson; Annabelle McIver; Carroll Morgan

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

1975-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

236

Feature-oriented refinement of models, metamodels and model transformations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Done well, the blend of Model Driven Development (MDD) and Software Product Lines (SPL) offers a promising approach, mixing abstraction from MDD and variability from SPL. Although Model Driven Product Lines have flourished recently, the focus so far ... Keywords: AHEAD, XAK, metamodels, model transformations, modeling, models, refinements

Salvador Trujillo; Ander Zubizarreta; Xabier Mendialdua; Josune de Sosa

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Refining image annotation using contextual relations between words  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a probabilistic approach to refine image annotations by incorporating semantic relations between annotation words. Our approach firstly predicts a candidate set of annotation words with confidence scores. This is achieved by ... Keywords: image annotation, normalized Google distance, semantic relation

Yong Wang; Shaogang Gong

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Effects of Multiple Reductions on Grain Refinement During Hot ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

of as-cast alloy 718, a research program was initiated at the ... process design criteria for grain size refinement during primary breakdown of alloy. 718 ingot via ..... however, can and does occur during the dwell time after each strain ..... statistically ..... (1981). D. K. Matlock and D. A. Burford,. "An Experimental. Correlation.

239

Grain refinement and texture development of cast bi90sb10 alloy via severe plastic deformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to study learn about grain refinement mechanisms and texture development in cast n-type Bi90Sb10 alloy caused by severe plastic deformation. The practical objective is to produce a fine grained and textured microstructure in Bi90Sb10 alloy with enhanced thermoelectric performance and mechanical strength. In the study, twelve millimeter diameter cast bars of Bi90Sb10 alloy were encapsulated in square cross section aluminum 6061 alloy containers. The composite bars were equal channel angular (ECAE) extruded through a 90 degree angle die at high homologous temperature. Various extrusion conditions were studied including punch speed (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 in/min), extrusion temperature (220, 235 and 250oC), number of extrusion passes (1, 2 and 4), route (A, BC and C), and exit channel area reduction ratio (half and quarter area of inlet channel). The affect of an intermediate long term heat treatment (for 100 hours at 250oC under 10-3 torr vacuum) was explored. Processed materials were characterized by optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Texture was analyzed using the {006} reflection plane to identify the orientation of the basal poles in processed materials. The cast grains were irregularly shaped, had a grain size of hundreds-of-microns to millimeters, and showed inhomogeneous chemical composition. Severe plastic deformation refines the cast grains through dynamic recrystallization and causes the development of a bimodal microstructure consisting of fine grains (5-30 micron) and coarse grains (50-300 micron). ECAE processing of homogenizied Bi-Sb alloy causes grain refinement and produces a more uniform microstructure. Texture results show that ECAE route C processing gives a similar or slightly stronger texture than ECAE route A processing. In both cases, the basal-plane poles become aligned with the shear direction. Reduction area exit channel extrusion is more effective for both grain refinement and texture enhancement than simple ECAE processing.

Im, Jae-taek

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

About The Iron and Steel Society  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The IRON & STEEL SOCIETY (ISS) is a professional and technical society that provides opportunities for networking among iron and steel industry professionals ...

242

Rate of Industrial Conservation - Petroleum Refining, Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Manufacture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper considers three related questions: 1) What are the primary economic driving forces which determine the rate of industrial energy conservation? 2) How much industrial energy conservation has been achieved over 1972-1973 levels? 3) What are the goals and expectations for decreases in industrial energy use during the next 10-20 years? The specific energy consumption (SEC) of a plant or industry, measured in BTU of fuel used/ton of product produced, can be used to monitor the energy conserved. The rate of SEC reduction is a function of five primary variables: the potential for reduction of the SEC, the unit cost of fuel, the capital available for implementation of conservation measures, the quantity of fuel available, and the availability: of equipment to implement needed conservation measures. A mathematical-economic model is proposed for the decrease in energy use, and permits calculation of dollars saved also. Conclusions from the study are: 1) Potential savings were estimated as 20-31% of 1972 levels; through 1978 a 13-20% actual reduction in energy use has been achieved. 2) The additional can be realized by; 1982 by "strong action", or by 1987 by "moderate action". To date moderate action has been taken. 3) Overall energy conservation pays out rapidly - dollars saved return dollars invested many fold!

Prengle, H. W. Jr.; Golden, S. A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders  

SciTech Connect

This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

244

Atlantic Basin Refining Dynamics from U.S. Perspective  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

“This presentation focuses on the current refining situation in the Atlantic Basin, “This presentation focuses on the current refining situation in the Atlantic Basin, Page 1 including some discussion on how we got here, and on drivers that will influence the next 5 years. I will focus on three topics today that are critical to the petroleum product dynamics of Page 2 the Atlantic Basin over the next several years. The first is product demand growth - something that has been affected both by the recession and legislation. Next I will cover the supply situation for gasoline and distillates in the Atlantic Basin, since Europe and the U.S. are closely entwined in these markets. Last, we will visit the outlook for those drivers affecting profitability - an area of large uncertainty. I will begin today with a short discussion of important underlying long-term trends in U.S.

245

Margin turnaround at hand: reprieve for US refiners  

SciTech Connect

After unseasonal US gasoline price deterioration during the summer driving months, a turnaround in rack (unbranded, undelivered wholesale) prices is helping to reverse the downward trend in refining margins on the Gulf Coast. In turn, the improved margins are buoying up light crude oil prices in the US Gulf Coast and strengthening spot-market prices. A graph tracks apparent margins on four important crudes utilized on the US Gulf Coast. August 1984 saw negative margins even for heavy Venezuelan Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) and Mexican Maya (22/sup 0/ API), but both were again positive in September. Energy Detente refining netback data for September 1984 are presented for the US Gulf Coast, the US West Coast, Rotterdam, and Singapore. The fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices are presented for September 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

1984-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

246

Post-refinement multiscale method for pin power reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

The ability to accurately predict local pin powers in nuclear reactors is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause fuel pin failure during steady state and transient operation. In the research presented here, methods are developed to improve the local solution using high order methods with boundary conditions from a low order global solution. Several different core configurations were tested to determine the improvement in the local pin powers compared to the standard techniques based on diffusion theory and pin power reconstruction (PPR). The post-refinement multiscale methods use the global solution to determine boundary conditions for the local solution. The local solution is solved using either a fixed boundary source or an albedo boundary condition; this solution is 'post-refinement' and thus has no impact on the global solution. (authors)

Collins, B.; Seker, V.; Downar, T. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Xu, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Refiner details ``best practices`` approach to catalyst selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalysts are critical to hydrocarbon processing in refineries. Refiners spend millions of dollars per year on catalysts. This cost, however, pales in comparison to the impact that catalysts can have. The lost opportunity from not using the right catalyst, or an unscheduled shutdown caused by a catalyst-related problem, can be an order of magnitude higher than the cost of the catalyst itself. Chevron Products Co. has adopted a best practices approach to addressing technical and operational issues in refining. A subset of the best-practices program includes the testing, selection, and monitoring of catalysts for Chevron`s fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), catalytic reforming, and hydroprocessing units. The paper discusses these practices.

Krishna, A.S. [Chevron Products Co., El Segundo, CA (United States); Arndt, J.H. [Chevron Products Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Kuehler, C.W.; Kramer, D.C. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1996-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

248

Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results  

SciTech Connect

Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

Gail Heath

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the WTI crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC Basket price.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

Unknown

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage.

Tassel, B. van [McKinsey and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

U. S. refiners move into another challenging technical era  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the transition to unleaded gasoline scarcely behind us, another new era is dawning for the U.S. refiner. No one yet knows the exact configuration of the refinery of the future and no two refineries are likely to adapt in exactly the same way. What is certain, however, is that by the year 2000, refineries will be more technologically advanced, their products will be more environmentally acceptable, and their operators will be more highly trained. The typical U.S. refinery in the year 2000 will be located at an existing refinery site because economic and environmental considerations will make it impossible to build new grassroots capacity. As a result of the Clean Air act, the refinery of tomorrow will produce cleaner fuels The entire U.S. gasoline pool will likely be reformulated. Most of the diesel fuel pool will consist of ultralow-sulfur product. And jet fuel-which is experiencing rapid demand growth-will be an increasingly important product. Many existing refining process will remain in use, but they will be more efficient and more technologically advanced. Energy efficiency will be a primary concern, as refiners seek to combat ever-increasing crude oil costs and refinery operating expenses. The refinery of the future also will be much more environmentally acceptable. The article is a closer look at the refinery of the future.

Hall, J.R. (Ashland Oil Inc., Ashland, KY (US))

1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

253

Decontamination of steel by melt refining: A literature review  

SciTech Connect

It has been reported that a large amount of metal waste is produced annually by nuclear fuel processing and nuclear power plants. These metal wastes are contaminated with radioactive elements, such as uranium and plutonium. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain level. Because of high cost, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low level contaminated metals. It has been shown by some investigators that a melt refining technique can be used for the processing of the contaminated metal wastes. In this process, contaminated metal is melted wit a suitable flux. The radioactive elements are oxidized and transferred to a slag phase. In order to develop a commercial process it is important to have information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Therefore, a literature search was carried out to evaluate the available information on the decontamination uranium and transuranic-contaminated plain steel, copper and stainless steel by melt a refining technique. Emphasis was given to the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Data published in the literature indicate that it is possible to reduce the concentration of radioactive elements to a very low level by the melt refining method. 20 refs.

Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

2011 Short CourseNew Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining ShortCourse held at the 102nd AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2011 Short CourseNew Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction

255

2010 Short Course New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining Short Course held at the 101st AOCS Annual Meeting and Expo. 2010 Short Course New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and Edible Oil Refining New Technologies in Oilseed Extraction and

256

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Refining the Message Initiating a National Dialogue and Educational Agenda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating aApril 1, 2005 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message2002, "Fuel Choices for Fuel Cell Vehicles: Well-to-Wheels

Eggert, Anthony; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Dan; Winston, Emily

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Boiler Chemical Cleaning Waste Management Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical cleaning to remove tube deposits/oxides that occur during unit operation or scale during unit commissioning from conventional fossil plants and combined cycle plants with heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) will result in the generation of a waste solution. The waste contains residual solvent and elevated levels of heavy metals (primarily iron and copper) in addition to rinse and passivation solutions. An earlier manual, Boiler Chemical Cleaning Wastes Management Manual (EPRI ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

258

Weekly U.S. Refiner and Blender Adjusted Net Production of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly U.S. Refiner and Blender Adjusted Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline (Thousand Barrels per Day)

259

Weekly U.S. Refiner, Blender, and Gas Plant Net Production of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly U.S. Refiner, Blender, and Gas Plant Net Production of Propane and Propylene (Thousand Barrels per Day)

260

Effects of Feed Quality and Product Specification Changes on Refined Product Supply  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The presentation explores the implications that future feedstock changes and product specification changes may have on refined product supply.

Information Center

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The development of precipitated iron catalysts with improved stability. Technical progress report, April 1, 1990--June 30, 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Precipitated iron catalysts are expected to be used in the next generation of slurry reactors for the large-scale production of transportation fuels from synthesis gas. These reactors may operate at higher temperatures and lower H {sub 2}: CO ratios relative to the Sasol Arge reactor. The feasibility of iron catalysts has been demonstrated under relatively mild Arge-type conditions but not under the more severe slurry conditions. The goal of this program is to identify the chemical principles governing the deactivation of precipitated iron catalysts during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and to use these chemical principles in the design of catalysts suitable for slurry reactors.

Shah, P.P.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Refinement and verification of concurrent systems specified in ObjectZ and CSP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refinement and verification of concurrent systems specified in Object­Z and CSP Graeme Smith­Z and CSP. A common semantic basis for the two languages enables a unified method of refinement to be used, based upon CSP refinement. To enable state­based techniques to be used for the Object­Z components

Smith, Graeme

263

A performance study of data layout techniques for improving data locality in refinement-based pathfinding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The widening gap between processor speed and memory latency increases the importance of crafting data structures and algorithms to exploit temporal and spatial locality. Refinement-based pathfinding algorithms, such as Classic Refinement (CR), find quality ... Keywords: Cache-conscious algorithms, classical refinement, pathfinding

Robert Niewiadomski; José Nelson Amaral; Robert C. Holte

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Retrenching the Purse: The Balance Enquiry Quandary, and Generalised and (1,1) Forward Refinements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of the success stories of model based refinement are recalled, as well as some of the annoyances that arise when refinement is deployed in the engineering of large systems. The way that retrenchment attempts to alleviate such inconveniences is briefly ... Keywords: Atomicity, Mondex Purse, Refinement, Retrenchment, Verification

Richard Banach; Czeslaw Jeske; Michael Poppleton; Susan Stepney

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Retrenching the Purse: The Balance Enquiry Quandary, and Generalised and (1,1) Forward Refinements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of the success stories of model based refinement are recalled, as well as some of the annoyances that arise when refinement is deployed in the engineering of large systems. The way that retrenchment attempts to alleviate such inconveniences is briefly ... Keywords: Atomicity, Mondex Purse, Refinement, Retrenchment, Verification

Richard Banach; Czeslaw Jeske; Michael Poppleton; Susan Stepney

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Iron Edison Battery Company | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Iron Edison Battery Company Iron Edison Battery Company Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Iron Edison Battery Company Name Iron Edison Battery Company Place Lakewood, Colorado Sector Bioenergy, Carbon, Efficiency, Hydro, Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product Nickel Iron (Ni-Fe) battery systems Year founded 2011 Number of employees 1-10 Phone number 202-681-4766 Website http://ironedison.com Region Rockies Area References Iron Edison Battery Company[1] Nickel Iron Battery Specifications[2] About the company and the owners[3] Nickel Iron Battery Association[4] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Iron Edison Battery Company is a company based in Lakewood, Colorado. Iron Edison is redefining off-grid energy storage using advanced

267

Chemical Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reactor concept for deep space exploration Research directions Weapons chemistry and nuclear performance Radiological, nuclear, and chemical signatures Energy production,...

