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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery Yield Refinery Yield (Percent) Product: Liquefied Refinery Gases Finished Motor Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.1 3.9 1993-2013 PADD 1 4.4 5.1 4.9 4.9 4.6 2.1 1993-2013 East Coast 4.4 5.3 5.1 5.1 4.9 2.2 1993-2013

2

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

3

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 526,996 566,851 559,032 581,600 578,456 543,388 1981-2013 Crude Oil 445,937 474,296 474,991 497,241 489,887 468,825 1981-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 12,805 11,759 12,769 13,227 13,760 16,794 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 4,949 4,341 4,752 4,734 5,331 5,666 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7,856 7,418 8,017 8,493 8,429 11,128 1981-2013 Ethane 1981-1992 Normal Butane 2,668 1,880 1,998 2,014 2,083 4,711 1981-2013 Isobutane 5,188 5,538 6,019 6,479 6,346 6,417 1981-2013 Other Liquids 68,254 80,796 71,272 71,132 74,809 57,769 1981-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 32,667 34,665 34,097 35,446 36,356 33,881 1981-2013

4

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 6,204,500 6,277,893 6,169,893 6,345,372 6,422,710 6,406,693 1981-2012 Crude Oil 5,532,097 5,361,287 5,232,656 5,374,094 5,404,347 5,489,516 1981-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 184,383 177,559 177,194 161,479 178,884 186,270 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 64,603 55,497 59,100 56,686 63,385 63,596 1981-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 119,780 122,062 118,094 104,793 115,499 122,674 1981-2012 Ethane 1981-1992 Normal Butane 48,292 50,024 48,509 43,802 47,571 52,246 1981-2012 Isobutane 71,488 72,038 69,585 60,991 67,928 70,428 1981-2012 Other Liquids 488,020 739,047 760,043 809,799 839,479 730,907 1981-2012 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons

5

Refinery Capacity Report  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Report --- Full report in PDF (1 MB) XLS --- Refinery Capacity Data by individual refinery as of January 1, 2006 Tables 1 Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum...

6

U.S. Refinery  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 354,918 353,802 345,413 343,062 345,025 342,763 1993-2013 Crude Oil 98,082 97,563 90,880 93,075 97,586 90,778 1981-2013 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 256,836 256,239 254,533 249,987 247,439 251,985 1993-2013 Pentanes Plus 947 867 828 805 708 856 1993-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 12,896 14,096 15,761 16,662 18,296 18,683 1993-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 281 321 261 242 205 171 1993-2013 Propane/Propylene 2,692 2,994 3,569 3,518 4,099 4,104 1993-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 7,627 8,451 9,511 10,757 11,921 12,147 1993-2013 Isobutane/Butylene 2,296 2,330 2,420 2,145 2,071 2,261 1993-2013 Other Hydrocarbons 19 43 49 33 26 21 2009-2013 Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) 116 99 100 82 71 78 2009-2013

7

U.S. Refinery  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 346,915 338,782 331,615 339,907 336,327 341,211 1993-2012 Crude Oil 89,070 86,598 90,944 88,982 90,640 88,781 1981-2012 All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) 257,845 252,184 240,671 250,925 245,687 252,430 1993-2012 Pentanes Plus 949 997 1,006 971 895 884 1993-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,161 12,456 12,611 14,896 14,429 15,934 1993-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 31 185 118 220 223 214 1993-2012 Propane/Propylene 4,120 3,293 3,577 4,278 4,087 4,574 1993-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 6,320 6,482 6,478 7,818 7,794 8,774 1993-2012 Isobutane/Butylene 2,690 2,496 2,438 2,580 2,325 2,372 1993-2012 Other Hydrocarbons 29 20 41 42 2009-2012 Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) 47 24 58 112 2009-2012

8

Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams. This paper explores ways in which gas separation membranes are used in the refinery and petrochemical industries to recover and purify...

Vari, J.

9

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery Capacity Report Refinery Capacity Report With Data as of January 1, 2013 | Release Date: June 21, 2013 | Next Release Date: June 20, 2014 Previous Issues Year: 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1997 1995 1994 Go Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions.

10

Refinery Outages: Fall 2014  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report examines refinery outages planned for Fall 2014 and the potential implications for available refinery capacity, petroleum product markets and supply of gasoline and middle distillate fuel oil (diesel, jet fuel, and heating oil). EIA believes that dissemination of such analyses can be beneficial to market participants who may otherwise be unable to access such information.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery Capacity Report Refinery Capacity Report June 2013 With Data as of January 1, 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. Table 1. Number and Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by PAD District and State as of January 1, 2013

12

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

18,146 17,882 18,452 18,673 18,564 19,106 1983-2013 Liquefied Refinery Gases 630 623 659 619 630 623 1984-2013 EthaneEthylene 18 19 20 20 18 7 1985-2013 Ethane 13 14 14 14 13 7...

13

Refinery Capacity Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 Idle Operating Total Stream Day Barrels per Idle Operating Total Calendar Day Barrels per Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Idle Operating Total Operable Refineries Number of State and PAD District a b b 14 10 4 1,617,500 1,205,000 412,500 1,708,500 1,273,500 435,000 ............................................................................................................................................... PAD District I 1 0 1 182,200 0 182,200 190,200 0 190,200 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Delaware......................................

14

U.S. Refinery Yield  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Liquefied Refinery Gases 5.3 5.4 5.2 5.2 5.1 3.9 1993-2013 Finished Motor Gasoline 44.4 44.1 44.4 43.9 43.9 44.9 1993-2013 Finished Aviation Gasoline 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1993-2013 Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel 10.0 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.8 9.6 1993-2013 Kerosene 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 1993-2013 Distillate Fuel Oil 28.4 29.4 28.7 29.2 29.3 29.7 1993-2013 Residual Fuel Oil 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.5 2.6 1993-2013 Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.5 1993-2013 Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 1993-2013 Special Naphthas 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 1993-2013 Lubricants 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1993-2013 Waxes

15

U.S. Refinery Yield  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Liquefied Refinery Gases 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.0 4.1 1993-2012 Finished Motor Gasoline 45.5 44.2 46.1 45.7 44.9 45.0 1993-2012 Finished Aviation Gasoline 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1993-2012 Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel 9.1 9.7 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.5 1993-2012 Kerosene 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1993-2012 Distillate Fuel Oil 26.1 27.8 26.9 27.5 28.9 29.1 1993-2012 Residual Fuel Oil 4.2 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.4 3.2 1993-2012 Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1993-2012 Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use 1.3 1.2 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 1993-2012 Special Naphthas 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 1993-2012 Lubricants 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0 1993-2012 Waxes 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1993-2012

16

Encon Motivation in European Refineries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One essential element in a successful energy conservation or Encon program is effective motivation of employees and organizations to conserve energy. Encon motivation in our European refineries is a continuing effort that requires utilization...

Gambera, S.; Lockett, W., Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

A Louisiana Refinery Success Story  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manager, operations manager and production manager. From 2004 through 2006, the team presented a series of ESG seminars at the refinery site. The numerous models demonstrated quantitative savings with 3- to 12-mo paybacks. For a complete SSI turnkey...

Kacsur, D.

18

Motiva Refinery | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refinery Refinery Motiva Refinery May 18, 2006 - 10:45am Addthis Remarks Prepared for Energy Secretary Bodman Much of my time lately has been devoted to explaining why the price of gasoline has risen so sharply. President Bush understands the pinch this is creating for American consumers and has come forward with a variety of steps to address the problem. Rapid economic growth in emerging economies like China and India-and the growth here in the U.S.-have pushed up demand. Political unrest in some oil-producing regions has tightened supply. The transition from winter gasoline to summer blends, and the phase out of the additive MTBE in favor of ethanol, have increased the pressure on the market. Most significantly, we have very little spare refining capacity in this

19

Making Refinery Wastewater Clean | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Making Refinery Wastewater Clean Making Refinery Wastewater Clean Lei Wang 2014.09.23 About four years ago, I visited Ordos, Inner Mongolia, to work on a project. When I arrived,...

20

Present and Future Alkylation Processes in Refineries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Present and Future Alkylation Processes in Refineries ... Second, an accident at a Texas refinery released considerable amounts of gaseous HF. ... In addition, following an accident, it is uncertain whether the sprays would still be operable. ...

Lyle F. Albright

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in RefineryCDU Models in Refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

planning models Optimizing refinery operation C d l ti Crude selection Maximizing profit; minimizing costIntegration of Nonlinear CDU Models in RefineryCDU Models in Refinery Planning Optimization Carnegie Mellon University EWO Meeting ­ March 2011 1 #12;I t d tiIntroduction Refinery production

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

22

Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules Contents * Introduction o Table 1. History of Foreign Refiner Regulations * Foreign Refinery Baseline * Monitoring Imported Conventional Gasoline * Endnotes Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program * Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations * Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model * Refiners Switch to Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model * Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline, 1995 Introduction On August 27, 1997, the EPA promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an

23

The effect of asphalt deposition on recovery of oil by a pentane slug  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF ASPHALT DEPOSITION ON RECOVERY OF OIL BY A PENTANE SLUG NANIK S. BHAGIA THE EFFECT OF ASPHALT DEPOSITION ON RECOVERY OF OIL BY A PENTANE SLUG A Thesis By NANIK S. BHAGIA Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas Ak...M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, I 965 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF ASPHALT DEPOSITION ON RECOVERY OF OIL BY A PENTANE SLUG A Thesis By NANIK S. BHAGIA Approved...

