National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for refining challenges changing

  1. Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

  2. TOPICAL PAPER Potential Synergies and Challenges in Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    TOPICAL PAPER Potential Synergies and Challenges in Refining Cellulosic Biomass to Fuels, Chemicals Hampshire 03755 Lignocellulosic biomass such as agricultural and forestry residues and dedicated crops that outweigh increased biomass transport costs for facilities processing less than about 10,000 dry tons per

  3. Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B Steve Schneider refinement in the context of CSP B. Our motivation to include this notion of refinement within the CSP B to change the events of a CSP process and the B machines when refining a system. Notions of refinement based

  4. Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

  5. PART I THE POLICY CHALLENGES CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;PART I THE POLICY CHALLENGES CLIMATE CHANGE JACCARD-RIVERS 10/29/07 3:48 PM Page 75 #12;77 THE POLICY CHALLENGE The litany of potential impacts associated with climate change is becoming familiar and dengue fever as a result of climate change. In addition to these and other gradual changes, scientists

  6. Global Climate Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector Global Climate Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector 2002 DEER Conference...

  7. Climate Change and the Transporation Sector - Challenges and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Change and the Transporation Sector - Challenges and Mitigation Options Climate Change and the Transporation Sector - Challenges and Mitigation Options 2003 DEER Conference...

  8. Carbon Disclosure Project Webinar: Climate Change: A Challenge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Disclosure Project Webinar: Climate Change: A Challenge for Bond Analysts Carbon Disclosure Project Webinar: Climate Change: A Challenge for Bond Analysts April 8, 2015...

  9. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  10. Meeting President Bush's Climate Change Challenge to Business...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    economy are undertaking to meet the President's challenge. Meeting President Bush's Climate Change Challenge to Business and Industry More Documents & Publications Fact Sheet --...

  11. Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    Modeling Climate Change Adaptation: Challenges, Recent Developments and Future Directions Karen of modeling practice in the field of integrated assessment of climate change and ways forward. Past efforts assessments of climate change have concentrated on developing baseline emissions scenarios and analyzing

  12. The Electric Utility Industry--Change and Challenge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. H.

    1987-01-01

    's opportunities and challenges is available. Equally important is an assessment of the utility's current and future available human, financial, physical, productive and technological resources. A commitment to a new business opportunity without adequate... Industry? Change and Challenge MICHAEL H. WILLIAMS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR TEXAS PUBLIC POWER ASSOCIATION AUSTIN, TEXAS The author retraces some of the principle changes in the electric utility industry. He suggests that shifts in technologies...

  13. Designing for Doubt Citizen Science and the Challenge of Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    Designing for Doubt Citizen Science and the Challenge of Change Eric Paulos Human enable an entirely novel and empowering genre of mobile computing and research called citizen science of fact as a path towards social change. Citizen science; sensors; sustainibility; ambiguity I

  14. Groundwater and global hydrological change current challenges and new insight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Groundwater and global hydrological change ­ current challenges and new insight R. TAYLOR1 , L Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands 11 Federal Institute for Geosciences, groundwater plays a critical role in enabling communities to adapt to freshwater shortages derived from low

  15. Climate and Climate Change, Professor James Booth PRELIMINARY Spring 2014 Syllabus (subject to refinement/updating)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    global warming and climate change. There is a large body of evidence that this is due to humankind that it is not clear to most what should be done. The purpose of this course is to separate the wheat of truth from this chaff of misinformation and to provide a thorough understanding of the scientific basis for global

  16. Changing structure of the world refining industry: implications for the United States and other major consuming regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    There are five chapters in this publication. Chapter I on refining industry in transition covers refining history highlights, and OPEC's downstream operations. Chapter II on demand for oil and oil products discusses supply and demand for OPEC oil, demand for oil products, historical growth trends, future growth trends and the case of East Asia - emergence of a fuel oil glut. Chapter III on the US and other traditional refining centers begins with an introduction on the structure of refining and continues on to cover the refining industry in OECD countries, USA, Western Europe, Japan, Singapore and Caribbean and closes with some conclusions. Chapter IV is on refining expansions in OPEC and the third World Nations. The following are covered: (1) nations of the Gulf (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, United Arab Emirates); (2) OPEC members beyond the Gulf (Indonesia, Africa, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria and Gabon, South America, Venezuela); (3) other major exporters (China, Egypt, Malaysia, Mexico); (4) non-OPEC developing countries - trends in the refining sector. The chapter ends with a short summary on capacity prospects and comparative economics. The final chapter has conclusions and recommendations on: price interactions between crude and products; product exports - impact on OPEC's internal; prices and market influence; importers and exporters - decisions; and course of action of the United States. 18 figures, 40 tables.

  17. Completing the CCT mission: The challenge of change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monk, J.R. [Illinois Energy Association, Springfield, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In order to complete the clean coal technology mission it will be necessary to determine CCT`s role in the restructured electricity industry and develop a strategy to promote that role. First, one must understand where the industry is headed and how clean coal technology fits into that future. Then, one needs to develop a strategy for getting from here to there, from where CCT is today to where it must be in five, ten or twenty years to be a viable option for decision-makers. Coal makes sense for the United States for several important reasons, not the least of which is its abundance here. It also makes sense in terms of its economic impact on large areas of the nation. And if coal makes sense, especially economically, then clean coal technology makes even more sense because of its potential to capitalize on this abundant resource in an environmentally friendly manner. But after nearly thirty years of involvement in the political world at all levels from Washington, D.C. to Washington, Indiana, the author has learned the hard way that ``common sense`` does not always, or even often, carry the day in the policymaking process. He believes that the future of clean coal technology hinges on the ability in the next few months and years to mobilize all those who favor that technology to move forward in a cohesive and coordinated effort to affect the policymaking and political process and thereby promote and accelerate CCT development. If this can be done, then the nation will be well on the way to completing the clean coal technology mission and meeting the challenge of change.

  18. Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, AR4) has resulted in a wider acceptance of global climate change climate extremes and change impacts. Uncertainties in process studies, climate models, and associated

  19. Rietveld Refinement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profile Chi-squared value 4.944 Progress so far Inverse Modeling Method 2 Fourier Method Data Model Refined Structure 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 1000 2000 3000 4000...

  20. Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Extremes, Uncertainty and Impacts Climate Change Challenge: The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, AR4) has resulted in a wider acceptance of global climate change, hurricanes and tropical storms) or extreme stresses (e.g., tropical climate in temperate regions or shifting

  1. Worldwide refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-18

    Data are presented on refining capacity by country and by company within each country. Capacity data are divided into the following processes: vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Production capacity is divided into: alkylation/polymerization/dimerization; aromatics/isomerization; lubricants; oxygenates; hydrogen; petroleum coke; and asphalts.

  2. 1 Hans von Storch: Climate Change Challenges and Problems. Prague 7 October 2014 Climate Change Challenges and Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Storch, Hans

    superior knowledge of "truth". Such a selflimitation of scientists serves two purposes, namely to maintain, and the construction of scenarios of changing weather statistics, at the global and regional level, is no longer" of an extended period of little warming, the contributions to ongoing and future change of sea level

  3. Signature change events: A challenge for quantum gravity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Angela; Visser, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of either Euclidian (functional-integral) quantum gravity or canonical general relativity the signature of the manifold is a priori unconstrained. Furthermore, recent developments in the emergent spacetime programme have led to a physically feasible implementation of signature change events. This suggests that it is time to revisit the sometimes controversial topic of signature change in general relativity. Specifically, we shall focus on the behaviour of a quantum field subjected to a manifold containing regions of different signature. We emphasise that, regardless of the underlying classical theory, there are severe problems associated with any quantum field theory residing on a signature-changing background. (Such as the production of what is naively an infinite number of particles, with an infinite energy density.) From the viewpoint of quantum gravity phenomenology, we discuss possible consequences of an effective Lorentz symmetry breaking scale. To more fully understand the physics ...

  4. Thermal challenges in MEMS applications: phase change phenomena and thermal bonding processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    Thermal challenges in MEMS applications: phase change phenomena and thermal bonding processes Liwei, MC 1740, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract Two thermal challenges for current and next generation generate single, spherical and controllable thermal bubbles with diameters between 2 and 500 mm. Both

  5. Scientific Grand Challenges: Challenges in Climate Change Science and the Role of Computing at the Extreme Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Johnson, Gary M.; Washington, Warren M.

    2009-07-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) in partnership with the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) held a workshop on the challenges in climate change science and the role of computing at the extreme scale, November 6-7, 2008, in Bethesda, Maryland. At the workshop, participants identified the scientific challenges facing the field of climate science and outlined the research directions of highest priority that should be pursued to meet these challenges. Representatives from the national and international climate change research community as well as representatives from the high-performance computing community attended the workshop. This group represented a broad mix of expertise. Of the 99 participants, 6 were from international institutions. Before the workshop, each of the four panels prepared a white paper, which provided the starting place for the workshop discussions. These four panels of workshop attendees devoted to their efforts the following themes: Model Development and Integrated Assessment; Algorithms and Computational Environment; Decadal Predictability and Prediction; Data, Visualization, and Computing Productivity. The recommendations of the panels are summarized in the body of this report.

  6. Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system. The Supercomputing Challenge is open to any New Mexico high-school or middle- school student. More than 330 students from 33 schools around the state spent - 2 - the...

  7. Internalizing Climate Change—Scientific Resource Management and the Climate Change Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dettinger, Michael D.; Culberson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Council. 2001. Climate change sci- ence: an analysis of someM, Miller HL, edi- tors. Climate Change 2007: The PhysicalIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC)]. Cambridge,

  8. Internalizing Climate Change—Scientific Resource Management and the Climate Change Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dettinger, Michael D.; Culberson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Council. 2001. Climate change sci- ence: an analysis of someNWT, Dracup JA. 2004. Climate change impacts uncertainty forVR, Kusler J. 2000. Climate change: Potential impacts and

  9. Internalizing Climate Change—Scientific Resource Management and the Climate Change Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dettinger, Michael D.; Culberson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Research Council. 2001. Climate change sci- ence: anNorth America. Journal of Climate 18(8):1136–1155. doi:NWT, Dracup JA. 2004. Climate change impacts uncertainty for

  10. The Challenges and Potential of Nuclear Energy for Addressing Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.

    2007-10-24

    The response to climate change and the stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations has major implications for the global energy system. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations requires a peak and an indefinite decline of global CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy, along with other technologies, has the potential to contribute to the growing demand for energy without emitting CO2. Nuclear energy is of particular interest because of its global prevalence and its current significant contribution, nearly 20%, to the world’s electricity supply. We have investigated the value of nuclear energy in addressing climate change, and have explored the potential challenges for the rapid and large-scale expansion of nuclear energy as a response to climate change. The scope of this study is long-term and the modeling time frame extends out a century because the nature of nuclear energy and climate change dictate that perspective. Our results indicate that the value of the nuclear technology option for addressing climate change is denominated in trillions of dollars. Several-fold increases to the value of the nuclear option can be expected if there is limited availability of competing carbon-free technologies, particularly fossil-fuel based technologies that can capture and sequester carbon. Challenges for the expanded global use of nuclear energy include the global capacity for nuclear construction, proliferation, uranium availability, and waste disposal. While the economic costs of nuclear fuel and power are important, non-economic issues transcend the issues of costs. In this regard, advanced nuclear technologies and new vision for the global use of nuclear energy are important considerations for the future of nuclear power and climate change.

  11. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in...

  12. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum...

  13. MECS 2006- Petroleum Refining

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  14. Water Resources Challenges in the Next Decade and Beyond - Global Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Sehlke

    2008-05-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing water resources professionals in the next decade is “Global Change” and its impacts on humans and the environment. Global change research focuses on the anthropogenic aspects of climate change, land use change, water resources development and urbanization. Global change, at its root, is driven by two major factors; first, the overall size and growth of the human population, and second, by a combination of our life styles, our economies and technology development. Arguably, much of the success associated with human survival and prosperity has been related to our ability to control and utilize water resources to our benefit. However, while such development has helped extend human longevity, health and prosperity, our activities have greatly altered the earth’s climate and land and water resources. The hydrological and biological capacity of the earth must be shared by all living creatures. The challenges for water resources professionals in the next decade and beyond are to limit our population growth, to moderate our life styles and economies, and to develop technologies that will provide for our human needs, yet protect and maintain the earth’s environment for all current and future inhabitants.

  15. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schröder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-09-01

    An overview of applications of the deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method is presented together with recommendations for its optimal usage. Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  16. FROM POLLUTER TO PROTECTOR: THE CHALLENGES OF CHANGING CULTURE, OPERATIONS AND IMAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZIMMERMAN,E.A.

    2000-07-25

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy (DOE) multi-program research facility, located in Suffolk County in Long Island, New York. In 1997, groundwater monitoring revealed significant levels of tritium contamination from a reactor fuel pool. The public reaction was immediate and intense. In an unprecedented move, DOE terminated the contractor and rebid the Laboratory management contract. Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA), a partnership between Battelle and the State University of New York at Stony Brook, won the contract. BSA faced enormous challenges in the environmental area. One was changing the culture and mindset of staff and management with regard to environmental protection. Another was changing operations to fully integrate environmental stewardship into all facets of the Laboratory's missions. And finally, BSA needed to change the Laboratory's public image. This paper describes how BSA faced those challenges. DOE and BSA entered into a voluntary agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the environmental aspects and impacts of all activities onsite. A project was initiated to explore environmental problems associated with historical activities. BSA also has made significant investments in developing and implementing an Environmental Management System that is consistent with the ISO 14001 standard, with enhancements in the area of compliance assurance. Finally, BSA improved its community involvement program to develop and maintain a positive, proactive and constructive relationship with stakeholders. This paper discusses the approach and results of these efforts. For example, one of major facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory was recently certified to the ISO 14001 standard, becoming the first Long Island-based organization and the first DOE Office of Science facility to achieve registration.

  17. Feedback Model of Air Transportation System Change: Implementation Challenges for Aviation Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra L.

    The U.S. air transportation system faces substantial challenges in implementing new aviation information systems to meet future demand. These challenges need to be understood and addressed in order to successfully meet ...

  18. Refiners trade hydroprocessing experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-16

    Hydrogen treating and conversion processes less severe than hydrocracking abound in most refineries and therefore were a subject of high interest at the National Petroleum Refiners Association question and answer session on refining technology. The present paper, which is the second abstract of the transcript of the most recent meeting, covers hydroprocessing and some of its mechanical, process, and catalytic aspects.

  19. Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Toby

    Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications Alan M. Frisch1 , Brahim Hnich2 , Ian choose model transformations to reduce greatly the amount of effort that is required to solve a problem by systematic search. It is a consid- erable challenge to automate such transformations. A problem may be viewed

  20. Implementation of EU Waste Recycling Regulation in Macedonia: The Challenges of Policy Integration and Normative Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilievska Kremer, Jannika Sjostrand

    2013-01-01

    Official Gazette of Republic Macedonia No. 140/2010 “Law onYugoslav republic of Macedonia” Environmental PerformanceRecycling Regulation in Macedonia The Challenges of Policy

  1. California's Top Two Primary and the Challenge of Making Real Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cornu, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    California’s Top Two Primary and the Challenge of MakingIt’s how I feel about the Top Two: it’s not going to improveor your productivity. The Top Two is reform of our political

  2. Refiners get petchems help

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A.; Cornitius, T.

    1997-06-11

    The U.S.Refining Industry is facing hard times. Slow growth, tough environmental regulations, and fierce competition - especially in retail gasoline - have squeezed margins and prompted a series of mergers and acquisitions. The trend has affected the smallest and largest players, and a series of transactions over the past two years has created a new industry lineup. Among the larger companies, Mobil and Amoco are the latest to consider a refining merger. That follows recent plans by Ashland and Marathon to merge their refining businesses, and the decision by Shell, Texaco, and Saudi Aramco to combine some U.S. operations. Many of the leading independent refiners have increased their scale by acquiring refinery capacity. With refining still in the doldrums, more independents are taking a closer look at boosting production of petrochemicals, which offer high growth and, usually, better margins. That is being helped by the shift to refinery processes that favor the increased production of light olefins for alkylation and the removal of aromatics, providing opportunity to extract these materials for the petrochemical market. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Climate Change, Energy Efficiency, and IEQ: Challenges and Opportunities for ASHRAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01

    change and improve energy security. To attain the largeof Energy, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007,

  4. 'Taking Charge': Kansans Save $2.3M in Challenge to Change Their Energy Behavior

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How did the Climate and Energy Project (CEP), a small environmental organization that has received Recovery Act funding, achieve $2.3 million in savings annually for Kansans? Learn more about the Take Charge Challenge, a 9-month competition in which residents across 16 communities competed against each other to save the most energy and money.

  5. Seeding Change: The Challenges of Transfer and Transformation of Educational Practice and Research in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    the challenges of including education into the broader physics culture. INTRODUCTION In physics in Physics (Part I) Noah Finkelstein Edward Price Department of Physics Center for Teaching Development populace of physics instructors. The first of these coupled papers outlines a framework of professionalism

  6. Carbon Disclosure Project Webinar: Climate Change: A Challenge for Bond Analysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the Carbon Disclosure Project, this webinar will cover climate change and how its impacts can present significant risks for municipalities and municipal bond investors.

  7. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods. phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An intuitive graphical user interface is available to guide novice users and to assist advanced users in managing refinement projects. X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be used separately or jointly in refinement. phenix.refine is tightly integrated into the PHENIX suite, where it serves as a critical component in automated model building, final structure refinement, structure validation and deposition to the wwPDB. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods.

  8. N AA Knows Climate "The climate challenge before us is real. Climate change impacts will touch nearly every aspect of our lives. Meeting the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N AA Knows Climate "The climate challenge before us is real. Climate change impacts will touch activities have been directly affected by climate change. Our scientist have implemented programs to understand the effects of climate change on marine resources and are working with our managers to modify

  9. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  10. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    refining, metal casting, and steel making. Of these industrial sectors, petroleum refineries are one of the largest consumers of energy and the United States is the largest...

  11. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

  12. Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

  13. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  14. UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Refined Freeman-Durden for Harvest Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    detection in rice paddy fields. However, harvest detection for other crops without a smooth underlying water#12;UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Refined Freeman-Durden for Harvest Detection using PolSAR data by Sina is one of the main challenges of the current century. Harvest detection, as an input for decision making

  15. Refining the shifted topological vertex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drissi, L. B.; Jehjouh, H.; Saidi, E. H. [Faculte des Sciences, Laboratory/UFR-Physique des Hautes Energies, Rabat, 1014 (Morocco); Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies (GNPHE), Siege focal:FS, Rabat, 1014 (Morocco)

    2009-01-15

    We study aspects of the refining and shifting properties of the 3d MacMahon function C{sub 3}(q) used in topological string theory and BKP hierarchy. We derive the explicit expressions of the shifted topological vertex S{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q) and its refined version T{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q,t). These vertices complete results in literature.

  16. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Assuring safety through operational approval : challenges in assessing and approving the safety of systems-level changes in air transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weibel, Roland E. (Roland Everett)

    2010-01-01

    To improve capacity and efficiency of the air transportation system, a number of new systems-level changes have been proposed. Key aspects of the proposed changes are combined functionality across technology and procedures ...

  18. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil.

  19. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  20. Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change This presentation was the opening...

  1. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry...

  2. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  3. A Refined Harmonic Rayleigh--Ritz Procedure and an Explicitly Restarted Refined Harmonic Arnoldi Algorithm #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Zhongxiao

    A Refined Harmonic Rayleigh--Ritz Procedure and an Explicitly Restarted Refined Harmonic Arnoldi Algorithm # Guizhi Chen + Zhongxiao Jia # Abstract The work is fourfold. First, a refined harmonic Rayleigh--Ritz procedure is proposed, some relationships are established between the refined harmonic Ritz vector

  4. Digital Libraries - Meeting the Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warner, Beth Forrest

    2001-02-27

    Digital Libraries – Meeting the Challenges Beth Forrest Warner Digital Library Challenges Are … … not just Digital Library challenges They are many of the same challenges facing libraries and scholarly communication in general... learning contexts In short, change … … leading to new organizational structures Challenges of Definition and Purpose What are Digital Libraries?? What’s their purpose?? A Digital Library Is: Selected and managed...