268

Energy in Iron and Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management: Energy in Iron and Steel ... today imposed by energy, raw materials supply and over supply in the market. ... Through the studies of CCT, TTT and X-ray analysis, it has been successfully ...

269

Process for the synthesis of iron powder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

Welbon, W.W.

1983-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

270

Process for the synthesis of iron powder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

Not Available

1982-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

271

Process for the synthesis of iron powder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

Welbon, William W. (Belleair, FL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

GLASSES CONTAINING IRON (II III) OXIDES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE TECHNETIUM  

SciTech Connect

Technetium-99 (Tc-99) has posed serious environmental threats as US Department of Energy's high-level waste. This work reports the vitrification of Re, as surrogate for Tc-99, by iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses, respectively. Iron-phosphate glasses can dissolve Re as high as {approx} 1.2 wt. %, which can become candidate waste forms for Tc-99 disposal, while borosilicate glasses can retain less than 0.1 wt. % of Re due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Vitrification of Re as Tc-99's mimic was investigated using iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses. The retention of Re in borosilicate glasses was less than 0.1 wt. % and more than 99 wt. % of Re were volatilized due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Because the retention of Re in iron-phosphate glasses is as high as 1.2 wt. % and the volatilization is reduced down to {approx}50 wt. %, iron-phosphate glasses can be one of the glass waste form candidates for Tc (or Re) disposal. The investigations of chemical durability and leaching test of iron-phosphate glasses containing Re are now underway to test the performance of the waste form.

KRUGER AA; HEO J; XU K; CHOI JK; HRMA PR; UM W

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

273

Chemical phase separation in binary iron-chromium alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of chromium-enriched domain growth occurring binary Fe-Cr alloys quenched from above to various temperatures within the miscibility gap has been made. We present kinetic sequences of in- situ small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data for aging times up to 75 hours on alloys containing 20, 30, and 40 atomic percent chromium. The SANS measurements are compared with partial structure functions obtained from computer simulations performed on a distributed array processor (DAP). We use a pair-potential lattice model, but simulate large systems containing up to 16 million lattice sites. We find good agreement between the scaled structure factors for our SANS data and computer simulated system. 12 refs., 4 figs.

Hawick, K.A. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics); Epperson, J.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Windsor, C.G.; Rainey, V.S. (AEA Technology, London (UK))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... by microwave (MW) irradiation generating plasma during oxidation of surfaces. ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity.

275

Biomedical studies on solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquefaction materials: a status report  

SciTech Connect

This technical report summarizes the results of biomedical research effort on solvent refined coal (SRC) materials. The samples, described in the text, as well as samples of raw shale oil, crude petroleum, and some SRC-I materials were evaluated for biological activity in several different systems: (1) microbial mutagenesis (Ames assay), coupled to chemical characterization efforts, (2) in vitro mammalian cell toxicity and transformation, (3) epidermal carcinogenesis (skin painting) in mice, (4) acute and subchronic oral toxicity in rats, (5) developmental toxicity in rats, and (6) dosimetry and metabolism in rats. High boiling point materials (identified) showed significant mutagenic activity while lower boiling fractions from both processes were inactive; crude petroleum was also inactive, while raw shale oil showed only a low level of activity. Chemical characterization studies suggested that 3- and 4-ring primary aromatic amines are responsible for a large fraction of the mutagenic activity. Cultured mammalian cell studies showed that materials exhibiting a positive effect in the Ames system also caused mammalian cell transformation. The results of skin carcinogenesis studies in the mouse were generally consistent with those of the cellular studies. Light distillates were found to be moderately toxic after oral administration to rats. Fuel upgrading, process modification, and appropriate occupational/environmental controls may ameliorate some of the biological effects of SRC materials and other coal liquids of high boiling point. Low-boiling SRC liquids appear to have little biological effects in the assays employed. (LTN)

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement - theory, implementation and application  

SciTech Connect

Structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) techniques can enable cutting-edge simulations of problems governed by conservation laws. Focusing on the strictly hyperbolic case, these notes explain all algorithmic and mathematical details of a technically relevant implementation tailored for distributed memory computers. An overview of the background of commonly used finite volume discretizations for gas dynamics is included and typical benchmarks to quantify accuracy and performance of the dynamically adaptive code are discussed. Large-scale simulations of shock-induced realistic combustion in non-Cartesian geometry and shock-driven fluid-structure interaction with fully coupled dynamic boundary motion demonstrate the applicability of the discussed techniques for complex scenarios.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1981-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

279

Bethe roots and refined enumeration of alternating-sign matrices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The properties of the most probable ground state candidate for the XXZ spin chain with the anisotropy parameter equal to -1/2 and an odd number of sites is considered. Some linear combinations of the components of the considered state, divided by the maximal component, coincide with the elementary symmetric polynomials in the corresponding Bethe roots. It is proved that those polynomials are equal to the numbers providing the refined enumeration of the alternating-sign matrices of order M+1 divided by the total number of the alternating-sign matrices of order M, for the chain of length 2M+1.

A. V. Razumov; Yu. G. Stroganov

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Argonne CNM News: Hollow Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Lithium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hollow Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications Hollow iron oxide nanoparticles Transmission electron micrograph of hollow iron oxide nanoparticles....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Iron/Iron Oxide Core/Shell Nanoparticles for MRI and Magnetic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk Nanoceramics and Nanocomposites: Processed by Pulsed Electric Current ... Iron/Iron Oxide Core/Shell Nanoparticles for MRI and Magnetic Hyperthermia.

282

Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells More Documents & Publications Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium

283

Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells More Documents & Publications Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium

284

Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum Refining Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Opportunities for Petroleum Refineries. An ENERGY STAR®and the chemical industry. Refineries spend typically 50% ofStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Process Refinements - Reporting of Public Use of Diesel Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Based on FHWA's reassessment of the reporting and attribution process and on the GAO study, several specific issues were identified. These issues were published in a Federal Register notice for public response.3 Sixteen States provided comments on the issues provided in the Federal Register. Two additional issues were also raised by commenters. The comments may be found at http://dmses.dot.gov; search for docket number FHWA-2000-7635. All of the issues are discussed below. Certain process refinements are required to address these issues; these changes are explained in the following sections. Based on FHWA's reassessment of the reporting and attribution process and on the GAO study, several specific issues were identified. These issues were published in a Federal Register notice for public response.3 Sixteen States provided comments on the issues provided in the Federal Register. Two additional issues were also raised by commenters. The comments may be found at http://dmses.dot.gov; search for docket number FHWA-2000-7635. All of the issues are discussed below. Certain process refinements are required to address these issues; these changes are explained in the following sections. Some of the issues concern the data reported by the States. Because of differences in State laws, States collect different types of data. Chapter 2 of A Guide to Reporting Highway Statistics4 provides instructions for completing Forms FHWA-551M and FHWA-556.

286

Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Chemical microsensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium subsurface mobility is primarily controlled by its oxidation state, which in turn is loosely coupled to the oxidation state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on plutonium sorption and oxidation state. A pH 6.3 vadose zone sediment containing iron oxides and iron-containing phyllosilicates was treated with various complexants (ammonium oxalate) and reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate) to selectively leach and/or reduce iron oxide and phyllosilicate phases. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to identify initial iron mineral composition of the sediment and monitor dissolution and reduction of iron oxides. Sorption of Pu(V) was monitored over one week for each of six treated sediment fractions. Plutonium oxidation state speciation in the aqueous and solid phases was monitored using solvent extraction, coprecipitation, and XANES. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the sediment contained 25-30% hematite, 60-65% Al-goethite, and <10%Fe(III) in phyllosilicate; there was no detectable Fe(II). Upon reduction with a strong chemical reductant (dithionite-citrate buffer, DCB), much of the hematite and goethite disappeared and the Fe in the phyllosilicate reduced to Fe(II). The rate of sorption was found to correlate with the 1 fraction of Fe(II) remaining within each treated sediment phase. Pu(V) was the only oxidation state measured in the aqueous phase, irrespective of treatment, whereas Pu(IV) and much smaller amounts of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) were measured in the solid phase. Surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) occurred in treated and untreated sediment samples; Pu(V) remained on untreated sediment surface for two days before reducing to Pu(IV). Similar to the sorption kinetics, the reduction rate was correlated with sediment Fe(II) concentration. The correlation between Fe(II) concentrations and Pu(V) reduction demonstrates the potential impact of changing iron mineralogy on plutonium subsurface transport through redox transition areas. These findings should influence the conceptual models of long-term stewardship of Pu contaminated sites that have fluctuating redox conditions, such as vadose zones or riparian zones.

Hixon, Amy E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Nitsche, Heino; Qafoku, Odeta; Powell, Brian A.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Estimation of iron-55 volumetric contamination via surrogates produced during Z-machine operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis of the radiation produced by Z-machine nuclear experiments at Sandia National Laboratory and the materials irradiated indicate that the majority of produced radionuclides can easily be detected. One significant exception is volumetric contamination of stainless steel by iron-55. Detecting iron-55 in Z-machine components presents a particular problem due to its low-abundance and the low-energy (5.9 keV) xray it emits. The nuclide is often below the minimum detectable activity (MDA) threshold and resolution criteria of many standard radiation detection devices. Liquid scintillation has proven useful in determining iron-55 presence in loose contamination at concentrations below that of regulatory guidelines, but determination of volumetric iron- 55 contamination remains a significant challenge. Due to this difficulty, an alternate method of detection is needed. The use of radioactive surrogates correlating to iron-55 production is proposed in order to establish an estimate of iron-55 abundance. The primary interaction pathways and interaction probabilities for all likely radionuclide production in the Z-machine were tabulated and radionuclides with production pathways matching those of iron-55 production were noted. For purposes of nuclide identification and adequate detection, abundant gamma emitters with half-lives on the order of days were selected for use as surrogates. Interaction probabilities were compared between that of iron-55 production and a chosen surrogate. Weighting factors were developed to account for the differences in the interaction probabilities over the range of the known energy spectra produced on the device. The selection process resulted in cobalt-55, cobalt-57 and chromium-51 as optimal surrogates for iron-55 detection in both deuterium and non-deuterium loaded interactions. A decay corrected correlation of the surrogates (chromium-51, cobalt-57 and cobalt-55) to iron-55 for deuterium and non-deuterium loaded Z-machine driven reactions was derived. The weighting factors presented here are estimates which are based on rough comparisons of cross-section graphs. Analysis considering factors such as energy spectrum criteria to provide refined weighting factors may be utilized in future work.

Flores-McLaughlin, John

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe{sup +2}) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron.

T.C. Eisele

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

The development of precipitated iron catalysts with improved stability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to identify the chemical principles governing the deactivation of precipitated iron catalysts during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and to use these chemical principles in the design of catalysts suitable for slurry reactors. This report covers testing an iron catalyst. During the last quarter, a new precipitated iron catalyst was prepared and tested in the slurry autoclave reactor at various conditions. This catalyst did not noticeably deactivate during 1250 hours of testing. This quarter, the test was extended to include performance evaluations at different conversion levels ranging from 35 to 88% at 265 and 275{degree}C. The conversion levels were varied by changing the feed rate. The catalytic performance at different conversion intervals was then integrated to approximately predict performance in a bubble column reactor. The run was shut down at the end of 1996 hours because of a 24-hour-power outage. When the power was back on, the run was restarted from room temperature. Catalytic performance during the first 300 hours after the restart-up was monitored. Overall product distributions are being tabulated as analytical laboratory data are obtained. 34 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Microsoft Word - IronCore  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

November/December 2013 November/December 2013 Percolation Explains How Earth's Iron Core Formed The formation of Earth's metallic core, which makes up a third of our planet's mass, represents the most significant differentiation event in Earth's history. Earth's present layered structure with a metallic core and an overlying silicate mantle would have required mechanisms to separate iron alloy from a silicate phase. Percolation of liquid iron alloy moving through a solid silicate matrix (much as water percolates through porous rock, or even coffee grinds) has been proposed as a possible model for core formation (Figure 1). Many previous experimental results have ruled out percolation as a major core formation mechanism for Earth at the relatively lower pressure conditions in the upper mantle, but

293

Chemical sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

Lowell, Jr., James R. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Rayfield, George W. (Bend, OR)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Chemical preconcentrator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical preconcentrator is disclosed with applications to chemical sensing and analysis. The preconcentrator can be formed by depositing a resistive heating element (e.g. platinum) over a membrane (e.g. silicon nitride) suspended above a substrate. A coating of a sorptive material (e.g. a microporous hydrophobic sol-gel coating or a polymer coating) is formed on the suspended membrane proximate to the heating element to selective sorb one or more chemical species of interest over a time period, thereby concentrating the chemical species in the sorptive material. Upon heating the sorptive material with the resistive heating element, the sorbed chemical species are released for detection and analysis in a relatively high concentration and over a relatively short time period. The sorptive material can be made to selectively sorb particular chemical species of interest while not substantially sorbing other chemical species not of interest. The present invention has applications for use in forming high-sensitivity, rapid-response miniaturized chemical analysis systems (e.g. a "chem lab on a chip").

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print Friday, 21 June 2013 10:08 The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the...

296

Classes and Grades of Ductile Iron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Ductile iron properties of various industry and international standards...Table 1 Ductile iron properties of various industry and international standards Grade Tensile strength 0.2% offset yield

297

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Objective Chemical Engineers of chemicals. This lesson introduces students to one component of chemical engineering: food processing, and a chemical engineer 2. How chemical engineers are involved in food production 3. That chemical engineers need

Provancher, William

298

Effects of Iron and Manganese Ions on Potentiostatic Current ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential Characterization of Ikperejere Iron shale and Iron Sandstone Deposit · Direct Precipitation of ... High Temperature Exposure of Oil Well Cements.