Bhagia, Nanik S

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

25

U.S. Refinery Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 320,455 348,984 346,918 365,525 358,673 335,185 2005-2013 Crude Oil 445,937 474,296 474,991 497,241 489,887 468,825 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids 11,914 11,407 12,393 13,031 13,377 15,397 2005-2013 Pentanes Plus 4,688 4,040 4,439 4,667 5,044 5,273 2005-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7,226 7,367 7,954 8,364 8,333 10,124 2005-2013 Normal Butane 2,038 1,829 1,935 1,885 1,987 3,707 2005-2013 Isobutane 5,188 5,538 6,019 6,479 6,346 6,417 2005-2013 Other Liquids -137,396 -136,719 -140,466 -144,747 -144,591 -149,037 2005-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 7,511 8,089 7,844 8,541 8,568 8,086 2005-2013 Hydrogen 5,792 6,200 6,050 6,477 6,520 6,226 2009-2013

26

U.S. Refinery Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 5,383,494 5,119,100 4,676,865 4,568,301 4,484,600 4,395,128 2005-2012 Liquefied Refinery Gases 238,904 230,431 227,470 240,454 225,992 230,413 2005-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 7,323 6,671 7,069 7,228 7,148 6,597 2005-2012 Ethane 5,145 4,608 5,229 5,200 5,105 4,835 2005-2012 Ethylene 2,178 2,063 1,840 2,028 2,043 1,762 2005-2012 Propane/Propylene 205,179 190,020 196,011 204,223 201,492 202,309 2005-2012 Propane 120,596 114,268 106,177 102,913 98,508 100,933 2005-2012 Propylene 84,583 75,752 89,834 101,310 102,984 101,376 2005-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 24,285 30,887 24,148 30,281 17,449 20,580 2005-2012 Normal Butane 25,715 33,092 25,825 32,094 19,263 22,965 2005-2012

27

Opportunities for Biorenewables in Petroleum Refineries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

a summary of our collaborative 2005 project “Opportunities for Biorenewables in Petroleum Refineries” at the Rio Oil and Gas Conference this September.

Holmgren, Jennifer; Arena, Blaise; Marinangelli, Richard; McCall, Michael; Marker, Terry; Petri, John; Czernik, Stefan; Elliott, Douglas C.; Shonnard, David

2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

28

Refinery Production Planning: Multiperiod MINLP with Nonlinear CDU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as integrated planning and scheduling refinery operation models are recognized as key 1 Refinery Production Planning: Multiperiod MINLP with Nonlinear CDU Model-Rivera (2011) developed a single-period, nonlinear programing refinery planning model

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

29

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

30

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Regional Refinery Utilization Shows Gulf Coast Pressure  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: But there is some room for hope. Refineries generally begin maintenance in February or March, and finish in April. The East Coast was experiencing some lengthy refinery maintenance outages, as shown by the drop in utilization that remained low in most of March and April. In the meantime, the East Coast was drawing on extra supplies from the Gulf Coast and imports. The Midwest refineries seem to have been ramping up in April as they finished what maintenance was needed. But the Midwest no longer has the Blue Island refinery, so it also is pulling more product from the Gulf Coast. The high Gulf Coast prices this spring reflect extra "pull" on product from both the Midwest and the East Coast, and probably from California as well. Inputs into Gulf Coast refineries over the last 4 weeks

32

Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

848 14 646 310 -422 -51 0 622 15 707 Crude Oil 527 - - - - 296 -183 -57 3 578 2 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 320 0 11 11 -265 - - 1 17 12 48 Pentanes...

34

Total Number of Operable Refineries  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

35

From the Woods to the Refinery  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

36

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

37

Refinery siting workbook: appendices A and B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this effort is to develop and provide basic refinery-related information for use by state and local government officials as a basis for establishing responsible refinery siting requirements and policies consistent with the federal clean air and water standards and socio-economic concerns. The report will be organized into two volumes. The main text comprises the basic topics of physical concerns, regulatory requirements, and permitting activities, while the second volume includes the detailed appendix materials such as the applicable laws, and the necessary permits, as available and a glossary of pertinent terms. As a means to this objective, three refinery sizes, 200,000, 100,000 and 30,000 barrels per day crude charge will be discussed in technical terms. Process unit configuration will be presented which will maximize either gasoline or heating oil production with either sweet or sour crude oil feedstocks. The major issues affecting the socio-economic impact of siting the refinery in a given locale will be presented. These data will review the factors affecting the human environment and the issues that must be addressed to assess the impact that a refinery will have on a community. The key federal registrations which impact upon a refinery siting decision shall be reviewed. Summaries of these regulations and a simplified decision diagram for the air and water acts shall be presented to assist both government and refinery officials in understanding the scope of regulatory impact. All pertinent procedures required for refinery permitting shall be reviewed under the generalized headings of air, water, health and safety, land use, and miscellaneous permits. This categorization at the federal, state and local levels of government shall be used as a basis for establishing degrees of emphasis.

Not Available

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

[Bis(diphenylphosphino)alkane](pentane-2,4-dithionato) complexes of nickel(II)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The structures of three four-coordinate nickel(II) complexes of the form [Ni(sacsac)(L)]PF6 [sacsac is the pentane-2,4-dithione anion; L = Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2, where n = 1, 2 or 3] have been determined. All have a distorted square-planar arrangement about the Ni atom, with angles varying with the length of the hydrocarbon chain.

Boyd, P.D.W.

2000-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Increased olefins production via recovery of refinery gas hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the process of catalytically cracking heavy petroleum fractions to make gasoline and light fuel oil, by-product waste gases are also generated. The waste gases, normally used as fuel, are themselves rich sources of ethylene, propylene and other light hydrocarbons which can be recovered inexpensively via a cryogenic dephlegmator process. This gas separation technique is exploited in a system, in operation since spring of 1987, which reclaims C/sub 2/+ hydrocarbons from a refinery gas. The reclamation process bolsters production in a nearby ethylene plant. Causing no disruption of ethylene plant operations, the cryogenic hydrocarbon recovery system functions smoothly with existing systems. The dephlegmation unit operation melds distillation and heat transfer processes in a single easily-controlled step which boosts the hydrocarbon purity and recovery above the levels profitably achievable with conventional cryogenic separation techniques. Very attractive operating economics follow from high purity, high recovery, and high energy efficiency. This paper discusses process concepts, economic benefits, plant operation, and early performance results.

Bernhard, D.P.; Rowles, H.C.; Moss, J.A.; Pickering, J.L. Jr.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

,"U.S. Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sulfur Content (Weighted Average) of Crude Oil Input to Refineries (Percent)","U.S. API Gravity (Weighted Average) of Crude Oil Input to Refineries (Degrees)" 31062,0.88,32.64...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

,"U.S. Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sulfur Content (Weighted Average) of Crude Oil Input to Refineries (Percent)","U.S. API Gravity (Weighted Average) of Crude Oil Input to Refineries (Degrees)" 31228,0.91,32.46...

42

Steam System Management Program Yields Fuel Savings for Refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Phillips refinery at Borger, Texas, determined the need to develop a utility monitoring system. Shortly after this commitment was made, the refinery was introduced to a flowsheet modeling program that could be used to model and optimize steam...

Gaines, L. D.; Hagan, K. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinery Technology Profiles: Gasification and SupportingGasification.to be carried out. 18.5 Gasification Gasification provides

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Final Report - Development of New Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Technology to Recover High Valued Products from Chemical Plant and Refinery Waste Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Objective was to extend pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology into previously under-exploited applications such as polyolefin production vent gas recovery and H2 recovery from refinery waste gases containing significant amounts of heavy hydrocarbons, aromatics, or H2S.

Keith Ludwig

2004-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

45

Fluor to expand Marathon's Detroit refinery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluor Corp will provide integrated engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) for Marathon Oil Corp's projected US$1.9 billion expansion and upgrade of the company's Detroit refinery. The US$1.6 billion EPC contract includes services, the value of procured materials and the construction contracts under Fluor's direct management.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in Refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrotreatment Distillate blending Gas oil blending Cat Crack CDU Crude1, ... Crude2, .... butane Fuel gas Prem. Gasoline Reg. Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil Treated Residuum SR Fuel gas SR Naphtha SR Gasoline SR Distillate SR GO SR Residuum Product Blending 4 #12;Planning Model Example Information Given Refinery

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

47

Ignition of Isomers of Pentane: An Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon ignition is an important element in many practical combustion systems, including internal combustion engines, detonations, pulse combustors, and flame initiation. The rapid compression machine (RCM) is used frequently to study the kinetics of hydrocarbon autoignition [e.g., 1-7], since the reactive gas temperatures and time histories are similar to those seen in automotive engines during Diesel ignition and end gas autoignition leading to engine knock in spark-ignition engines. The RCM provides a rich environment for study of the theory of hydrocarbon oxidation, including degenerate chain branching, alkylperoxy radical isomerization and effects of thermal feedback [8]. The literature of hydrocarbon oxidation studies in the RCM has been summarized recently [9,10], and many classes of fuels have been studied. Detailed kinetic modeling is another tool available to study hydrocarbon oxidation in the RCM [4,11]. The aim of the present work is to determine experimentally the influence of variations in fuel molecular structure on autoignition, and to use a kinetic model to understand the reasons for those variations. This study is unique in that while other studies have addressed variations in pressure and equivalence ratio on ignition [11], this work addresses effects of variations in fuel molecular structure for all of the isomers of a single fuel formula, pentane, in a RCM. The three isomers of pentane possess many of the structural elements that determine such autoignition characteristics as octane number and variability in cool flame production, so this study will benefit our efforts to describe these effects.

Ribaucour, M; Minetti, R; Sochet, L R; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

48

Naphthenic acid corrosion in the refinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Field tests and laboratory studies of refinery process streams are presented. The effects of temperature, velocity and physical state were studied with respect to alloy selection for corrosion resistant service. The amount of molybdenum in the austenitic stainless steel alloys is the dominant factor in conferring corrosion resistance. The Naphthenic Acid Corrosion Index (NACI) is useful in assessing the severity of corrosion under a variety of circumstances.