  5. Challenges to In-State Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    eligibility #12;Key Challenge #2: Restricted market access from incumbent industries · Gas stations don't sell higher blends or E85 · Oil refiners won't blend · Automaker "blend wall" #12;Key Challenge #3: Policy misalignment · Clean Air Act · California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) · Cap & Trade · Water Storage/Disposal/Recycling

  6. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, James; McCord, Raymond; Sisterson, Doug; Voyles, Jimmy

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  7. Refiners Increasingly Employing Catalyst Regeneration as Alternative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    million by the end of 2019. Refiners Benefit from Catalyst Regeneration Technology via Price Reductions and Lower Maintenance Costs The catalyst regeneration technology is the...

  8. OPERATOR INTERACTION WITH MODEL-BASED PREDICTIVE CONTROLLERS IN PETROCHEMICAL REFINING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia, University of

    OPERATOR INTERACTION WITH MODEL-BASED PREDICTIVE CONTROLLERS IN PETROCHEMICAL REFINING Greg A in process control to the more thoroughly studied Flight Management System (FMS) employed in airline cockpits and challenging task. Keywords: Cognitive task analysis; Process control; Predictive control; Optimization

  9. Lattice refining loop quantum cosmology, anisotropic models, and stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bojowald, Martin; Cartin, Daniel; Khanna, Gaurav [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Naval Academy Preparatory School, 197 Elliot Street, Newport, Rhode Island 02841 (United States); Physics Department, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth, North Dartmouth, Massachusetts 02747 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    A general class of loop quantizations for anisotropic models is introduced and discussed, which enhances loop quantum cosmology by relevant features seen in inhomogeneous situations. The main new effect is an underlying lattice which is being refined during dynamical changes of the volume. In general, this leads to a new feature of dynamical difference equations which may not have constant step-size, posing new mathematical problems. It is discussed how such models can be evaluated and what lattice refinements imply for semiclassical behavior. Two detailed examples illustrate that stability conditions can put strong constraints on suitable refinement models, even in the absence of a fundamental Hamiltonian which defines changes of the underlying lattice. Thus, a large class of consistency tests of loop quantum gravity becomes available. In this context, it will also be seen that quantum corrections due to inverse powers of metric components in a constraint are much larger than they appeared recently in more special treatments of isotropic, free scalar models where they were artificially suppressed.

  10. Evidence of OPEC pricing power: raw materials or refined products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-30

    For eight years, US petroleum and consumer sectors have argued for or against a free-market policy where international trade is concerned. Briefly, between 1982 and 1985, the argument against importation of refined products was almost as heated as the argument against importation of crude. But since the 1986 crude oil price crash, much has changed. Some contemporary thinking is that as long as the US can count on low crude prices, the benefits will outweigh the detriment to the US crude producing sector. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED refining netback data series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for late September 1988; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, September 1988 edition. 8 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  12. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  13. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of Refineries ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California:...

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum Refining Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01

    and product flows. Energy Use in Petroleum Refining The2. Estimated energy use by petroleum refining process.EIA), 2002. Petroleum Supply Annual 2001, Energy Information

  15. The 1987 refining and petrochemical technology yearbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This annual covers the latest in refining and petrochemical technology written by the experts in the field. Opening with a foreword by Richard Corbett, Refining and Petrochemical Editior of the Oil and Gas Journal. The annual includes nearly 100 articles from the 1986 issues of the Oil and Gas Journal, comprising a collection of new technical information, methods of analysis, forecasts and trends in such subject areas as plants, fuels, gasolines, coking, processing, contents, hydrocracking, equipment, catalysts, and petrochemicals.

  16. Trends in petroleum refining process technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalczyk, D. [Refining Process Services, Cheswick, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In the 1990`s, the shift toward reformulated fuels and the unrelenting economic pressures on the petroleum refining industry have led to the ongoing development of a series of technological advances to improve fuels quality and industry operating efficiency. In this paper, ten of the most innovative and high impact recent developments in petroleum refining process technology will be highlighted. Process improvements and innovations have occurred in all facets of petroleum refining operations including fluid catalytic cracking, ether production, desulfurization, hydrocracking, gas processing, environmental control and heavy oil processing. Discussed will be the technical and economic impact of each of these new technologies on the petroleum refinery of the late 20th and early 21st century.

  17. Hydrotreating operations discussed at refining meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-12

    At the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology, refiners and a panel of experts exchanged experiences on hydrotreater operations. Topics addressed included reactor pressurization, scale basket removal, and the use of antifoulants in effluent exchangers. This article presents comments from the panelists on the following questions. (1) What is the industry practice used to speed up the pressurization of 2.25 Cr/1 Mo reactors during start-up? Is there any relationship between reactor skin temperature and pressure used? (2) Has anyone removed scale baskets from a hydrotreating reactor and compared operations before and after? If so, were there any noticeable differences? Why? (3) What is the industry experience with the use of antifoulants for hydrocracking or hydrotreating reactor effluent exchangers?

  18. Refining and classifying finite-time Lyapunov exponent ridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allshouse, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    While more rigorous and sophisticated methods for identifying Lagrangian based coherent structures exist, the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field remains a straightforward and popular method for gaining some insight into transport by complex, time-dependent two-dimensional flows. In light of its enduring appeal, and in support of good practice, we begin by investigating the effects of discretization and noise on two numerical approaches for calculating the FTLE field. A practical method to extract and refine FTLE ridges in two-dimensional flows, which builds on previous methods, is then presented. Seeking to better ascertain the role of an FTLE ridge in flow transport, we adapt an existing classification scheme and provide a thorough treatment of the challenges of classifying the types of deformation represented by an FTLE ridge. As a practical demonstration, the methods are applied to an ocean surface velocity field data set generated by a numerical model.

  19. Petroleum refining for the nontechnical person

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leffler, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The second edition of this book remains a straightforward and uncomplicated text setting forth the many technical procedures involved in refining. The author has added a new chapter on simple and complex refineries and a revised chapter on gasoline blending, including current information on alcohol blending components. Contents include: Crude oil characteristics; Distilling; Flashing; The chemistry of petroleum; Catalytic cracking; Refining gas plants; Alkylation; Catalytic reforming; Residue reduction; Hydrocracking; Gasoline blending; Distillate fuels; Asphalt and residual fuel; Hydrogen, hydrotreating, and sulfur plants; Isomerization; Solvent recovery of aromatics; Ethylene plants; Simple and complex refineries; Crude oil, condensate, and natural gas liquids; Fuel values - heating values.

  20. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  1. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets 9,WhyConsumption6

  2. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  3. Patterns for Refinement Automation Alexei Iliasov1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southampton, University of

    Patterns for Refinement Automation Alexei Iliasov1 , Elena Troubitsyna2 , Linas Laibinis2 in rigorous modelling and design by increasing automation of development steps. We introduce a notion establishes a basis for building a tool that would support formal system development via pattern reuse

  4. Hydrocarbon Processing`s refining processes `96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The paper compiles information on the following refining processes: alkylation, benzene reduction, benzene saturation, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, coking, crude distillation, deasphalting, deep catalytic cracking, electrical desalting, ethers, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, isomerization, resid catalytic cracking, treating, and visbreaking. The application, products, a description of the process, yield, economics, installation, and licensor are given for each entry.

  5. Solvent dramatically affects protein structure refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summa, Christopher M.

    Solvent dramatically affects protein structure refinement Gaurav Chopraa , Christopher M. Summab, fold and function in aqueous solution in vivo and in vitro. In this work, we study the role of solvent explicit and implicit solvent were performed on a set of 75 native proteins to test the various energy

  6. Supercomputing Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3rd New Mexico Supercomputing Challenge April 23, 2013 Clustering algorithms to find correlations, "meaningful" words, topics LOS ALAMOS, N.M., April 23, 2013-A trio of Albuquerque...

  7. Supercomputing Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4th New Mexico Supercomputing Challenge April 22, 2014 Modeling Tree Growth and Resource Use with Applications LOS ALAMOS, N.M., April 22, 2014-The dynamic duo of Eli Echt-Wilson...

  8. Supercomputing Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    award for its emergency egress model. To read all the student reports, see the New Mexico Super Computing Challenge website.Nearly 42,000 in individual scholarships, including...

  9. Abstracting and Refining Authorization in SQL Arnon Rosenthal, Edward Sciore1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciore, Edward

    Abstracting and Refining Authorization in SQL Arnon Rosenthal, Edward Sciore1 Abstract. The SQL and dangerous to change. To make the model easier to work with, we formalize the implicit principles behind SQL solve several administrative problems with existing SQL security. This sort of abstraction is also

  10. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  11. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  12. Gasification, polygeneration capture interest of refiners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalund, L.R.

    1996-12-09

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are moving into the mainstream of international refining. Such plants can turn refinery dregs into the whitest of all products--sparkling electricity--plus hydrogen and synthesis gas. Hydrogen is an indispensable element for cleaning up and improving modern fuels, while syngas is the feedstock for important finished petrochemicals and intermediaries. The status and potential of gasification technologies and projects were covered in a 3 day conference early in October in San Francisco. What made this conference different from others on the subject in the past was recognition that oil and natural gas producers and the international refining industry are becoming major power producers without government subsidies. Such projects can pass the scrutiny of lenders and the test of commerciality. They are not targeted simply for electricity, but also for production of hydrogen, steam, and petrochemical feedstock. The process objective for projects now far exceeds simple cogeneration. It`s now trigeneration, even polygeneration.

  13. Reaping Energy Savings from Petroleum Refining 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, A.; Cascone, R.

    2006-01-01

    balance given in terms of percentages of crude feed for various streams. It is noted that in California, where crude oils processed tend to be heavy, hydrocracking is often used to reduce the molecular weights of the vacuum gas oil and vacuum residual... processes. The REEP leverages Nexant’s refining expertise from its Oil and Gas business unit and DSM program implementation experience from its Energy Management business unit. The Program also fully uses the lengthened duration of the PGC funding...

  14. LOCAL REFINEMENT AND MULTILEVEL PRECONDITIONING: IMPLEMENTATION AND NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holst, Michael J.

    refinement. While standard multilevel methods are effective for uniform refinement- based discretizations refined 2D and 3D meshes based on fairly standard (and easily implementable) red and red-green mesh by the Burroughs Wellcome Fund through the LJIS predoctoral training program at UC San Diego, in part by NSF (ACI

  15. Parallel Triangular Decompositions of an Oil Refining Simulation Xiaodong Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno Maza, Marc

    important process in oil refining is to separate the crude oil into various oil products. This process the composition of the various oil products in designed refining columns operated under a given set of conditions and discussions. 1 Introduction One important process in oil refining is to separate the crude oil into various

  16. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.

  17. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study weremore »incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.« less

  18. Automating crystallographic structure solution and refinement of protein–ligand complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echols, Nathaniel, E-mail: nechols@lbl.gov; Moriarty, Nigel W., E-mail: nechols@lbl.gov; Klei, Herbert E.; Afonine, Pavel V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8235 (United States); Bunkóczi, Gábor [University of Cambridge, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Headd, Jeffrey J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8235 (United States); McCoy, Airlie J.; Oeffner, Robert D.; Read, Randy J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545-0001 (United States); Adams, Paul D., E-mail: nechols@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8235 (United States); University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1762 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A software system for automated protein–ligand crystallography has been implemented in the Phenix suite. This significantly reduces the manual effort required in high-throughput crystallographic studies. High-throughput drug-discovery and mechanistic studies often require the determination of multiple related crystal structures that only differ in the bound ligands, point mutations in the protein sequence and minor conformational changes. If performed manually, solution and refinement requires extensive repetition of the same tasks for each structure. To accelerate this process and minimize manual effort, a pipeline encompassing all stages of ligand building and refinement, starting from integrated and scaled diffraction intensities, has been implemented in Phenix. The resulting system is able to successfully solve and refine large collections of structures in parallel without extensive user intervention prior to the final stages of model completion and validation.

  19. Climate change risk and response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

    2008-01-01

    and Kate Scow. 2006. “Climate Change: Page 117 ChallengesLandscapes. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.Sea Level. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.

  20. Abstract: The challenges in nuclear safeguards and in nuclear security have significantly changed over the last decades. On the one side nuclear safeguards evolved from the simple verifica9on of declared amounts of material to a more informa9on driven app

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract: The challenges in nuclear safeguards and in nuclear security have significantly changed over the last decades. On the one side nuclear safeguards evolved-doctoral researcher where he analysed dissolu9on residues from reprocessing of nuclear fuels

  1. Hanford Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low34October 2014 OctoberChallenge 219 tst Ave S,

  2. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  3. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining....

  4. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California refiningroadmap.pdf More...

  5. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  6. ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 techvision.pdf More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint...

  7. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per...

  8. Refined knot invariants and Hilbert schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eugene Gorsky; Andrei Negu?

    2015-02-13

    We consider the construction of refined Chern-Simons torus knot invariants by M. Aganagic and S. Shakirov from the DAHA viewpoint of I. Cherednik. We give a proof of Cherednik's conjecture on the stabilization of superpolynomials, and then use the results of O. Schiffmann and E. Vasserot to relate knot invariants to the Hilbert scheme of points on the plane. Then we use the methods of the second author to compute these invariants explicitly in the uncolored case. We also propose a conjecture relating these constructions to the rational Cherednik algebra, as in the work of the first author, A. Oblomkov, J. Rasmussen and V. Shende. Among the combinatorial consequences of this work is a statement of the m/n shuffle conjecture.

  9. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  10. On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models Emil M. Constantinescu and Adrian res- olution system for modeling regional air pollution based on the chemical transport model STEM. Keywords: Air Pollution Modeling, Adaptive Mesh Refinement. 1 Introduction Inadequate grid resolution can

  11. Specification and Refinement of a RealTime Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Graeme

    such approach via the specification and refinement of the well­known Steam Boiler Control Problem. The case calculus [Fidge et al., 1998] through the specifi­ cation and refinement of the well­known Steam Boiler. These features, although not central to the Steam Boiler Control Problem, are typical of features which must

  12. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  13. Improved crystallographic models through iterated local density-guided model deformation and reciprocal-space refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Read, Randy J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brunger, Axel T. [Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive West, Stanford, CA 94305-5432 (United States); Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hung, Li-Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    A density-based procedure is described for improving a homology model that is locally accurate but differs globally. The model is deformed to match the map and refined, yielding an improved starting point for density modification and further model-building. An approach is presented for addressing the challenge of model rebuilding after molecular replacement in cases where the placed template is very different from the structure to be determined. The approach takes advantage of the observation that a template and target structure may have local structures that can be superimposed much more closely than can their complete structures. A density-guided procedure for deformation of a properly placed template is introduced. A shift in the coordinates of each residue in the structure is calculated based on optimizing the match of model density within a 6 Å radius of the center of that residue with a prime-and-switch electron-density map. The shifts are smoothed and applied to the atoms in each residue, leading to local deformation of the template that improves the match of map and model. The model is then refined to improve the geometry and the fit of model to the structure-factor data. A new map is then calculated and the process is repeated until convergence. The procedure can extend the routine applicability of automated molecular replacement, model building and refinement to search models with over 2 Å r.m.s.d. representing 65–100% of the structure.

  14. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  15. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  16. GRChombo : Numerical Relativity with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clough, Katy; Finkel, Hal; Kunesch, Markus; Lim, Eugene A; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2015-01-01

    Numerical relativity has undergone a revolution in the past decade. With a well-understood mathematical formalism, and full control over the gauge modes, it is now entering an era in which the science can be properly explored. In this work, we introduce GRChombo, a new numerical relativity code written to take full advantage of modern parallel computing techniques. GRChombo's features include full adaptive mesh refinement with block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation which supports non-trivial "many-boxes-in-many-boxes" meshing hierarchies, and massive parallelism through the Message Passing Interface (MPI). GRChombo evolves the Einstein equation with the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. We show that GRChombo passes all the standard "Apples-to-Apples" code comparison tests. We also show that it can stably and accurately evolve vacuum black hole spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers, and non-vacuum spacetimes such as scalar collapses into b...

  17. RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei-Qun; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2005-06-06

    The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

  18. Climate change risk and response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Roland-Holst, David

    2008-01-01

    the Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Changeand Kate Scow. 2006. “Climate Change: Page 117 ChallengesLandscapes. ” California Climate Change Center White Paper.

  19. Multigrid elliptic equation solver with adaptive mesh refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. David Brown; Lisa L. Lowe

    2005-03-22

    In this paper we describe in detail the computational algorithm used by our parallel multigrid elliptic equation solver with adaptive mesh refinement. Our code uses truncation error estimates to adaptively refine the grid as part of the solution process. The presentation includes a discussion of the orders of accuracy that we use for prolongation and restriction operators to ensure second order accurate results and to minimize computational work. Code tests are presented that confirm the overall second order accuracy and demonstrate the savings in computational resources provided by adaptive mesh refinement.

  20. Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

  1. Reitveld refinement study of PLZT ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bavbande, D. V.; Bafna, V. H.; Mohan, D.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Mishra, R.

    2013-02-05

    PLZT ceramics of composition Pb{sub 0.93}La{sub 0.07}(Zr{sub 0.60}Ti{sub 0.40})O{sub 3}, have been milled for 6hrs and 24hrs were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The 6hrs milled and 24hrs milled samples are represented as PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded at room temperature. The XRD pattern has been analyzed by employing Rietveld refinement method. Phase identification shows that all the peaks observed in PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics could be indexed to P4mm space group with tetragonal symmetry. The unit cell parameters of 6hrs milled PLZT ceramics are found to be a=b=4.0781(5)A and c=4.0938(7)A and for 24hrs milled PLZT ceramics unit cell parameters are a=b=4.0679(4)A and c=4.1010(5)A . The axial ratio c/a and unit cell volume of PLZT-6 are 1.0038 and 68.09(2)A{sup 3} respectively. In PLZT-24 samples, the axial ratio c/a value is 1.0080 which is little more than that of the 6hr milled PLZT sample whereas the unit cell volume decrease to 67.88 (1) A{sup 3}. An average crystallite size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. Dielectric properties were obtained by measuring the capacitance and tand loss using Stanford LCR meter.

  2. Climate Change, Drought & Environment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Afternoon Plenary Session: Current Trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Climate Change, Drought, and Environment—Michael Champ, Executive Director, The Sustainable Water Challenge

  3. Multiphysics simulations: challenges and opportunities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, D.; McInnes, L. C.; Woodward, C.; Gropp, W.; Myra, E.; Pernice, M.

    2012-11-29

    This report is an outcome of the workshop Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities, sponsored by the Institute of Computing in Science (ICiS). Additional information about the workshop, including relevant reading and presentations on multiphysics issues in applications, algorithms, and software, is available via https://sites.google.com/site/icismultiphysics2011/. We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where 'algorithmic' includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity and 'architectural' includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities. We also initiate a modest suite of test problems encompassing features present in many applications.

  4. CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, K.I.

    2010-01-01

    I. Solvent Refined Coal II. Catalysts III. Purpose andSondreal, E.A. , "Viscosity of Coal Liquids - The Effect ofAnthraxylon - Kinetics of Coal Hydrogenation," Ind. and Eng.

  5. Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Ralf

    Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows Ralf Hartmann1 and Paul Houston, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany Ralf.Hartmann@dlr.de 2 School of Mathematical Sciences University

  6. Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Ralf

    Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows Ralf Hartmann, Joachim Held), Lilien- thalplatz 7, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany, e-mail: Ralf.Hartmann@dlr.de 1 #12;2 Ralf Hartmann

  7. Europe`s refining industry woes detailed at London meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.

    1996-12-09

    Refiners, catalyst producers, engineering firms, and process licensers discussed Europe`s refining industry at the first-ever European Refining Technology Conference, October 28--30, London. Some 400 attendees heard presentations on European Union (EU) environmental legislation, and a variety of processing and catalyst options available to help refiners comply with the regulations. The conference consisted of two parallel sessions: one covering heavy-ends conversion and a second covering hydroprocessing and other light-ends processes. Each session included nine technical presentations, and a panel discussion in which 12 panelists answered presubmitted questions. The heavy-ends technical presentations covered topics including: fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) technology and catalysts, bottoms upgrading options, deep-cut distillation techniques, and gasification. The light-ends papers discussed: European air and fuels qualities, catalytic reforming, hydrotreating, biocatalytic desulfurization, hydrocracking, dewaxing, alkylation, and etherification.