299

About The Associate for Iron and Steel Technology - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABOUT THE ASSOCIATION FOR IRON & STEEL TECHNOLOGY ... that provides opportunities for networking among iron and steel industry professionals and ...

300

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environmental Regulations and Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline * Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Figure 2. Oxygenate Content of Motor Gasoline o Table 5. Oxygenated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Table 6. Reformulated and Conventional Motor Gasoline Price Relationship o Figure 3. Price Differences Between RFG or MTBE and Conventional Gasoline

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Abelianization of BPS Quivers and the Refined Higgs Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We count Higgs "phase" BPS states of general non-Abelian quiver, possibly with loops, by mapping the problem to its Abelian, or toric, counterpart and imposing Weyl invariance later. Precise Higgs index computation is particularly important for quivers with superpotentials; the Coulomb "phase" index is recently shown to miss important BPS states, dubbed intrinsic Higgs states or quiver invariants. We demonstrate how the refined Higgs index is naturally decomposed to a sum over partitions of the charge. We conjecture, and show in simple cases, that this decomposition expresses the Higgs index as a sum over a set of partition-induced Abelian quivers of the same total charge but generically of smaller rank. Unlike the previous approach inspired by a similar decomposition of the Coulomb index, our formulae compute the quiver invariants directly, and thus offer a self-complete routine for counting BPS states.

Seung-Joo Lee; Zhao-Long Wang; Piljin Yi

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

302

The uses of the refined matrix model recursion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study matrix models in the {beta}-ensemble by building on the refined recursion relation proposed by Chekhov and Eynard. We present explicit results for the first {beta}-deformed corrections in the one-cut and the two-cut cases, as well as two applications to supersymmetric gauge theories: the calculation of superpotentials in N=1 gauge theories, and the calculation of vevs of surface operators in superconformal N=2 theories and their Liouville duals. Finally, we study the {beta}-deformation of the Chern-Simons matrix model. Our results indicate that this model does not provide an appropriate description of the {Omega}-deformed topological string on the resolved conifold, and therefore that the {beta}-deformation might provide a different generalization of topological string theory in toric Calabi-Yau backgrounds.

Brini, Andrea; Marino, Marcos; Stevan, Sebastien [Departement de Physique Theorique et Section de Mathematiques, Universite de Geneve, Geneve CH-1211 (Switzerland)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Magnetism Governs Properties of Iron-Based ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... a group of materials that conduct electricity without resistance at ... theoretical evidence demonstrating how magnetism controls basic aspects of iron ...

2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

304

Terahertz Properties of Lithium Iron Phosphate Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Terahertz Properties of Lithium Iron Phosphate Glasses ... Field Assisted Viscous Flow and Crystallization in a Sodium Aluminosilicate Glass.

305

Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries  

The materials can be added at low cost without changing current scalable cathode ... Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries ...

306

Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

307

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

Davis, B.H.

1998-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

308

Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

Casey, Charles P. (Madison, WI); Guan, Hairong (Cincinnati, OH)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

309

Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum Refining Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

13% of crude capacity), ExxonMobil (11%), BP (9%), Valero (associated emissions. ExxonMobil’s Global Energy Managementefficiency by 15% at ExxonMobil refineries and chemical

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

17 U.S. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Monthly February 2012 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type

311

Real-time Imaging of the Grain Refinement Process of Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

K2: Microstructural Development of Plutonium Alloys via Cooling Curve Analysis · K3: Preparation of High Purity Tellurium by Zone Refining Process.

312

Engine spray combustion modeling using unified spray model with dynamic mesh refinement.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary objective of this study is to improve the spray and combustion modeling of internal combustion engines using dynamic mesh refinement. The first part… (more)

Kolakaluri, Ravi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per barrel in ""dollar year"" specific to each...

314

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

17 U.S. Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Marketing Monthly December 2013 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales ...

315

Energy efficiency in the South Africa crude oil refining industry drivers, barriers and opportunities.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Includes abstract. This study has explored a range of barriers, drivers and opportunities to improving energy performance in the South African crude oil refining industry,… (more)

Bergh, Caitlin.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Regional differences for cost of crude oil to refiners widened in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Glossary For Teachers. Energy Explained. ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Petroleum Marketing Monthly, Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil.

317

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

318

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

319

Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by PAD District (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

320

Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by PAD District (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Chemical Activation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Activation of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Adsorption Milton R. Smith, Jr., 1 Edward W. Bittner, 1 Wei Shi, 1, 2 J. Karl Johnson, 1, 2 and Bradley C....

322

Chemical sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

1992-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

323

Chemical sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

Lowell, Jr., James R. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Rayfield, George W. (Eugene, OR)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Comparative Omics-Driven Genome Annotation Refinement: Application across Yersiniae  

SciTech Connect

Genome sequencing continues to be a rapidly evolving technology, yet most downstream aspects of genome annotation pipelines remain relatively stable or are even being abandoned. To date, the perceived value of manual curation for genome annotations is not offset by the real cost and time associated with the process. In order to balance the large number of sequences generated, the annotation process is now performed almost exclusively in an automated fashion for most genome sequencing projects. One possible way to reduce errors inherent to automated computational annotations is to apply data from 'omics' measurements (i.e. transcriptional and proteomic) to the un-annotated genome with a proteogenomic-based approach. This approach does require additional experimental and bioinformatics methods to include omics technologies; however, the approach is readily automatable and can benefit from rapid developments occurring in those research domains as well. The annotation process can be improved by experimental validation of transcription and translation and aid in the discovery of annotation errors. Here the concept of annotation refinement has been extended to include a comparative assessment of genomes across closely related species, as is becoming common in sequencing efforts. Transcriptomic and proteomic data derived from three highly similar pathogenic Yersiniae (Y. pestis CO92, Y. pestis pestoides F, and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+) was used to demonstrate a comprehensive comparative omic-based annotation methodology. Peptide and oligo measurements experimentally validated the expression of nearly 40% of each strain's predicted proteome and revealed the identification of 28 novel and 68 previously incorrect protein-coding sequences (e.g., observed frameshifts, extended start sites, and translated pseudogenes) within the three current Yersinia genome annotations. Gene loss is presumed to play a major role in Y. pestis acquiring its niche as a virulent pathogen, thus the discovery of many translated pseudogenes underscores a need for functional analyses to investigate hypotheses related to divergence. Refinements included the discovery of a seemingly essential ribosomal protein, several virulence-associated factors, and a transcriptional regulator, among other proteins, most of which are annotated as hypothetical, that were missed during annotation.

Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Jones, Marcus B.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Purvine, Samuel O.; Sanford, James; Monroe, Matthew E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Ansong, Charles; Frank, Bryan C.; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott; Motin, Vladimir L.; Adkins, Joshua N.

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

325

Chemistry and Electronic Structure of Iron-Based Superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solid state provides a richly varied fabric for intertwining chemical bonding, electronic structure, and magnetism. The discovery of superconductivity in iron pnictides and chalcogenides has revealed new aspects of this interplay, especially involving magnetism and superconductivity. Moreover, it has challenged prior thinking about high-temperature superconductivity by providing a set of materials that differ in many crucial aspects from the previously known cuprate superconductors. Here we review some of what is known about the superconductivity and its interplay with magnetism, chemistry, and electronic structure in Fe-based superconductors.

Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Feedwater Iron Optimization: Quad Cities Generating Station Unit 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines 2004 Revisions (report 1008192) recommends feedwater iron control in the range of 0.1 ppb 1.0 ppb for plants operating with reducing chemistry conditions for intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation. Since all U.S. plants now operate under moderate hydrogen water chemistry (HWC-M) or noble metals chemical addition and hydrogen water chemistry (NMCA+HWC), it is appropriate to target the lower end of the range (0.1 0.5 ppb) to minimize zinc requiremen...

2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

327

FDR3 --A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FDR3 -- A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong, Alexandre.roscoe}@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract. FDR3 is a complete rewrite of the CSP refinement checker FDR2, incorporating a significant number describe the new algorithm that FDR3 uses to construct its in- ternal representation of CSP processes

Oxford, University of

328

To appear in EPTCS. A CSP account of Event-B refinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To appear in EPTCS. A CSP account of Event-B refinement Steve Schneider Department of Computing a CSP account of Event-B refinement, with a treatment for the first time of splitting events and of anticipated events. To this end, we define a CSP seman- tics for Event-B and show how the different forms

Doran, Simon J.

329

Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

Neal Davis

2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

330

A refinement-based compositional reasoning framework for pipelined machine verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a refinement-based compositional framework for showing that pipelined machines satisfy the same safety and liveness properties as their non-pipelined specifications. Our framework consists of a set of convenient, easily applicable, and complete ... Keywords: compositional reasoning, pipelined machine verification, refinement

Panagiotis Manolios; Sudarshan K. Srinivasan

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Performance characteristics of an adaptive mesh refinement calculation on scalar and vector platforms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a powerful technique that reduces the resources necessary to solve otherwise intractable problems in computational science. The AMR strategy solves the problem on a relatively coarse grid, and dynamically refines it ... Keywords: IBM power3 and power4, SGI, altix, cray X1E, high end computing, hyperCLaw framework, integrated performance monitoring

Michael Welcome; Charles Rendleman; Leonid Oliker; Rupak Biswas

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Public, agencies key players in L. A. refiner's program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the middle of the world's largest gasoline market, and what is considered the most hostile environment toward refiners, Mobil Oil Corp. runs a lean, efficient, 130,000 b/d refinery. The refinery processes 13--14[degree] API San Joaquin crude oil, converting roughly 85% to gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel. It also makes low-sulfur coke. Located in the Los angeles suburb of Torrance, California, the refinery is literally across the street from residential neighborhoods of medium to high-priced houses. In addition to meeting strict local, state, and federal regulations, the refinery has to make sure its neighbors are satisfied with its operations. To meet this need, the refinery operates a 24-hr hotline that community residents can call to ask questions and voice concerns. The paper discusses agency interaction, department structure, air pollutants, air permits, reporting requirements, the clean air incentives program, NO[sub x] sources, SO[sub x] sources, particulates, fugitive emissions, CO, HF, waste water, groundwater, storm water, soil treatments, and reformulation rules for diesel fuels.

Rhodes, A.K.

1994-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

333

Refinement and Formalization of SemiFormal Use Case Descriptions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Behavioral models of computer systems are required for their synthesis, for verification and validation. The system behavior is usually described in requirements specifications. However, most specifications are provided in natural language or in a semi-formal way. Incompleteness and ambiguity inhibit their successful exploitation by tools. In this paper an approach for stepwise refinement and formalization of natural-language or semiformal descriptions is presented. Based on the structure of Use Case descriptions, the formalization of behavioral information is reached by a stepwise transformation of an input text to structured sentences with a well-defined syntax by performing linguistic analyses. The terms of the text are replaced by references to other items, i.e. of the glossary. By providing a tool-supported text output with hypertext-like navigation facilities, a verification of the result by the human experts is provided. The resulting behavioral description is suitable for a derivation of dynamic models, e.g. message-sequence charts and state diagrams.

Matthias Riebisch; Michael Hübner

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and related Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plantspower plants, petroleum refining, chemical processing industries, and natural gasnatural gas. If CO 2 capture and geologic sequestration from coal-fired power plants

Apps, J.A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

REFINEMENT OF THE NEPHELINE DISCRIMINATOR: RESULTS OF A PHASE II STUDY  

SciTech Connect

Twenty five glass compositions were selected for a Phase II study to assess the potential for reducing the conservatism in the nepheline discriminator. The glass compositions were restricted to regions that fell within the validation ranges of the DWPF PCCS models. In addition, the liquidus temperature model was used to restrict the glass compositions so that they could all be melted at the same temperature. The nepheline discriminator was used to force the glass compositions into regions where nepheline formation was predicted to occur. The glasses were fabricated in the laboratory and characterized for crystallization and chemical durability after both quenching and slow cooling. Chemical analysis showed that the fabricated glasses met the target compositions. Nepheline was identified in one of the quenched glasses and several of the CCC glasses. There was no clear relationship between the types of crystallization that occurred in a particular glass and its location on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} ternary diagram. A partitioning algorithm was used to identify trends in crystallization behavior based on glass composition. Generally, for the CCC glasses MnO influenced the crystallization of spinels and B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} influenced the crystallization of nepheline. Measured durability responses varied from acceptable to unacceptable depending on the glass composition and type and extent of crystallization that occurred. It was not possible to identify any linear effects of composition on chemical durability performance for this set of study glasses. The results were not sufficient to recommend modification of the current nepheline discriminator at this time. It is recommended that the next series of experiments continue to focus not only on compositional regions where the PCCS models are considered applicable (i.e., the model validation ranges), but also be restricted to compositional regions where acceptable glasses are predicted to be produced but are disallowed by the current nepheline discriminator. This may help identify a path for gaining access to glass compositions that are limited by only the nepheline constraint. Dependencies on cooling rates should also be evaluated. A better understanding of these regions, as well as the impacts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO on nepheline crystallization, may allow for relaxation or refinement of the nepheline constraint and subsequently allow for higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations.

Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

336

Chemical Evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this series of lectures we first describe the basic ingredients of galactic chemical evolution and discuss both analytical and numerical models. Then we compare model results for the Milky Way, Dwarf Irregulars, Quasars and the Intra-Cluster- Medium with abundances derived from emission lines. These comparisons allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar nucleosynthesis and the mechanisms of galaxy formation.