Craig, H.L. Jr. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

& Blender Net Production & Blender Net Production Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55 Conventional Other Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm Sulfur and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Less Than 0.31 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Residual Fuel Greater Than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha For Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils For Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Still Gas Miscellaneous Products Processing Gain(-) or Loss(+) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

50

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 6,567,929 6,641,293 6,527,069 6,735,067 6,815,590 6,794,407 1981-2012 Liquefied Refinery Gases 238,904 230,431 227,470 240,454 225,992 230,413 1981-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 7,323 6,671 7,069 7,228 7,148 6,597 1981-2012 Ethane 5,145 4,608 5,229 5,200 5,105 4,835 1993-2012 Ethylene 2,178 2,063 1,840 2,028 2,043 1,762 1993-2012 Propane/Propylene 205,179 190,020 196,011 204,223 201,492 202,309 1981-2012 Propane 120,596 114,268 106,177 102,913 98,508 100,933 1995-2012 Propylene 84,583 75,752 89,834 101,310 102,984 101,376 1993-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 24,285 30,887 24,148 30,281 17,449 20,580 1981-2012 Normal Butane 25,715 33,092 25,825 32,094 19,263 22,965 1993-2012

51

U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total 559,639 599,643 591,916 616,905 613,451 578,101 1981-2013 Liquefied Refinery Gases 24,599 26,928 25,443 26,819 25,951 19,023 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 464 426 407 441 487 379 1981-2013 Ethane 317 277 283 312 332 232 1993-2013 Ethylene 147 149 124 129 155 147 1993-2013 Propane/Propylene 16,840 17,792 16,966 17,839 18,063 17,254 1981-2013 Propane 8,051 8,949 8,756 9,002 9,153 8,816 1995-2013 Propylene 8,789 8,843 8,210 8,837 8,910 8,438 1993-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 7,270 8,876 8,122 8,676 7,664 1,738 1981-2013 Normal Butane 7,447 9,044 8,314 8,832 8,067 1,743 1993-2013 Butylene -177 -168 -192 -156 -403 -5 1993-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene

52

PAD District / Refinery Location Total Atmospheric Distillation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Operable Date of Last Operation Date Shutdown Table 11. New, Shutdown and Reactivated Refineries During 2012 a b REACTIVATED PAD District I 185,000 366,700 Monroe Energy LLC Trainer, PA 185,000 366,700 09/12 c SHUTDOWN PAD District I 80,000 47,000 ChevronUSA Inc Perth Amboy, NJ 80,000 47,000 03/08 07/12 PAD District III 16,800 19,500 Western Refining Southwest Inc Bloomfield, NM 16,800 19,500 12/09 11/12 PAD District VI 500,000 1,086,000 Hovensa LLC Kingshill, VI 500,000 1,086,000 02/12 02/12 a b bbl/cd=Barrels per calendar day. bbl/sd=Barrels per stream day. Sources: Energy Information Administration (EIA) Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report" and Form EIA-820, "Annual Refinery Report." c Formerly owned by ConocoPhillips Company.

53

GreenHunter Biodiesel Refinery Grand Opening | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

GreenHunter Biodiesel Refinery Grand Opening GreenHunter Biodiesel Refinery Grand Opening GreenHunter Biodiesel Refinery Grand Opening June 2, 2008 - 12:51pm Addthis Remarks as Prepared for (Acting) Deputy Secretary Kupfer Today, Acting Deputy Secretary Jeffrey Kupfer delivered remarks at the launch of GreenHunter Energy's biodiesel refinery, which will be the nation's single largest biodiesel refinery, producing 105 million gallons of "white-water" B100 biodiesel per year. Thank you Gary. I'm pleased to join with Governor Perry, Congressmen Green and Lampson, and Mayor Garcia in celebrating this important occasion. Today, as we open the nation's largest biodiesel refinery, we reach another milestone in our effort to make America more energy secure. As you know, global energy demand is surging. We must act swiftly and aggressively to

54

Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

serving Philadelphia-area refineries primarily handle crude oil and their docks and tanks are not equipped to offload waterborne products. Figure 1. Petroleum Product Assets in...

55

Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

low-emission operation across a broad range of fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas. Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering...

56

Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refineries with specific energy and cost savings data whenoperations. Typically, energy and cost savings are around 5%the potential energy and cost-savings (Frangopoluos et al. ,

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Projection and Reaction for Decision Support in Refineries: Combining Multiple Theories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system to provide decision support for refinery operations personnel (Krebsbach & Musliner 1997; Musliner) used to optimize control parameters during normal operations. Current Refinery Operations HumanProjection and Reaction for Decision Support in Refineries: Combining Multiple Theories Kurt D

Krebsbach, Kurt D.

58

Naphthenic acid corrosion in refinery settings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Naphthenic acid corrosion has been a problem in the refining industry for many years. Recently interest in this problem has grown because crudes that contain naphthenic acid are being recovered from areas which were not known to produce this type of crude, such as china, India, and Africa. New techniques for identifying naphthenic acid corrosion and chemical treatments for preventing this attack are presented. Refinery case studies include stream analysis, failure analysis, and inhibitor use. Laboratory tests to show the effect of hydrogen sulfide and phosphorus-based inhibitors are discussed.

Babaian-Kibala, E. (Nalco Chemical Co., Sugar Land, TX (United States)); Craig, H.L. Jr. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)); Rusk, G.L. (Mobil Oil Co., Torrance, CA (United States)); Blanchard, K.V.; Rose, T.J.; Uehlein, B.L. (Nalco Chemical Co., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)); Quinter, R.C. (Sun Co., Newtown Square, PA (United States)); Summers, M.A. (Sun Co., Marcus Hook, PA (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

,"U.S. Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Gasoline Blending Components Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants...

60

Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

Hadder, G.R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Summary of Market Assessment of Upcoming Planned Refinery Outages  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Summary of Market Assessment of Upcoming Planned Refinery Outages Summary of Market Assessment of Upcoming Planned Refinery Outages Summary of Market Assessment of Upcoming Planned Refinery Outages Market Assessment of Upcoming Planned Refinery Outages, December 2008 - March 2009 reviews planned U.S. refinery outages from December 2008 though March 2009 in order to identify any regions where outages might create enough supply pressure to impact prices significantly. As required under Section 804 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-140), this report reviews the supply implications of planned refinery outages for December 2008 through March 2009, which covers the winter period when demand for distillate fuels (diesel and heating oil) is high. As a result, emphasis in this report is on distillate rather than gasoline. Refinery outages are the result of planned maintenance and unplanned outages. Maintenance is usually scheduled during the times when demand is lowest - in the first quarter and again in the fall. Unplanned outages, which occur for many reasons including mechanical failures, fires, and flooding, can occur at any time.

62

Preliminary life-cycle assessment of biomass-derived refinery feedstocks for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US by ratification of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has pledged to emit no higher levels of greenhouse gases in the year 2000 than it did in 1990. Biomass-derived products have been touted as a possible solution to the potential problem of global warming. However, past studies related to the production of liquid fuels, chemicals, gaseous products, or electricity from biomass, have only considered the economics of producing these commodities. The environmental benefits have not been fully quantified and factored into these estimates until recently. Evaluating the environmental impact of various biomass systems has begun using life-cycle assessment. A refinery Linear Programming model previously developed has been modified to examine the effects of CO{sub 2}-capping on the US refining industry and the transportation sector as a whole. By incorporating the results of a CO{sub 2} emissions inventory into the model, the economic impact of emissions reduction strategies can be estimated. Thus, the degree to which global warming can be solved by supplementing fossil fuels with biomass-derived products can be measured, allowing research and development to be concentrated on the most environmentally and economically attractive technology mix. Biomass gasification to produce four different refinery feedstocks was considered in this analysis. These biomass-derived products include power, fuel gas, hydrogen for refinery processing, and Fischer-Tropsch liquids for upgrading and blending into finished transportation fuels.

Marano, J.J. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rogers, S. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Spath, P.L.; Mann, M.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

Motiva Enterprises Refinery Expansion Groundbreaking | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Enterprises Refinery Expansion Groundbreaking Enterprises Refinery Expansion Groundbreaking Motiva Enterprises Refinery Expansion Groundbreaking December 10, 2007 - 4:44pm Addthis Remarks as Prepared for Secretary Bodman Thank you, Bill. It's good to see Congressman Poe, Rob Routs, Mr. Al-Khayyal and Mayor Prince here. Thank you all for inviting me to be part of this occasion. In 1901 Texas wildcatters struck oil near here at a place called Spindletop, setting off the Texas Oil Boom. Like the California Gold Rush some 50 years before, the Texas Oil Boom helped to build America. People moved across the country in search of prosperity. To achieve it, they needed to develop new technologies and build new infrastructure like the original parts of the Port Arthur refinery, which opened here in 1903. As America's need for energy expanded as our demand for oil and gas

64

Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity May 18, 2006 - 10:43am Addthis Highlights President Bush's Four-Point Plan to Combat High Energy Prices PORT ARTHUR, TX - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today renewed the call for expanded oil refining capacity in the United States and discussed additional steps the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to prepare for the upcoming hurricane season. Secretary Bodman made the statements after touring the Motiva Refinery in Port Arthur, Texas. "We need a more robust energy sector; and one way to do that is to strengthen and expand our domestic oil refining capacity. We're hopeful that Motiva will continue to work to expand their capacity to 600,000

65

Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of Refineries  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet details a project to improve operating procedures, including physical and chemical methods and the use of high-temperature coatings, to allow refineries to operate equipment below threshold fouling conditions and use the most effective minimization techniques.

66

Low Temperature Waste Energy Recovery at Chemical Plants and Refineries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technologies to economically recover low-temperature waste energy in chemical plants and refineries are the holy grail of industrial energy efficiency. Low temperature waste energy streams were defined by the Texas Industries of the Future Chemical...