  8. CATALYTIC CONVERSION OF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, K.I.

    2010-01-01

    E.A. , "Viscosity of Coal Liquids - The Effect of CharacterOF SOLVENT REFINED COAL TO LIQUID PRODUCTS Kylan I. Tanner*for Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels: Basic and Ex-

  9. Global climate change and the mitigation challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Princiotta

    2009-10-15

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, very likely the primary cause of the 0.8{sup o}C warming the Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. This paper examines forces driving CO{sub 2} emissions, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and research and development (R&D) priorities. To constrain warming to below approximately 2.5{sup o}C in 2100, the recent annual 3% CO{sub 2} emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Furthermore, the current generation of energy generation and end-use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs fall far short of what is required. 20 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Responding to Changing Workforce Needs and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,470 power plant operators, distributors, dispatchers). 40,220 architecture and engineering occupations (15 for utilities sector including electric power, natural gas, steam supply, water supply, and sewage removal #12

  11. Changing computational research. The challenges ahead.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    As we looked at papers for ORC we set higher stan- dards. Weend we have decided to fold ORC into another BMC journal,and offer the “badge” of ORC certification as an extra

  12. CLOUD MODELING CHALLENGES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE SIMULATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L OBransenBusinessInitialRadiological Surveys atCLAMRPathwayROLE

  13. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, committing to install charging for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at their worksites. By taking on this Challenge, they are helping...

  15. Millennial changes in North American wildfire and soil activity over the last glacial cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Hubertus; Schüpbach, Simon; Gfeller, Gideon; Bigler, Matthias; Röthlisberger, Regine; Erhardt, Tobias; Stocker, Thomas F.; Mulvaney, Robert; Wolff, Eric W.

    2015-08-10

      climatic   changes  during   the   Last   Glacial   period   based   on   three   synchronized  Greenland   ice-­?core  records:   refining   and   extending   the   INTIMATE   event   stratigraphy.  Quat  Sci...

  16. Refiners Switch to RFG Complex Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    On January 1, 1998, domestic and foreign refineries and importers must stop using the "simple" model and begin using the "complex" model to calculate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), toxic air pollutants (TAP), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from motor gasoline. The primary differences between application of the two models is that some refineries may have to meet stricter standards for the sulfur and olefin content of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) they produce and all refineries will now be held accountable for NOx emissions. Requirements for calculating emissions from conventional gasoline under the anti-dumping rule similarly change for exhaust TAP and NOx. However, the change to the complex model is not expected to result in an increase in the price premium for RFG or constrain supplies.

  17. Automatic grid refinement criterion for lattice Boltzmann method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagrava, Daniel; Latt, Joneas; Chopard, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    In all kinds of engineering problems, and in particular in methods for computational fluid dynamics based on regular grids, local grid refinement is of crucial importance. To save on computational expense, many applications require to resolve a wide range of scales present in a numerical simulation by locally adding more mesh points. In general, the need for a higher (or a lower) resolution is not known \\emph{a priori}, and it is therefore difficult to locate areas for which local grid refinement is required. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for the lattice Boltzmann method, based on physical concepts, to automatically construct a pattern of local refinement. We apply the idea to the two-dimensional lid-driven cavity and show that the automatically refined grid can lead to results of equal quality with less grid points, thus sparing computational resources and time. The proposed automatic grid refinement strategy has been implemented in the parallel open-source library Palabos.

  18. Multilayer network modeling of change propagation for engineering change management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasqual, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Engineering change management is a critical and challenging process within product development. One pervasive source of difficulty for this process is the phenomenon of change propagation, by which a change to one part or ...

  19. Survey shows over 1,000 refining catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1991-10-14

    The Journal's latest survey of worldwide refining catalysts reveals that there are more than 1,040 unique catalyst designations in commercial use in 19 processing categories - an increase of some 140 since the compilation of refining catalysts was last published. As a matter of interest, some 700 catalysts were determined during the first survey. The processing categories surveyed in this paper are: Catalytic naphtha reforming. Dimerization, Isomerization (C{sub 4}), Isomerization (C{sub 5} and C{sub 6}), Isomerization (xylenes), Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), Hydrocracking, Mild hydrocracking, hydrotreating/hydrogenation/ saturation, Hydrorefining, Polymerization, Sulfur (elemental) recovery, Steam hydrocarbon reforming, Sweetening, Clause unit tail gas treatment, Oxygenates, Combustion promoters (FCC), Sulfur oxides reduction (FCC), and Other refining processes.

  20. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  1. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  2. CHALLENGE 2015 WALL OF WIND MITIGATION CHALLENGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    with the development of the building model. Is wind mitigation being addressed by your solution? What is wind science, sociology, and urban planning when discussing wind mitigation and your solution. WrittenW W! CHALLENGE 2015 WALL OF WIND MITIGATION CHALLENGE Competition at FIU's Engineering & Computing

  3. CONNECTICUT CHALLENGES TOWNS TO REDUCE ENERGY USE | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Displays of Efficiency" N2N YouTube Channel PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS "Small Changes, Big Results, With the Connecticut Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge" (April 19, 2011)...

  4. Interval methods for computing various refinements of Nash equilibria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sainudiin, Raazesh

    Interval methods for computing various refinements of Nash equilibria Bartlomiej Jacek Kubica, assumptions on their knowledge, ... Concepts: Dominant strategy equilibrium. The Nash equilibrium. The core of a game (for cooperative games). ... #12;Nash equilibrium Let the game (X1 ,...,Xn ;q1 ,...,qn

  5. Refinement of Hybrid Systems from Formal Models to Design Languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cengarle, María Victoria

    of high-level design of a control system, it is highly desirable to use representations that accuratelyRefinement of Hybrid Systems from Formal Models to Design Languages Jan Romberg Systems & Software Abstract System-level design for discrete-continuous embedded systems is a complex and error- prone task

  6. routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn ANDRE BROIDO, EVI NEMETH, KC CLAFFY measures reflect contributions of opposite sign, and that true measure of variation, or churn, is the sum a standalone prefix to a root prefix) are instances of routing system churn. One advantage of using our notion

  7. routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    routing, Internet, BGP Internet Expansion, Refinement and Churn ANDRE BROIDO, EVI NEMETH, KC CLAFFY contributions of opposite sign, and that true measure of variation, or churn, is the sum of their absolute a standalone prefix to a root prefix) are instances of routing system churn. One advantage of using our notion

  8. Department of Computing Stepwise Refinement in Event-B||CSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    in Event-B||CSP Part 1: Safety Steve Schneider, Helen Treharne and Heike Wehrheim March 12th 2011 #12;Stepwise Refinement in Event-B CSP Part 1: Safety Steve Schneider1 Helen Treharne1 Heike Wehrheim2 1, 2011 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 CSP 3 2.1 Notation

  9. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: BIOfuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Broad Run HS in Ashburn, VA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge...

  10. Dallas Challenge Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, Gabriella; Leichtle, Stephanie; Garraway, Charlotte

    2015-05-20

    .............................................................................................. 45 Appendix ..................................................................................................................................................................... 54 List of Figures... Summary The project is an analysis of Dallas Challenge’s current image through a stakeholder assessment. Following the assessment, we will provide strategies and tactics that...

  11. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1,CenterJohnCeremony TheChallenges andChange LogChange

  12. RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc.Commonwealth of Puerto Rico RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc....

  13. Abstraction and Counterexample-Guided Refinement in Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Formal Verification, Abstraction, Model Checking, Hybrid Systems, Refinement, Counterexamples #12Abstraction and Counterexample-Guided Refinement in Model Checking of Hybrid Systems Edmund Clarke a counterexample generated by the model checker. For hybrid systems, analysis of the counterexample requires

  14. New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The...

  15. Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chau, Chi-Fai

    1994-01-01

    A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved...

  16. Canadian refiner finds simple route to reformulated gasoline production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, B. [North Atlantic Refining Ltd., Come By Chance, Newfoundland (Canada); McDonald, G.W.G. [IONA Ltd., Sarasota, FL (United States); Perkins, J.D. [United Catalysts Inc., Louisville, KY (United States)

    1997-03-17

    North Atlantic Refining Ltd. (NARL) operates a 105,000 b/sd hydrocracking refinery at Come By Chance, Newfoundland. NARL sells gasoline into markets in Newfoundland and the northeastern US. When the US Environmental Protection Agency instituted reformulated gasoline (RFG) requirements as part of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990, NARL had to find a way to meet the specifications, even though the refinery is not within US territory. The refiner chose to add a small hydrogenation unit to treat the portion of the reformate stream containing benzene precursors. Since start-up of the unit in late 1995, it has achieved 100% benzene hydrogenation, thus allowing NARL to easily produce RFG containing less than 1.0 vol% benzene. The paper discusses procurement, hydrogen supply, catalyst, special features, start-up, operations, and process control.

  17. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  18. Off-balance-sheet financing to the refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, J.H. [Pace Consultants Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Off-balance-sheet lending, or project finance, is becoming an increasingly popular means of capital formation in the refining and petrochemical industries. However, these transactions are substantially different from traditional corporate lending, and the demands placed on the borrower to examine, substantiate, and support the project are far greater. The following paper examines ways in which international banks and other lenders evaluate off-balance-sheet refinery projects and suggests ways to better structure financial representations.

  19. Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report Appendices |ProjectKnowRedox Shuttle Additive, WinsRefining

  20. Emergent Properties Do Not Refine Fiona Polack, Susan Stepney1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stepney, Susan

    Emergent Properties Do Not Refine Fiona Polack, Susan Stepney1,2 Department of Computer Science a demonstrably-correct development from an abstract specification. Emergent systems present an interesting to the traditional model of refinement. Keywords: Emergence, Refinement, Systems Engineering. 1 Introduction Our

  1. Refinement and verification of concurrent systems specified in ObjectZ and CSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Graeme

    Refinement and verification of concurrent systems specified in Object­Z and CSP Graeme Smith­Z and CSP. A common semantic basis for the two languages enables a unified method of refinement to be used, based upon CSP refinement. To enable state­based techniques to be used for the Object­Z components

  2. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckingsale, D. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Gaudin, W. P. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Hornung, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunney, B. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gamblin, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Herdman, J. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Jarvis, S. A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  3. Issues in using landscape indicators to assess land changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Landscape indicators, when combined with information about environmental conditions (such as habitat potential, biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycling, and erosion) and socioeconomic forces, can provide insights about changing ecosystem services. They also provide information about opportunities for improving natural resources management. Landscape indicators rely on data regarding land cover, land management and land functionality. Challenges in using landscape indicators to assess change and effects include (1) measures of land management and attributes that are reliable, robust and consistent for all areas on the Earth do not exist, and thus land cover is more frequently utilized; (2) multiple types of land cover and management are often found within a single landscape and are constantly changing, which complicates measurement and interpretation; and (3) while causal analysis is essential for understanding and interpreting changes in indicator values, the interactions among multiple causes and effects over time make accurate attribution among many drivers of change particularly difficult. Because of the complexity, sheer number of variables, and limitations of empirical data on land changes, models are often used to illustrate and estimate values for landscape indicators, and those models have several problems. Recommendations to improve our ability to assess the effects of changes in land management include refinement of questions to be more consistent with available information and the development of data sets based on systematic measurement over time of spatially explicit land qualities such as carbon and nutrient stocks, water and soil quality, net primary productivity, habitat and biodiversity. Well-defined and consistent land-classification systems that are capable of tracking changes in these and other qualities that matter to society need to be developed and deployed. Because landscapes are so dynamic, it is crucial to develop ways for the scientific community to work together to collect data and develop tools that will enable better analysis of causes and effects and to develop robust management recommendations that will increases land s capacity to meet societal needs in a changing world.

  4. DOE Challenge Home Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    clients meet those criteria. Congratulations to both companies. Webinars: Tech talks on ducts and comprehensive building science DOE Challenge Home is a blueprint for zero energy...

  5. SOFT COST GRAND CHALLENGE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energycenter.org California Center for Sustainable Energy Soft Cost Grand Challenge May 22, 2014 Accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy 2...

  6. Hydrogen Storage Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For transportation, the overarching technical challenge for hydrogen storage is how to store the amount of hydrogen required for a conventional driving range (>300 miles) within the vehicular...

  7. Workplace Charging Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    Fact sheet about the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge which is to increase the number of American employers offering workplace charging by tenfold in the next five years.

  8. The severe scaling challenges of mainstream memories mo vated recent ac ve research on emerging nonvola le memory (eNVM) technologies. Some promising candidates, i.e., phase change memory, spintronic memory, and resis ve memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMara, Ronald F.

    nonvola le memory (eNVM) technologies. Some promising candidates, i.e., phase change memory, spintronic

  9. Climate Change Economics and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, Daniela

    AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate

  10. White House Solar Champions of Change - Watch Now | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    White House Champions of Change Recognizes Solar Innovator SunShot Grand Challenge Summit Opening Session Energy Department Announces New Prize Challenge to Drive Down Solar Costs...

  11. ,"Weekly Refiner Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longecReformulated GasolineSalesBlender NetRefiner

  12. Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  13. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy and Forest ServicePower andPetroleum Refining

  14. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE SafetyofDepartment. "National Midcourse Refinements of

  15. Genealogy of major U.S. refiners - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners

  16. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1,CenterJohnCeremony TheChallenges andChange Log

  17. Refinement of Mg{sub 2}Si reinforcement in a commercial Al–20%Mg{sub 2}Si in-situ composite with bismuth, antimony and strontium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordin, Nur Azmah; Farahany, Saeed, E-mail: saeedfarahany@gmail.com; Ourdjini, Ali; Abu Bakar, Tuty Asma; Hamzah, Esah

    2013-12-15

    Refinement by addition elements of Al–Mg{sub 2}Si alloys is known to result in a change of primary Mg{sub 2}Si morphology. In this paper, the effects of Bi, Sb and Sr on the characteristic parameters of Al–20%Mg{sub 2}Si in-situ composite have been investigated by computer aided cooling curve thermal analysis and microstructural inspection. Size, density and aspect ratio measurements showed that additions of 0.4 wt.% Bi, 0.8 wt.% Sb and 0.01 wt.% Sr refined the Mg{sub 2}Si reinforcement. Exceeding these concentrations, however, resulted in coarsening of Mg{sub 2}Si particles with no change in the morphology. The results also showed that addition elements caused a decrease in the nucleation and growth temperatures of Mg{sub 2}Si particles. The refining effect of Bi, Sb and Sr is likely to be related to the effect of oxide bifilms suspended in the composite melt as favored nucleation substrates for Mg{sub 2}Si particles. - Highlight: • 0.4 wt.%, 0.8 wt.% and 0.01 wt.% is the optimum content for Bi, Sb and Sr addition. • Exceeding optimum concentration resulted in the coarsening of reinforcements. • Nucleation and growth temperatures decrease with addition of Bi, Sb and Sr. • The refining effect of Bi, Sb and Sr is likely to be related to the oxide bifilms.

  18. A study of the necessary and optimal conditions for success in the most challenging human endeavors : modem day Manhattan Projects are needed for overcoming contemporary global challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Anando A

    2012-01-01

    It is possible to categorize four contemporary challenges as the greatest threats to global well-being and the persistence of humankind. These challenges are global climate and ecological change, poor human health management, ...

  19. DOE Responses to DOE Challenge Home (formerly Builders Challenge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Responses to Draft Specification Comments 1 Updated 492012 DOE Responses to DOE Challenge Home (formerly Builders Challenge) National Program Requirements Public Comments DOE...

  20. DOE Responses to DOE Challenge Home (formerly Builders Challenge...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE Responses to DOE Challenge Home (formerly Builders Challenge) National Program Requirements Public Comments, a publication of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy...

  1. Dynamic implicit 3D adaptive mesh refinement for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Philip; Z. Wang; M.A. Berrill; M. Birke; M. Pernice

    2014-04-01

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered often exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multi-physics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multi-physics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton–Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  2. Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

    2012-06-28

    The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

  3. Errors Characteristics of Two Grid Refinement Approaches in Aquaplanet Simulations: MPAS-A and WRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Rauscher, Sara; Ringler, Todd

    2013-09-01

    This study compares the error characteristics associated with two grid refinement approaches including global variable resolution and nesting for high resolution regional climate modeling. The global variable resolution model, Model for Prediction Across Scales-Atmosphere (MPAS-A), and the limited area model, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are compared in an idealized aqua-planet context. For MPAS-A, simulations have been performed with a quasi-uniform resolution global domain at coarse (1°) and high (0.25°) resolution, and a variable resolution domain with a high resolution region at 0.25° configured inside a coarse resolution global domain at 1° resolution. Similarly, WRF has been configured to run on a coarse (1°) and high (0.25°) tropical channel domain as well as a nested domain with a high resolution region at 0.25° nested two-way inside the coarse resolution (1°) tropical channel. The variable resolution or nested simulations are compared against the high resolution simulations. Both models respond to increased resolution with enhanced precipitation. Limited and significant reduction in the ratio of convective to non-convective precipitation. The limited area grid refinement induces zonal asymmetry in precipitation (heating), accompanied by zonal anomalous Walker like circulations and standing Rossby wave signals. Within the high resolution limited area, the zonal distribution of precipitation is affected by advection in MPAS-A and by the nesting strategy in WRF. In both models, 20 day Kelvin waves propagate through the high-resolution domains fairly unaffected by the change in resolution (and the presence of a boundary in WRF) but increased resolution strengthens eastward propagating inertio-gravity waves.

  4. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

  5. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  6. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Year Month...

  7. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  8. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  9. Table 2. U.S. Refiner Prices of Petroleum Products to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    fuel. Note: Motor gasoline averages and totals prior to October 1993 include leaded gasoline. Sources: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas Plant...

  10. Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement for POND Planning Jonas Thiem and Robert Mattmuller and Manuela Ortlieb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teschner, Matthias

    Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement for POND Planning Jonas Thiem and Robert Mattm to define abstractions (guar- anteeing over-approximations). A straightforward way for POND planning

  11. Refining and Extending the Business Model with Information Technology: Dell Computer Corporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Kenneth L; Dedrick, Jason; Yamashiro, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    of Dell’s Direct Business Model Fuels Fifteenth ConsecutiveAND EXTENDING THE REFINING AND EXTENDING THE BUSINESS MODELBUSINESS MODEL CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

  12. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 441 Table A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  13. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  14. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per...

  15. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  16. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  17. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  18. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  19. ENZO: AN ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Turk, Matthew J. [Columbia University, Department of Astronomy, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Norman, Michael L.; Bordner, James; Xu, Hao; Kritsuk, Alexei G. [CASS, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Abel, Tom; Wang, Peng; Skillman, Samuel W. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Wise, John H. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA (United States); Reynolds, Daniel R. [Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Box 750156, Dallas, TX 75205-0156 (United States); Collins, David C. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Harkness, Robert P. [NICS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kim, Ji-hoon [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuhlen, Michael [Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Goldbaum, Nathan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Hummels, Cameron [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tasker, Elizabeth [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-10 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Collaboration: Enzo Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the open-source code Enzo, which uses block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for modeling astrophysical fluid flows. The code is Cartesian, can be run in one, two, and three dimensions, and supports a wide variety of physics including hydrodynamics, ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics, N-body dynamics (and, more broadly, self-gravity of fluids and particles), primordial gas chemistry, optically thin radiative cooling of primordial and metal-enriched plasmas (as well as some optically-thick cooling models), radiation transport, cosmological expansion, and models for star formation and feedback in a cosmological context. In addition to explaining the algorithms implemented, we present solutions for a wide range of test problems, demonstrate the code's parallel performance, and discuss the Enzo collaboration's code development methodology.

  20. Ris Energy Report 6 Energy challenges 3 Energy challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø Energy Report 6 Energy challenges 3 Energy challenges POUL ERIk MORTHORsT, RIsø DTU; JøRgEN HENNINgsEN, FORMER PRINCIPAL ADVIsER, Dg FOR ENERgY AND TRANsPORT, EUROPEAN COMMIssION 3.1 Danish and European energy challenges The European Community faces three major energy challenges [1]: · Sustainability

  1. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  2. Banff Challenge 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junk, Thomas R.; /Fermilab

    2011-08-01

    Experimental particle physics collaborations constantly seek newer and better ideas for improving the sensitivity of their searches for new particles and phenomena. Statistical techniques are the last step in interpreting the results of an experiment; they are used to make discoveries (hypothesis testing), and to measure parameters (point estimation). They are also used in the first step - experiment and analysis design. Banff Challenge 2 asks participants to test their methods of discovering hidden signals in simulated datasets and of measuring the properties of these signals. The Challenge problems are described, and the performances of the submitted entries is summarized, for datasets with and without simulated signals present.