Francesca Matteucci

2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

337

RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

Zhang, Wei-Qun; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

338

Versatile and Biomass Synthesis of Iron-based Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Matrix with High Iron Content and Tunable Reactivity  

SciTech Connect

Iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon (FeNPs{at}C) have enormous potential for environmental applications. Reported is a biomass-based method for FeNP{at}C synthesis that involves pyrolysis of bleached wood fiber pre-mixed with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. This method allows synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with tunable chemical reactivity by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The FeNP{at}C synthesized at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 C (FeNP{at}C-500) reacts violently (pyrophoric) when exposed to air, while FeNP{at}C prepared at 800 C (FeNP{at}C-800) remains stable in ambient condition for at least 3 months. The FeNPs in FeNP{at}C-800 are mostly below 50 nm in diameter and are surrounded by carbon. The immediate carbon layer (within 5-15 nm radius) on the FeNPs is graphitized. Proof-of-concept environmental applications of FeNPs{at}C-800 were demonstrated by Rhodamine 6G and arsenate (V) removal from water. This biomass-based method provides an effective way for iron-based nanoparticle fabrication and biomass utilization.

Zhang, Dongmao [ORNL; Shi, Sheldon Q [ORNL; Jiang, Dongping [Mississippi State University (MSU); Che, Wen [Mississippi State University (MSU); Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Arockiasamy, Antonyraj [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is...

340

Crystal Structure of Iron-dependent Halogenase  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron (brown) is coordinated by two histidines, a-ketoglutarate (grey sticks), water (cyan), and chloride (green). The structural analysis revealed a novel coordination...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Iron Control in Zinc Pressure Leach Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consequently, the disposal of iron residues is an integral part of the design and operation of zinc refineries. Zinc has been recovered from sulfide concentrates ...

342

Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in A. Nazri, G.Pistoia (Eds. ), Lithium batteries, Science &structure materials in lithium cells, for a lower limitLithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates Sébastien

Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Selected Iron and Steel Industries, 1994. Besides steel mills and blast furnaces, the primary metals industry also ...

344

Method for producing iron-based catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Diehl, J. Rodney (Pittsburgh, PA); Kathrein, Hendrik (McMurray, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Cycling Degradation of Lithium Iron Phosphate Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Significant improvement of electronic conductivity of lithium iron ... commercialization in many applications especially in plug-in electric vehicles.

346

Voronoi, Delaunay, and Block-Structured Mesh Refinement for Solution of the Shallow-Water Equations on the Sphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternative meshes of the sphere and adaptive mesh refinement could be immensely beneficial for weather and climate forecasts, but it is not clear how mesh refinement should be achieved. A finite-volume model that solves the shallow-water ...

Hilary Weller; Henry G. Weller; Aimé Fournier

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

About Chemical Hazards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Hazards What Is a Chemical Hazard? chemical hazards.jpg A chemical hazard is any substance that can cause harm, primarily to people. Chemicals of all kinds are stored in...

348

,"U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_c_nus_eppv_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_c_nus_eppv_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

349

,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_a_eppv_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_a_eppv_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

350

,"U.S. Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Products for Refiner Gasoline Volumes",1,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Data 2","by Grade",3,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Data 3","by Formulation",3,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_d_nus_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls"

351

,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refiner Sales Volumes" Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refres_c_nus_eppr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refres_c_nus_eppr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

352

Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal  

SciTech Connect

The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

Babu, N. Kishore [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

353

,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refiner Sales Volumes" Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

354

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two direct coal liquids were evaluated by linear programming analysis to determine their value as petroleum refinery feedstock. The first liquid, DL1, was produced from bitiuminous coal using the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc.(HTI) two-stage hydrogenation process in Proof of Concept Run No.1, POC-1. The second liquid, DL2,was produced from sub-bituminous coal using a three-stage HTI process in Proof of Concept Run No. 2, POC-2; the third stage being a severe hydrogenation process. A linear programming (LP) model was developed which simulates a generic 150,000 barrel per day refinery in the Midwest U.S. Data from upgrading tests conducted on the coal liquids and related petroleum fractions in the pilot plant testing phase of the Refining and End Use Study was inputed into the model. The coal liquids were compared against a generic petroleum crude feedstock. under two scenarios. In the first scenario, it was assumed that the refinery capacity and product slate/volumes were fixed. The coal liquids would be used to replace a portion of the generic crude. The LP results showed that the DL1 material had essentially the same value as the generic crude. Due to its higher quality, the DL2 material had a value of approximately 0.60 $/barrel higher than the petroleum crude. In the second scenario, it was assumed that a market opportunity exists to increase production by one-third. This requires a refinery expansion. The feedstock for this scenario could be either 100% petroleum crude or a combination of petroleum crude and the direct coal liquids. Linear programming analysis showed that the capital cost of the refinery expansion was significantly less when coal liquids are utilized. In addition, the pilot plant testing showed that both of the direct coal liquids demonstrated superior catalytic cracking and naphtha reforming yields. Depending on the coal liquid flow rate, the value of the DL1 material was 2.5-4.0 $/barrel greater than the base petroleum crude, while the DL2 material was 3.0-4.0 /barrel higher than the crude. Co-processing the coal liquids with lower quality, less expensive petroleum crudes that have higher sulfur, resid and metals contents was also examined. The coal liquids have higher values under this scenario, but the values are dependent on the prices of the alternative crudes.

NONE

1998-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

355

Iron mobilization in North African dust.  

SciTech Connect

Iron is an essential nutrient for phytoplankton. Although iron-containing dust mobilized from arid regions supplies the majority of the iron to the oceans, the key flux in terms of the biogeochemical response to atmospheric deposition is the amount of soluble or bioavailable iron. Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. sulfuric acid) may transform insoluble iron into soluble forms. Previous studies have suggested higher iron solubility in smaller particles, as they are subject to more thorough atmospheric processing due to a longer residence time than coarse particles. On the other hand, the specific mineralogy of iron in dust may also influence the particulate iron solubility in size. Compared to mineral dust aerosols, iron from combustion sources could be more soluble, and found more frequently in smaller particles. Internal mixing of alkaline dust with iron-containing minerals could significantly reduce iron dissolution in large dust aerosols due to the buffering effect, which may, in contrast, yield higher solubility in smaller particles externally mixed with alkaline dust (Ito and Feng, 2010). Here, we extend the modeling study of Ito and Feng (2010) to investigate atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols from African dust. In contrast to Asian dust, we used a slower dissolution rate for African dust in the fine mode. We compare simulated fractional iron solubility with observations. The inclusion of alkaline compounds in aqueous chemistry substantially limits the iron dissolution during long-range transport to the Atlantic Ocean: only a small fraction of iron (<0.2%) dissolves from illite in coarsemode dust aerosols with 0.45% soluble iron initially. In contrast, a significant fraction (1-1.5%) dissolves in fine-mode dust aerosols due to the acid mobilization of the iron-containing minerals externally mixed with carbonate minerals. Consequently, the model generally reproduces higher iron solubility in smaller particles as suggested by measurements over the Atlantic Ocean. Our results imply that the dissolution of iron in African dust is generally slower than that in Asian dust. Conventionally, dust is assumed as the major supply of bioavailable iron with a constant solubility at 1-2% to the remote ocean. Therefore, the timing and location of the atmospheric iron input to the ocean with detailed modeling of atmospheric processing could be different from those previously assumed. Past and future changes in aerosol supply of bioavailable iron might play a greater role in the nutrient supply for phytoplankton production in the upper ocean, as global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing from the deep ocean. Thus the feedback of climate change through ocean uptake of carbon dioxide as well as via aerosol-cloud interaction might be modified by the inclusion of iron chemistry in the atmosphere.

Ito, A.; Feng, Y. (Environmental Science Division); (Research Inst. for Global Change)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

357

Possible Processing of High Phosphorous Libyan Iron Ores  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Libyan Iron ores reserve > 5.0 billion tons, with 48-55% Fe& 1.0 % P& Libyan Previous ... Differential Characterization of Ikperejere Iron shale and Iron Sandstone Deposit ... High Temperature Exposure of Oil Well Cements.

358

Shape effects of iron nanowires on hyperthermia treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research discusses the influence ofmorphology of nanomagneticmaterials (one-dimensional iron nanowires and zero-dimensional iron nanoparticles) on heating efficiency of the hyperthermia treatment. One-dimensional iron nanowires, synthesized by reducing ...

Wei-Syuan Lin, Hong-Ming Lin, Hsiang-Hsin Chen, Yeu-Kuang Hwu, Yuh-Jing Chiou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme : evidence from the refining sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I study the economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the refining industry in Europe. I contrast previous ex-ante studies with the lessons from a series of interviews I conducted with ...

Lacombe, Romain H

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Enzo-P / Cello: scalable adaptive mesh refinement for astrophysics and cosmology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cello is a highly-scalable object-oriented adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) framework currently under development. While Cello is expected to be usable within multiple scientific problem domains, we specifically target specialized requirements of astrophysics ...

James Bordner; Michael L. Norman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Healthful LipidsChapter 3 Production, Processing and Refining of Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Healthful Lipids Chapter 3 Production, Processing and Refining of Oils Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry AOCS Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 3 Production, Processing an

362

An Assessment of carbon reduction technology opportunities in the petroleum refining industry.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The refining industry is a major source of CO{sub 2} emissions in the industrial sector and therefore in the future can expect to face increasing pressures to reduce emission levels. The energy used in refining is impacted by market dictates, crude quality, and environmental regulations. While the industry is technologically advanced and relatively efficient opportunities nevertheless exist to reduce energy usage and CO{sub 2} emissions. The opportunities will vary from refinery to refinery and will necessarily have to be economically viable and compatible with each refiner's strategic plans. Recognizing the many factors involved, a target of 15-20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from the refining sector does not appear to be unreasonable, assuming a favorable investment climate.

Petrick, M.

1998-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

363

Fats and Oils Handbook (Nahrungsfette und Öle)Chapter 7 Refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fats and Oils Handbook (Nahrungsfette und Öle) Chapter 7 Refining Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press Downloadable pdf of Chap

364

Table 3b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

b. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars per barrel)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,20...

365

Indiana No. 2 Fuel Oil Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Indiana No. 2 Fuel Oil Wholesale/Resale Volume by Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 ... No.1 and ...

366

A Refined Gomory-Chvátal Closure for Polytopes in the Unit Cube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 23, 2012 ... A Refined Gomory-Chvátal Closure for Polytopes in the Unit Cube. Juliane Dunkel(juliane ***at*** mit.edu) Andreas S. Schulz(schulz ***at*** ...

367

Performance Profiles Table Browser: T-28. U.S. Petroleum Refining ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Biofuels: Ethanol & Biodiesel ... Less: Cost of Raw Materials Input To Refining. 170,591 227,622 301,165 343,689 357,559 494,471 309,878 Net ...

368

Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

- W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

369

Error Characteristics of Two Grid Refinement Approaches in Aquaplanet Simulations: MPAS-A and WRF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares the error characteristics associated with two grid refinement approaches including global variable resolution and nesting for high-resolution regional climate modeling. The global variable-resolution model, Model for Prediction ...

Samson Hagos; Ruby Leung; Sara A. Rauscher; Todd Ringler

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE  

SciTech Connect

The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

Phillips, K. J. H. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH6 5NT (United Kingdom); Dennis, B. R., E-mail: kjhp@mssl.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

371

IRON COATED URANIUM AND ITS PRODUCTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of applying a protective coating to a metallic uranium article is given. The method comprises etching the surface of the article with an etchant solution containlng chloride ions, such as a solution of phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid, cleaning the etched surface, electroplating iron thereon from a ferrous ammonium sulfate electroplating bath, and soldering an aluminum sheath to the resultant iron layer.

Gray, A.G.

1960-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Production of iron from metallurgical waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

373

EASURING IMPROVEMENT IN THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE U.S. CORN REFINING INDUSTRY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| P | P a g e MEASURING IMPROVEMENT IN THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE U.S. CORN REFINING INDUSTRY SPONSORED BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AS PART OF THE ENERGY STAR® PROGRAM GALE A. BOYD AND CHRISTIAN DELGADO DUKE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS BOX 90097, DURHAM, NC 27708 JULY 10, 2012 2 | P a g e MEASURING IMPROVEMENT IN THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE U.S. CORN REFINING INDUSTRY CONTENTS Figures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Tables ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

374

Refine your search Select options from the menu on the left hand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://psu.summon.serialssolutions.comhttp://psu.summon.serialssolutions.com F I N A L LY : RESEARCH AS EASYAS 1-2-3 #12;1 Enter search term into search box. 2 Refine results relevant articles were published in that year. Include or Exclude subject terms from your searchRefine your search Select options from the menu on the left hand side of the results screen

Yener, Aylin

375

Arsenic Remediation of Bangladesh Drinking Water using Iron-oxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arsenic Remediation of Bangladesh Drinking Water using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash Title Arsenic Remediation of Bangladesh Drinking Water using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash...

376

Processing, Microstructure and Properties of Cast Irons and Cast ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Process Design of the Ductile Cast Iron Cylinder Head for Marine Diesel Engine ... Heavy Section Ductile Iron Castings for Use in Wind Turbine Generators.

377

Fundamental Research on the Characteristics of Sierra Leone Iron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential Characterization of Ikperejere Iron shale and Iron Sandstone Deposit · Direct Precipitation of Sr-doped LaP3O9 Thin Film Electrolytes for ...