Ferland, K.; papar, R.; Quinn, J.; Kumar, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

PAD District / Refinery Location Total Atmospheric Distillation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Last of Last Operation Date Shutdown Table 13. Refineries Permanently Shutdown By PAD District Between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 2013 PAD District I 542,450 GNC Energy Corp Greensboro, NC 3,000 0 a Primary Energy Corp Richmond, VA 6,100 0 a Saint Mary's Refining Co Saint Mary's, WV 4,000 4,480 02/93 03/93 Cibro Refining Albany, NY 41,850 27,000 07/93 09/93 Calumet Lubricants Co LP Rouseville, PA 12,800 26,820 03/00 06/00 Young Refining Corp. Douglasville, GA 5,400 0 07/04 07/04 Sunoco Inc Westville, NJ 145,000 263,000 11/09 02/10 Western Refining Yorktown Inc Yorktown, VA 66,300 182,600 09/10 12/11 Sunoco Inc Marcus Hook, PA 178,000 278,000 12/11 12/11 ChevronUSA Inc Perth Amboy, NJ 80,000 47,000 03/08 07/12 PAD District II 460,315 Coastal Refining & Mktg El Dorado, KS 0 20,000 b Intercoastal Energy Svcs

68

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

1986-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

69

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Rare Metals Refinery Inc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Rare Metals Refinery Rare Metals Refinery Inc - NY 38 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: International Rare Metals Refinery, Inc. (NY.38 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Canadian Radium and Uranium Corporation NY.38-1 Location: 69 Kisko Avenue , Mt. Kisko , New York NY.38-1 NY.38-3 Evaluation Year: 1987 NY.38-4 Site Operations: Manufactured and distributed radium and polonium products. NY.38-5 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority - Site was a commercial operation not under the jurisdiction of DOE predecessor agencies NY.38-2 NY.38-4 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radium, Plutonium NY.38-5 Radiological Survey(s): Yes NY.38-1 NY.38-5 Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP

71

VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING Phuong NGUYEN*, Pier-Paolo SAVIOTTI, refinery processes, variety, niche theory, Weitzman measure. JEL classification : L15 -L93 -O3 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

73

JANUARY 2007 THE BP U.S. REFINERIES INDEPENDENT SAFETY REVIEW PANEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF JANUARY 2007 THE REPORT THE BP U.S. REFINERIES INDEPENDENT SAFETY REVIEW PANEL #12;From left;PANEL STATEMENT The B.P. U.S. Refineries Independent Safety Review Panel i Process safety accidents can be prevented. On March 23, 2005, the BP Texas City refinery experienced a catastrophic process accident

Leveson, Nancy

74

Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced 2013 Available online 5 November 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cells Refinery wastewater Biodegradability Separator electrode assembly a b s t r a c t The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW

75

GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AGO HGO HFO RG LPG R95 R100 RG LPG CN CGO RG Refinery Operation and Management - J.P. Favennec Crude1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning (Performance Analysis. Grossmann #12;2 Motivation · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

76

GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RG LPG R95 R100 RG LPG CN CGO RG Refinery Operation and Management - J.P. Favennec Crude Distillation1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning Department of Chemical · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies on the accuracy of the CDU

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

77

Perception of an emergency Situation by operators in an oil refinery L.Pioche&J.RPineau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Perception of an emergency Situation by operators in an oil refinery L.Pioche&J.RPineau Institut de the operators' behaviour during an emergency Situation m an oil refinery. The aim ofthis stage the general objective is to analyse the operators' behaviour during an emergency Situation in an oil refinery

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company (SAMREF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company (SAMREF) Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company (SAMREF) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company (SAMREF) Name Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company (SAMREF) Address P.O. Box 30078 Place Yanbu, Saudi Arabia Sector Oil and Gas Product Crude Oil Refining Phone number (966) (4) 396-4443 Website http://www.samref.com.sa/ Coordinates 24.0866932°, 38.0585527° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":24.0866932,"lon":38.0585527,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

79

Low temperature thermal treatment for petroleum refinery waste sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment requirements for waste sludges generated by petroleum refinery operations and designated as waste codes K048, K049, K050, K051 and K052 under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) became effective in November, 1990 under the Landban regulations. An experimental program evaluated low temperature thermal treatment of filter cakes produced from these sludges using laboratory and pilot-scale equipment. One set of experiments on waste samples from two different refineries demonstrated the effective removal of organics of concern from the sludges to meet the RCRA Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) treatment standards. Cyanides were also within the acceptable limit. Combined with stabilization of heavy metals in the treatment residues, low temperature thermal treatment therefore provides an effective and efficient means of treating refinery sludges, with most hydrocarbons recovered and recycled to the refinery. A milder thermal treatment was used to remove the bulk of the water from a previously filtered waste sludge, providing effective waste minimization through a 40% decrease in the mass of sludge to be disposed. The heating value of the sludge was increased simultaneously by one-third, thereby producing a residue of greater value in an alternative fuels program. A process based on this approach was successfully designed and commercialized.

Ayen, R.J.; Swanstrom, C.P. (Geneva Research Center, IL (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2: August 13, 2: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on AddThis.com... Fact #482: August 13, 2007

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

U.S. Fuel Consumed at Refineries  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Barrels, Except Where Noted) Barrels, Except Where Noted) Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Crude Oil 0 0 0 0 0 0 1986-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,663 2,930 2,866 2,404 1,291 1,521 1986-2012 Distillate Fuel Oil 420 472 339 440 483 539 1986-2012 Residual Fuel Oil 1,844 1,390 1,249 980 759 540 1986-2012 Still Gas 247,106 237,161 220,191 219,890 217,716 220,094 1986-2012 Petroleum Coke 88,015 81,811 82,516 82,971 84,053 85,190 1986-2012 Marketable Petroleum Coke

82

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December 2011 December 2011 Table 19. PAD District 4 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, December 2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 393 - - - - 330 -111 -46 4 562 0 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 406 0 2 15 -333 - - 0 20 9 61 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 58 0 - - - -33 - - 0 6 9 10 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 348 - - 2 15 -299 - -

83

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December 2011 December 2011 Table 23. PAD District 5 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, December 2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 1,197 - - - - 1,186 - -47 -4 2,340 0 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 69 0 14 4 - - - -60 83 20 43 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 32 0 - - - - - - -1 26 2 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 37 - - 14 4 - - - -59

84

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December 2011 December 2011 Table 7. PAD District 1 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, December 2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 24 - - - - 854 -10 42 -28 935 3 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 42 0 27 67 119 - - -30 26 1 259 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 7 0 - - - - - - 0 - 0 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 35 - - 27 67 119 - - -30 26

85

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PAD District 2 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 2012 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 1,114 - - - - 1,730 800 -85 62 3,442 55 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 446 -16 121 74 -25 - - -12 105 111 395 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 50 -16 - - 1 82 - - -4 31 101 -12 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 396 - - 121 73 -107 - - -8 74 11 407

86

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PAD District 1 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 2012 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 26 - - - - 864 11 23 -4 919 9 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 45 0 39 49 73 - - -4 20 8 182 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 8 0 - - 1 0 - - 0 0 1 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 37 - - 39 49 73 - - -4 20 7 175 Ethane/Ethylene ...........................................

87

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 September 2013 Table 20. PAD District 4 - Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 511 - - - - 289 -169 -49 4 579 0 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 316 0 13 11 -264 - - 2 16 15 44 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 50 0 - - 0 -38 - - 0 6 13 -7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ..............................

88

Strongly interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...

Bakr, W.

89

Pemex to acquire interest in Shell Texas refinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Petroleos Mexicanos and Shell Oil Co. have signed a memorandum of understanding to form a joint refining venture involving Shell's 225,000 b/d Deer Park, Tex., refinery. Under the agreement, Mexico's state owned oil company is to purchase a 50% interest in the refinery, and Shell is to sell Pemex unleaded gasoline on a long term basis. Under the venture, Shell and Pemex plan to add undisclosed conversion and upgrading units tailored to process heavy Mexican crude. The revamp will allow Pemex to place more than 100,000 b/d of Mayan heavy crude on the U.S. market. Mayan accounts for 70% of Mexico's crude oil exports. In turn, Shell will sell Pemex as much as 45,000 b/d of unleaded gasoline to help meet Mexico's rapidly growing demand.

Not Available

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

90

Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To evaluate the hypothesis of increased kidney cancer risk after exposure to hydrocarbons, especially those present in gasoline, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of approximately 100,000 male refinery workers from five petroleum companies. A review of 18,323 death certificates identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories, containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject, were found for 98% of the cases and 94% of the controls. Tb each job, industrial hygienists assigned semiquantitative ratings for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the more volatile hydrocarbons. Ratings of {open_quotes}present{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}absent{close_quotes} were assigned for seven additional exposures: higher boiling hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chlorinated solvents, ionizing radiation, and lead. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the hydrocarbon category of principal a priori interest, the nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.9). Analyses of cumulative exposures and of exposures in varying time periods before kidney cancer occurrence also produced null or near-null results. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject (average duration 9.2 years or 40% of the refiner&y work history), three groups appeared to be at increased risk: laborers (RR = 1.9,95% CI 1.0-3.9); workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5,95% CI 0.9-6.6); and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.5-9.9). 53 refs., 7 tabs.

Poole, C.; Dreyer, N.A.; Satterfield, M.H. [Epidemiology Resources Inc., Newton Lower Falls, MA (United States); Levin, L. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Combustion air preheating for refinery heaters using plate-type heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion air preheating by recovering heat from combustion gases is a cost effective method of increasing the overall thermal efficiency of the refining and petrochemical processes. This paper presents the advantages of the plate-type air preheaters made of smooth plates without extended surfaces. These exchangers provide a relatively high heat transfer coefficient at a relatively low pressure drop, resulting in a flexible and compact design. The air preheater design can easily be integrated into the heater design. Top mounting with natural draft becomes possible for many applications, eliminating the need for I.D. fan and expensive ductwork. The economical extent of heat recovery function of the fuel fired is presented based on practical experience. The use of porcelain enameled (glass coated) plates and of stainless steel materials allows the operation of the air preheater below the acidic and water dew point. Finally the paper presents the experience of the Canadian refineries and petrochemical plants with plate-type heat exchangers used for combustion air preheating.