  3. CN ENGINEERING CHALLENGES David Ferryman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Railway Engineering Challenges Weakest component in track is thermite welds ­ Half the impact strength

  4. Services Breakout: Expressiveness Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polz, Martin

    industry standards? a) What to accomplish? b) How? 5. Address specific DAML+OIL challenges for DAML. · Make sure SSDL is compatible with industry standards. Actions: · Analyze requirements: impact Action Items #12;4. How do we align "DAML-S" with emerging industry standards? a) What to accomplish? b

  5. Distance sampling and the challenge of monitoring butterfly populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuker, David

    Distance sampling and the challenge of monitoring butterfly populations Nick J. B. Isaac110 5DD, UK; 5 Institute for Environment, Sustainability and Regeneration, Mellor Building Monitoring Scheme (UKBMS) have been influential in informing our understanding of environmental change

  6. Addressing the challenges of families with multiple risks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Marci J.; Carta, Judith J.

    1995-01-01

    For a significant segment of the population, the challenges faced by families are multiple and constitute risks for the children and other family members. The changing structures and characteristics of the American family are reviewed...

  7. Petroleum Refining Energy Use in Relation to Fuel Products Made 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, J. R.; Marshall, J. F.; Shoemaker, G. L.; Smith, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    that reduce the energy effects of changing octane levels. These changes have been incorporated in the linear program representation of a modern 'fuels' refinery. The total flow of crude oil to products and the corresponding energy use are included...

  8. Climate Change Simulations with CCSM and CESM Project at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Change Simulations with CCSM & CESM Climate Change Simulations with CCSM & CESM Key Challenges: Perform fundamental research on the processes that influence the natural...

  9. Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

  10. Abstraction and CounterexampleGuided Refinement in Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Formal Verification, Abstraction, Model Checking, Hybrid Systems, Refinement, Counterexamples #12; 1Abstraction and Counterexample­Guided Refinement in Model Checking of Hybrid Systems Edmund Clarke a counterexample generated by the model checker. For hybrid systems, analysis of the counterexample requires

  11. Perspectives on Sustainable Materials, Instructor Susan Kaplan Fall 2014 Syllabus (subject to refining/updating)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    Perspectives on Sustainable Materials, Instructor Susan Kaplan Fall 2014 Syllabus (subject to refining/updating) 1 SUS 7600A: Perspectives on Sustainable Materials Instructor: Susan Kaplan, LEED AP, Instructor Susan Kaplan Fall 2014 Syllabus (subject to refining/updating) 2 Primary Assignments: Basic

  12. Orientation Refinement of Virus Structures with Unknown Symmetry Yongchang Ji, Dan C. Marinescu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Timothy S.

    Orientation Refinement of Virus Structures with Unknown Symmetry Yongchang Ji, Dan C. Marinescu, in particular the structure determina- tion of viruses and other large macromolecular complexes leads to data determina- tion of viruses, the orientation refinement. 1. Introduction and Motivation Viruses are large

  13. To appear in EPTCS. A CSP account of Event-B refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    To appear in EPTCS. A CSP account of Event-B refinement Steve Schneider Department of Computing a CSP account of Event-B refinement, with a treatment for the first time of splitting events and of anticipated events. To this end, we define a CSP seman- tics for Event-B and show how the different forms

  14. FDR3 --A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    FDR3 -- A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong, Alexandre.roscoe}@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract. FDR3 is a complete rewrite of the CSP refinement checker FDR2, incorporating a significant number describe the new algorithm that FDR3 uses to construct its internal representation of CSP processes

  15. FDR3 --A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    FDR3 -- A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong, Alexandre.roscoe}@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract. FDR3 is a complete rewrite of the CSP refinement checker FDR2, incorporating a significant number describe the new algorithm that FDR3 uses to construct its in- ternal representation of CSP processes

  16. Rapidly-Exploring Roadmaps: Weighing Exploration vs. Refinement in Optimal Motion Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patil, Sachin

    Rapidly-Exploring Roadmaps: Weighing Exploration vs. Refinement in Optimal Motion Planning Ron of already explored regions to find better paths. We present the rapidly- exploring roadmap (RRM), a new to explore further or to refine the explored space by adding edges to the current roadmap to find higher

  17. Component-Based Abstraction and Refinement , Xiuli Sun2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Fei

    , is a powerful state space reduction algorithm and accomplishes verification of a property on a system, ABV, model checking, and compo- sitional reasoning in system verification, the following challenges in component-based hardware/software co-verification of embedded systems. Case studies have shown

  18. Design of Ensemble-Based Component Systems by Invariant Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Group Volkswagen AG Wolfsburg, Germany ABSTRACT The challenge of developing dynamically study aims at resource optimization, such as travel time, energy consumption, and parking lot and charging station usage of electric-powered vehicles. Its objective is to coordinate planning of journeys

  19. Migration and Global Environmental Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migration and Global Environmental Change Future Challenges and Opportunities FINAL PROJECT REPORT and adaptation, and also developmental and humanitarian agendas. Migration and Global Environmental Change Future Environmental Change (2011) Final Project Report The Government Office for Science, London #12;3 A range

  20. Climate Change Action Plan Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Climate Change Action Plan Report Intermountain Region 2013 National Park Service Resource Stewardship and Science Landscape Conservation and Climate Change Division #12;About this Report Each National Park Service is responding to the challenge of climate change; and (2) raise awareness among NPS

  1. Cosmos++: Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics on Unstructured Grids with Local Adaptive Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Anninos; P. Chris Fragile; Jay D. Salmonson

    2005-09-09

    A new code and methodology are introduced for solving the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations in fixed background spacetimes using time-explicit, finite-volume discretization. The code has options for solving the GRMHD equations using traditional artificial-viscosity (AV) or non-oscillatory central difference (NOCD) methods, or a new extended AV (eAV) scheme using artificial-viscosity together with a dual energy-flux-conserving formulation. The dual energy approach allows for accurate modeling of highly relativistic flows at boost factors well beyond what has been achieved to date by standard artificial viscosity methods. It provides the benefit of Godunov methods in capturing high Lorentz boosted flows but without complicated Riemann solvers, and the advantages of traditional artificial viscosity methods in their speed and flexibility. Additionally, the GRMHD equations are solved on an unstructured grid that supports local adaptive mesh refinement using a fully threaded oct-tree (in three dimensions) network to traverse the grid hierarchy across levels and immediate neighbors. A number of tests are presented to demonstrate robustness of the numerical algorithms and adaptive mesh framework over a wide spectrum of problems, boosts, and astrophysical applications, including relativistic shock tubes, shock collisions, magnetosonic shocks, Alfven wave propagation, blast waves, magnetized Bondi flow, and the magneto-rotational instability in Kerr black hole spacetimes.

  2. Refining a relativistic, hydrodynamic solver: Admitting ultra-relativistic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. P. Bernstein; P. A. Hughes

    2009-07-23

    We have undertaken the simulation of hydrodynamic flows with bulk Lorentz factors in the range 10^2--10^6. We discuss the application of an existing relativistic, hydrodynamic primitive-variable recovery algorithm to a study of pulsar winds, and, in particular, the refinement made to admit such ultra-relativistic flows. We show that an iterative quartic root finder breaks down for Lorentz factors above 10^2 and employ an analytic root finder as a solution. We find that the former, which is known to be robust for Lorentz factors up to at least 50, offers a 24% speed advantage. We demonstrate the existence of a simple diagnostic allowing for a hybrid primitives recovery algorithm that includes an automatic, real-time toggle between the iterative and analytical methods. We further determine the accuracy of the iterative and hybrid algorithms for a comprehensive selection of input parameters and demonstrate the latter's capability to elucidate the internal structure of ultra-relativistic plasmas. In particular, we discuss simulations showing that the interaction of a light, ultra-relativistic pulsar wind with a slow, dense ambient medium can give rise to asymmetry reminiscent of the Guitar nebula leading to the formation of a relativistic backflow harboring a series of internal shockwaves. The shockwaves provide thermalized energy that is available for the continued inflation of the PWN bubble. In turn, the bubble enhances the asymmetry, thereby providing positive feedback to the backflow.

  3. Managing Nutrition and Health in a Changing Climate: A Yellowknives Dene First Nation Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duran, Nelida

    2015-01-01

    the challenges of climate change and biofuel production forthe Compounding Effects of Climate Change on the NutritionE. Hanson ( Eds. ), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation

  4. DOE Challenge Home Label Methodology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the core value messages of the DOE Challenge Home The model for the label compares building science and quality measures of a DOE Challenge Home in six major categories to both...

  5. Genome informatics: Requirements and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Informatics of some kind will play a role in every aspect of the Human Genome Project (HGP); data acquisition, data analysis, data exchange, data publication, and data visualization. What are the real requirements and challenges? The primary requirement is clear thinking and the main challenge is design. If good design is lacking, the price will be failure of genome informatics and ultimately failure of the genome project itself. Scientists need good designs to deliver the tools necessary for acquiring and analyzing DNA sequences. As these tools become more efficient, they will need new tools for comparative genomic analyses. To make the tools work, the scientists will need to address and solve nomenclature issues that are essential, if also tedious. They must devise systems that will scale gracefully with the increasing flow of data. The scientists must be able to move data easily from one system to another, with no loss of content. As scientists, they will have failed in their responsibility to share results, should repeating experiments ever become preferable to searching the literature. Their databases must become a new kind of scientific literature and the scientists must develop ways to make electronic data publishing as routine as traditional journal publishing. Ultimately, they must build systems so advanced that they are virtually invisible. In summary, the HGP can be considered the most ambitious, most audacious information-management project ever undertaken. In the HGP, computers will not merely serve as tools for cataloging existing knowledge. Rather, they will serve as instruments, helping to create new knowledge by changing the way the scientists see the biological world. Computers will allow them to see genomes, just as radio telescopes let them see quasars and electron microscopes let them see viruses.

  6. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Crabtree, George

    2010-01-08

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  7. Supercomputing Challenge Expo and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect PhotovoltaicsStructureInnovationEnergySuperSupercomputing Challenge April6-27

  8. Mgt. Challenges 2004

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safetyof Methane Hydrate Program Annual Report toChallenges at the

  9. CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER SUPPLY SECURITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE CHANGE AND WATER SUPPLY SECURITY: Reconfiguring Groundwater Management to Reduce with climate change, present a significant planning challenge for California's water agencies. This research Drought Vulnerability A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate

  10. J4.3 LARGE-EDDY SIMULATION ACROSS A GRID REFINEMENT INTERFACE USING EXPLICIT FILTERING AND RECONSTRUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Fotini Katopodes

    reflect off grid refinement interfaces, specifically on the outflow boundary from a fine to a coarse grid reflection off grid refinement interfaces by forcing the filter-resolved scale on a fine grid to equalJ4.3 LARGE-EDDY SIMULATION ACROSS A GRID REFINEMENT INTERFACE USING EXPLICIT FILTERING

  11. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, N. Kishore [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  12. Mathematics: Challenging, Useful, and Fun!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Amy

    Mathematics: Challenging, Useful, and Fun! Mathematics: Challenging, Useful, and Fun! #12;What available to math students Provide an overview of the math major and department Mathematics: Challenging, Useful, and Fun! #12;Why study mathematics? Open doors: careers, majors, higher education Useful skills

  13. Global Change Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Global Change and Sustainability Center The GCSC is an inclusionary and interdisciplinary hub that promotes, coordinates, and conducts local to global environmental- and sustainability-related research to complex environmental and sustainability issues and challenges. 2012 Annual Report #12;1GCSC 2012 ANNUAL

  14. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  15. Adjustable Speed Drives in the U.S. Petroleum Refining, Petrochemical, and Chemical Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes applications and incentives for the use of variable frequency drivers (VFD) in the petroleum refining, petrochemical, and chemical industries. VFDs are a particular type of adjustable speed driver (ASD) found prevalently...

  16. Grain refinement and texture development of cast bi90sb10 alloy via severe plastic deformation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Jae-taek

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this work was to study learn about grain refinement mechanisms and texture development in cast n-type Bi90Sb10 alloy caused by severe plastic deformation. The practical objective is to produce a fine grained ...

  17. An Assessment of carbon reduction technology opportunities in the petroleum refining industry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrick, M.

    1998-09-14

    The refining industry is a major source of CO{sub 2} emissions in the industrial sector and therefore in the future can expect to face increasing pressures to reduce emission levels. The energy used in refining is impacted by market dictates, crude quality, and environmental regulations. While the industry is technologically advanced and relatively efficient opportunities nevertheless exist to reduce energy usage and CO{sub 2} emissions. The opportunities will vary from refinery to refinery and will necessarily have to be economically viable and compatible with each refiner's strategic plans. Recognizing the many factors involved, a target of 15-20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from the refining sector does not appear to be unreasonable, assuming a favorable investment climate.

  18. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS).

  19. Economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme : evidence from the refining sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacombe, Romain H

    2008-01-01

    I study the economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the refining industry in Europe. I contrast previous ex-ante studies with the lessons from a series of interviews I conducted with ...

  20. Classical descriptive set theory as a refinement of effective descriptive set theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moschovakis, Yiannis N.

    as a refinement of the classical theory of definability (on Polish spaces) developed in the first half of the 20th the notions I need, as well as (condensed) outlines of the required arguments. 1. Recursion in Baire space We

  1. Refinement of light-responsive transcript lists using rice oligonucleotide arrays: evaluation of gene-redundancy.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Refinement of Light-Responsive Transcript Lists Using Riceleaves of two-week old plants grown in a natural light-darkcycle (light-grown) in comparison to RNA from October 2008 |

  2. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrino, Joan; Brueske, Sabine; Carole, Tracy; Andres, Howard

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  3. Hazard/Risk Assessment A REFINED AQUATIC ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR A PYRETHROID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    Hazard/Risk Assessment A REFINED AQUATIC ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR A PYRETHROID INSECTICIDE risk assessments, the authors performed a probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment. The present study is the first ecological risk assessment for pyrethroids to quantitatively integrate

  4. Refine your search Select options from the menu on the left hand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    ://psu.summon.serialssolutions.comhttp://psu.summon.serialssolutions.com F I N A L LY : RESEARCH AS EASYAS 1-2-3 #12;1 Enter search term into search box. 2 Refine results relevant articles were published in that year. Include or Exclude subject terms from your searchRefine your search Select options from the menu on the left hand side of the results screen

  5. A comparison of the performance of waterfloods using similar refined and crude oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Daylon Lynn

    1960-01-01

    A COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF WATERFI, GODS USING SIMILAR REFINED AND CRUDE OILS A Thesis By DAYLON L. WALTON Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING A COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF WATERFLOODS USING SIMILAR REFINED AND CRUDE OILS A Thesis By DAYLON L. WALTON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman f...

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge The Workplace Charging Challenge...

  7. Dynamics of Active Database Rules: Models and Refinements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaniolo, Carlo

    application areas. In this paper, we introduce a durable change seman- tics for active database rules seman- tics) or as a separate transaction (decoupled seman- tics) [?]. Most systems adopt the coupled seman- tics, inasmuch as this is more effective at enforcing integrity constraints via active rules

  8. ISIS Facility: Facility Design Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    ISIS Facility: Facility Design Challenges Matt Fletcher Head, Design Division ISIS Department, FNAL #12;ISIS -- neutrons Diamond -- X-rays #12;#12;· Lifetime · Reliable Operation · Flexibility

  9. Challenges in Accelerator Beam Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, M.

    2009-12-01

    The challenges in beam instrumentation and diagnostics for present and future particle accelerator projects are presented. A few examples for advanced hadron and lepton beam diagnostics are given.

  10. lightsource_data_challenge-analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Source Data Analysis & Simulation: The Data Challenge Alexander Hexemer (ALS), Xiaoye Li (CRD), Stefano Marchesini (ALS), Dilworth Parkinson (ALS), Nobumichi Tamura (ALS), Craig E....

  11. Energy Efficiency: Challenges and Progress

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency: Challenges and Progress State Energy Advisory Board Meeting June 7, 2011 2 | Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov EE Priorities Spend ARRA...

  12. Engine Lubricants: Trends and Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This overview discusses how lubricant developers, lubricant marketers, and OEMs are working with the engine community to overcome performance challenges worldwide.

  13. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland Baltimore Washington Medical Center Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland Baltimore Washington Medical Center Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:...

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bosch Automotive Service...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bosch Automotive Service Solutions, Inc. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bosch Automotive Service Solutions, Inc. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bosch Automotive...

  15. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of California...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California, Santa Barbara Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of California, Santa Barbara Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of California, Santa...

  16. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel...

  17. Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qui, Songgang; Galbraith, Ross

    2013-01-23

    This final report summarizes the final results of the Phase II Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation project being performed by Infinia Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-FC36-08GO18157 during the project period of September 1, 2009 - August 30, 2012. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the practicality of integrating thermal energy storage (TES) modules, using a suitable thermal salt phase-change material (PCM) as its medium, with a dish/Stirling engine; enabling the system to operate during cloud transients and to provide dispatchable power for 4 to 6 hours after sunset. A laboratory prototype designed to provide 3 kW-h of net electrical output was constructed and tested at Infinia's Ogden Headquarters. In the course of the testing, it was determined that the system's heat pipe network - used to transfer incoming heat from the solar receiver to both the Stirling generator heater head and to the phase change salt - did not perform to expectations. The heat pipes had limited capacity to deliver sufficient heat energy to the generator and salt mass while in a charging mode, which was highly dependent on the orientation of the device (vertical versus horizontal). In addition, the TES system was only able to extract about 30 to 40% of the expected amount of energy from the phase change salt once it was fully molten. However, the use of heat pipes to transfer heat energy to and from a thermal energy storage medium is a key technical innovation, and the project team feels that the limitations of the current device could be greatly improved with further development. A detailed study of manufacturing costs using the prototype TES module as a basis indicates that meeting DOE LCOE goals with this hardware requires significant efforts. Improvement can be made by implementing aggressive cost-down initiatives in design and materials, improving system performance by boosting efficiencies, and by refining cost estimates with vendor quotes in lieu of mass-based approaches. Although the prototype did not fully demonstrate performance and realize projected cost targets, the project team believes that these challenges can be overcome. The test data showed that the performance can be significantly improved by refining the heat pipe designs. However, the project objective for phase 3 is to design and test on sun the field ready systems, the project team feels that is necessary to further refine the prototype heat pipe design in the current prototype TES system before move on to field test units, Phase 3 continuation will not be pursued.

  18. Climate Change: A Grand Software Challenge Steve Easterbrook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easterbrook, Steve

    is unequivocal - concentrations of green- house gases are rising faster than at any previous era in the earth renewable energy[8] and de- sign government policies and international treaties to bring greenhouse gas

  19. EDITORIAL Open Access Changing computational research. The challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - vant code before formal acceptance of the paper. We looked hard at the documentation. Are the papers

  20. Science and Technology Challenges and Potential Game-changing Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Triantafyllou, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The future of naval engineering in the 21st century will be shaped by novel and emerging technologies that will not only provide unprecedented capabilities but also require radical rethinking of naval ship and vehicle ...

  1. ENERGY STAR® Operation Change Out - The Military Challenge Campaign Launch

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLCConfidentialityOnline Hosted by the U.S.5,U.S.7,Process|

  2. Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department ofSUPPLEMENTSwitzerland 2012 Program Peerto

  3. New Climate Research Centers Forecast Changes and Challenges | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment ofOffice|in the subsurface is better6, 2015 2:00PMBillion |of Energy

  4. Modeling the Changing Earth System: Prospects and Challenges

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework uses concrete7 AssessmentBusinessAlternativeModelModelingArgonneBill

  5. Alaskan refiner raced against winter to relocate vacuum unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gdula, L.M. [Tesoro Petroleum Corp., Kenai, AK (United States); Wentworth, J.A. [Litwin Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-03-20

    In late November 1994, San Antonio-based Tesoro Petroleum Corp. and Litwin Engineers and Constructors Inc. completed the relocation and refurbishment of a $25 million vacuum unit at Tesoro`s 72,000 b/d Kenai refinery. The addition of the vacuum distillation unit is a critical component in Tesoro`s market-driven strategy to enhance operating profits by maximizing production of higher-margin products such as gasoline and jet fuel. With its new vacuum distillation unit, Tesoro has reduced production of lower-value residual fuel oil while recovering more lighter, high-value material. The paper discusses the economic and strategic merits of purchasing and relocating an existing vacuum unit, the project schedule, new equipment, dismantling and transport, installation, tie-ins and start-up, products, operating changes, corrosion concerns, off gas, steam generation, design changes, environmental issues, reporting requirements, and accomplishments.