378

Reconstruction of Gene Networks of Iron Response in Shewanella oneidensis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is of great interest to study the iron response of the -proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis since it possesses a high content of iron and is capable of utilizing iron for anaerobic respiration. We report here that the iron response in S. oneidensis is a rapid process. To gain more insights into the bacterial response to iron, temporal gene expression profiles were examined for iron depletion and repletion, resulting in identification of iron-responsive biological pathways in a gene co-expression network. Iron acquisition systems, including genes unique to S. oneidensis, were rapidly and strongly induced by iron depletion, and repressed by iron repletion. Some were required for iron depletion, as exemplified by the mutational analysis of the putative siderophore biosynthesis protein SO3032. Unexpectedly, a number of genes related to anaerobic energy metabolism were repressed by iron depletion and induced by repletion, which might be due to the iron storage potential of their protein products. Other iron-responsive biological pathways include protein degradation, aerobic energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Furthermore, sequence motifs enriched in gene clusters as well as their corresponding DNA-binding proteins (Fur, CRP and RpoH) were identified, resulting in a regulatory network of iron response in S. oneidensis. Together, this work provides an overview of iron response and reveals novel features in S. oneidensis, including Shewanella-specific iron acquisition systems, and suggests the intimate relationship between anaerobic energy metabolism and iron response.

Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Harris, Daniel P [ORNL; Luo, Feng [Clemson University; Joachimiak, Marcin [Clemson University; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma; Dehal, Paramvir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Pages that link to "Iron Edison Battery Company" | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Pages that link to "Iron Edison Battery Company" Iron Edison Battery Company Jump to: navigation, search What links here...

380

Changes related to "Iron Edison Battery Company" | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Changes related to "Iron Edison Battery Company" Iron Edison Battery Company Jump to: navigation, search This is a list...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Iron catalysis in oxidation by ozone - Energy Innovation Portal  

Bookmark Iron catalysis in oxidation by ozone - Energy Innovation Portal on Google; Bookmark Iron catalysis in oxidation by ozone - Energy Innovation ...

382

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: Resources...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Industry Associations American Iron and Steel Institute For over a century, North American steel producers have worked as partners and members of the American Iron and Steel...

383

Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: Characterization Rb Promoted Iron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 1, 2007 ... Abstract Rubidium promoted iron Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) ... Keywords Fischer–Tropsch synthesis Á Iron catalyst Á. Rubidium Á Active ...

384

Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA)

1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

385

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Iron Based Flow Batteries for Low Cost Grid Level Energy Storage - Jesse Wainright, Case Western Reserve  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy/Office of Electricity's Energy Storage Program. authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Department of Energy/Office of Electricity's Energy Storage Program. Iron Based Flow Batteries for Low Cost Grid Level Energy Storage J.S. Wainright, R. F. Savinell, P.I.s Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University Purpose Impact on Iron Based Batteries on the DOE OE Energy Storage Mission Recent Results Recent Results Develop efficient, cost-effective grid level storage capability based on iron. Goals of this Effort: * Minimize Cost/Watt by increasing current density - Hardware Cost >> Electrolyte Cost * Minimize Cost/Whr by increasing plating capacity * Maximize Efficiency by minimizing current lost to hydrogen evolution Electrochemistry of the all-Iron system:

386

Microsoft PowerPoint - genealogy of major US refiners (00 to 09).ppt  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Major U.S. Refiners Of Major U.S. Refiners 2001 2004 2005 2006 2000 2002 Diamond Shamrock Ultramar j 6/01 12/01 9/97 12/96 Total North America Valero Salomon (Basis) Huntway Valero Valero Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS) UDS 5/97 Notes, footnotes, and source notes are at the bottom of these figures. 2003 Clark Refining g 9/05 Valero Valero 3/98 Mapco Williams Williams Companies d 3/03 d Premcor h 1/89 4/00 12/98 BP America BP Amoco ARCO BP America SOHIO BP America b Sun Company Sunoco r 1/04 o El Paso 1/01 Pacific Refining (jv) Coastal Orion Valero 7/03 6/01 o El Paso 12/88 n 2007 2008 2009 BP-Husky Refining LLC (jv) Husky 7/07 i 4/08 c 10/98 l 8/94 q 9/89 p 12/88 a 7/94 e 12/98 f 6/00 m 9/00 k 5/04 g Holly 6/03 s 6/09 t 12/09 u Holly Genealogy Of Major U.S. Refiners (continued) 2001 2004 2005 2006 2000 2002 2003 2007 2008 2009 1/98 USX (Marathon) 10/98 y Ashland Marathon Lyondell

387

Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved. These were: 1) homogenization of the cottonseed oil-IPA miscella with caustic solution; 2) centrifugation; 3) separation of miscella layers; 4) desolventization, 5) water washing and drying; and 6) bleaching. In neutralization, the miscella was mixed with 20 Be' caustic solution (50% excess) by using a Sonolator for 15 times. The refined oils from both the bottom and top layers were water washed using 12.5% and 20% (w/w) hot water, respectively. The water washing efficiently recovered the oil from the top layer miscella and reduced the soap and phosphorus content. The water washed and dried oils from the bottom and top layers were treated with 0.5% and 4% (w/w) acid activated bleaching clay, respectively. Good quality refined and bleached oil was obtained. However, the quality of the bleached oil produced from bottom layer was better than that from the top layer. Comparative experiments with both IPA and hexane systems showed that the new refining process developed in this study could produce a higher quality refined oil from the cottonseed oil-IPA miscella than from the cottonseed oil-hexane miscella.

Chau, Chi-Fai

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Excursions in Chemical Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009). [118] F. A. Cotton, Chemical Applications of GroupExcursions in Chemical Dynamics by Shervin Fatehi AFall 2010 Excursions in Chemical Dynamics Copyright 2010 by

Fatehi, Shervin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Alternative Reductants for DWPF Chemical Process Cell  

as the plutonium Appreciable iron solubility could invalidate criticality control method ... Iron solubility could require a change in criticality control

390

Iron Speciation and Mixing in Single Aerosol Particles from the Asian Continental Outflow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bioavailable iron from atmospheric aerosol is an essential nutrient that can control oceanic productivity, thereby impacting the global carbon budget and climate. Particles collected on Okinawa Island during an atmospheric pollution transport event from China were analyzed using complementary single particle techniques to determine the iron source and speciation. Comparing the spatial distribution of iron within ambient particles and standard Asian mineral dust, it was determined that field-collected atmospheric Fe-containing particles have numerous sources, including anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion. Fe-containing particles were found to be internally mixed with secondary species such as sulfate, soot, and organic carbon. The mass weighted average Fe(II) fraction (defined as Fe(II)/[Fe(II)+Fe(III)]) was determined to be 0.33 {+-} 0.08. Within the experimental uncertainty, this value lies close to the range of 0.26-0.30 determined for representative Asian mineral dust. Previous studies have indicated that the solubility of iron from combustion is much higher than that from mineral dust. Therefore, chemical and/or physical differences other than oxidation state may help explain the higher solubility of iron in atmospheric particles.

Moffet, Ryan C.; Furutani, Hiroshi; Rodel, Tobias; Henn, Tobias R.; Sprau, Peter; Laskin, Alexander; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Gilles, Marry K.

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

391

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

392

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

393

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

394

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

395

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

396

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

397

Iron and Steel Energy Intensities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home > >Energy Users > Energy Efficiency Page > Iron and Steel Energy Intensities First Use of Energy Blue Bullet First Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet First Use/Ton of steel End Uses of Consumption Blue Bullet Total End Use/Value of Production Blue Bullet Total End Use/Ton of Steel Boiler Fuel as End Use Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Value of Production Blue Bullet Boiler Fuel /Ton of Steel Process Heating as End Use Blue Bullet Process Heating Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Process Heating /Value of Production Machine Drive as End Use Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel/Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Machine Drive Fuel /Value of Production Expenditures Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Ton of Steel Blue Bullet Purchased Fuel /Value of Production

398

Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, July--September 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to determine the feasibility and estimate the economics of hydropreocessing four synthetic fuels to distillate fuels, including high octane gasoline, using presently available technology. The feedstocks include shale oil and three coal-derived synthetic crudes. The first feedstock is Paraho crude shale oil, produced in the indirectly heated mode. Pilot plant studies of hydrofining of whole shale oil with ICR 106 catalyst have been completed. The product resembles the fraction of a waxy petroleum crude boiling below 1000/sup 0/F. There is no 1100/sup 0/F+ residuum. A 3500-hour pilot plant run showed that the catalyst fouling rate is low and demonstrated that a commercial length run is feasible. However, a guard bed is necessary ahead of the catalyst bed to remove arsenic and iron which can cause plugging. Hydrofined shale oil is an excellent feed for a catalytic cracker. Pilot plant studies show that the 650/sup 0/F+ fraction of hydrofined shale oil is very similar to hydrofined Middle Eastern vacuum gas oils in its performance in a catalytic cracker. Process design studies based on pilot plant results indicate that it is desirable to hydrofine the whole shale oil to a nitrogen content of about 500 ppM and then to fractionate the product before conventional downstream processing to produce transportation fuels. An alternate scheme for shale oil processing is the coking of the shale oil followed by hydrofinishing of the coker distillate. Preliminary results appear promising. The second feedstock is solvent refined coal. Studies of the hydrofining of a 50/50 blend of SRC and creosote were continued. A run of 1100 hours was achieved with ICR 106 catalyst without the plugging problem that had plagued an earlier test. The catalyst deactivated at a relatively rapid rate.

Sullivan, R.F.; Rudy, C.E.; Green, D.C.; Chen, H.C.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Texas refiner optimizes by integrating units from idle plant  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, Phibro Energy USA Inc. purchased Dow Chemical Co.`s idle 200,000 b/d refinery at Freeport, TX. The Dow facility, known as the Oyster Creek refinery, was incapable of producing gasoline, and therefore was somewhat incomplete as a stand-alone refinery. By relocating and integrating units from the Dow plant with Phibro`s 130,700 b/d refinery at Texas City, TX, and adding a new residual oil solvent extraction (ROSE) unit, Phibro will optimize its Texas refinery operations. The dismantling, movement, and re-erection phases of the project are all but finished, and installation of piping and new instrumentation for the major relocated units is well under way. When the project is complete, Phibro will drastically reduce fuel oil production at Texas City and increase output of middle distillate. Resid, which the company now produces in excess, will be converted to a heavy fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock. Most of this stream will be fed to the oversized FCC unit at Phibro`s 71,000 b/d Houston refinery, thus eliminating Phibro`s reliance on purchased FCC feed. The paper discusses the Oyster Creek refinery, the decision to reduce residual fuel oil production company-wide, building versus moving equipment, dismantling and transport, construction, products, operational changes, utilities, process wastes, regulations, preparations, and future prospects. The remaining equipment at Oyster Creek was sold to a South Korean refinery.

Rhodes, A.K.

1995-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

400

Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured by different methods, and the differences in the fraction removed are not statistically significant. (10) Chemical cleaning removed 10-50% of the barium, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and silicon. (11) Chemical cleaning removed only {approx}1% of the nickel.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

402

Joint Center for Housing Studies Harvard University Refinance and the Accumulation of Home Equity Wealth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

may be quoted without explicit permission provided that full credit, including © notice, is given to the source. Any opinions expressed are those of the authors and not those of Freddie Mac, the Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, or of any of the persons or organizations providing support to the Joint Center for Housing Spending financed by home equity extraction helps smooth household consumption and bolster the economy in economic downturns, but may reduce wealth accumulation. We use American Housing Survey (AHS) data to provide cross-sectional, longitudinal and cohort group analysis of the accumulation of home equity, the change in aggregate leverage, and the likelihood of mortgage refinance for the period of 1985 to 2001. We find that homeowners who are African-American or lower income tend to have less home equity and higher aggregate leverage than others, and they are less likely to take advantage of refinance during our sample period; over 30 years, the failure to refinance to a lower interest rate reduces aggregate wealth by $22 billion for each group. Further, the decision to refinance is a rational response to changes in market conditions, as the likelihood of refinance is positively tied to interest rate reduction and home value increase. 1

Frank E. Nothaft; Yan Chang; Frank E. Nothaft; Deputy Chief; Economist Freddie; Mac Yan Chang

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East  

SciTech Connect

Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

Ali, M.S.S. (Bahrain National Oil Co., Awali (Bahrain))

1994-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

404

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the ''standard-catalyst'' developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

Burtron H. Davis

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Technology development for iron fischer-tropsch catalysis  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the `standard-catalyst` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low- alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high- alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for 5 catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

Davis, B.H.

1997-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

406

Technology development for iron fisher-tropsch catalysis  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. the catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the standard-catalyst developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis, The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. the oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studies at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity, and aging characteristics.

Davis, B.H.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Why Sequence Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? Freshwater Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria? The goal of this project is to obtain complete genome sequences for six different freshwater iron (Fe)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB). Four of these are oxygen-dependent iron-oxidizing β-proteobacteria, and three of these, Sideroxydans lithotrophicus, Gallionella capsiferriformans, and strain TW-2, are capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth (that is, obtaining energy by the oxidation of inorganic compounds) using Fe(II) as sole energy source under microaerobic (low-oxygen) conditions. The fourth organism, Leptothrix cholodnii, is a sheath-forming heterotrophic (i.e., using complex organic compounds for nutrition) organism that oxidizes both Fe(II) and Mn(II) and deposits a ferromanganic coating on its sheath. In addition,

408

BNL Blood Drives: Iron-rich foods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BNL Blood Drives: Iron-Rich Foods Blood Drive Home Seafood: Fish (cod, sardines, tuna, clams, oysters, shrimp) Poultry: Chicken, eggs, yolk Lean Red Meats: Beef, lamb, veal, pork,...

409

Solubility of carbon in nanocrystalline ?-iron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermodynamic model for nanocrystalline interstitial alloys is presented. The equilibrium solid solubility of carbon in ?-iron is calculated for given grain size. Inside the strained nanograins local variation of the carbon content is predicted. ...

Alexander Kirchner; Bernd Kieback

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Iron and the ecology of marine microbes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron is a cofactor of a number biochemical reactions that are essential for life. In the marine environment, this micronutrient is a scarce resource that limits processes of global importance such as photosynthesis and ...