Dinulescu, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Chapter 6 - Alternative valorization routes (refinery, cogeneration, and rerefining residue)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary Waste oil valorization in a refinery must be considered only after having done a complete feasibility evaluation. Wherever the waste oil is introduced, it should not modify the properties of the refinery products, or the normal operations or functions of the rerefining units. Most oil refineries are complex industrial sites characterized by a very large treated tonnage, a permanent operation of a continuous flow of products from desalination and atmospheric distillation upstream to the storage of finished products downstream passing through all the intermediate refining steps, and the necessity of adapting the units' operating conditions to the treated crude to maintain a good level of quality for the finished products. Other priorities include the need to increase the severity of operating conditions of hydrotreatment to produce gasoline, kerosene, and diesel oil from direct distillation or from thermal or catalytic cracking to comply with the standards for sulfur and aromatic compounds. These constraints provide a better understanding of the importance of alternative valorization routes.

François Audibert

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Modeling and Multi-objective Optimization of Refinery Hydrogen Network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The demand of hydrogen in oil refinery is increasing as market forces and environmental legislation, so hydrogen network management is becoming increasingly important in refineries. Most studies focused on single- objective optimization problem for the hydrogen network, but few account for the multi-objective optimization problem. This paper presents a novel approach for modeling and multi-objective optimization for hydrogen network in refineries. An improved multi-objective optimization model is proposed based on the concept of superstructure. The optimization includes minimization of operating cost and minimization of investment cost of equipment. The proposed methodology for the multi-objective optimization of hydrogen network takes into account flow rate constraints, pressure constraints, purity constraints, impurity constraints, payback period, etc. The method considers all the feasible connections and subjects this to mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP). A deterministic optimization method is applied to solve this multi-objective optimization problem. Finally, a real case study is introduced to illustrate the applicability of the approach.

Yunqiang JIAO; Hongye SU; Zuwei LIAO; Weifeng HOU

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Updated estimation of energy efficiencies of U.S. petroleum refineries.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaluation of life-cycle (or well-to-wheels, WTW) energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems requires energy use (or energy efficiencies) of energy processing or conversion activities. In most such studies, petroleum fuels are included. Thus, determination of energy efficiencies of petroleum refineries becomes a necessary step for life-cycle analyses of vehicle/fuel systems. Petroleum refinery energy efficiencies can then be used to determine the total amount of process energy use for refinery operation. Furthermore, since refineries produce multiple products, allocation of energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products is needed for WTW analysis of individual fuels such as gasoline and diesel. In particular, GREET, the life-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory with DOE sponsorship, compares energy use and emissions of various transportation fuels including gasoline and diesel. Energy use in petroleum refineries is key components of well-to-pump (WTP) energy use and emissions of gasoline and diesel. In GREET, petroleum refinery overall energy efficiencies are used to determine petroleum product specific energy efficiencies. Argonne has developed petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006 (see Wang, 2008). This memo documents Argonne's most recent update of petroleum refining efficiencies.

Palou-Rivera, I.; Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems)

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

96

Motor System Upgrades Smooth the Way to Savings of $700,000 at Chevron Refinery  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Chevron, the largest U.S. refiner operating six gasoline-producing refineries, completed a motor system efficiency improvement project in 1997 at its Richmond, California, refinery that resulted in savings of $700,000 annually. This two-page fact sheet describes how they achieved the savings.

97

Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 2005), brewery (Feng et al., 2008), animal (Min et al., 2005) and paper recycling wastewaters (HuangTreatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial, University Park, PA 16802, USA h i g h l i g h t s Refinery wastewaters were tested as fuels in MECs

98

STAMP-Based Analysis of a Refinery Overflow Accident Nancy Leveson, Margaret Stringfellow, and John Thomas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 STAMP-Based Analysis of a Refinery Overflow Accident Nancy Leveson, Margaret Stringfellow, and John Thomas As an example of STAMP, we have taken an accident report produced for a real refinery failures and operator actions (or missing actions) related to the loss. But stopping after identifying

Leveson, Nancy

99

Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1 modeling approach is validated by experimental measurements in two oil refinery sites using industry standard ISA SP100.11a compliant commercial devices operating at 2.4GHz. I. INTRODUCTION The adoption

Savazzi, Stefano

100

High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

None

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Comparison of predicted and measured noise levels for refinery units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Predicting noise levels from new refinery units is a vital part of environmental assessment and designing units to meet noise limits. The accuracy of those noise predictions is a very important concern. The simplest way to assess the accuracy of predictions is to compare predicted and measured noise levels. This is usually difficult because measured levels are strongly affected by noise from adjacent units and by atmospheric effects on sound propagation. Further actual noise levels of significant sources often deviate from expected levels used in the noise prediction model. Thus to meaningfully compare predicted and measured levels the actual noise source levels for the major sources atmospheric conditions and noise levels from adjacent units must all be accounted for. Predicted and measured levels are compared for two large refinery units. Measurements were made at locations where noise from adjacent units has little effect and close enough so that atmospheric conditions have little impact on the measured levels. Measured operational noise levels of major sources were used to update the noise prediction model. Accuracy of the predictions is evaluated.

Frank H. Brittain; Mark M. Gmerek

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

The Energy Minimization Method: A Multiobjective Fitness Evaluation Technique and Its Application to the Production Scheduling in a Petroleum Refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the Production Scheduling in a Petroleum Refinery Mayron Rodrigues de Almeida Sílvio Hamacher Industrial applied to production scheduling of a petroleum refinery. The experimental results are presented of the method when applied to the production scheduling in a petroleum refinery. Section 5 discusses

Coello, Carlos A. Coello

103

Market Assessment of Planned Refinery Outages March Â… June 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

09)/1 09)/1 Market Assessment of Planned Refinery Outages March - June 2009 March 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Oil and Gas U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the U.S. Department of Energy or any other organization. Service Reports are prepared by the Energy Information Administration upon special request and are based on assumptions specified by the requestor.

104

,"U.S. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries" Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries",11,"Annual",2013,"6/30/1982" ,"Release Date:","6/21/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","6/20/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_capprod_dcu_nus_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_capprod_dcu_nus_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

105

,"U.S. Downstream Charge Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Charge Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries" Charge Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Downstream Charge Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries",32,"Annual",2013,"6/30/1982" ,"Release Date:","6/21/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","6/20/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_capchg_dcu_nus_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_capchg_dcu_nus_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

106

,"U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries" Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries",28,"Annual",2013,"6/30/1982" ,"Release Date:","6/21/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","6/20/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_capshell_dcu_nus_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_capshell_dcu_nus_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

107

,"U.S. Working Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries" Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries",28,"Annual",2013,"6/30/1982" ,"Release Date:","6/21/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","6/20/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_capwork_dcu_nus_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_capwork_dcu_nus_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

108

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Laughlin, Robert B.

109

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

110

Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Greenhouse Gases on AddThis.com... Sustainable Buildings & Campuses Operations & Maintenance Greenhouse Gases Basics Federal Requirements Guidance & Reporting Inventories & Performance Mitigation Planning Resources Contacts Water Efficiency Data Center Energy Efficiency Industrial Facilities Sustainable Federal Fleets

111

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

House Passage of H.R. 5254 - The Refinery Permit Process Schedule Act |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Passage of H.R. 5254 - The Refinery Permit Process Schedule Passage of H.R. 5254 - The Refinery Permit Process Schedule Act House Passage of H.R. 5254 - The Refinery Permit Process Schedule Act June 8, 2006 - 2:17pm Addthis Statement from Secretary Bodman WASHINGTON, DC - The following is a statement from the Secretary Samuel W. Bodman of the Department of Energy on the passage of House Resolution 5254, The Refinery Permit Process Schedule Act: "I commend the House of Representatives for their passage of this important piece of legislation. Expanding our nation's refining capacity is an important part of President Bush's four-point plan to confront high gasoline prices and is a key component to strengthening our nation's energy security. By increasing our nation's domestic refining capacity we can help grow our nation's economy and reduce our reliance on foreign sources

113

Market Assessment of Refinery Outages Planned for March 2011 through June 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Assessment of Refinery Assessment of Refinery Outages Planned for March 2011 through June 2011 APRIL 2011 www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Market Assessment of Planned Refinery Outages / March 2011 - June 2011 ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. U.S. Energy Information Administration / Market Assessment of Planned Refinery Outages /

114

Appendix D Short-Term Analysis of Refinery Costs and Supply  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Short-Term Analysis of Refinery Costs and Supply 9302 Appendix D Short-Term Analysis of Refinery Costs and Supply As a result of the new regulations issued by the U.S. Estimating Components of the Distillate Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for ultra-low- Blend Pool sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) the U.S. refining industry faces two major challenges: to meet the more stringent specifi- The initial step of the analysis was to analyze the poten- cations for diesel product, and to keep up with demand tial economics of producing ULSD for each refinery. by producing more diesel product from feedstocks of Using input and output data submitted to the Energy lower quality. Some refineries in the United States and Information Administration (E1A) by refiners, the cur-

115

Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure among Oil Refinery Workers at Marathon Petroleum Company in Canton, Ohio.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Air monitoring surveys were conducted during loading operations at three locations inside of Marathon Petroleum Company’s Canton, Ohio oil refinery. These three locations—the sulfur truck… (more)

Beil, Christine A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Organic Rankine Cycle Systems for Waste Heat Recovery in Refineries and Chemical Process Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. A product package and recommended division of responsibilities between purchaser, A&E company and supplier is presented for installations in refineries and process plants. The product package covers the electrical power range from 3/4 to 5 MW...

Meacher, J. S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Regulation: EPA sued for undercounting toxic emissions at refineries, chemical plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several community organizations have filed a lawsuit to force the Environmental Protection Agency to review the way it measures toxic air pollution from oil refineries and petrochemical plants along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast. ... Recent independent studies at Marathon Oil, Shell, and BP refineries measured actual emissions at levels 10 to 100 times higher than estimates based on the methods facilities currently use to report their releases, the suit says. ...

GLENN HESS

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

118

Assuring Mechanical Integrity of Refinery Equipment Through Global ON-Stream Inspection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of global on-stream inspection technology will have a dramatic effect on how refinery operations are managed in the U.S. in the future. Global on-stream inspection will provide assurance of the mechanical integrity of critical plant equipment and will allow refineries to operate more efficiently with less impact on our environment and with an increased margin of safety.