  6. Wind Generation Challenges & New Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    · Introduction · Grid Integration Challenges · "New" Technologies · Conclusions #12;Introduction #12;Proprietary · Testing and modeling thermal and renewable plants for grid code compliance GE Wind Generator & Electrical: AWEA, 1Q 2014 [1] #12;Wind Integration Challenges #12;Proprietary Information: This document contains

  7. Conference Highlights Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conference Highlights Challenges and Opportunities in Wind Energy e-magazine of the penn state institutes of energy and the environment spring 2009 psieehighlights #12;2 | psiee highlights spring 2009 Tom events. Please take advantage of the spring weather to take on your own "My 20" challenge, and try

  8. Challenge Types Software/Apps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    through a team-based approach · Define a unifying smart city architecture, highlight use of existing as a credible partner to smart city/cps stakeholders 6 #12;Community 1 Community 2 Community N Company in Smart America Challenge to 9 for Global Cities Challenge. The routes are expanding to longer, mixed use

  9. Challenges in Integrating Renewable Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    costs and improving energy efficiencies of the various types of renewable resources, such as wind, solar reliability and econ- omy. The challenges of integrating high penetrations of renewable energy technologiesChallenges in Integrating Renewable Technologies into an Electric Power System White Paper Power

  10. An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montijn, C. . E-mail: carolynne.montijn@cwi.nl; Hundsdorfer, W. . E-mail: willem.hundsdorfer@cwi.nl; Ebert, U. . E-mail: ute.ebert@cwi.nl

    2006-12-10

    The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction in the local electric field, coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The model generates field enhancement and steep propagating ionization fronts at the tip of growing ionized filaments. An adaptive grid refinement method for the simulation of these structures is presented. It uses finite volume spatial discretizations and explicit time stepping, which allows the decoupling of the grids for the continuity equations from those for the Poisson equation. Standard refinement methods in which the refinement criterion is based on local error monitors fail due to the pulled character of the streamer front that propagates into a linearly unstable state. We present a refinement method which deals with all these features. Tests on one-dimensional streamer fronts as well as on three-dimensional streamers with cylindrical symmetry (hence effectively 2D for numerical purposes) are carried out successfully. Results on fine grids are presented, they show that such an adaptive grid method is needed to capture the streamer characteristics well. This refinement strategy enables us to adequately compute negative streamers in pure gases in the parameter regime where a physical instability appears: branching streamers.

  11. Refining: moods and modes for 1984. [From NPRA meeting, San Antonio, TX 3/84

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-11

    Thousands of refining experts met in March in San Antonio, TX at the 82nd meeting of the National Petroleum Refiners Association, including many international oil-industry officials and executives. For major US refiners, the mood was decidedly optimistic, because: (1) for a number of refiners, negative margins on many crude oils that persisted even after the March 1983 price adjustment by OPEC are finally improving as capacities for upgrading residual fuel into more-valuable light products continue to come onstream; and (2) multinational oil companies, while concerned about downstream market penetration by producing countries, nevertheless expressed the feeling that this would probably further reduce the negotiating power of OPEC. For smaller, nonmajor refiners, the mood was one of concern: in the US, 97 refineries have officially closed since 1981, most of them smaller, inefficient facilities. There was optimism by all about environmental and social concerns, specifically acid rain and lead pollution. For the national oil companies of less-developed countries, a vicious circle emerged concerning the economic ramifications of the continuing development of catalysts for cracking heavy feedstock. This issue presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for March 1984 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  12. Terawatt Challenge for Thin-Film PV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweibel, K.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of PV into one of the world's largest industries is not going to happen without major unforeseen problems. However, this study attempts to address the obvious ones, so that we can put aside the mythology of PV (for example, that it is only ''boutique power'' or that one must pave the world with it to be useful) and get on with changing the world's energy infrastructure. With the years of rapid market growth now under way in PV, the author is sure this will not be the last effort to understand the real potential and pitfalls of meeting the Challenge.

  13. Computational Challenges for Nanostructure Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsCluster Compatibilitydefault Changes fromCompositionalChallenges for

  14. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Its Application to Grain Refinement of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tekeli, Sueleyman; Gueral, Ahmet

    2011-12-10

    Microstructure of a metal can be considerably changed by severe plastic deformation techniques such as high pressure torsion, extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). Among these methods, ECAP is particularly attractive because it has a potential for introducing significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructure into bulk materials. Typically, it reduces the grain size to the submicrometer level or even nanometer range and thus produces materials that are capable of exhibiting unusual mechanical properties. In the present study, a test unites for equal channel angular pressing was constructed and this system was used for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. After the optimization tests, it was seen that the most effective lubricant for the dies was MoS{sub 2}, the pressing pressure was around 25-35 ton and the pressing speed was 2 mm/s. By using these parameters, the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was successfully ECAPed up to 14 passes at 200 deg. C using route C. After ECAP tests, the specimens were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), hardness and macrostructural investigations. It was seen that the plastic deformation in the ECAPed specimens occurred from edge to the centre like whirlpool. In addition, the deformation intensity increased with increasing pass number. The grain size of the specimens effectively also decreased with increasing pass number. That is, while the grain size of unECAPed specimen was 10 {mu}m, this value decreased to 300 nm after 14 passes. At the beginning, while there was a banding tendency in the grains toward deformation direction, homogeneous and equiaxed grains were formed with increasing pass number. This grain refinement was as a result of an interaction between shear strain and thermal recovery during ECAP processing. Hardness measurements showed that the hardness values increased up to 4 passes, decreased effectively at 6th pass, again increased at 8th pass and after this pass, the hardness again decreased due to dynamic recrystallization.

  15. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pražnikar, Jure [Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Primorska, (Slovenia); Turk, Dušan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Institute Jožef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, (Slovenia)

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  16. Energy Challenge Four: The Baltimore Neighborhood Energy Challenge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Baltimore Neighborhood Energy Challenge, has been hugely successful at spreading knowledge, resources, and motivation to help the local communities save energy and money by tapping the energy of neighborhood leaders and volunteers.

  17. Evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenge(R) Training Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    these fields was missing from the attendee record. 6 Number of participants reported by ORCMACRO, Calvert, MD on behalf of the Compressed Air Challenge. 7 As of January, 2004 the...

  18. Energy Challenge Three: The Greenbelt Green Neighborhood Challenge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This "Greener in Greenbelt" Green Neighborhood Challenge program strives to get local Greenbelt residents (and non-Greenbelters who are interested as well) to sign up for Clean Currents wind-generated electricity for their residences.

  19. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    1999-08-01

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  20. The atomic structure of the cleaved Si(111)-(2x1) surface refined by dynamical LEED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    Surface Crystallography by LEED”, p.30, Spinger-Verlag, Bby automated tensor LEED (the number of optimized parametersSurface Refined by Dynamical LEED Geng Xu, Bingcheng Deng,*

  1. Refining and end use study of coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, G.

    1998-05-01

    A conceptual design and ASPEN Plus process flowsheet simulation model was developed for a Battelle biomass-based gasification, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquefaction and combined-cycle power plant. This model was developed in a similar manner to those coal liquefaction models that were developed under DOE contract DE-AC22-91PC90027. As such, this process flowsheet simulation model was designed to be a research guidance tool and not a detailed process design tool. However, it does contain some process design features, such as sizing the F-T synthesis reactors. This model was designed only to predict the effects of various process and operating changes on the overall plant heat and material balances, utilities, capital and operating costs.

  2. Liquid-liquid extraction as the means of refining cottonseed oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Manubhai Chunibhai

    1956-01-01

    LIBRARY A 4 AI CvLLEGE OF TEXAS LIOVID-LIQUID EXTRACTION AS THE MEANS OI REFINING CCTTONSEFZ OIL A Thesis By 1'RVUBHAI CHIINIBHAI PATEL a 0 U z A R 0 Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Auuust 1996 Major Subject Chemical ineeri LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION AS THE MEANS OF REFINING COTTONSEED OIL A Thesis By MANUBHAI CHUNIBHAI PATEL Approved as to style...

  3. Nuclear Proliferation and Grand Challenges

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McCarthy, Kathy

    2013-05-28

    Nuclear engineer Dr. Kathy McCarthy leads systems analysis. She talks about proliferation and the grand challenges of nuclear R&D. For more information about INL energy research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. GREEN BUILDINGS IN CHALLENGES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    science, economics, sociology, geography, philosophy, urban planning, environmental studies, history justice, conservation and renewable energy options, integrated resource planning, and technologyGREEN BUILDINGS IN DELAWARE: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FINAL REPORT A Renewable Energy

  5. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Bioenergy History

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This infographic was created by students from Sun Valley High School in Aston, PA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  6. Albuquerque duo wins Supercomputing Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system. The Supercomputing Challenge is open to any New Mexico high-school or middle-school student. More than 330 students from 33 schools around the state spent the school year...

  7. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Tertiary Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Nikola Tesla STEM High School in Redmond, WA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

  8. Challenges in Industrial Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dafft, T.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation will address several completed and working projects involving waste heat recovery in a chemical plant. Specific examples will be shown and some of the challenges to successful implementation and operation of heat recovery projects...

  9. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Bessie's Biofuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Smithtown HS East in St. James, NY, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  10. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Environmental Impacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Sun Valley High School in Aston, PA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  11. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biofuel Acts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Sun Valley High School in Aston, PA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  12. Berkeley Lab's Bill Collins talks about Modeling the Changing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab's Bill Collins talks about Modeling the Changing Earth System: Prospects and Challenges. From the 2014 NERSC User's Group Meeting Berkeley Lab's Bill Collins talks...

  13. New Project is the ACME of Addressing Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    complete climate and Earth system model to address the most challenging and demanding climate change issues. Eight Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, including...

  14. Characterizing Uncertainty for Regional Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Moss, Richard H.; Rice, Jennie S.; Scott, Michael J.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper describes the results of new research to develop an uncertainty characterization process to help address the challenges of regional climate change mitigation and adaptation decisions.

  15. Research Note Impacts of climate change on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Note Impacts of climate change on forestry in Scotland ­ a synopsis of spatial modelling research Duncan Ray January 2008 Climate change is now one of the greatest global challenges, and research by climate change. This Research Note provides an initial synopsis of the likely impacts, with preliminary

  16. Cost Concepts for Climate Change Mitigation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR of global environment and energy challenges, thereby contributing to informed debate about climate change in consumption, change in welfare, energy system cost, and area under marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve

  17. Classification of remotely sensed imagery using stochastic gradient boosting as a refinement of classification tree analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    trees) are increasingly being used for analysis and classification of remotely sensed digital imageryClassification of remotely sensed imagery using stochastic gradient boosting as a refinement of classification tree analysis Rick Lawrencea,*, Andrew Bunna , Scott Powellb , Michael Zambona a Department

  18. Iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild wizard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hung, Li-Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Read, Randy J. [Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Adams, Paul D., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The highly automated PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is described. The procedure can be applied equally well to phases derived from isomorphous/anomalous and molecular-replacement methods. The PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE model building, RESOLVE statistical density modification and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model-completion algorithms and automated solvent-molecule picking. Model-completion algorithms in the AutoBuild wizard include loop building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 to 3.2 Å, resulting in a mean R factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density and is relatively independent of resolution.

  19. Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England; Terwilliger, Thomas; Terwilliger, T.C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf Wilhelm; Afonine, P.V.; Moriarty, N.W.; Zwart, P.H.; Hung, L.-W.; Read, R.J.; Adams, P.D.

    2007-04-29

    The PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model-building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE or TEXTAL model-building, RESOLVE statistical density modification, and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild Wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model completion algorithms, and automated solvent molecule picking. Model completion algorithms in the AutoBuild Wizard include loop-building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure, and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild Wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 {angstrom} to 3.2 {angstrom}, resulting in a mean R-factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R-factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density, and relatively independent of resolution.

  20. Industrial Ecology and LCA, Instructor Iddo Wernick Fall 2014 Syllabus (subject to refinement/updating)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    Industrial Ecology and LCA, Instructor Iddo Wernick Fall 2014 Syllabus (subject to refinement/updating) 1 SUS-7300C INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY AND LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS Description: Students will be introduced to the purpose, philosophy, and applications of Industrial Ecology as they affect environmental and urban

  1. A TWODIMENSIONAL MOVING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD WITH LOCAL REFINEMENT BASED ON A POSTERIORI ERROR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Weiming

    and Flaherty [1] to the two­dimensional case, where clusters of mesh points are built up and moved (middle), and rh­refinement with N = 541 yields e L2() = 1.57E-2 (right). While the r­method wastes too

  2. The Nekrasov-Okounkov hook length formula: refinement, elementary proof, extension and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2008/05/09 The Nekrasov-Okounkov hook length formula: refinement, elementary proof, extension and applications Guo-Niu HAN ABSTRACT. -- The paper is devoted to the derivation of the expan- sion formula function for t-cores. Several applications are derived, including the "marked hook formula". 1

  3. Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models with Lagrangian Coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models for Atmospheric Research 1. Introduction One of the most important advances needed in global climate models of this project is a parallel adaptive grid library, which is currently under development at the University

  4. An Incremental Refining Spatial Join Algorithm for Estimating Query Results in GIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leutenegger, Scott T.

    An Incremental Refining Spatial Join Algorithm for Estimating Query Results in GIS Wan D. Bae systems (GIS) must support large georeferenced data sets. Due to the size of these data sets finding ex this is the first work using this approach in GIS. We investigate different sampling method- ologies and evaluate

  5. Sustainable Soil and Water, Adjunct Professor Marcha Johnson Spring 2014 Syllabus (subject to refinement/updating)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    Sustainable Soil and Water, Adjunct Professor Marcha Johnson Spring 2014 Syllabus (subject to refinement/updating) 1 Spring 2014 SUS- 7700A: SUSTAINABLE SOIL AND WATER Course: Sustainable Soil and Water water, and groundwater in urban settings; understanding floodplains; treating polluted brownfields

  6. Verification of Hybrid Systems Based on Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Edmund M.

    verification, abstraction transforms the inherently infinite state system into a finite-state model [7Verification of Hybrid Systems Based on Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement Edmund Clarke1 generated by the model checker. For hybrid systems, analysis of the counterexample requires the computation

  7. Verification of Hybrid Systems Based on CounterexampleGuided Abstraction Refinement ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theobald, Michael

    verification, abstraction transforms the inherently infinite state system into a finite­state model [7, 8Verification of Hybrid Systems Based on Counterexample­Guided Abstraction Refinement ? Edmund that eliminates a counterexample generated by the model checker. For hybrid systems, analy­ sis

  8. Federal/Industry Development of Energy-Conserving Technologies for the Chemical and Petroleum Refining Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alston, T. G.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has started a program to identify future RD&D projects that (i) promise cost-effective savings of scarce fuels in the chemical and petroleum refining industries, (ii) are not likely to be pursued by industry alone...

  9. Protein NMR Structures Refined with Rosetta Have Higher Accuracy Relative to Corresponding Xray Crystal Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    refinement of protein NMR structures was also compared with restrained CS-Rosetta calculations. For proteins spectroscopy (NMR). While X-ray crystal structures are derived from electron density data and are often dynamics and has the advantage of not requiring crystallization. Solution NMR structure determination

  10. Tools for macromolecular model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alan; Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A.; Toots, Jaan; Emsley, Paul; Murshudov, Garib, E-mail: garib@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of new tools to facilitate model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions. The recent rapid development of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows structures to be solved by this method at resolutions close to 3 Å. Here, a number of tools to facilitate the interpretation of EM reconstructions with stereochemically reasonable all-atom models are described. The BALBES database has been repurposed as a tool for identifying protein folds from density maps. Modifications to Coot, including new Jiggle Fit and morphing tools and improved handling of nucleic acids, enhance its functionality for interpreting EM maps. REFMAC has been modified for optimal fitting of atomic models into EM maps. As external structural information can enhance the reliability of the derived atomic models, stabilize refinement and reduce overfitting, ProSMART has been extended to generate interatomic distance restraints from nucleic acid reference structures, and a new tool, LIBG, has been developed to generate nucleic acid base-pair and parallel-plane restraints. Furthermore, restraint generation has been integrated with visualization and editing in Coot, and these restraints have been applied to both real-space refinement in Coot and reciprocal-space refinement in REFMAC.

  11. Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species Philip B and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, PO Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120, USA Summary 1. Biofuel. However, concerns have been raised on the invasiveness of biofuel feedstocks. Estimating invasion

  12. EIS-0069: Solvent Refined Coal-II Demonstration Project, Fort Martin, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic and social impacts associated with the construction and short-term operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity facility that will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the solvent refined coal process at Fort Martin, West Virginia.

  13. Nonrigid Motion Analysis Based on Dynamic Refinement of Finite Element Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Sudeep

    Nonrigid Motion Analysis Based on Dynamic Refinement of Finite Element Models Leonid V. Tsap finite element models. The method is based on the iterative analysis of the differences betweenÐPhysically-based vision, deformable models, nonrigid motion analysis, biomedical applications, finite element analysis. æ

  14. Quantitative Methods for Strategic and Investment Planning in the Oil-Refining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Quantitative Methods for Strategic and Investment Planning in the Oil-Refining Brenno C(ng ­ March 2013 What, Where, When to Invest? Only op*mize streams transfers (fuel;Current Investment Planning Methodology in PETROBRAS Strategy - Increase the supply

  15. JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS accepted Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Singular Current Sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grauer, Rainer

    with simple scaling assumptions. As expected, adaptive mesh refinement shows to be very efficient for studying community. Since mathemat­ ically only very little is known [1], one has to rely on numerical simulations treatment is limited very soon by the computer memory available, resulting in a resolution of less than 512

  16. 356 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, VOL. 21, NO. 4, APRIL 1995 Correct Architecture Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Hoek, André

    356 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, VOL. 21, NO. 4, APRIL 1995 Correct Architecture for the stepwise refinement of an abstract architecture into a relatively correct lower level architecture that provides a routine solution to a standard architectural design problem. A pattern contains an abstract

  17. Current developments in genomics challenge the established framework of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    Current developments in genomics challenge the established framework of biomedical ethics because the empirical facts of the genomic science change too fast for the reflections of ethics to keep pace with for pragmatic moral guidance1 . Recent revelations about the human genome, such as the abundance of copy

  18. Challenges in Climate Science and Contemporary Applied Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majda, Andrew J.

    Challenges in Climate Science and Contemporary Applied Mathematics ANDREW J. MAJDA Center for filtering/data assimilation and superparametrization for climate science and other problems in science and timescales from minutes to decades or centuries [17, 113]. Climate change science focuses on predicting

  19. A Refined Model of the Prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS Basal Body Reveals the Molecular Basis for Its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    A Refined Model of the Prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS Basal Body Reveals the Molecular Basis report the crystal structures of three domains of the prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 basal body, and use) A Refined Model of the Prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS Basal Body Reveals the Molecular Basis for Its

  20. Climate Change and Conceptual Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, David Joseph

    2013-01-01

    1.1.2 The Stark Reality of Climate Change . . . . . . . .1.2 Climate Change as a BehavioralEducation for Climate Change . . . . 1.4.1 The Numerically

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge Available at energy.goveerevehiclesev-everywhere-workplace-charging-challenge Workplace Charging Challenge 5 Cumulative...

  2. Known Challenges Associated with the Production, Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Known Challenges Associated with the Production, Transportation, Storage and Usage of Pyrolysis Oil in Residential and Industrial Settings Known Challenges Associated with the...

  3. Tribal Energy Summit Tackles Challenges, Explores Opportunities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Summit Tackles Challenges, Explores Opportunities on Path to Economic Sovereignty Tribal Energy Summit Tackles Challenges, Explores Opportunities on Path to Economic...

  4. Key Opportunities and Challenges for Program Sustainability ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Opportunities and Challenges for Program Sustainability Key Opportunities and Challenges for Program Sustainability Better Buildings Neighborhood Program, Peer Exchange Call:...

  5. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial Energy Efficiency, January 2011 Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial Energy Efficiency, January...

  6. DOE Challenge Home Recommended Quality Management Provisions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recommended Quality Management Provisions DOE Challenge Home Recommended Quality Management Provisions DOE Challenge Home Recommended Quality Management Provisions. qm6-14-13.pdf...

  7. Sandia Energy - Research Challenge 1: Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1: Nanowires Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Our SSLS EFRC's Scientific Research Challenges and Publications Research Challenge 1: Nanowires Research...

  8. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase College, State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Purchase College, State University of New York Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase College, State University of New York Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase...