Ventouras, Laure-Anne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Removal of iron from impure graphites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Iron-impregnated and ash-rich graphites have been purified by leaching with gaseous I/sub 2/ at 900/sup 0/C. With addition of H/sub 2/, the rate of removal of impurity iron can be markedly increased and becomes comparable to that obtained with Cl/sub 2/. I/sub 2/ has an advantage in that it can also volatilize Ca and perhaps Ba and Sr.

Growcock, F.B.; Heiser, J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

C:\Eco-SSLs\Final Guidance November 2003\Contaminant Specific\Iron\Eco-SSL for Iron.wpd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Iron Interim Final OSWER Directive 9285.7-69 U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460 November 2003 This page intentionally left blank TABLE OF CONTENTS SUMMARY OF ECO-SSLs FOR IRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ES - 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 1 2.0 IRON GEOCHEMISTRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 1 2.1 Weathering Processes Affect on Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 3 2.2 Soil Conditions Affect on Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 4 3.0 EFFECTS OF IRON ON PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 1 3.1 Essentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 1 3.2 General Effects

413

Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining | U.S. DOE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) News & Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: sc.bes@science.doe.gov More Information » July 2013 Fewer Steps to Higher Octane Gasoline in Petroleum Refining A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) efficiently separates higher octane components from the low value ones, offering great potential for significant cost reduction in gasoline production. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page

414

,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes" Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_a_epm0u_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_a_epm0u_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

415

,"U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0r_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0r_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

416

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- National Smelting and Refining Co - OH  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Smelting and Refining Co - Smelting and Refining Co - OH 20 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NATIONAL SMELTING & REFINING CO. (OH.20) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: 6800 Grand Avenue , Cleveland , Ohio OH.20-1 Evaluation Year: 1993 OH.20-2 Site Operations: No indication of other test operations using very limited quantities of slag material. OH.20-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based upon limited scope of activities at the site OH.20-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium - No Indication of Anything But Trace Amounts Handled OH.20-1 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP

417

,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_a_epd2_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_a_epd2_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

418

The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability October 1997 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Energy Information Administration/The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability ii Contacts The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy under the general direction of W. Calvin

419

Overview of Eulerian Methods and Block Adaptive Mesh Refinement Techniques at Sandia  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Crawford, D.A. et al. 1 Crawford, D.A. et al. 1 Overview of Eulerian Methods and Block Adaptive Mesh Refinement Techniques at Sandia D. A. Crawford* and D. M. Hensinger* * Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Multi-material shock-physics Eulerian codes have undergone several generations of refinement in as many decades at Sandia. The widely used code, CTH, can trace its lineage to the one- and two-dimensional codes CHARTD and CSQ. An adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy has been implemented in CTH, providing improved performance and memory utilization and evidence of improved scaling for large problems. The ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) code ALEGRA combines the multi- material shock physics capabilities found in CTH with a finite element

420

Preliminary data summary for the used-oil reclamation and re-refining industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The summaries contain data about industrial facilities in various industries discharging pollutants in their wastewaters and considers whether the EPA should pursue regulations to control such discharges. The summaries were prepared in order to allow EPA to respond to the mandate of Section 304(m) of the Clean Water Act. Summaries for categories already subject to rulemaking were developed for comparison purposes. The report is part of the process by which EPA is considering what management standards may be appropriate for the recycling of used oil, in response to the requirements mandated by these Acts. The study has attempted to characterize and profile the Oil Reclaimer/Re-Refining Industry. The goals of this preliminary effort were to: conduct a literature review, perform an industry profile, site visit re-refiners, screen sample re-refiners, and develop a Preliminary Data Summary.

Troy, K.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a new seismic study today that will help U.S. nuclear facilities in the central and eastern United States reassess seismic hazards. The Central and Eastern United States Seismic Source Characterization for Nuclear Facilities model and report is the culmination of a four-year effort among the participating organizations and replaces previous seismic source models used by industry and government since the late 1980s. The NRC is requesting U.S. nuclear power plants to reevaluate seismic

422

,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0u_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0u_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

423

,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0r_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refmg2_c_nus_epm0r_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

424

,"Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes" Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_a_epm0_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_a_epm0_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

425

New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a new seismic study today that will help U.S. nuclear facilities in the central and eastern United States reassess seismic hazards. The Central and Eastern United States Seismic Source Characterization for Nuclear Facilities model and report is the culmination of a four-year effort among the participating organizations and replaces previous seismic source models used by industry and government since the late 1980s. The NRC is requesting U.S. nuclear power plants to reevaluate seismic

426

,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",9,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refres_a_eppr_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refres_a_eppr_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

427

,"Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_a_epjk_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_a_epjk_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

428

,"U.S. Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Conventional Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",6,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0u_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refmg_c_nus_epm0u_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

429

,"No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","12/2/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/2/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_refoth_a_epd2d_vtr_mgalpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_refoth_a_epd2d_vtr_mgalpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

430

Aluminum stimulates uptake of non-transferrin bound iron and transferrin bound iron in human glial cells  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer's disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. A transporter was likely involved in the uptake of nontransferrin iron because uptake reached saturation, was temperature-dependent, and attenuated by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the effects of aluminum were not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Aluminum also decreased the amount of iron bound to ferritin though it did not affect levels of divalent metal transporter 1. These results suggest that aluminum disrupts iron homeostasis in Brain by several mechanisms including the transferrin receptor, a nontransferrin iron transporter, and ferritin.

Kim, Yongbae [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Soonchunhyan University, Chunan City (Korea, Republic of) ; Olivi, Luisa [School of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) ; Cheong, Jae Hoon [School of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) ; Maertens, Alex [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University (United States); Bressler, Joseph P. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University (United States) and Kennedy-Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)]. E-mail: Bressler@kennedykrieger.org

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch University, Princeton University, and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) suggests that it is not just a lack of iron, but a lack of iron in an easy-to-use form, that is affecting the ecosystems. The researchers sampled two north-south corridors across the Southern Ocean, traveling an easterly transect between the base of the South African National Antarctic Expeditions (SANAE IV) in Queen Maud Land and Cape Town, and a westerly transect between SANAE IV and South Georgia Island. Along the way they collected particles containing solid iron from a series of ocean systems with different characteristics.

432

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean Print The Southern Ocean, circling the Earth between Antarctica and the southernmost regions of Africa, South America, and Australia, is notorious for its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll areas, which are rich in nutrients-but poor in essential iron. Sea life is less abundant in these regions because the growth of phytoplankton-the marine plants that form the base of the food chain-is suppressed. A study by scientists from South Africa's Stellenbosch University, Princeton University, and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) suggests that it is not just a lack of iron, but a lack of iron in an easy-to-use form, that is affecting the ecosystems. The researchers sampled two north-south corridors across the Southern Ocean, traveling an easterly transect between the base of the South African National Antarctic Expeditions (SANAE IV) in Queen Maud Land and Cape Town, and a westerly transect between SANAE IV and South Georgia Island. Along the way they collected particles containing solid iron from a series of ocean systems with different characteristics.

433

COPIES: Iron Range Legislative Delegation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dear Legislators: We are pleased to present the annual report on our research regarding the health status of taconite workers and Iron Range community air quality. This report, as in the past, details the progress made by the University of Minnesota School of Public Health and the Natural Resources Research Institute (NRRI) in all research areas, including occupational exposure, mortality and incidence studies, the respiratory health survey of taconite workers and spouses and the environmental study of airborne particles. In addition, this report contains specific information regarding the assessment of mesothelioma as it pertains to exposure to mineral fibers, referred to as elongate mineral particles (EMP). For this report, the EMP measurement is a standard technique that identifies those fibers (EMP) considered long (over 5 microns). Although the research team felt this was the most important exposure to be assessed with the cases of mesothelioma, in the next several months there will be additional analyses that may provide further insight, including exposure to short EMP, silica and respirable dust. A final report is planned for the end of the year when all components are expected to be completed.

Sen Tony Lourey; Rep Tim Mahoney; Rep Sheldon Johnson; Rep David Dill; Rep Mary Murphy; Sen Tom Bakk; Rep John Persell; Rep Tom Anzelc; Sen Tom Saxhaug; Rep Carly Melin; Rep Jason Metsa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

A Parallel Ocean Model With Adaptive Mesh Refinement Capability For Global Ocean Prediction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An ocean model with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) capability is presented for simulating ocean circulation on decade time scales. The model closely resembles the LLNL ocean general circulation model with some components incorporated from other well known ocean models when appropriate. Spatial components are discretized using finite differences on a staggered grid where tracer and pressure variables are defined at cell centers and velocities at cell vertices (B-grid). Horizontal motion is modeled explicitly with leapfrog and Euler forward-backward time integration, and vertical motion is modeled semi-implicitly. New AMR strategies are presented for horizontal refinement on a B-grid, leapfrog time integration, and time integration of coupled systems with unequal time steps. These AMR capabilities are added to the LLNL software package SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure) and validated with standard benchmark tests. The ocean model is built on top of the amended SAMRAI library. The resulting model has the capability to dynamically increase resolution in localized areas of the domain. Limited basin tests are conducted using various refinement criteria and produce convergence trends in the model solution as refinement is increased. Carbon sequestration simulations are performed on decade time scales in domains the size of the North Atlantic and the global ocean. A suggestion is given for refinement criteria in such simulations. AMR predicts maximum pH changes and increases in CO{sub 2} concentration near the injection sites that are virtually unattainable with a uniform high resolution due to extremely long run times. Fine scale details near the injection sites are achieved by AMR with shorter run times than the finest uniform resolution tested despite the need for enhanced parallel performance. The North Atlantic simulations show a reduction in passive tracer errors when AMR is applied instead of a uniform coarse resolution. No dramatic or persistent signs of error growth in the passive tracer outgassing or the ocean circulation are observed to result from AMR.

Herrnstein, A

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

435

Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scrap, pig iron or direct reduced iron using an electric arcsteel, pig iron or direct reduced iron using an electric arcbuilding materials). Direct reduced iron (DRI) is produced

Xu, T.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Refiners look at H sub 2 SO sub 4 alkylation and catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfuric acid alkylation and catalytic reforming drew many questions at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association (NPRA) question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. At this annual meeting, presubmitted questions are answered by a panel of experts. For more information on the meeting's format, see OGJ, Mar. 16, p. 37. This third and final article in the series of excerpts from the 1991 NPRA Q and A Session examines such pertinent alkylation topics as tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) raffinate processing and unit operation during acid runaway. Also discussed are skewed platinum/rhenium reforming catalyst and how catalyst life affects reformate aromatics levels.

Not Available

1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

437

Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO{sub 3}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco [University of L'Aquila, Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, Monteluco di Roio, 67040 L'Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca [Polytechnic University of Marche, Department of Marine Sciences, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)], E-mail: f.beolchini@univpm.it; Veglio, Francesco [University of L'Aquila, Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, Monteluco di Roio, 67040 L'Aquila (Italy)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Nuclear & Environmental Processes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Developing Chemical Process Models Developing Chemical Process Models A key research thrust has been the development of detailed models of the chemistry of aqueous processes, which is the basis for their design. These models are incorporated into codes that generate process flowsheets and equipment designs that in turn feed into an overall plant design. As chemical data and process concepts are developed, the codes are refined to incorporate new findings. Argonne is also heading the effort to apply advanced computational techniques to the design of processes like UREX+ and to ensure that the facilities are safe and secure. AMUSE The AMUSE code models extraction processes based on chemically rigorous equlibrium models. The code has been used as the basis for process designs based on the UREX+ processes.

439

Human Health Risk Assessment for Petroleum Refining Industry of the Remaining Air Toxics after MACT I Emissions Reductions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Inhalation risks on human health for hazardous air pollutants emitted from MACT I petroleum refining industry were determined using EPA HEM-3 Program. Methodology included compiling… (more)

Roa, Nadia C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Chemical Accelerators The phrase "chemical accelerators"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by one of us for devices that produce beams of chemically interesting species at relative kinetic energies of a few electron volts. Most studies of chemical kinetics made by traditional thermochemical. It is obvious that while some methods of theoretical chemical kinetics (for instance, "absolute" rate theory

Zare, Richard N.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Integrating Chemical Hazard Assessment into the Design of Inherently Safer Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactive hazard associated with chemicals is a major safety issue in process industries. This kind of hazard has caused the occurrence of many accidents, leading to fatalities, injuries, property damage and environment pollution. Reactive hazards can be eliminated or minimized by applying Inherently Safer Design (ISD) principles such as "substitute" or "moderate" strategies. However, ISD would not be a feasible option for industry without an efficient methodology for chemical hazard assessment, which provides the technical basis for applying ISD during process design. In this research, a systematic chemical hazard assessment methodology was developed for assisting the implementation of ISD in the design of inherently safer process. This methodology incorporates the selection of safer chemicals and determination of safer process conditions, which correspond to "substitute" and "moderate" strategies in ISD. The application of this methodology in conjunction with ISD technique can effectively save the time and investment spent on the process design. As part of selecting safer chemicals, prediction models were developed for predicting hazardous properties of reactive chemicals. Also, a hazard index was adopted to rate chemicals according to reactive hazards. By combining the prediction models with the hazard index, this research can provide important information on how to select safer chemicals for the processes, which makes the process chemistry inherently safer. As part of determining safer process conditions, the incompatibility of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKPO) with iron oxide was investigated. It was found that iron oxide at low levels has no impact on the reactive hazards of MEKPO as well as the operational safety. However, when iron oxide is beyond 0.3 wt%, it starts to change the kinetics of MEKPO runaway reaction and even the reaction mechanism. As a result, with the presence of a certain level of iron oxide (> 0.3 wt%), iron oxide can intensify the reactive hazards of MEKPO and impose higher risk to process operations. The investigation results can help to determine appropriate materials for fabricating process equipment and safer process conditions.