John W. Berthold

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

119

Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

Goldberg, M.

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

Integration of hydrogen management in refinery planning with rigorous process models and product quality specifications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New trends of increased heavy crude markets and clean-fuel legislation, to produce ultra low-sulphur (ULS) gasoline and diesel fuels, are forcing refineries to increase their consumption of hydrogen. This critical situation raises the need to have a tool for operating refineries with flexibility and profitability. This paper addresses the planning of refinery with consideration to hydrogen availability. A systematic method for integrating a hydrogen management strategy within a rigorous refinery planning model is undertaken. The presented model consists of two main building blocks: a set of non-linear processing units' models and a hydrogen balance framework. The two blocks are integrated to produce a refinery-wide planning model with hydrogen management. The hydrogen management alternatives were determined by economic analysis. The proposed model improves the hidden hydrogen unavailability that prevents refineries from achieving their maximum production and profit. The model is illustrated on representative case studies and the results are discussed. It was found that an additional annual profit equivalent to $7 million could be achieved with a one-time investment of $13 million in a new purification unit.

Ali Elkamel; Ibrahim Alhajri; A. Almansoori; Yousef Saif

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Advanced refinery process heater. Final report, (October 1983-September 1988)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A prototype refinery process heater was designed, built and successfully tested, demonstrating the improvements available to heater design through the use of Zone-Controlled Pyrocore radiant gas burners. The 10 MMBtu/hr rated heater released 17 ppm NOx (corrected to 3% oxygen) under full load operation, the lowest NOx emissions technically and commercially achieved in this type of equipment without the use of post-combustion flue-gas processing. Operating with 400F combustion air preheat and a 500F process fluid outlet temperature, the heater achieved overall thermal efficiencies of 92.8% on a LHV basis due in part to the significantly improved performance of the radiant heat exchange section. The radiant burners used in the heater have been proven in performance and reliability, and have also been shown to be applicable to both new heater designs and retrofits into existing heaters. The improved radiant performance of the heater and the use of 'flameless' radiant burners eliminates tube burn-out failures in both the radiant and convective tube coils, further improving the reliability of equipment based on this design. Three separate U.S. Patents have been issued covering the heater design and the use of Zone-Controlled Pyrocore burners in this application.

Minden, A.C.; Buckley, G.G.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Process simulation of refinery units including chemical reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Process simulation methods for design and operation of refinery units are well established as long as no chemical reactors are included. The feedstocks are divided into pseudo-components which enables calculation of phase equilibria and transport properties. When chemical reactors are present some chemical conversion takes place which obviously affects the nature of the pseudo-components and their properties. The stream leaving the reactor will not only be of a different composition than the stream entering the reactor but in addition, the pseudo-components making up the outlet stream will also have other physical properties than the ones in the inlet stream. These changes affect not only the reactor unit but also the simulation of the whole flow-sheet. The paper presents a detailed model for an adiabatic distillate hydrotreater which takes into account the elemental composition of the feed. A special simulation strategy has been developed to incorporate such reactor units into process simulators. Finally, the simulation strategy is illustrated for a hydrotreating plant.

Jens A. Hansen; Barry H. Cooper

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases October 7, 2013 - 9:59am Addthis Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Basics: Read an overview of greenhouse gases. Federal Requirements: Look up requirements for agency greenhouse gas management as outlined in Federal initiatives and executive orders. Guidance and Reporting: Find guidance documents and resources for greenhouse gas accounting and reporting. GHG Inventories and Performance: See detailed comprehensive GHG inventories by Federal agency and progress toward achieving Scope 1 and 2 GHG and Scope 3 GHG reduction targets. Mitigation Planning: Learn how Federal agencies can cost-effectively meet their GHG reduction goals.

124

Degenerate quantum gases of strontium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a non-magnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr_2 molecules.

Stellmer, Simon; Killian, Thomas C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Turning greenhouse gases into gold  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gases, with carbon dioxide (CO2) often accused of being the primary instigator of global climate change. As a result, numerous efforts are under way to find ways to prevent,...

126

ARM - What are Greenhouse Gases?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radiative forcing (which means they enhance global warming). Many of these gases are naturally occurring and are essential to life on earth by providing a blanket for marine and...

127

Greenhouse Gases and Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have grown rapidly since the beginning of this century. Unless emissions are controlled, the world could face rapid climate changes, incl...

Alice LeBlanc; Daniel J. Dudek

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Recovery of hydrogen and other components from refinery gas stream by partial condensation using preliminary reflux condensation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for separating a hydrogen-containing refinery-type gas mixture into various fractions using reflux condensation, drying and partial condensation and phase separation.

Beddome, R.A.; Fenner, G.W.; Saunders, J.B.

1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

130

,"U.S. Refinery Net Input"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/2005" 3,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/2005" ,"Data 2","Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts",1,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1986" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_inpt2_dc_nus_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_inpt2_dc_nus_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"11/25/2013 11:21:05 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Refinery Net Input" "Sourcekey","MTTRO_NUS_1","MCRRO_NUS_1","MNGRO_NUS_1","MPPRO_NUS_1","MLPRO_NUS_1","MBNRO_NUS_1","MBIRO_NUS_1","MOLRO_NUS_1","MOHRO_NUS_1","M_EPOOOH_YIY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPOOXXFE_YIY_NUS_MBBL","MMTRO_NUS_1","MOORO_NUS_1","M_EPOOR_YIY_NUS_MBBL","MFERO_NUS_1","M_EPOORD_YIY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPOORO_YIY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPOOOXH_YIY_NUS_MBBL","MUORO_NUS_1","MNLRO_NUS_1","MKORO_NUS_1","MH1RO_NUS_1","MRURO_NUS_1","MBCRO_NUS_1","MO1RO_NUS_1","M_EPOBGRR_YIY_NUS_MBBL","MO3RO_NUS_1","MO4RO_NUS_1","MO5RO_NUS_1","MO6RO_NUS_1","MO7RO_NUS_1","MO9RO_NUS_1","MBARO_NUS_1"

131

,"U.S. Refinery Net Input"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2,"Annual",2012,"6/30/2005" 2,"Annual",2012,"6/30/2005" ,"Data 2","Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts",1,"Annual",2012,"6/30/1986" ,"Release Date:","9/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","9/26/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_inpt2_dc_nus_mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_inpt2_dc_nus_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"11/25/2013 11:21:04 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Refinery Net Input" "Sourcekey","MTTRO_NUS_1","MCRRO_NUS_1","MNGRO_NUS_1","MPPRO_NUS_1","MLPRO_NUS_1","MBNRO_NUS_1","MBIRO_NUS_1","MOLRO_NUS_1","MOHRO_NUS_1","M_EPOOOH_YIY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPOOXXFE_YIY_NUS_MBBL","MMTRO_NUS_1","MOORO_NUS_1","M_EPOOR_YIY_NUS_MBBL","MFERO_NUS_1","M_EPOORD_YIY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPOOOXH_YIY_NUS_MBBL","MUORO_NUS_1","MNLRO_NUS_1","MKORO_NUS_1","MH1RO_NUS_1","MRURO_NUS_1","MBCRO_NUS_1","MO1RO_NUS_1","M_EPOBGRR_YIY_NUS_MBBL","MO3RO_NUS_1","MO4RO_NUS_1","MO5RO_NUS_1","MO6RO_NUS_1","MO7RO_NUS_1","MO9RO_NUS_1","MBARO_NUS_1"

132

Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries Â… Past Changes and Future Potential  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries - Past Changes and Future Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries - Past Changes and Future Potential U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Petroleum, Gas, and Biofuels Analysis Department of Energy Office of Policy and International Affairs October 2010 Summary World consumption growth for middle distillate fuels (diesel fuel, heating oil, kerosene, and jet fuel) has exceeded the consumption growth for gasoline for some time, and the United States is no exception. Although the decrease in the ratio of total gasoline consumption to consumption for middle distillate fuels has been small in the United States, recent legislation requiring increased use of renewable fuels has resulted in forecasts that project a decline in consumption for petroleum-based gasoline from refineries, which would accelerate the decline in the

133

,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_crq_a_epc0_ycs_pct_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

134

TSNo s02-roberts104537-O Microscopic and Spectroscopic Speciation of Ni in Soils in the Vicinity of a Ni Refinery.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Vicinity of a Ni Refinery. abstract Accurately predicting the fate and bioavailability of metals in smelter REFINERY ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings - October 21 - 25, 2001 - Charlotte, NC #12;

Sparks, Donald L.