  9. Towards a Visual Turing Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateusz Malinowski; Mario Fritz

    2015-05-05

    As language and visual understanding by machines progresses rapidly, we are observing an increasing interest in holistic architectures that tightly interlink both modalities in a joint learning and inference process. This trend has allowed the community to progress towards more challenging and open tasks and refueled the hope at achieving the old AI dream of building machines that could pass a turing test in open domains. In order to steadily make progress towards this goal, we realize that quantifying performance becomes increasingly difficult. Therefore we ask how we can precisely define such challenges and how we can evaluate different algorithms on this open tasks? In this paper, we summarize and discuss such challenges as well as try to give answers where appropriate options are available in the literature. We exemplify some of the solutions on a recently presented dataset of question-answering task based on real-world indoor images that establishes a visual turing challenge. Finally, we argue despite the success of unique ground-truth annotation, we likely have to step away from carefully curated dataset and rather rely on 'social consensus' as the main driving force to create suitable benchmarks. Providing coverage in this inherently ambiguous output space is an emerging challenge that we face in order to make quantifiable progress in this area.

  10. MFIX simulation of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-François; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) using the open-source code Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) are reported. Two rounds of simulation results are reported including the first-round blind test and the second-round modeling refinement. Three-dimensional high fidelity simulations are conducted to model a 12-inch diameter pilot-scale CFB riser. Detailed comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are made with respect to axial pressure gradient profile, radial profiles of solids velocity and solids mass flux along different radial directions at various elevations for operating conditions covering different fluidization regimes. Overall, the numericalmore »results show that CFD can predict the complex gas–solids flow behavior in the CFB riser reasonably well. In addition, lessons learnt from modeling this challenge problem are presented.« less

  11. MFIX simulation of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean-François; Shahnam, Mehrdad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of NETL/PSRI challenge problem of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) using the open-source code Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchange (MFIX) are reported. Two rounds of simulation results are reported including the first-round blind test and the second-round modeling refinement. Three-dimensional high fidelity simulations are conducted to model a 12-inch diameter pilot-scale CFB riser. Detailed comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are made with respect to axial pressure gradient profile, radial profiles of solids velocity and solids mass flux along different radial directions at various elevations for operating conditions covering different fluidization regimes. Overall, the numerical results show that CFD can predict the complex gas–solids flow behavior in the CFB riser reasonably well. In addition, lessons learnt from modeling this challenge problem are presented.

  12. Cultural change : a comparative study of the change efforts of Douglas MacArthur and Carlos Ghosn in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakae, Koji. Sloan School of Management

    2005-01-01

    When an organization adapts to a changing environment and struggles through an organizational crisis, its organizational culture is sometimes challenged. At such a time, a leader who can change current culture and embed a ...

  13. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Zeldin, Oliver B.; Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Hattne, Johan; Brewster, Aaron S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Brunger, Axel T.; Weis, William I.

    2015-03-17

    There is considerable potential for X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) to enable determination of macromolecular crystal structures that are difficult to solve using current synchrotron sources. Prior XFEL studies often involved the collection of thousands to millions of diffraction images, in part due to limitations of data processing methods. We implemented a data processing system based on classical post-refinement techniques, adapted to specific properties of XFEL diffraction data. When applied to XFEL data from three different proteins collected using various sample delivery systems and XFEL beam parameters, our method improved the quality of the diffraction data as well as themore »resulting refined atomic models and electron density maps. Moreover, the number of observations for a reflection necessary to assemble an accurate data set could be reduced to a few observations. These developments will help expand the applicability of XFEL crystallography to challenging biological systems, including cases where sample is limited.« less

  14. RHIC low-energy challenges and plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satogata,T.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Drees, A.; Fedotov, A.; Fischer, W.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Jappe, W.; Lee, R.C.; MacKay, W.W.; Malitsky, N.; Marr, G.; Michnoff, R.; Oerter, B.; Pozdeyev, E.; Roser, T.; Schoefer, V.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-06-08

    Future Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) runs, including a portion of FY10 heavy ion operations, will explore collisions at center of mass energies of 5-50 GeV/n (GeV/nucleon). Operations at these energies is motivated by the search for a possible QCD phase transition critical point. The lowest end of this energy range is nearly a factor of four below the nominal RHIC injection center of mass energy {radical}s = 19.6 GeV/n. There are several operational challenges in the RHIC low-energy regime, including harmonic number changes, small longitudinal acceptance, lowered magnet field quality, nonlinear orbit control, and luminosity monitoring. We report on the experience with these challenges during beam tests with gold beams in March 2008. This includes first operations at {radical}s = 9.18 GeV/n, first beam experience at {radical}s = 5 GeV/n, and luminosity projections for near-term operations.

  15. The solar energy challenge—Seth Darling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth Darling

    2012-08-08

    Argonne researcher Seth Darling talks about the solar energy challenge in creating alternative sources of energy

  16. The solar energy challenge?Seth Darling

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Seth Darling

    2013-06-05

    Argonne researcher Seth Darling talks about the solar energy challenge in creating alternative sources of energy

  17. New challenges in computational biochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honig, B.

    1996-12-31

    The new challenges in computational biochemistry to which the title refers include the prediction of the relative binding free energy of different substrates to the same protein, conformational sampling, and other examples of theoretical predictions matching known protein structure and behavior.

  18. Athena SWAN Equality Challenge Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Athena SWAN Equality Challenge Unit Queen's House 55-56 Lincoln's Inn Fields London WC2A 3LJ 29th for excellence in every aspect of their roles. Good employment practices and commitment to equality are key and supported by the department, to review our current position and establish immediate actions to be taken

  19. Progress Report "The Grand Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    : With Grand Challenges project funding to develop sustainable technologies for Africa, faculty member Winston Soboyejo designed a solar-powered refrigeration system for camel transport of vaccines to remote areas fellowships on campus with well over 100 students working on projects annually in 35 countries. It has given

  20. Wave Energy challenges and possibilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © Wave Energy ­ challenges and possibilities By: Per Resen Steenstrup www.WaveStarEnergy.com Risø-R-1608(EN) 161 #12;© Wave energy is an old story.... The first wave energy patent is 200 years old. Over the last 100 years more than 200 new wave energy devices have been developped and more than 1.000 patents

  1. Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network Shaping ofStaff60053760Chain Tsuan Liu,duo wins

  2. Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network Shaping ofStaff60053760Chain Tsuan Liu,duo wins12th

  3. Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network Shaping ofStaff60053760Chain Tsuan Liu,duo

  4. 24M Technologies: Using Innovation to Solve the Energy Storage Challenge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A look at 24M Technologies, a company that's changing the way we think about renewable energy storage by intersecting industry, academics and government to launch new ideas that will offer solutions to the challenges we face.

  5. Booms, Busts, and the World of Ideas: Enrollment Pressures and the Challenge of Specialization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, David I.

    Historians of recent science face a daunting challenge of scale. Local case studies—our principal means of interrogating past scientific practices—fail to capture the sweep and texture of some of the most dramatic changes ...

  6. Iterative-build OMIT maps: map improvement by iterative model building and refinement without model bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Read, Randy J. [Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hung, Li-Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2008-05-01

    An OMIT procedure is presented that has the benefits of iterative model building density modification and refinement yet is essentially unbiased by the atomic model that is built. A procedure for carrying out iterative model building, density modification and refinement is presented in which the density in an OMIT region is essentially unbiased by an atomic model. Density from a set of overlapping OMIT regions can be combined to create a composite ‘iterative-build’ OMIT map that is everywhere unbiased by an atomic model but also everywhere benefiting from the model-based information present elsewhere in the unit cell. The procedure may have applications in the validation of specific features in atomic models as well as in overall model validation. The procedure is demonstrated with a molecular-replacement structure and with an experimentally phased structure and a variation on the method is demonstrated by removing model bias from a structure from the Protein Data Bank.

  7. Report to the Congress on the storage of refined petroleum products and on regional supply interruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report describes petroleum and petroleum products storage and supply disruption. Information is presented under the following topics: Historical Perspective; Current Patterns of Supply and Disposition of Petroleum Products in the Primary Distribution System; PADD I Clean Products Supply/Demand; 1990 Regional Petroleum Reserve Annual Computation; Market Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the California Motor Gasoline Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the Northeast Distillate Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Storage Stability Characteristics of Petroleum Products and Crude Oil; Effect of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on Demand for Petroleum Product Storage Capacity; and Environmental Regulations on Tanks.

  8. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1983, 105, 5781-5785 5781 refined by adjusting the frequencies so that the entropy change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    +, 12693-15-1. (43) M. Maut-Ner and F. H. Field, J. Chem. Phys., 66, 4527 (1977). (44) P. Kebarle, S. K

  9. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longecReformulated Gasoline Refiner

  10. A refined r-factor algorithm for TVD schemes on arbitrary unstructured meshes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Di; Jiang, Chunbo; Cheng, Liang; Liang, Dongfang

    2015-07-03

    and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024, China 4Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK SUMMARY A refined r-factor algorithm for implementing TVD schemes... ’s and Hou’s algorithms also require different formulations for boundary cells in order to be applicable in all situations. To ensure the physical boundedness of Uq , all the neighboring cells and boundary faces of the up-wind cell C are considered except...

  11. Application of a catalyst deactivation model for hydrotreating solvent refined coal feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-10-01

    A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, is applied to upgrading of coal-derived feedstocks prepared from two solvent refined coal fractions. A catalyst deactivation mechanism is proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. The effect of feedstock composition, temperature and pressure on kinetic parameters, and in particular the catalyst deactivation rate, is determined.

  12. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCTCritical Materials Use |Petroleum Refining69

  13. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls21,Equipment:Petroleum Refining Industry (November

  14. Estimates of future regional heavy oil production at three production rates--background information for assessing effects in the US refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications from a project considering the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degree} to 20{degree} API gravity inclusive) production being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The report includes projections of future heavy oil production at three production levels: 900,000; 500,000; and 300,000 BOPD above the current 1992 heavy oil production level of 750,000 BOPD. These free market scenario projections include time frames and locations. Production projections through a second scenario were developed to examine which heavy oil areas would be developed if significant changes in the US petroleum industry occurred. The production data helps to define the possible constraints (impact) of increased heavy oil production on the US refining industry (the subject of a future report). Constraints include a low oil price and low rate of return. Heavy oil has high production, transportation, and refining cost per barrel as compared to light oil. The resource is known, but the right mix of technology and investment is required to bring about significant expansion of heavy oil production in the US.

  15. Impacts of Climate Change on Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.

    2014-04-30

    The overall goal of this research project was to improve and use our biogeochemistry model, TEM, to simulate the effects of climate change and other environmental changes on the production of biofuel feedstocks. We used the improved version of TEM that is coupled with the economic model, EPPA, a part of MIT’s Earth System Model, to explore how alternative uses of land, including land for biofuels production, can help society meet proposed climate targets. During the course of this project, we have made refinements to TEM that include development of a more mechanistic plant module, with improved ecohydrology and consideration of plant-water relations, and a more detailed treatment of soil nitrogen dynamics, especially processes that add or remove nitrogen from ecosystems. We have documented our changes to TEM and used the model to explore the effects on production in land ecosystems, including changes in biofuels production.

  16. Worldwide refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-12-19

    The paper consists of several tables compiling data on refinery capacities by country, by state, and by company. The capacity data are given by process as well as by final product. Processes include vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Products include alkylates, polymers, and dimers; aromatics and isomers; oxygenates; hydrogen; asphalts; and coke.

  17. Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)); Handwerk, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report is on the following topics: Refinery Products; Refinery Feedstocks; Crude Distillation; Coking and Thermal Processes; Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization; Catalytic Cracking; Hydrotreating Catalytic Hydrocracking and Hydroprocessing Alkylation and Polymerization; Product Blending; Supporting Processes; Lubricating Oils; Petrochemical Feedstocks; Cost Estimation; and Economic Evaluation.

  18. Worldwide refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, L.

    1993-12-20

    The paper presents compiled data on operating refineries worldwide by country and by company within these countries. Data are presented on charge capacity for the following processes: vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, cat-hydrocracking, cat hydrorefining, and cat hydrotreating. Data are also presented on the production capacity for the following products: alkylates and polymers, aromatics and isomers, lubricating oils, asphalt, hydrogen, and coke.

  19. Hardware engineering change management : an enterprise analysis of factors contributing to technical change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Matthew T. (Matthew Trevor)

    2013-01-01

    Engineering change management (ECM) is an essential but challenging cross-functional discipline within modern product development firms. ECM is best explained as a discipline because no single process can characterize the ...

  20. Technical challenges for dismantlement verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Nakhleh, C.W.; Dreicer, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    In preparation for future nuclear arms reduction treaties, including any potential successor treaties to START I and II, the authors have been examining possible methods for bilateral warhead dismantlement verification. Warhead dismantlement verification raises significant challenges in the political, legal, and technical arenas. This discussion will focus on the technical issues raised by warhead arms controls. Technical complications arise from several sources. These will be discussed under the headings of warhead authentication, chain-of-custody, dismantlement verification, non-nuclear component tracking, component monitoring, and irreversibility. The authors will discuss possible technical options to address these challenges as applied to a generic dismantlement and disposition process, in the process identifying limitations and vulnerabilities. They expect that these considerations will play a large role in any future arms reduction effort and, therefore, should be addressed in a timely fashion.

  1. Challenge Home | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs | DepartmentDepartmentChallenge # 1. Feedstock3

  2. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains which result in...

  3. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  4. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling: Challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiyama, Gayle [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Foster, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Vogt, Phil [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2012-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provided a wide range of predictions and analyses as part of the response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This work encompassed: weather forecasts and atmospheric transport predictions, estimates of possible dose in Japan based on hypothetical U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission scenarios of potential radionuclide releases, predictions of possible plume arrival times and dose levels at U.S. locations, and source estimation and plume model refinement. An overview of NARAC response activities is provided, along with a more in-depth discussion of some of NARAC’s preliminary source reconstruction analyses. NARAC optimized the overall agreement of model predictions to dose rate measurements using statistical comparisons of data and model values paired in space and time. Estimated emission rates varied depending on the choice of release assumptions (e.g., time-varying vs. constant release rates), the radionuclide mix, meteorology, and/or the radiological data used in the analysis. Results were found to be consistent with other studies within expected uncertainties, despite the application of different source estimation methodologies and the use of significantly different radiological measurement data. A discussion of some of the operational and scientific challenges encountered during the response, along with recommendations for future work, is provided.

  5. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-07-01

    This publication describes the Biomass Program’s efforts to examine the intersection of land-use change and bioenergy production. It describes legislation requiring land-use change assessments, key data and modeling challenges, and the research needs to better assess and understand the impact of bioenergy policy on land-use decisions.

  6. Change Log

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Log NERSC-8 Trinity Benchmarks Change Log 09032013 Correction applied to MiniDFT web-page (to remove inconsistency with MiniDFT README). Capability Improvement...

  7. Overview of IMG Challenges (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Markowitz, Victor [JGI

    2013-01-22

    DOE JGI's Victor Markowitz gives an overview of IMG challenges at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  8. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: History of Bioenergy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This infographic was created by students from Troy High School in Troy, MI, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge...

  9. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: What is Biogas?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Sparks HS in Sparks, NV, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge...

  10. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Iowa Ethanol Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Sparks HS in Sparks, NV, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge...

  11. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: History of Biomass

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Broad Run HS in Ashburn, VA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge...

  12. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: What is Biomass?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Sparks HS in Sparks, NV, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge...

  13. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biomass Reduces Carbon Dioxide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This infographic was created by students from Sparks HS in Sparks, NV, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge...

  14. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Bioenergy Through Time

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Robinson HS in Tampa, FL, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge...

  15. Challenges and Opportunities for Wet-Waste Feedstocks?Resource...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Distillation Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) Clean Aqueous Product Fuel Fractions Hydrotreated Bio oil Current PNNL Efforts: Bio oil product is refined via...

  16. SunShot Rooftop Challenge Awardees

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Awardees, partners, award amounts, estimated population, and project descriptions for the 2011 SunShot Rooftop Challenge.

  17. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review the policy guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully.

  18. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conversion Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lawrence Berkeley...

  19. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  20. Las Conchas Challenge Grant Fund

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and mastheadLakeLanguageLas Conchas Challenge

  1. Ensemble refinement shows conformational flexibility in crystal structures of human complement factor D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forneris, Federico; Burnley, B. Tom; Gros, Piet, E-mail: p.gros@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-03-01

    Ensemble-refinement analysis of native and mutant factor D (FD) crystal structures indicates a dynamical transition in FD from a self-inhibited inactive conformation to a substrate-bound active conformation that is reminiscent of the allostery in thrombin. Comparison with previously observed dynamics in thrombin using NMR data supports the crystallographic ensembles. Human factor D (FD) is a self-inhibited thrombin-like serine proteinase that is critical for amplification of the complement immune response. FD is activated by its substrate through interactions outside the active site. The substrate-binding, or ‘exosite’, region displays a well defined and rigid conformation in FD. In contrast, remarkable flexibility is observed in thrombin and related proteinases, in which Na{sup +} and ligand binding is implied in allosteric regulation of enzymatic activity through protein dynamics. Here, ensemble refinement (ER) of FD and thrombin crystal structures is used to evaluate structure and dynamics simultaneously. A comparison with previously published NMR data for thrombin supports the ER analysis. The R202A FD variant has enhanced activity towards artificial peptides and simultaneously displays active and inactive conformations of the active site. ER revealed pronounced disorder in the exosite loops for this FD variant, reminiscent of thrombin in the absence of the stabilizing Na{sup +} ion. These data indicate that FD exhibits conformational dynamics like thrombin, but unlike in thrombin a mechanism has evolved in FD that locks the unbound native state into an ordered inactive conformation via the self-inhibitory loop. Thus, ensemble refinement of X-ray crystal structures may represent an approach alternative to spectroscopy to explore protein dynamics in atomic detail.

  2. Continuous Change Institutional Change Principle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ecause it takes time to establish institutional change, federal agencies need multiyear plans that continuously work to achieve, reinforce, and improve significant and persistent sustainability goals.

  3. Builders Challenge Quality Criteria Support Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-06-01

    This document provides guidance to U.S. home builders participating in Builders Challenge. To qualify for the Builders Challenge, a home must score 70 or less on the EnergySmart Home Scale (E-Scale). Homes also must meet the Builders Challenge Quality Cri

  4. ,"No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1Sales to End Users Refiner Sales

  5. ,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longec 188 U.S.1Sales to End Users Refiner

  6. ,"U.S. Reformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longecReformulated Gasoline Refiner Sales

  7. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S.longecReformulated Gasoline RefinerResidualResale,

  8. HASSP and HEAVY: Tools for automated heavy atom searches and refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    In this tutorial, a simple example using model data for one derivative with anomalous information will be used to demonstrate the use of HASSP and HEAVY in heavy atom determination and refinement. The data used here will actually be based on model MAD data that has been converted to MIR format using MADMRG, but the treatment is identical to that for any other SIR+anomalous data. The data nd most of the programs discussed here can be obtained by e-mail from ``terwil @prov2.lanl.gov`` along with VAX-specific command files to run the data through.

  9. European refiners must seek creative processes to justify heavy-ends projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, P. [Chem Systems Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-09

    There are strong reasons for wanting to upgrade the bottom of the crude oil barrel. But European refiners will not find it easy to get approval and funding for major capital investment projects. In most cases, investment justification will have to be creative and may need to rely on factors traditionally considered to be outside the conventional refinery fence. Examples of such creative upgrading schemes are those employed in four gasification projects planned for refineries in Italy. It is clear that the major obstacles to heavy residue processing are not technical, but economic. A review of these obstacles will set the stage for European investment in bottom-of-the-barrel processing.

  10. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  11. Quantitative phase analysis of Mg:ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by Rietveld refinement method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaji, V. Senthilkumaran, S. Thangadurai, P.

    2014-04-24

    To quantify the structural phases of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} doped with Mg ions of varying concentrations (3, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and annealed at different temperatures. Magnesia doped zirconia was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method and annealed up to 1000°C. The monoclinic and tetragonal phases present in Mg:ZrO{sub 2} were quantified using Rietveld refinement analysis of the X-ray diffraction data and compared with the Direct method based on peak intensity calculations. Tetragonal phase was dominant in the 600°C annealed Mg:ZrO{sub 2} for all Mg concentrations.