Lu, Yuan

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Ion-pairing in aqueous CaCl2 and RbBr solutions: simultaneous structural refinement of XAFS and XRD data  

SciTech Connect

We present a new methodology involving the simultaneous refinement of both x-ray absorption and x-ray diffraction spectra (X-ray Absorption/Diffraction Structural Refinement,XADSR), to study hydration and ion pair structure of CaCl2 and RbBr salts in concentrated aqueous solutions. The XADSR analysis includes the XAFS spectra analysis of both the cation and anion as a probe of their short-range structure with an XRD spectral analysis as a probe of the global structural. Together they deliver a comprehensive picture of the cation and anion hydration, the contact ion pair (CIP) structure and the solvent-separated ion pair (SSIP) structure. XADSR analysis of 6.0 m aqueous CaCl2 reveals that there are an insignificant number of Ca2+-Cl- CIP’s, but there are approximately 3.4 SSIP’s separated by about 4.99 Å. In contrast XADSR analysis of aqueous RbBr yields about 0.7 pair CIP at a bond length 3.51 Å. The present work demonstrates a new approach for a direct co-refinement of XRD and XAFS spectra in a simple and reliable fashion, opening new opportunities for analysis in various disordered and crystalline systems. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle.

Pham, Thai V.; Fulton, John L.

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

443

Laser induced chemical reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences Division of theINFRARED LASER ENHANCEMENT OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS A. B. C. D.Laser Inhibition of Chemical Reaction Effect of Isotopic

Orel, Ann E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

Lee, Chung-cheng (Irvine, CA); Sui, Guodong (Los Angeles, CA); Elizarov, Arkadij (Valley Village, CA); Kolb, Hartmuth C. (Playa del Rey, CA); Huang, Jiang (San Jose, CA); Heath, James R. (South Pasadena, CA); Phelps, Michael E. (Los Angeles, CA); Quake, Stephen R. (Stanford, CA); Tseng, Hsian-rong (Los Angeles, CA); Wyatt, Paul (Tipperary, IE); Daridon, Antoine (Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

445

A dynamic mesh refinement technique for Lattice Boltzmann simulations on octree-like grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this contribution, we present our new adaptive Lattice Boltzmann implementation within the Peano framework, with special focus on nanoscale particle transport problems. With the continuum hypothesis not holding anymore on these small scales, new physical ... Keywords: Adaptive Cartesian grids, Brownian, Dynamic grid refinement, Fluctuations, Lattice Boltzmann, Multiscale, Particle transport

Philipp Neumann; Tobias Neckel

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

447

Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

448

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

449

Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

450

Formal validation of automated policy refinement in the management of network security systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Policy hierarchies and automated policy refinement are powerful approaches to simplify administration of security services in complex network environments. A crucial issue for the practical use of these approaches is to ensure the validity of the policy ... Keywords: Formal validation, Model-based management, Network security, Policy based management, Security policies

João Porto de Albuquerque; Heiko Krumm; Paulo Lício de Geus

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Refining Abstract Machine Specifications of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refining Abstract Machine Specifications of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented Executable the steam boiler control specification problem to il­ lustrate how the evolving algebra approach and Specification, in June 1995, to control the Karlsruhe steam boiler simulator satisfactorily. The abstract

Börger, Egon

452

Refining Phylogenetic Trees Given Additional Data: An Algorithm Based on Parsimony  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given a set X of taxa, a phylogenetic X-tree T that is only partially resolved, and a collection of characters on X, we consider the problem of finding a resolution (refinement) of T that minimizes the parsimony score of the given characters. Previous ... Keywords: Combinatorial algorithms, Life and Medical Sciences

Taoyang Wu; Vincent Moulton; Mike Steel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species Philip B and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, PO Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120, USA Summary 1. Biofuel. However, concerns have been raised on the invasiveness of biofuel feedstocks. Estimating invasion

Peterson, Robert K. D.

454

Further Studies of Mesh Refinement: Are Shock-Free Airfoils Truly Shock Free?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Further Studies of Mesh Refinement: Are Shock-Free Airfoils Truly Shock Free? Antony Jameson with a hodograph method to be shock-free at M = 0.750 and Cl = 0.629. However, computational fluid dynamics results show a double-shock pattern appear at this design point as the resolution of the grid is enhanced

Stanford University

455

Use of geothermal heat for sugar refining. Final report, October 1, 1976--May 31, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economic and technical feasibility of applying low grade geothermal heat (less than 300/sup 0/F) in the beet sugar refining industry for both new factory construction and retrofit conversion of existing factories was assessed. The representative Holly Sugar factory at Brawley, California, was utilized as a baseline primarily because of its centralized location with respect to the known and partially developed geothermal anomalies at Brawley, East Mesa, and Heber. Nominal values for the key parameters of the sugar refining process and typical values for the geothermal fluid parameters representative of geothermal resources in areas of existing or potential future sugar factories were defined, promising points of application were identified, and conceptual designs synthesized for introducing the geothermal heat into the process. The design approaches were then quantified with capital, operating and maintenance costs, and comparative economic evaluations were made with other fuels projected to 1995. In parallel with the detailed study of process conversion to geothermal heat, the existing pattern and potential growth of the sugar refining industry was assessed to estimate the potential market for new factory construction at suitable areas, as well as the potential for retrofit conversion of existing factories. The environmental impact of other geothermal application concepts was also assessed, and expected technological or industry/government policy changes which might affect the potential for conversion to geothermal heat were identified and evaluated. Emphasis was placed on achieving results that would stimulate commercial utilization of geothermal heat for beet sugar refining and related processes.

Pearson, R.O.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Evaluation of ASD Systems for Electric Arc Furnace and Argon Oxygen Decarburization Refiner Baghouse Fans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adjustable speed drive (ASD) offers opportunities to operate dust collection fans in a more energy efficient manner. This report focuses on the system requirements and provides a method for successfully applying ASDs to dust extraction baghouse systems in a steel melting and refining application in order to realize full energy savings and operational improvements.

1998-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

458

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published EIA survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

Information Center

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Simulation and Optimization of the Stabilizer Tower Operation at Catalytic Reforming of Esfahan Oil Refining Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production of gasoline with low RVP specifications have made the operators of the catalytic reforming unit of Esfahan Oil refining company in Iran to apply new operating conditions. RVP is an abbreviation for Reid Vapor Pressure which is the vapor pressure ... Keywords: RVP, platformate, initial boiling point, catalytic reforming, distillation curve

Ali Izadyar; Bahram Hashemi Shahraki; Ahmad Shariati

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem applied to refinements of the atomic pair distribution function  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have systematically studied the optimal real-space sampling of atomic pair distribution (PDF) data by comparing refinement results from oversampled and resampled data. Based on nickel and a complex perovskite system, we show that not only is the optimal sampling bounded by the Nyquist interval described by the Nyquist-Shannon (NS) sampling theorem as expected, but near this sampling interval, the data points in the PDF are minimally correlated, which results in more reliable uncertainty estimates in the modeling. Surprisingly, we find that PDF refinements quickly become unstable for data on coarser grids. Although the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem is well known, it has not been applied to PDF refinements, despite the growing popularity of the PDF method and its adoption in a growing number of communities. Here, we give explicit expressions for the application of NS sampling theorem to the PDF case, and establish through modeling that it is working in practice, which lays the groundwork for this to become more widely adopted. This has implications for the speed and complexity of possible refinements that can be carried out many times faster than currently with no loss of information, and it establishes a theoretically sound limit on the amount of information contained in the PDF that will prevent over-parametrization during modeling.

Farrow, Christopher L.; Shaw, Margaret; Kim, Hyunjeong; Juhás, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J.L. (NIAIST); (Columbia); (Princeton)

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Computation of Hierarchical Transition Systems to Document Refined Event-B Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the specification. More recently, some participants of the POS�7 project have proposed to used GénéSyst to manage from the abstract representa- tion, while substates are introduced to precise some refined behavioursBuffer > 0. Moreover, the use of hier- archy allows to structure the diagram by choosing initial- substates

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

462

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

342.8 W W 123.0 412.7 W 839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy...

463

Table 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2,393.2 702.7 3,804.5 3,037.5 W 134.0 See footnotes at end of table. 47. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Volumes by PAD District 352 Energy Information Administration ...

464

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

116.7 W W W W 379.0 W 1,039.3 132.9 1,418.3 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy...

465

Visualization of Time-Dependent Remote Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data Ralf Kaehler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

addressed the problem of visualizing remote, time- dependent data defined on AMR grids. In order to handle as the network is fast enough and local resources are capable of handling the data, we believe that using remoteVisualization of Time-Dependent Remote Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data Ralf Kaehler Zuse

Andrzejak, Artur

466

Exhibitor: MURLIN CHEMICAL INC.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Murlin Chemical, Inc. manufactures Bone Ash at its plant located in West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, USA. Established in 1978, Murlin Chemical supplies ...

467

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One clue lies in whether the electrons in the new superconductors are as highly correlated as they are in the high-temperature superconductors. A truly international North American/European/Asian collaboration working at the ALS has now reported results from a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, and systematic theoretical simulations of iron-based superconductors. The team was able to settle the correlations debate by showing that electrons in the iron-based families that were studied favor itinerant (delocalized) states with only moderate correlations.

468

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One clue lies in whether the electrons in the new superconductors are as highly correlated as they are in the high-temperature superconductors. A truly international North American/European/Asian collaboration working at the ALS has now reported results from a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, and systematic theoretical simulations of iron-based superconductors. The team was able to settle the correlations debate by showing that electrons in the iron-based families that were studied favor itinerant (delocalized) states with only moderate correlations.

469

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One clue lies in whether the electrons in the new superconductors are as highly correlated as they are in the high-temperature superconductors. A truly international North American/European/Asian collaboration working at the ALS has now reported results from a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, and systematic theoretical simulations of iron-based superconductors. The team was able to settle the correlations debate by showing that electrons in the iron-based families that were studied favor itinerant (delocalized) states with only moderate correlations.

470

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One clue lies in whether the electrons in the new superconductors are as highly correlated as they are in the high-temperature superconductors. A truly international North American/European/Asian collaboration working at the ALS has now reported results from a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, and systematic theoretical simulations of iron-based superconductors. The team was able to settle the correlations debate by showing that electrons in the iron-based families that were studied favor itinerant (delocalized) states with only moderate correlations.

471

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two preprints per day ever since. With a maximum superconducting transition temperature (so far) of 55 K, it is natural to wonder if studying the new materials will help uncover one of the deepest mysteries in modern physics-the mechanism of superconductivity in the copper-based "high-temperature superconductors." One clue lies in whether the electrons in the new superconductors are as highly correlated as they are in the high-temperature superconductors. A truly international North American/European/Asian collaboration working at the ALS has now reported results from a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, and systematic theoretical simulations of iron-based superconductors. The team was able to settle the correlations debate by showing that electrons in the iron-based families that were studied favor itinerant (delocalized) states with only moderate correlations.

472

NETL: Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Technology with CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Commercialization of the Iron Based Coal Direct Chemical Looping Process for Power Production with in situ CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0009761 CDLC Process Concept CDLC Process Concept (click to enlarge) Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) is developing the coal direct chemical looping (CDCL) process. The CDCL process consists of a unique moving bed reactor - the reducer - where pulverized coal is fully converted using iron-based oxygen carriers. The oxygen carrier is reduced from Fe2O3 to FeO/Fe and the flue gas is a concentrated stream of CO2 that is available for storage or beneficial use. The reduced FeO/Fe is oxidized to Fe2O3 using air in the combustor, liberating heat to produce steam for a

473

Chemical Safety Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Program Home Chemical Safety Topical Committee Library Program Contacts Related Links Site Map Tools 2013 Chemical Safety Workshop Archived Workshops Contact Us Health and Safety HSS Logo Chemical Safety Program logo The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Chemical Safety web pages provide a forum for the exchange of best practices, lessons learned, and guidance in the area of chemical management. This page is supported by the Chemical Safety Topical Committee which was formed to identify chemical safety-related issues of concern to the DOE and pursue solutions to issues identified. Noteworthy products are the Chemical Management Handbooks and the Chemical Lifecycle Cost Analysis Tool, found under the TOOLS menu. Chemical Management Handbook Vol (1) Chemical Management Handbook Vol (2)

474

Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iron and Steel Industry Iron and Steel Industry Carbon Emissions in the Iron and Steel Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 3312) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 39.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 10.7% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 22.2 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 1,649 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 7.6% Nonfuel Use of Energy: 886 trillion Btu (53.7%) -- Coal: 858 trillion Btu (used to make coke) Carbon Intensity: 24.19 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 39.9 Coal 22.7

475

Marine Diatoms Survive Iron Droughts in the Ocean by Storing Iron in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marine Diatoms Survive Iron Droughts in Marine Diatoms Survive Iron Droughts in the Ocean by Storing Iron in Ferritin Almost all organisms require iron as a co-factor in numerous metalloproteins and enzymes. In particular, phytoplankton, which are aquatic, free-drifting, single-celled organisms that can harvest energy from the sun, have an elevated demand for iron due to the large role it plays in their photosynthetic machinery. In 30-40% of the world's oceans iron concentrations are low enough to limit the growth of phytoplankton (Martin and Fitzwater 1988; Moore et al. 2002). New sources of iron to these regions are sporadic and typically include atmospheric dust deposition or weak upwelling of deep waters. figure 1 Figure 1: A light micrograph of the marine pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Shown are one whole cell and two partial cells connected at the cell tips in a chain. The brown components of the cells are the chloroplasts. Scale bar = 5 mm. (Image courtesy of K. Holtermann)