135

Methods applied to investigate the major VCE that occured in the TOTAL refinery's Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit at La Mede,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

95-35 Methods applied to investigate the major �VCE that occured in the TOTAL refinery's Fluid.V.C.E, occured in the Gas Plant of the TOTAL refinery's Fluid Catalytic Cracking ünit at La Mede, France sources: control room hard copy and electronically stored records: no deviation of process operating

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

Climate VISION: Greenhouse Gases Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Information GHG Information Greenhouse Gases, Global Climate Change, and Energy Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2001 [1605(a)] This report, required by Section 1605(a) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, provides estimates of U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as information on the methods used to develop the estimates. The estimates are based on activity data and applied emissions factors, not on measured or metered emissions monitoring. Available Energy Footprints Industry NAICS* All Manufacturing Alumina & Aluminum 3313 Cement 327310 Chemicals 325 Fabricated Metals 332 Food and Beverages 311, 312 Forest Products 321, 322 Foundries 3315 Glass & Glass Products, Fiber Glass 3272, 3296 Iron & Steel Mills 331111 Machinery & Equipment 333, 334, 335, 336

137

,"U.S. Refinery Net Production"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012,"6/30/1993" Annual",2012,"6/30/1993" ,"Release Date:","9/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","9/26/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_refp2_dc_nus_mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_refp2_dc_nus_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"11/25/2013 11:28:05 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Refinery Net Production" "Sourcekey","MTTRX_NUS_1","MLPRX_NUS_1","METRX_NUS_1","MENRX_NUS_1","MEYRX_NUS_1","MPRRX_NUS_1","MPARX_NUS_1","MPLRX_NUS_1","MBNRX_NUS_1","MBURX_NUS_1","MBYRX_NUS_1","MBIRX_NUS_1","MIIRX_NUS_1","MIYRX_NUS_1","MGFRX_NUS_1","MGRRX_NUS_1","MG1RX_NUS_1","M_EPM0RO_YPY_NUS_MBBL","MG4RX_NUS_1","MG5RX_NUS_1","M_EPM0CAL55_YPY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPM0CAG55_YPY_NUS_MBBL","MG6RX_NUS_1","MGARX_NUS_1","MKJRX_NUS_1","M_EPJKC_YPY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPJKM_YPY_NUS_MBBL","MKERX_NUS_1","MDIRX_NUS_1","MD0RX_NUS_1","MD1RX_NUS_1","MDGRX_NUS_1","MRERX_NUS_1","MRXRX_NUS_1","MRMRX_NUS_1","MRGRX_NUS_1","MPCRX_NUS_1","MPNRX_NUS_1","MPORX_NUS_1","MNSRX_NUS_1","MLURX_NUS_1","M_EPPLN_YPY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPPLP_YPY_NUS_MBBL","MWXRX_NUS_1","MCKRX_NUS_1","MCMRX_NUS_1","MCORX_NUS_1","MAPRX_NUS_1","MSGRX_NUS_1","MMSRX_NUS_1","MMFRX_NUS_1","MMNRX_NUS_1","MPGRX_NUS_1"

138

,"U.S. Refinery Net Production"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1993" Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1993" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_refp2_dc_nus_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_refp2_dc_nus_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"11/25/2013 11:28:06 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Refinery Net Production" "Sourcekey","MTTRX_NUS_1","MLPRX_NUS_1","METRX_NUS_1","MENRX_NUS_1","MEYRX_NUS_1","MPRRX_NUS_1","MPARX_NUS_1","MPLRX_NUS_1","MBNRX_NUS_1","MBURX_NUS_1","MBYRX_NUS_1","MBIRX_NUS_1","MIIRX_NUS_1","MIYRX_NUS_1","MGFRX_NUS_1","MGRRX_NUS_1","MG1RX_NUS_1","M_EPM0RO_YPY_NUS_MBBL","MG4RX_NUS_1","MG5RX_NUS_1","M_EPM0CAL55_YPY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPM0CAG55_YPY_NUS_MBBL","MG6RX_NUS_1","MGARX_NUS_1","MKJRX_NUS_1","M_EPJKC_YPY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPJKM_YPY_NUS_MBBL","MKERX_NUS_1","MDIRX_NUS_1","MD0RX_NUS_1","MD1RX_NUS_1","MDGRX_NUS_1","MRERX_NUS_1","MRXRX_NUS_1","MRMRX_NUS_1","MRGRX_NUS_1","MPCRX_NUS_1","MPNRX_NUS_1","MPORX_NUS_1","MNSRX_NUS_1","MLURX_NUS_1","M_EPPLN_YPY_NUS_MBBL","M_EPPLP_YPY_NUS_MBBL","MWXRX_NUS_1","MCKRX_NUS_1","MCMRX_NUS_1","MCORX_NUS_1","MAPRX_NUS_1","MSGRX_NUS_1","MMSRX_NUS_1","MMFRX_NUS_1","MMNRX_NUS_1","MPGRX_NUS_1"

139

U.S. Refinery Efficiency: Impacts Analysis and Implications for Fuel Carbon Policy Implementation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rapid influx of domestically sourced tight light oil and relative demand shifts for gasoline and diesel will impose challenges on the ability of the U.S. refining industry to satisfy both demand and quality requirements. ... For this study Jacobs developed these models in a Generalized Refining Transportation Marketing and Planning System (GRTMPS) format (licensed by Haverly Systems) which were combined with Jacobs’ proprietary refinery technology database. ... The product slate was developed based on knowledge of the markets being served by each refinery, making use of EIA data for regional refined product output and product movements between Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs), as well as information on product imports. ...

Grant S. Forman; Vincent B. Divita; Jeongwoo Han; Hao Cai; Amgad Elgowainy; Michael Wang

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

140

Investigating and Using Biomass Gases  

K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

Students will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Students generate these everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time they’ll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Problem 65 in Section 4.1 (Page 274) Constructing a pipeline Supertankers off-load oil at a docking facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery is 9 mi east of the shore point nearest the docking facility. A pipeline must be constructed connecting the docking facility with the refinery. The pipeline costs $300.42 miles away from the refinery, or equivalently 3.58 miles away from Point A (as the back of the book has

Schilling, Anne

142

2:00-2:30 Beverages, 2:30-4 PM Seminar Chevron operates two refineries on the west coast of California. Large parcels of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4/18/2014 2:00-2:30 Beverages, 2:30-4 PM Seminar Abstract Chevron operates two refineries fuel must be moved between the refineries by ship to balance production. The El Segundo Marine Terminal these vapors are returned to the refinery for processing via a vapor return pipeline. El Segundo's terminal

143

Clean Gases for Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......to purchase such clean gases. Even research grades...no maintenance, at the cost of 500 watts of electrical...Exploration and Production Research Division, Hous...hour. The maintenance cost of the cold trap is only...displaces the contaminated gas which has passed into......

B. Osborne Prescott; Harold L. Wise

1966-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Energy Guideline Factors Provide a Better Measure of Refinery Energy Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exxon Company, U.S.A. refineries reduced energy consumption by 25% between 1972 and 1978 compared with an 18% reduction for the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry over the same period. The Exxon approach to conserving energy in petroleum refining...

Libbers, D. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a large number of crude-oils, finished products such as liquified petroleum gas, gasoline, diesel fuel product blending and shipping. Some examples of nonlinear refinery planning problems including pooling, 2010 #12;crude-blends, and CDU feed charging. This problem has been addressed since the late 90s

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

146

1994 lubricating oil and wax capacities of U. S. and Canadian refineries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper consists of several tables which list the names of US and Canadian refineries, their location, and their capacity for production of lubricating oil and waxes categorized by finishing operations and primary processing. A separate table lists US and Canadian re-refiners and their capacity for refining waste lubricating oils.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery...radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and...monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public...accumulate at the bottom of storage tanks, tubings and other...uncontrolled release of waste containing TENORM, concentrated......

E. O. Darko; D. O. Kpeglo; E. H. K. Akaho; C. Schandorf; P. A. S. Adu; A. Faanu; E. Abankwah; H. Lawluvi; A. R. Awudu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Operational planning of oil refineries under uncertainty Special issue: Applied Stochastic Optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......authors developed a general framework for the...aviation kerosene and diesel) or heavy (paraffin, lubricants, light cycle oil, gas oil, coke...1 psc = 1 . The general formulation of the...model for refinery diesel production. Comput...J. (2004) A general modeling framework......

Gabriela P. Ribas; Adriana Leiras; Silvio Hamacher

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Restoration of Refinery Heaters Using the Technique of Prefabricated Ceramic Fiber Lined Panels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinery heater fuel requirements often represent 50% of a units operating cost. A one percent change in the efficiency of a heater firing 100 MBtu/hr amounts to more than $25,000 per year. Heater efficiency is influenced by casing hot spots, air...

Sento, H. D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Table 39. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2003  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

State/Refiner/Location Alkylates Aromatics State/Refiner/Location Alkylates Aromatics Isobutane Lubricants Isomers Isopentane and Isohexane Asphalt and Road Oil Marketable Petroleum Coke Hydrogen (MMcfd) Sulfur (short tons per day) Table 4. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries by State as of January 1, 2013 (Barrels per Stream Day, Except Where Noted) Isooctane a

151

Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the diversity and options available to enable cost savings and environmentally driven process improvements. Industrial gases have come of age during the last fifteen years. Engineers and scientists have looked beyond the paradigms of their operations...INDUSTRIAL GASES AS A VEHICLE FOR COMPETITIVENESS James R. Dale, Director, Technology Programs, Airco Industrial Gases Division, The BOC Group, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey ABSTRACT Industrial gases are produced using compressed air...

Dale, J. R.

152

U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period: Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period: Annual (as of January 1) Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 View History Total 765,593 758,619 710,413 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Crude Oil 180,830 179,471 180,846 -- -- -- 1985-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 34,772 32,498 33,842 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Propane/Propylene 10,294 8,711 8,513 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 24,478 23,787 25,329 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Other Liquids 95,540 96,973 96,157 -- -- -- 1982-2013 Oxygenates 1,336 1,028 1,005 -- -- -- 1994-2013

153

Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel Greenhouse Gases Converted to Fuel carbon-conversion-fig-1.jpg Key Challenges: An important strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for capturing the greenhouse gas and converting it to fuels and chemicals. Although researchers working toward that goal demonstrated in 1992 such a reaction in the lab, a key outstanding scientific challenge was explaining the details of how the reaction took place - its "mechanism." Why it Matters: An important potential strategy for reducing global CO2 emissions calls for capturing the greenhouse gas and converting it electrochemically to fuels and chemicals. Accomplishments: Computation to explain how carbon dioxide can be converted to small organic molecules with little energy input. The

154

Use of Hydrocarbons as Carrier Gases in GLC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......A. B., Phillips, C. S. G., and Price, D. T., J. Chem. Soc. 1955, 1480...9.4 Ethane 30.07 4.36 97 15.0 Ethylene 28.05 4.19 108 12.6 n-Pentane...Hydrogen Helium - Nitrogen, ethane, and ethylene Methane 050 .... 8 0.30 \\ 0,70......

Kerry L. Wagaman; Theodore G. Smith

1971-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Experiences in the Remediation of Ground Water Contaminated by Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the Vicinity of a Former Refinery Property  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since 1985, HPC HARRESS PICKEL CONSULT GMBH has conducted a variety of investigations on the property of a former refinery in the German Lower Rhine region, with the purpose of determining the nature and extent o...