  12. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price toStocks 2009CubicAnalysisYearArkansas"a. Imported Refiner

  13. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tronrud, Dale E. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics; Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Karplus, P. Andrew [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics

    2014-09-01

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  14. US imports. Part II. Refined product market shares, then and now

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-08

    Unlike imports of crude oil to the US, which were up 45.7% between 1977 and 1986, imports of petroleum products have fallen by about 8.6% during the same period. The crude oil price crash of 1986 deepened US dependency on imports of crude, from 21.4% in 1977 to 25.4% in 1986, but reduced the dependency in the case of total refined products from 11.32% in 1977 to 11.13% in 1986. Comparing the first four months of 1987 with 1986, US dependency on imported petroleum products is down 2.73 percentage points; import dependency on OPEC petroleum products is down 4.60 percentage points; dependency on Arab OPEC countries product imports is down 1.88 percentage points; and for Eastern Hemisphere exporters, that dependency has fallen 2.17 percentage points. This issue also contains: (1) ED refining netback data from the US Gulf and West coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for early July 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1987 edition. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  15. A new approach to oil refining with allowance for ecological requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasirov, R.K.; Serikov, P.Yu.; Barsukov, O.V. [and others

    1994-12-01

    More stringent quality requirements are being imposed on oil fuels because of the deteriorating ecological situation. At the same time the new ecological constraints have slightly reduced the supplies of light crudes on the world market because the oil-producing countries have been forced to consume more of their best crudes and only heavier and sour crudes are sent to other countries for refining. In view of this, in recent years work has been focused on thorough refining of oil distillates and residues in a medium of hydrogen-containing gas in the presence of catalysts for hydrorefining and hydrocracking. Hydrorefining destroys sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds of the stock, removes organometallic components, improves the ecological characteristics of the products, reduces the corrosion of the refinery equipment, and reduces atmospheric pollution. Hydrorefining units have been built at almost all refineries, with allowance for the above and the fact that the hydroprocesses are highly technologically suitable and controllable and produce almost no waste. A number of problems pertaining to hydroprocesses, interesting scientific results, and developed theoretical approaches to intensify hydrorefining processes are described.

  16. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  17. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masafumi Ishihara; Feng-Li Lin; Bo Ning

    2013-04-04

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy, the so-called renormalized entanglement entropy which is independent of the choices of UV cutoff. Our main results are (i) the renormalized entanglement entropies of the AdS$_{d+1}$ soliton for $d=4,5$ are neither monotonically decreasing along the RG flow nor positive definite, especially around the deconfinement/confinement phase transition; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the renormalized entanglement entropy obeys an expected volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) based on AdS/MERA conjecture, we postulate that the IR fixed-point state for the non-extremal AdS soliton is a trivial product state.

  18. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)more »of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.« less

  19. Design Life Level: Quantifying risk in a changing climate Holger Rootzen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    Design Life Level: Quantifying risk in a changing climate Holger Rootzen1 and Richard W. Katz2 of return levels and return periods have been standard and important tools for engineering design. However, whether local or global. In this paper, we propose a refined concept, Design Life Level, which quantifies

  20. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satkowiak, Lawrence

    2014-05-09

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  1. Self-consistent QM/MM methodologies for structural refinement of photosystem II and other macromolecules of biological interest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sproviero, Eduardo M [YALE UNIV; Newcomer, Michael [YALE UNIV; Gascon, Jose A [YALE UNIV; Batista, Victor S [YALE UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The combination of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is one of the most promising approaches to study the structure, function, and properties of proteins and nucleic acids. However, there some instances in which the limitations of either the MM (lack of a proper electronic description) or QM (limited to a few number of atoms) methods prevent a proper description of the system. To address this issue, we review here our approach to fine-tune the structure of biological systems using post-QM/MM refinements. These protocols are based on spectroscopy data, and/or partitioning of the system to extend the QM description to a larger region of a protein. We illustrate these methodologies through applications to several biomolecules, which were pre-optimized at the QM/MM level and then further refined using postQM/MM refinement methodologies: mod(QM/MM), which refines the atomic charges of the residues included in the MM region accounting for polarization effects; mod(QM/MM)-opt that partition the MM region in smaller parts and optimizes each part in an iterative. self-consistent way, and the Polarized-Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (P-EXAFS) fitting procedure, which fine-tune the atomic coordinates to reproduce experimental polarized EXAFS spectra. The first two techniques were applied to the guanine quadruplex. while the P-EXAFS refinement was applied to the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II.

  2. Regional Climate Modeling: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuqing; Leung, Lai R.; McGregor, John L.; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ding, Yihui; Kimura, Fujio

    2004-12-01

    Regional climate modeling with regional climate models (RCMs) has matured over the past decade and allows for meaningful utilization in a broad spectrum of applications. In this paper, latest progresses in regional climate modeling studies are reviewed, including RCM development, applications of RCMs to dynamical downscaling for climate change assessment, seasonal climate predictions and climate process studies, and the study of regional climate predictability. Challenges and potential directions of future research in this important area are discussed, with the focus on those to which less attention has been given previously, such as the importance of ensemble simulations, further development and improvement of regional climate modeling approach, modeling extreme climate events and sub-daily variation of clouds and precipitation, model evaluation and diagnostics, applications of RCMs to climate process studies and seasonal predictions, and development of regional earth system models. It is believed that with both the demonstrated credibility of RCMs’ capability in reproducing not only monthly to seasonal mean climate and interannual variability but also the extreme climate events when driven by good quality reanalysis and the continuous improvements in the skill of global general circulation models (GCMs) in simulating large-scale atmospheric circulation, regional climate modeling will remain an important dynamical downscaling tool for providing the needed information for assessing climate change impacts and seasonal climate predictions, and a powerful tool for improving our understanding of regional climate processes. An internationally coordinated effort can be developed with different focuses by different groups to advance regional climate modeling studies. It is also recognized that since the final quality of the results from nested RCMs depends in part on the realism of the large-scale forcing provided by GCMs, the reduction of errors and improvement in physics parameterizations in both GCMs and RCMs remain a priority for climate modeling community.

  3. BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spring 2015 Infographic Challenge Winner Read more BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge: Algae for a Cleaner and Greener Tomorrow BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge: Algae for a...

  4. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development Challenges: Water Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water Shale Gas Development Challenges: Water More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and...

  5. Automotive Fuels - The Challenge for Sustainable Mobility | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels - The Challenge for Sustainable Mobility Automotive Fuels - The Challenge for Sustainable Mobility Overview of challenges and future fuel options deer12warnecke.pdf More...

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Sierra Nevada Brewing Co...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Sierra Nevada...

  7. Distribution-Based Clustering: Using Ecology To Refine the Operational Taxonomic Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preheim, Sarah Pacocha

    16S rRNA sequencing, commonly used to survey microbial communities, begins by grouping individual reads into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). There are two major challenges in calling OTUs: identifying bacterial population ...

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting MisconceptionsQuantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG EmissionsJennifer B....

  9. Improving macromolecular atomic models at moderate resolution by automated iterative model building, statistical density modification and refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    A procedure for iterative model-building, statistical density modification and refinement at moderate resolution (up to about 2.8 Å) is described. An iterative process for improving the completeness and quality of atomic models automatically built at moderate resolution (up to about 2.8 Å) is described. The process consists of cycles of model building interspersed with cycles of refinement and combining phase information from the model with experimental phase information (if any) using statistical density modification. The process can lead to substantial improvements in both the accuracy and completeness of the model compared with a single cycle of model building. For eight test cases solved by MAD or SAD at resolutions ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 Å, the fraction of models built and assigned to sequence was 46–91% (mean of 65%) after the first cycle of building and refinement, and 78-95% (mean of 87%) after 20 cycles. In an additional test case, an incorrect model of gene 5 protein (PDB code 2gn5; r.m.s.d. of main-chain atoms from the more recent refined structure 1vqb at 1.56 Å) was rebuilt using only structure-factor amplitude information at varying resolutions from 2.0 to 3.0 Å. Rebuilding was effective at resolutions up to about 2.5 Å. The resulting models had 60-80% of the residues built and an r.m.s.d. of main-chain atoms from the refined structure of 0.20 to 0.62 Å. The algorithm is useful for building preliminary models of macromolecules suitable for an experienced crystallographer to extend, correct and fully refine.

  10. EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE the evolution of change management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Michael

    page 1 EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE the evolution of change management by Jeroen van der Zon University, evolutionary change is studied by describing the evolution of Change Manage- ment (CM). CM is one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 Modelling Change Management

  11. Climate Change: What's Love Got to Do with It?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    Climate Change: What's Love Got to Do with It? Thursday, November 7, 2013 12:00 - 1:30 p.m. Wrigley Reality Leader Convincing deniers that climate change is real and mainly due to mankind's use of fossil fuels is a challenge. This talk will explore a new tactic: personalizing climate change. What things do

  12. From global change science to action with social sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, C. P.; Mooney, Sian; Allen, D.; Beller-Simms, Nancy; Fish, T.; Grambsch, A.; Hohenstein, W.; Jacobs, Kathy; Kenney, Melissa A.; Lane, Meredith A.; Langner, L.; Larson, E.; McGinnis, D. L.; Moss, Richard H.; Nichols, L. G.; Nierenberg, Claudia; Seyller, E. A.; Stern, Paul; Winthrop, R.

    2014-08-01

    US efforts to integrate social and biophysical sciences to address the issue of global change exist within a wider movement to understand global change as a societal challenge and to inform policy. Insights from the social sciences can help transform global change research into action.

  13. Tritiated Water Challenge in Fukushima Daiichi

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tritiated water Challenge in Fukushima Daiichi Steve Xiao, Ph.D. Hydrogen Processing Tritium Focus Group Meeting, April 2014 Brian B. Looney, Ph.D. Environmental Restoration...

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Eastern Connecticut State...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in the world to offer EVs at a price comparable to traditional gasoline vehicles. Motivation for the challenge comes from its projected benefits: a full transition from gasoline...

  15. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design Presentation given at the EV Everywhere...

  16. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Vermont Energy Investment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Information VEIC's Mission Workplace Charging News June 23, 2014 VEIC now an EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge Partner The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is...

  17. The Climate Challenge... and What's at Stake

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven

    2013-05-29

    Secretary Chu uses a famous moment from the Apollo 8 mission to lay out what's at stake as we take on the climate challenge.

  18. "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News &...

  19. Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    091515 President's Performance Contracting Challenge Status (September 15, 2015) Pipeline: Amount of project costs in procurement process and expected to award. Awarded:...

  20. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial Energy Efficiency, January 2011 - pg 8 grandchallengesportfoliopg8.pdf More Documents & Publications Grand...

  1. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial Energy Efficiency, January 2011 - pg 9 grandchallengesportfoliopg9.pdf More Documents & Publications Grand...

  2. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial Energy Efficiency, January 2011 - pg 6 grandchallengesportfoliopg6.pdf More Documents & Publications Grand...

  3. International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Workshop Summary...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Workshop Summary - NOW, NEDO, and DOE" held on December 16,...

  4. Managing Earth's Ecosystems: An Interdisciplinary Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrlich, Paul R.

    Managing Earth's Ecosystems: An Interdisciplinary Challenge Gretchen C. Daily* and Paul R. Ehrlich sheltered from competitive market forces, such as universities. Channels developed to direct flows

  5. PNNL Solving the Energy Storage Challenge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to maintain reliability from renewables, energy must be stored for when power cannot be generated. PNNL scientists discuss the challenges and progress being made.

  6. 2nd International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Text version and video recording of the webinar titled "2nd International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Webinar," originally presented on March 10, 2015.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Materials Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Research for Automotive Applications Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Materials Research for Automotive Applications Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  8. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The objectives of this study were to identify the transportation and logistics challenges, assess the associated impacts, and provide recommendations for strategies and specific...

  9. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Environmental Benefits of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Environmental Benefits of Bioenergy Corn Can Save the Earth This infographic was created by students from Smithtown HS East in St. James, NY...

  10. Presidential Performance Contracting Challenge: Performance Toward...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data 081515 President's Performance Contracting Challenge Status (August 15, 2015) Pipeline: Amount of project costs in procurement process and expected to award. Awarded:...

  11. BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge: Understanding America's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infographic Challenge Understanding America's Bioenergy Choices Bioenergy is derived from organic matter to produce renewable fuels, products, and power. This national...

  12. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes.

  13. Iterative build OMIT maps: Map improvement by iterative model-building and refinement without model bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England; Terwilliger, Thomas; Terwilliger, T.C.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf Wilhelm; Afonine, P.V.; Moriarty, N.W.; Zwart, P.H.; Hung, L.-W.; Read, R.J.; Adams, P.D.

    2008-02-12

    A procedure for carrying out iterative model-building, density modification and refinement is presented in which the density in an OMIT region is essentially unbiased by an atomic model. Density from a set of overlapping OMIT regions can be combined to create a composite 'Iterative-Build' OMIT map that is everywhere unbiased by an atomic model but also everywhere benefiting from the model-based information present elsewhere in the unit cell. The procedure may have applications in the validation of specific features in atomic models as well as in overall model validation. The procedure is demonstrated with a molecular replacement structure and with an experimentally-phased structure, and a variation on the method is demonstrated by removing model bias from a structure from the Protein Data Bank.

  14. Refining the classification of the irreps of the 1D N-Extended Supersymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuznetsova, Z; Kuznetsova, Zhanna; Toppan, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    In hep-th/0511274 the classification of the fields content of the linear finite irreducible representations of the algebra of the 1D N-Extended Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics was given. In hep-th/0611060 it was pointed out that certain irreps with the same fields content can be regarded as inequivalent. This result can be understood in terms of the "connectivity" properties of the graphs associated to the irreps. We present here a classification of the connectivity of the irreps, refining the hep-th/0511274 classification based on fields content. As a byproduct, we find a counterexample to the hep-th/0611060 claim that the connectivity is uniquely specified by the "sources" and "targets" of an irrep graph. We produce one pair of N=5 irreps and three pairs of N=6 irreps with the same number of sources and targets which, nevertheless, differ in connectivity.

  15. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  16. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  17. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  18. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  19. Early F-type stars - refined classification, confrontation with Stromgren photometry, and the effects of rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, R.O.; Garrison, R.F.

    1989-02-01

    The classification for early F-type stars in the MK spectral classification system presented by Gray and Garrison (1987) is refined. The effect of rotation on spectral classification and ubvy-beta photometry of early F-type stars is examined. It is found that the classical luminosity criterion, the 4417 A/4481 A ratio gives inconsistent results. It is shown that most of the stars in the Delta Delphini class of metallic-line stars are either normal or are indistinguishable from proto-Am stars. It is suggested that the designation Delta Delphini should be dropped. The classifications are compared with Stromgren photometry. The effects of rotation on the delta-c sub 1 index in the early-F field dwarfs is demonstrated. 55 references.

  20. A node-centered local refinement algorithm for poisson's equation in complex geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip; Grote, David P.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2004-05-04

    This paper presents a method for solving Poisson's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an irregular bounded three-dimensional region. The method uses a nodal-point discretization and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on Cartesian grids, and the AMR multigrid solver of Almgren. The discrete Laplacian operator at internal boundaries comes from either linear or quadratic (Shortley-Weller) extrapolation, and the two methods are compared. It is shown that either way, solution error is second order in the mesh spacing. Error in the gradient of the solution is first order with linear extrapolation, but second order with Shortley-Weller. Examples are given with comparison with the exact solution. The method is also applied to a heavy-ion fusion accelerator problem, showing the advantage of adaptivity.

  1. 3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Pellet Injection in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Samtaney; S.C. Jardin; P. Colella; D.F. Martin

    2003-10-20

    We present results of Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulations of the pellet injection process, a proven method of refueling tokamaks. AMR is a computationally efficient way to provide the resolution required to simulate realistic pellet sizes relative to device dimensions. The mathematical model comprises of single-fluid MHD equations with source terms in the continuity equation along with a pellet ablation rate model. The numerical method developed is an explicit unsplit upwinding treatment of the 8-wave formulation, coupled with a MAC projection method to enforce the solenoidal property of the magnetic field. The Chombo framework is used for AMR. The role of the E x B drift in mass redistribution during inside and outside pellet injections is emphasized.

  2. Astrophysical hydrodynamics with a high-order discontinuous Galerkin scheme and adaptive mesh refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaal, Kevin; Chandrashekar, Praveen; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Klingenberg, Christian; Springel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Solving the Euler equations of ideal hydrodynamics as accurately and efficiently as possible is a key requirement in many astrophysical simulations. It is therefore important to continuously advance the numerical methods implemented in current astrophysical codes, especially also in light of evolving computer technology, which favours certain computational approaches over others. Here we introduce the new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code TENET, which employs a high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for hydrodynamics. The Euler equations in this method are solved in a weak formulation with a polynomial basis by means of explicit Runge-Kutta time integration and Gauss-Legendre quadrature. This approach offers significant advantages over commonly employed finite volume (FV) solvers. In particular, the higher order capability renders it computationally more efficient, in the sense that the same precision can be obtained at significantly less computational cost. Also, the DG scheme inherently conserves a...

  3. Petroleum refining industry of developed capitalist countries in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokhorova, A.A.

    1994-07-01

    Crude oil is the principal source of energy today and in the immediate future. The increases in the consumption of crude oil (1.7% per year up to 2005) will be offset mainly by additional supplies from the countries of the Near East. Data on the imports of oil by the developed capitalists countries are presented in Table 2. In the United States, according to a projection made by Conoco, by the year 2000 the volume of imports will be twice the volume of domestic production; according to another prediction, the amount of Near East crude will increase from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 2000. Since the mid-1980s, the energy policy of the USA has been based on importing so-called cheap crude. Laws have been passed to mandate not only energy saving, but also cuts in the oil and gas production on U.S. territory. The volume of U.S. oil production will be 20% lower in 2000 than in 1990. Some 90% of the worldwide demand for oil is met by light and medium-density crudes, but such crudes account for only 25% of the oil resources. Projections indicate that the oil supplied to refiners in the future will be heavier and will have higher sulfur contents. The U.S. production of low-sulfur crude will drop off sharply in the next 10-15 years. The drop in oil production of the CIS [former USSR] and the consequent drop in exports from these countries will have a destabilizing effect on the world market. The average price of the {open_quotes}market basket{close_quotes} of OPEC crudes in 1991 was $149/ton (in 1990 $178/ton), in comparison with a 1992 price of $148/ton. This report presents data on refining process capacities and the ratio of secondary capacity to primary distillation capacity.

  4. Lawyers at the 'information age water cooler': exposing sex discrimination and challenging law firm culture on the internet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumle, Amanda Kathleen

    2006-10-30

    behalf, and I seek to determine whether the law can in fact be mobilized to challenge and perhaps change gender relations in the legal practice. Through ethnographic field research and content analysis of an Internet community, my research examines...

  5. ITEP Webinar: Climate Change Impacts on Fish and Wildlife

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attend this Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) webinar and learn the climate change challenges for fish and wildlife and what can be done to help safeguard fish, wildlife, and plants and the communities and economies that depend on them.

  6. Climate Change as a ‘Hard’ Case of Collective Responsibility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seibokaite, Aiste

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a challenge to moral philosophy. Because of the nature of the harms – brought about collectively, it seems like a case of collective responsibility1. But none of the existing theories of collective responsibility seem capable...

  7. Systemic Change for RTI: Key Shifts for Practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.; Huber, Jennifer J.

    2010-10-09

    RTI has the potential to meet the challenges of increasing diversity in student populations and the need for increasingly complex systems of instructional design. Three fundamental shifts in understanding systems and systems change must ground RTI...

  8. Managing the Risks of Climate Change and Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosa, Eugene; Dietz, Tom; Moss, Richard H.; Atran, Scott; Moser, Susanne

    2012-04-07

    The article describes challenges to comparative risk assessment, a key approach for managing uncertainty in decision making, across diverse threats such as terrorism and climate change and argues new approaches will be particularly important in addressing decisions related to sustainability.