476

REFINEMENT OF THE NEPHELINE DISCRIMINATOR: RESULTS OF A PHASE I STUDY  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a glass used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is generally quantified by its resistance to chemical degradation, or durability. The durability of a HLW glass is dependent on its composition. If crystalline phases form within a glass during cooling, the composition of the residual glass network is altered, therefore affecting the durability of the glass. Crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) has been shown to adversely impact the durability of HLW glasses since it removes glass forming species (in this case, Al and Si) from the glass network. The propensity for nepheline crystallization in a HLW glass increases with increasing concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O in the glass. Nepheline crystallization is therefore of concern for processing of HLW at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since the sludge waste streams at the Savannah River Site (SRS) can contain high concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O. Currently, a 'nepheline discriminator' is included as a process control constraint at the DWPF. The nepheline discriminator relates the concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (as weight percentages in glass) to a critical value of 0.62. The discriminator defines a boundary line on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary diagram above which (or toward the SiO{sub 2} corner of the ternary) nepheline is not predicted to crystallize in the glass upon quenching or slow cooling. The current equation uses only the concentrations of the SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} components in the glass in predicting whether or not nepheline is likely to crystallize. However, several other components have been shown to impact the propensity for nepheline crystallization, including B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO among others. Therefore, the potential exists to further refine the nepheline discriminator to include these components. In addition, recently studied HLW glasses with relatively high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} compositions of 25 wt % or greater and nepheline discriminator values well below 0.62 have been shown to be free of nepheline crystallization upon quenching and slow cooling. Thus, the current nepheline discriminator equation also appears to be conservative for some HLW glass compositions. Refining the nepheline discriminator to include other important components and to reduce conservatism may provide access to high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration glass compositions for the DWPF, which could in turn allow access to higher waste loadings, decreased washing and improved waste throughput. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a series of HLW glass compositions based on a projected composition of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), the next sludge batch to be processed in the DWPF. The selected glass compositions all had nepheline discriminator values below the current limit of 0.62. They cover a range of locations on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diagram. They also include varying amounts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO to support an evaluation of the impact of these components on the propensity for nepheline crystallization. The results described in this report confirm that some conservatism exists in the current nepheline discriminator. Several glass compositions, particularly compositions that target higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations, were shown to be very durable (i.e., PCT responses that were more than an order of magnitude better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass) while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62. Increased concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increased concentrations of CaO were shown to improve durability responses and suppress the formation of nepheline. This provides incentive to revise the nepheline discriminator to reduce some of this conservatism and incorporate the influence of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The revised nepheline discriminator could potentially change from a constant line on

Fox, K; James Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

477

REFINEMENT OF THE NEPHELINE DISCRIMINATOR: RESULTS OF A PHASE I STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a glass used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) is generally quantified by its resistance to chemical degradation, or durability. The durability of a HLW glass is dependent on its composition. If crystalline phases form within a glass during cooling, the composition of the residual glass network is altered, therefore affecting the durability of the glass. Crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) has been shown to adversely impact the durability of HLW glasses since it removes glass forming species (in this case, Al and Si) from the glass network. The propensity for nepheline crystallization in a HLW glass increases with increasing concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O in the glass. Nepheline crystallization is therefore of concern for processing of HLW at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) since the sludge waste streams at the Savannah River Site (SRS) can contain high concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O. Currently, a 'nepheline discriminator' is included as a process control constraint at the DWPF. The nepheline discriminator relates the concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (as weight percentages in glass) to a critical value of 0.62. The discriminator defines a boundary line on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary diagram above which (or toward the SiO{sub 2} corner of the ternary) nepheline is not predicted to crystallize in the glass upon quenching or slow cooling. The current equation uses only the concentrations of the SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} components in the glass in predicting whether or not nepheline is likely to crystallize. However, several other components have been shown to impact the propensity for nepheline crystallization, including B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO among others. Therefore, the potential exists to further refine the nepheline discriminator to include these components. In addition, recently studied HLW glasses with relatively high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} compositions of 25 wt % or greater and nepheline discriminator values well below 0.62 have been shown to be free of nepheline crystallization upon quenching and slow cooling. Thus, the current nepheline discriminator equation also appears to be conservative for some HLW glass compositions. Refining the nepheline discriminator to include other important components and to reduce conservatism may provide access to high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration glass compositions for the DWPF, which could in turn allow access to higher waste loadings, decreased washing and improved waste throughput. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a series of HLW glass compositions based on a projected composition of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), the next sludge batch to be processed in the DWPF. The selected glass compositions all had nepheline discriminator values below the current limit of 0.62. They cover a range of locations on the SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diagram. They also include varying amounts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO to support an evaluation of the impact of these components on the propensity for nepheline crystallization. The results described in this report confirm that some conservatism exists in the current nepheline discriminator. Several glass compositions, particularly compositions that target higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations, were shown to be very durable (i.e., PCT responses that were more than an order of magnitude better than that of the Environmental Assessment benchmark glass) while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62. Increased concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increased concentrations of CaO were shown to improve durability responses and suppress the formation of nepheline. This provides incentive to revise the nepheline discriminator to reduce some of this conservatism and incorporate the influence of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The revised nepheline discriminator could potentially change from a constant line on

Fox, K; James Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

478

Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Aerosol Solubility: Potential Effects of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Importance of Iron Mineralogy to Aerosol Solubility: Potential Effects of Aerosol Source on Ocean Photosynthesis figure 1 Figure 1. Dust storm blowing glacial dusts from the Copper River Basin of southeast Alaska into the North Pacific Ocean, which depends on this and other external iron sources to support its biological communities. (Image: NASA MODIS satellite image, Nov. 1, 2006. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7094) Iron is one of the most important elements to life. Despite its paramount importance and relative abundance, dissolved iron concentrations are often very low, in part due to the formation of very stable iron minerals in most oxidizing environments. Since soluble iron is available to living organisms, iron deficiencies are widespread, and the factors that influence

479

Candidate anode materials for iron production by molten oxide electrolysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) has been identified by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) as one of four possible breakthrough technologies to alleviate the environmental impact of iron and steel production. This ...

Paramore, James D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Lab researchers achieve record pressure for solid iron  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for solid iron. Lab researchers achieve record pressure for solid iron Breanna Bishop, LLNL, (925) 423-9802, bishop33@llnl.gov High Resolution Image Illustration of the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refining chemicals iron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Authority, polity, and tenuous elites in Iron Age Edom (Jordan)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Iron Age in southern Jordan (Shef?eld), 47–54. knauf, e.at Tawilan in southern Jordan (Oxford). bienkowski, p.the Iron Age in southern Jordan: A framework. In Bienkowski,

Porter, Benjamin W.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Chapter 13. Chemical Kinetics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of chemical reactions. · Only gases, for which the kinetic theory of Chapter 4 is applicable, are consideredChapter 13. Chemical Kinetics #12;· Why do some chemical reactions proceed with lighting speed when the way in which molecules combine to form products? · All of these questions involve chemical kinetics

Ihee, Hyotcherl

483

and Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biological and Chemical Engineering Building #12;2 Biological and Chemical Engineering Building sta is constructing a new building that will house the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department and Chemical Engineering Building will provide critically needed space for innovators in multiple disciplines

Prinz, Friedrich B.

484

Chemical Sciences Division Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Development of Measurements and Standards for Biofuels; Chemical Metrology in Support of the US Hydrogen Infrastructure; ...

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

485

About Chemical Hazards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical Hazards Chemical Hazards What Is a Chemical Hazard? chemical hazards.jpg A chemical hazard is any substance that can cause harm, primarily to people. Chemicals of all kinds are stored in our homes and can result in serious injuries if not properly handled. Household items such as bleach can result in harmful chlorine gas or hydrochloric acid if carelessly used. Gasoline fumes from containers for lawnmowers or boats can result in major health hazards if inhaled. DOE Oak Ridge uses thousands of chemicals in its varied research and other operations. New chemicals are or can be created as a result of the research or other activities. DOE follows national safety requirements in storing and handling these chemicals to minimize the risk of injuries from its chemical usage. However, accidents can occur despite careful attention to proper handling and storage procedures.

486

Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries | Argonne...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Inexpensive, electrochemically active phosphate compounds with high functionality for...

487

Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Industrial Technologies Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone Ames ...

488

Iron 'Veins' Are Secret of Promising New Hydrogen Storage ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron 'Veins' Are Secret of Promising New Hydrogen Storage Material. ... International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 36 (2011), pp. ...

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

489

Method for the Production of Mineral Wool andIron from Serpentine Ore  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Production of Mineral Wool and Iron from the Production of Mineral Wool and Iron from Serpentine Ore Overview This invention discloses a method to fabricate a product that has the potential to replace asbestos, which harbors health and environmental risks, with magnesium silicate-based mineral wools. The mineral wool product yields advantages similar to asbestos while eliminating its inherent detriments. Since the late 19th century and into the late 20th century, asbestos has been a commonly used building material for home and industrial use. The popularity of its use can be traced to advantages of high resistance to heat, aversion to electrical and chemical damage, high mechanical strength, and excellent acoustical properties. Despite those advantages, asbestos has been directly

490

Worldwide refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents compiled data on operating refineries worldwide by country and by company within these countries. Data are presented on charge capacity for the following processes: vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, cat-hydrocracking, cat hydrorefining, and cat hydrotreating. Data are also presented on the production capacity for the following products: alkylates and polymers, aromatics and isomers, lubricating oils, asphalt, hydrogen, and coke.

Bell, L.

1993-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

491

Worldwide refining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper consists of several tables compiling data on refinery capacities by country, by state, and by company. The capacity data are given by process as well as by final product. Processes include vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Products include alkylates, polymers, and dimers; aromatics and isomers; oxygenates; hydrogen; asphalts; and coke.

Williamson, M.

1994-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

492

Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

Steiner, S. A.; Baumann, T. F.; Kong, J.; Satcher, J. H.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

493

Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

Steiner, S A; Baumann, T F; Kong, J; Satcher, J H; Dresselhaus, M S

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

Iron distribution and phytoplankton iron limitation in the southern California Current System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chl L -1 ) in the southern offshore region. 1.3. Literaturedissolved iron concentrations at an offshore station (~700 km offshore San Diego, CA, July 2007, 29° 51’ N, 123 °

King, Andrew Luke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Thermodynamic Analyses of Iron Oxides Redox Reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To clarify such confusions, the elementary thermodynamic data of various iron ... and water vapor are used to calculate the changes of thermodynamic quantities such as .... Heat Transfer Characteristic in a Slag Heat Recovery Chamber ... Numerical Simulation of Electro-magnetic Flow Control Phenomenon in a Tundish.

496

The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3  

SciTech Connect

Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

Not Available

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Adaptive Multiresolution or Adaptive Mesh Refinement? A Case Study for 2D Euler Equations  

SciTech Connect

We present adaptive multiresolution (MR) computations of the two-dimensional compressible Euler equations for a classical Riemann problem. The results are then compared with respect to accuracy and computational efficiency, in terms of CPU time and memory requirements, with the corresponding finite volume scheme on a regular grid. For the same test-case, we also perform computations using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) imposing similar accuracy requirements. The results thus obtained are compared in terms of computational overhead and compression of the computational grid, using in addition either local or global time stepping strategies. We preliminarily conclude that the multiresolution techniques yield improved memory compression and gain in CPU time with respect to the adaptive mesh refinement method.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL; Domingues, Margarete O. [Laboratorio Associado de Computacao e Matematica Aplicada (LAC), Sao Paulo; Gomes, Sonia M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Sao Paulo; Roussel, Olivier [Universite d'Aix-Marseille; Schneider, Kai [Universite d'Aix-Marseille

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

T.: A Financial Management Consultation Expert System with Constraint Satisfaction and Knowledge Refinement. The Third  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an expert system that integrates different sorts of expertise for financial management consultation: the quantitative-qualitative financial indices, their relationship equations and the enterprise management policies represented by knowledge production rules. The innovative idea is that it incorporates the Constraint Satisfaction Paradigm (CSP) and the Best-first Search (BFS) techniques to guide the task, whichevaluates the financial 'health ' condition of a company in a routine way, mirroring the processes of a certified public accountant, in order to determine which management policies are the best to be applied. The expert system performs a set of numerical simulations that incorporate the aspects of Knowledge Refinement and Qualitative Simulation under company cases, applying series of refinement strategies for the parameters of the financial knowledge base and the heuristic searching control functions. The integrated inference engine performance and efficiency with the heuristic functions selected to enforce the convergence of the problem solvers combined are depicted. Topics: AI applications, Learning and knowledge acquisition.

Pedro García del Valle y Durán; Takahira Yamaguchi

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

A case study: Residue reduction at Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership  

SciTech Connect

With input from Shell Synthetic Fuels Inc. (SSFI), Deer Park Refining Limited Partnership (DPRLP) analyzed options for managing the bottom of the barrel to extinction, with an objective of high return on investment. DPRLP is a joint venture of PEMEX and Shell Oil Company. This Gulf Coast refiner processes 227M BBL/D of heavy, high sulfur crude. This paper discusses the process options considered, their advantages and disadvantages, and the option selected as well as the options still open. Recent modernization projects at DPRLP are now on stream with high yield of clean products.There remains one by-product, petroleum coke, which presents opportunity as a low cost feed for one or more process options yielding attractive products. The Shell Coke (or Coal) Gasification Process is one of the options now being considered.

Geehan, D.M. [Shell Synthetic Fuels Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Refiners around the world must cope with changing markets, environmental regulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oil consumption is expected to grow slowly into the next century, middle distillates are expected to be the fastest growing major products, and the quality of the typical crude fed to refineries will continue to deteriorate. Those are key challenges facing refiners around the world. Changing product specifications - from lead-free gasoline in Europe to new lube oils for tomorrow's engines - will also continue to demand more of refinery processes and equipment. Through it all, refiners will be faced with changing crude and products markets that will constantly test their ability to achieve a reasonable margin. The problems associated with excess capacity have not been completely solved; there is still considerable rationalization of worldwide capacity to be done. Success will depend in large part on the development and proper application of new technology, and the imaginative use of sophisticated operating techniques.

Nunn, J.A.

1987-05-11T23:59:59.000Z