  9. Wireless Control Systems:Wireless Control Systems: Scientific Challenges andScientific Challenges and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Wireless Control Systems:Wireless Control Systems: Scientific Challenges andScientific Challenges and Emerging ApplicationsEmerging Applications Karl Henrik Johansson School of Electrical Engineering Royal, Greece 27-29 Jun, 2007 © Karl H. Johansson, Wireless control Acknowledgements

  10. Climate Change Adaptation: New Perspectives for Natural Resource Management and Conservation1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzotti, Frank

    WEC318 Climate Change Adaptation: New Perspectives for Natural Resource Management and Conservation/IFAS Extension. A Changing Climate for Conservation Climate change is creating new challenges for conservation their distributions in response to climate change, and changes in phenology are disrupting ecological relationships

  11. ARCHITECTURAL CHALLENGES FOR A DEPENDABLE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firenze, Università degli Studi di

    ARCHITECTURAL CHALLENGES FOR A DEPENDABLE INFORMATION SOCIETY Luca Simoncini University of Pisa must be reconsidered, studied, exploited, assessed and applied to move towards an utopia that can provides the authors views, based on their experience, on future directions and architectural challenges

  12. Public Health Sciences: Challenges and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Public Health Sciences: Challenges and Opportunities Report of the Public Health Sciences Working Group convened by the Wellcome Trust March 2004 #12;Public Health Sciences: Challenges and Opportunities Report of the Working Group on the Public Health Sciences convened by the Wellcome Trust Public Health

  13. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

    2014-06-01

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  14. Cyber Security Grand Challenges and Prognosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandhu, Ravi

    Cyber Security Grand Challenges and Prognosis Prof. Ravi Sandhu Executive Director and Institute for Cyber Security Executive Director and Endowed Chair ravi.sandhu@utsa.edu www.profsandhu.com www.ics.utsa.edu © Ravi Sandhu World-Leading Research with Real Cyber Security Grand Challenges and Prognosis Prof. Ravi

  15. Focus Article Open challenges in magnetic drug

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    Focus Article Open challenges in magnetic drug targeting Benjamin Shapiro,1,2 Sandip Kulkarni,1 Aleksander Nacev,3 Silvia Muro,1,4 Pavel Y. Stepanov3 and Irving N. Weinberg3 The principle of magnetic drug is that highlight- ing these challenges will help researchers translate magnetic drug targeting from a novel concept

  16. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation of Climate Change.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Zecchin, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    2007: Mitigation of Climate Change. Full report. WorkingIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change www.webcda.it LaIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change”. Il Rapporto

  17. Using Knowledge-Based Neural Networks to Improve Algorithms: Refining the Chou-Fasman Algorithm for Protein Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maclin, Rich

    for Protein Folding Richard Maclin Jude W. Shavlik Computer Sciences Dept. University of Wisconsin 1210 W learning Theory refinement Neural networks Finite-state automata Protein folding Chou-Fasman algorithm-Fasman algorithm, a method for predicting how globular proteins fold. Empirical evidence shows

  18. Neutron and X-ray diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement modelling of magnesium stabilised amorphous calcium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benning, Liane G.

    Neutron and X-ray diffraction and empirical potential structure refinement modelling of magnesium online xxxx Keywords: Amorphous calcium carbonate; EPSR modelling; Neutron diffraction; X-ray diffraction Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) plays a key role in biomineralisation processes in sea organisms. Neutron

  19. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network ShapingDate: M-16-04-04 Federal FacilityChange Number

  20. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network ShapingDate: M-16-04-04 Federal FacilityChange

  1. CS Chang

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1, 2013, 4:15pmEnergyNovemberCompute 1CS Chang CS

  2. The Complexity of Adaptation to Climate Change. Exploring adaptation in Rio Grande, Ecuador 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argudo, Cristina

    2014-11-27

    Climate change has become one of the most challenging problems in terms of development, having adverse effects in populations that are already vulnerable to other stressors. At present, the importance of adaptation to climate change has been widely...

  3. Coastal communities and climate change : a dynamic model of risk perception, storms, and adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck, Travis Read

    2009-01-01

    Climate change impacts, including sea-level rise and changes in tropical storm frequency and intensity, will pose signicant challenges to city planners and coastal zone managers trying to make wise investment and protection ...

  4. REFINEMENT AND QUANTIFICATION OF DATA FOR REGULATING DWARF MISTLETOE POPULATIONS:AN ECOSYSTEMS APPROACH^

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Application of principles and concepts of plant ecology t o control dwarf mistletoes i n the ecosystem-of-way, reser- voirs f o r hydro-electric projects, etc. The challenge i s written. I f societies are t o à ` l t h e i r perpetuation t o the present generation of mankind. #12;The second reason we have been slow

  5. Financing Innovation to Address Global Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Loan Programs Office (LPO) is helping address the global challenge of climate change by providing critical financing needed to deploy some of the world’s largest and most innovative clean energy and advanced technology vehicles manufacturing projects, preventing more than 25 million metric tons of CO2 emissions to date.

  6. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Ronzio, N.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the results of process and cost refinement studies for the manufacture of ultra-clean coal-slurry fuel for direct-fired gas turbines. The work was performed as an extension to an earlier contract in which AMAX R and D supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines program. A conceptual design study and cost estimate supplied to METC at that time indicated that a combined physical and chemical cleaning process could produce ultra-clean fuel at a competitive price. Laboratory and pilot plant studies performed for the contract extension further defined the process conditions and operating and capital costs to prepare coals containing from 0.2 to 1.0% ash as slurry fuels. A base-case fuel containing coal cleaned to 0.5% ash in a 1000 cp slurry containing 55% coal was $4.16 per million Btu when produced in quantities required to fuel a 500 MW gas-turbine generating station. Coal slurry fuel production costs as low as $3.66 per million Btu were projected for coals cleaned to 1.0% ash. 12 refs., 23 figs., 63 tabs.

  7. Staggered grid lagrangian method with local structured adaptive mesh refinement for modeling shock hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliot, N S

    2000-09-26

    A new method for the solution of the unsteady Euler equations has been developed. The method combines staggered grid Lagrangian techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). This method is a precursor to a more general adaptive arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE-AMR) algorithm under development, which will facilitate the solution of problems currently at and beyond the boundary of soluble problems by traditional ALE methods by focusing computational resources where they are required. Many of the core issues involved in the development of the ALE-AMR method hinge upon the integration of AMR with a Lagrange step, which is the focus of the work described here. The novel components of the method are mainly driven by the need to reconcile traditional AMR techniques, which are typically employed on stationary meshes with cell-centered quantities, with the staggered grids and grid motion employed by Lagrangian methods. These new algorithmic components are first developed in one dimension and are then generalized to two dimensions. Solutions of several model problems involving shock hydrodynamics are presented and discussed.

  8. Refinement, Validation and Application of Cloud-Radiation Parameterization in a GCM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Graeme L. Stephens

    2009-04-30

    The research performed under this award was conducted along 3 related fronts: (1) Refinement and assessment of parameterizations of sub-grid scale radiative transport in GCMs. (2) Diagnostic studies that use ARM observations of clouds and convection in an effort to understand the effects of moist convection on its environment, including how convection influences clouds and radiation. This aspect focuses on developing and testing methodologies designed to use ARM data more effectively for use in atmospheric models, both at the cloud resolving model scale and the global climate model scale. (3) Use (1) and (2) in combination with both models and observations of varying complexity to study key radiation feedback Our work toward these objectives thus involved three corresponding efforts. First, novel diagnostic techniques were developed and applied to ARM observations to understand and characterize the effects of moist convection on the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which it occurs. Second, an in house GCM radiative transfer algorithm (BUGSrad) was employed along with an optimal estimation cloud retrieval algorithm to evaluate the ability to reproduce cloudy-sky radiative flux observations. Assessments using a range of GCMs with various moist convective parameterizations to evaluate the fidelity with which the parameterizations reproduce key observable features of the environment were also started in the final year of this award. The third study area involved the study of cloud radiation feedbacks and we examined these in both cloud resolving and global climate models.

  9. Dimensional reduction as a tool for mesh refinement and trackingsingularities of PDEs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinis, Panagiotis

    2007-06-10

    We present a collection of algorithms which utilizedimensional reduction to perform mesh refinement and study possiblysingular solutions of time-dependent partial differential equations. Thealgorithms are inspired by constructions used in statistical mechanics toevaluate the properties of a system near a critical point. The firstalgorithm allows the accurate determination of the time of occurrence ofa possible singularity. The second algorithm is an adaptive meshrefinement scheme which can be used to approach efficiently the possiblesingularity. Finally, the third algorithm uses the second algorithm untilthe available resolution is exhausted (as we approach the possiblesingularity) and then switches to a dimensionally reduced model which,when accurate, can follow faithfully the solution beyond the time ofoccurrence of the purported singularity. An accurate dimensionallyreduced model should dissipate energy at the right rate. We construct twovariants of each algorithm. The first variant assumes that we have actualknowledge of the reduced model. The second variant assumes that we knowthe form of the reduced model, i.e., the terms appearing in the reducedmodel, but not necessarily their coefficients. In this case, we alsoprovide a way of determining the coefficients. We present numericalresults for the Burgers equation with zero and nonzero viscosity toillustrate the use of the algorithms.

  10. Refined rotational period, pole solution, and shape model for (3200) Phaethon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansdell, Megan; Meech, Karen J.; Kaluna, Heather; Hainaut, Olivier; Buie, Marc W.; Bauer, James; Dundon, Luke

    2014-09-20

    (3200) Phaethon exhibits both comet- and asteroid-like properties, suggesting it could be a rare transitional object such as a dormant comet or previously volatile-rich asteroid. This justifies detailed study of (3200) Phaethon's physical properties as a better understanding of asteroid-comet transition objects can provide insight into minor body evolution. We therefore acquired time series photometry of (3200) Phaethon over 15 nights from 1994 to 2013, primarily using the Tektronix 2048 × 2048 pixel CCD on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. We utilized light curve inversion to (1) refine (3200) Phaethon's rotational period to P = 3.6032 ± 0.0008 hr; (2) estimate a rotational pole orientation of ? = +85° ± 13° and ? = –20° ± 10°; and (3) derive a shape model. We also used our extensive light curve data set to estimate the slope parameter of (3200) Phaethon's phase curve as G ? 0.06, consistent with C-type asteroids. We discuss how this highly oblique pole orientation with a negative ecliptic latitude supports previous evidence for (3200) Phaethon's origin in the inner main asteroid belt as well as the potential for deeply buried volatiles fueling impulsive yet rare cometary outbursts.

  11. Synthesis and Rietveld refinement of the small-pore zeolite SSZ-16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo, R.F.; Zones, S.I.; Medrud, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    Recent research efforts invested in the synthesis of new high-silica zeolites have yielded several novel materials with medium ({approximately}5.6 {Angstrom}) and large ({approximately}7.2 {Angstrom}) pores. Examples include new zeolites with intersecting 10 and 12 member rings-i.e., pores bounded by 10 and 12 tetrahedral (T) atoms respectively-like SSZ-26, NU-87, SSZ-37, SSZ-25, MCM-22, CIT-1 (CON), and the aluminophosphate-based DAF-1 (DFO). However, except for the zeolites SSZ-28 (DDR) and SSZ-13 (CHA), no new high-silica zeolites with small pores have been reported. High-silica small-pore zeolites could be potentially useful for several catalytic reactions including the synthesis of dimethylamine, the reduction of NO{sub x} from combustion gases and the dewaxing of fuels for octane upgrading. The authors present here the synthesis and structural characterization using Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data of the zeolite SSZ-16. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Refinement of a formula for decay after weak coherent excitation of a sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedberg, R., E-mail: rfriedberg1@nyc.rr.co [Barnard College, Columbia University, 452 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A new formula has been given recently by A.A. Svidzinsky and M.O. Scully to describe the temporal evolution of the excitation function beta(t,r{sup -}>) in a large sphere satisfying the Markov condition after excitation by a single photon. This formula is based on a physically reasonable Ansatz from which differential equations are inferred for the undetermined radial functions in the Ansatz. The solution to these differential equations leads to the formula for beta. Numerical calculations from this formula yield a value approx10% for the maximum probability of occupancy of secondary excited states. In this paper, we refine the formula of Svidzinsky and Scully by allowing the radial functions in the Ansatz to depend on the angular index l of the spherical Bessel functions. By using the Debye formula for the asymptotic behavior of j{sub l}(u) for large l as well as u, we obtain differential equations in each angular sector, similar to theirs but with a dependence on l. The solution to these equations yields our improved formula, from which we calculate 17.1% for the maximum probability of secondary excited states.

  13. A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

    2009-03-03

    Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

  14. Ly{alpha} RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS USING ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100, Copenhagen Oe (Denmark); Razoumov, Alexei O. [Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS, B3H3C3 (Canada); Sommer-Larsen, Jesper [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: pela@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: razoumov@ap.smu.ca, E-mail: jslarsen@astro.ku.dk

    2009-05-01

    A numerical code for solving various Ly{alpha} radiative transfer (RT) problems is presented. The code is suitable for an arbitrary, three-dimensional distribution of Ly{alpha} emissivity, gas temperature, density, and velocity field. Capable of handling Ly{alpha} RT in an adaptively refined grid-based structure, it enables detailed investigation of the effects of clumpiness of the interstellar (or intergalactic) medium. The code is tested against various geometrically and physically idealized configurations for which analytical solutions exist, and subsequently applied to three different simulated high-resolution 'Lyman-break galaxies', extracted from high-resolution cosmological simulations at redshift z = 3.6. Proper treatment of the Ly{alpha} scattering reveals a diversity of surface brightness (SB) and line profiles. Specifically, for a given galaxy the maximum observed SB can vary by an order of magnitude, and the total flux by a factor of 3-6, depending on the viewing angle. This may provide an explanation for differences in observed properties of high-redshift galaxies, and in particular a possible physical link between Lyman-break galaxies and regular Ly{alpha} emitters.

  15. Relativistic Hydrodynamic Flows Using Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Structured Mesh Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Wang; Tom Abel; Weiqun Zhang

    2007-12-31

    Astrophysical relativistic flow problems require high resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations. In this paper, we describe a new parallel three-dimensional code for simulations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using both spatially and temporally structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We used the method of lines to discretize the SRHD equations spatially and a total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. For spatial reconstruction, we have implemented piecewise linear method (PLM), piecewise parabolic method (PPM), third order convex essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) and third and fifth order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes. Flux is computed using either direct flux reconstruction or approximate Riemann solvers including HLL, modified Marquina flux, local Lax-Friedrichs flux formulas and HLLC. The AMR part of the code is built on top of the cosmological Eulerian AMR code {\\sl enzo}. We discuss the coupling of the AMR framework with the relativistic solvers. Via various test problems, we emphasize the importance of resolution studies in relativistic flow simulations because extremely high resolution is required especially when shear flows are present in the problem. We also present the results of two 3d simulations of astrophysical jets: AGN jets and GRB jets. Resolution study of those two cases further highlights the need of high resolutions to calculate accurately relativistic flow problems.

  16. Aluminum doped zirconia nanopowders: Wet-chemical synthesis and structural analysis by Rietveld refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srdic, Vladimir V. Rakic, Srdan; Cvejic, Zeljka

    2008-10-02

    Alumina/zirconia nanopowders, with up to 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were prepared by wet-chemical synthesis technique, using controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides. The as-synthesized powders are amorphous, have very high specific surface area and the corresponding particle size smaller than 4 nm. Amorphous powders with 0, 10 and 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallize at 460, 692 and 749 deg. C, respectively, as a single-phase tetragonal zirconia, without any traces of alumina phases. Rietvled refinement of X-ray diffraction data, used for the detailed structural analysis of annealed nanopowders, showed that the high-temperature zirconia phase is stabilized due to the formation of ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions. High solubility of alumina in the tetragonal zirconia (up to 28.6 at% Al{sup 3+}) and stabilization of tetragonal zirconia solid solution up to high temperature (as high as 1150 deg. C) were also confirmed.

  17. Reactive chemical transport in ground-water hydrology: Challenges to mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Apps, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    For a long time, earth scientists have qualitatively recognized that mineral assemblages in soils and rocks conform to established principles of chemistry. In the early 1960's geochemists began systematizing this knowledge by developing quantitative thermodynamic models based on equilibrium considerations. These models have since been coupled with advective-dispersive-diffusive transport models, already developed by ground-water hydrologists. Spurred by a need for handling difficult environmental issues related to ground-water contamination, these models are being improved, refined and applied to realistic problems of interest. There is little doubt that these models will play an important role in solving important problems of engineering as well as science over the coming years. Even as these models are being used practically, there is scope for their improvement and many challenges lie ahead. In addition to improving the conceptual basis of the governing equations, much remains to be done to incorporate kinetic processes and biological mediation into extant chemical equilibrium models. Much also remains to be learned about the limits to which model predictability can be reasonably taken. The purpose of this paper is to broadly assess the current status of knowledge in modeling reactive chemical transport and to identify the challenges that lie ahead.

  18. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Bioenergy News Today

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from The Preuss School in La Jolla, CA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  19. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Why is it important?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from The Preuss School in La Jolla, CA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  20. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Workforce and Education

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Sun Valley High School in Aston, PA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  1. Software sustainability: issues, challenges and initiatives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chue Hong, Neil

    2015-07-29

    The Software Sustainability Institute (SSI) was recently awarded funding from EPSRC, ESRC and BBSRC to continue tackling issues and challenges around research software. In this seminar, I'll talk about some of the ...

  2. WINDExchange Webinar: Overcoming Wind Siting Challenges III:...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Land Use June 17, 2015 3:00PM to 4:00PM EDT As a follow-up to the February webinar on wind power siting challenges and the April webinar on radar and wind energy projects,...

  3. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: History of Bioenergy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This infographic was created by students from Sun Valley High School in Aston, PA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  4. Better Buildings Challenge Progress Update, May 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Buildings Challenge, is a public-private partnership program in which leading organizations commit to improve the energy intensity of their building portfolios by at least 20 percent...

  5. 20th New Mexico Supercomputing Challenge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Melrose High trio named top team in 20th New Mexico Supercomputing Challenge April 27, 2010 Student research project modeled behavior of wildfire LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, April 27,...

  6. Rampart Proactively Addresses Expansion Challenges with Strategic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Challenges with Strategic Energy Planning August 4, 2015 - 3:13pm Addthis Wiehl family fish camp near Rampart Village. Photo by Sherry Stout, NREL. Wiehl family fish camp near...

  7. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biofuels Sustainable Transportation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Sun Valley High School in Aston, PA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  8. SOAs for Scientific Applications: Experiences and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Sriram

    SOAs for Scientific Applications: Experiences and Challenges Sriram Krishnan, Karan Bhatia San of a standard set of services, sometimes called Grid services Email address: {sriram,karan}@sdsc.edu (Sriram

  9. CHALLENGES POSED BY RETIRED RUSSIAN NUCLEAR SUBMARINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolph, Dieter; Kroken, Ingjerd; Latyshev, Eduard; Griffith, Andrew

    2003-02-27

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges posed by retired Russian nuclear submarines, review current U.S. and International efforts and provide an assessment of the success of these efforts.

  10. Join the American Energy Data Challenge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today the Energy Department launches a four-part challenge to spur the development of new apps, tools and services that make high-value open energy data more accessible to the public.

  11. Team MIT Urban Challenge Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard, John

    2007-12-14

    This technical report describes Team MIT?s approach to theDARPA Urban Challenge. We have developed a novel strategy forusing many inexpensive sensors, mounted on the vehicle periphery,and calibrated with a new cross-­modal ...

  12. Big data : evolution, components, challenges and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarate Santovena, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews the evolution and current state of the "Big Data" industry, and to understand the key components, challenges and opportunities of Big Data and analytics face in today business environment, this is analyzed ...

  13. Engineering Challenges for Floating Offshore Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, S.; Musial, W.; Jonkman, J.; Sclavounos, P.

    2007-09-01

    The major objective of this paper is to survey the technical challenges that must be overcome to develop deepwater offshore wind energy technologies and to provide a framework from which the first-order economics can be assessed.

  14. Goals, Data, and Challenges Analysis Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paciorek, Chris

    Statistical Inference in Paleoecology, with a Focus on Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Chris Paciorek. Paciorek, J. Williams) Chris Paciorek Hierarchical Modeling for Paleoecology 1 #12;Goals, Data, and Challenges Analysis Strategies Hierarchical Modeling The PalEON Perspective (Some) Paleoecological Data

  15. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biofuels vs Fossil Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from North Caddo Magnet High School in Vivian, LA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

  16. Journalism Students Win FOX News Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Journalism Students Win FOX News Challenge Journalism seniors Casey Chin and Meghan Lopez won months on the project, even travel- ing to the Lakota Nation in South Dakota during the winter break

  17. Fusion materials modeling: Challenges and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirth, B. D.

    The plasma facing components, first wall, and blanket systems of future tokamak-based fusion power plants arguably represent the single greatest materials engineering challenge of all time. Indeed, the United States National ...

  18. Moroccan American Studies: Assets and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moumine, Mohamed El Amine

    2012-01-01

    Challenges 0 Trade Facts. Free Trade With Morocco A VitalStep Toward Middle East Free Trade. Published on line by Of?for the signature of a Free Trade Agreement with the United

  19. 3M's Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstration Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, S. C.

    1996-01-01

    . The Motor Challenge is a U. S. Department of Energy initiative to promote the efficient use of energy in electric motor systems. Showcase Demonstration Projects are used to exemplify the benefits that motor system optimization can provide. This Showcase...

  20. 3M's Motor Challenge Showcase Demonstration Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    Challenge is a U.S. Department of Energy initiative to promote the efficient use of energy in electric motor systems. Showcase Demonstration Projects are used to exemplify the benefits that motor system optimization can provide. This Showcase Project...