Carsten Munk

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1.PDF 1.PDF Table 11. PAD District 5 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 36,593 - - - - 31,429 - 4,534 890 71,666 - 0 55,877 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 2,154 -11 1,013 192 - - - -786 2,587 629 918 3,544 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 1,013 -11 - - - - - - -35 842 110 85 36 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ..............................

157

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 September 2013 Table 8. PAD District 1 - Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 32 - - - - 843 -1 230 8 1,061 35 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 71 0 45 40 77 - - 1 16 10 205 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 12 0 - - 1 0 - - 0 0 2 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ..............................

158

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December 2011 December 2011 Table 3. U.S. Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, December 2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 5,877 - - - - 8,716 83 -218 14,841 53 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 2,351 -20 372 252 - - -417 566 206 2,600 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 296 -20 - - 78 - - 37 172 71 75 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 2,055 - - 372 174 - - -454 394 135 2,525

159

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PAD District 3 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 2012 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................ 3,787 - - - - 4,456 -667 185 23 7,734 4 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 1,476 0 410 32 278 - - 81 299 169 1,648 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 181 0 - - 28 -45 - - -9 116 3 53 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 1,295 - - 410 4 323 - - 89 183 166

160

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 2012 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 6,486 - - - - 8,527 146 93 14,999 67 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 2,408 -18 630 170 - - 65 509 314 2,301 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 317 -18 - - 29 - - -13 174 118 50 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 2,091 - - 630 141 - - 79 335 196 2,251 Ethane/Ethylene ...........................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December 2011 December 2011 Table 5. PAD District 1 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, December 2011 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 751 - - - - 26,471 -300 1,308 -869 28,999 100 0 9,902 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 1,313 -7 839 2,091 3,702 - - -929 816 33 8,018 7,618 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 225 -7 - - - - - - 3 - 11 204 31 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

162

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. TABLE1.PDF 1. TABLE1.PDF Table 1. U.S. Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 190,109 - - - - 264,348 6,359 12,794 445,596 2,425 0 1,039,424 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 73,905 -587 13,044 6,935 - - -11,335 15,883 8,313 80,436 118,039 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 8,824 -587 - - 1,699 - - -805 4,946 2,754 3,041 16,791 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

163

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.PDF 2.PDF Table 12. PAD District 5 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 1,180 - - - - 1,014 - 146 29 2,312 - 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 69 0 33 6 - - - -25 83 20 30 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 33 0 - - - - - - -1 27 4 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 37 - - 33 6 - - - -24 56 17 27 Ethane/Ethylene

164

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

September 2013 Table 1. U.S. Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 233,810 - - - - 237,344 8,334 7,688 468,825 2,975 0 1,067,149 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 81,196 -552 19,023 4,020 - - 3,027 16,794 13,937 69,929 189,672 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 11,167 -552 - - 772 - - -700 5,666 2,989 3,432 18,036 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

165

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PAD District 1 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 9,431 - - - - 316,140 4,126 8,393 -1,574 336,230 3,434 0 8,328 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 16,548 -84 14,202 18,043 26,704 - - -1,588 7,264 3,052 66,685 6,377 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 2,828 -84 - - 185 -19 - - 12 63 315 2,520 43 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

166

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

January 2012 January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 190,109 - - - - 264,348 6,359 12,794 445,596 2,425 0 1,039,424 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 73,905 -587 13,044 6,935 - - -11,335 15,883 8,313 80,436 118,039 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 8,824 -587 - - 1,699 - - -805 4,946 2,754 3,041 16,791 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 65,081 - - 13,044 5,236 - - -10,530 10,937 5,559 77,395 101,248 Ethane/Ethylene

167

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December 2011 December 2011 Table 1. U.S. Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, December 2011 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 182,188 - - - - 270,188 2,576 -6,767 460,074 1,646 0 1,026,829 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 72,869 -607 11,545 7,801 - - -12,921 17,534 6,391 80,604 128,709 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 9,170 -607 - - 2,421 - - 1,146 5,321 2,200 2,317 17,598 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

168

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December 2011 December 2011 Table 17. PAD District 4 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, December 2011 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 12,175 - - - - 10,226 -3,426 -1,436 132 17,407 1 0 15,969 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 12,584 -10 52 460 -10,314 - - -12 611 282 1,891 1,375 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 1,788 -10 - - - -1,036 - - -15 174 273 310 180 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

169

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December 2011 December 2011 Table 15. PAD District 3 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, December 2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................ 3,327 - - - - 4,646 -720 39 -191 7,482 - 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 1,380 -1 304 84 227 - - -113 306 108 1,693 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 155 -1 - - 77 -58 - - 35 106 1 31 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ..............................

170

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 September 2013 Table 16. PAD District 3 - Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................ 4,354 - - - - 3,718 -413 345 75 7,905 24 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 1,615 0 454 39 170 - - 62 282 267 1,666 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 195 0 - - 36 -65 - - 15 113 4 35 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

171

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

TABLE9.PDF TABLE9.PDF Table 9. PAD District 4 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 12,961 - - - - 10,783 -3,879 896 2,868 17,893 0 0 18,695 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 12,770 -9 127 502 -11,116 - - -50 621 280 1,423 1,326 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 1,484 -9 - - - -1,152 - - 7 122 264 -70 187 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

172

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.PDF .PDF Table 3. PAD District 1 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 734 - - - - 26,368 419 -1,209 627 25,554 130 0 10,529 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 1,314 -6 923 1,606 2,621 - - -1,556 707 53 7,254 6,409 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 213 -6 - - - - - - 3 5 6 193 34 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ..............................

173

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 2,374,021 - - - - 3,120,755 53,567 34,134 5,489,516 24,693 0 1,060,764 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 881,306 -6,534 230,413 62,192 - - 23,894 186,270 115,054 842,159 153,268 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 116,002 -6,534 - - 10,680 - - -4,857 63,596 43,136 18,273 12,739 Liquefied Petroleum Gases

174

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

September 2013 Table 4. U.S. Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 7,340 - - - - 7,778 239 25 15,229 104 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 2,516 -18 716 175 - - 133 465 434 2,358 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 340 -18 - - 38 - - 20 168 134 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 2,176 - - 716

175

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

30 30 September 2013 Table 24. PAD District 5 - Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 1,101 - - - - 1,091 - 115 -14 2,320 1 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 65 0 67 5 - - - 13 63 14 47 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 29 0 - - - - - - 1 21 4 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ..............................

176

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2012 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 2,374,021 - - - - 3,120,755 53,567 34,134 5,489,516 24,693 0 1,060,764 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 881,306 -6,534 230,413 62,192 - - 23,894 186,270 115,054 842,159 153,268 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 116,002 -6,534 - - 10,680 - - -4,857 63,596 43,136 18,273 12,739 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 765,304 - - 230,413 51,512 - - 28,751 122,674 71,918

177

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.PDF .PDF Table 2. U.S. Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 6,133 - - - - 8,527 205 413 14,374 78 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 2,384 -19 421 224 - - -366 512 268 2,595 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 285 -19 - - 55 - - -26 160 89 98 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 2,099 - - 421 169 - - -340 353 179 2,497 Ethane/Ethylene

178

Reduction of corrosivity of reused water in refinery water circulating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the problem of controlling scale formation in heat transfer equipment in refinery recirculating water systems. One of the effective methods for reducing the degree of pitting is acidification of the medium to pH 6-6.5, thus suppressing the activity of the sulfide and manganese inclusions in the metal that play the role of pitting centers. The authors investigated the effects of the AOC and TPP on the characteristics of refinery recirculating water and combined treatment to reduce the amount of scaling and lower the corrosivity. The untreated recirculating water was unstable; the water treated with AOC or with AOC+TPP is capable of dissolving carbonate deposits.

Sorochenko, V.F.; Beskorovainaya, N.J.; Shut'ko, A.P.; Slipchenko, O.G.; Zorina, N.E.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

LPG recovery from refinery flare by waste heat powered absorption refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Model for Gasification of Residual Fuels from Petroleum Refineries Using the Equation Oriented (EO) Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An attractive way to use residual fuels from petroleum refineries (vacuum residue and petcoke) is their gasification to produce syngas, which contains mainly H2, CO and small quantities of CH4, CO2, as well as nitrogen and sulfur compounds. ... Vacuum residue and petroleum coke (petcoke) are, respectively, heavy liquid and solid byproducts from crude oil refining, they are often used as fuel in boilers for power production, natural gas has been more commonly used in the past few years in power generation; reducing the market for both vacuum residue and petcoke. ... Regarding petroleum refinery residuals Uson et al.(1) developed a model for cogasification of coal, petcoke and biomass, based on reaction kinetics. ...

Jorge E. Marin-Sanchez; Miguel A. Rodriguez-Toral

2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Health hazard evaluation report HETA 83-248-1515, Arco Philadelphia refinery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bulk sample of fractionator residue was analyzed for polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds at the catalytic cracking unit of ARCO Philadelphia Refinery (SIC-2911), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in May, 1983. The study was requested by the Atlantic Independent Union to determine if skin rashes and skin irritation occurring among refinery workers were caused by PNA in the fractionators. The authors conclude that a health hazard from exposure to chemicals at the cracking unit may exist. No specific chemical agent can be identified. Dust from the catalyst and oily residues that could contaminate workers shoes and clothing may have contributed to some of the dermatitis cases. Recommendations include laundering workers coveralls by dry cleaning to insure the removal of oily residues, providing workers with oil resistant or oil proof work boots, and repairing the ventilator in the sample preparation room adjacent to the block house.

Lewis, F.A.; Parrish, G.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

183

Integration of light hydrocarbons cryogenic separation process in refinery based on LNG cold energy utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract China depends on naphtha (derived from oil) as the main feedstock for ethylene plants, resulting in margins that are negatively co-related with the price of oil. Clearly, light hydrocarbons provide cost advantages over the conventional naphtha feedstock. Consequently, the recovery of light hydrocarbons from refinery gas has been gathering more and more significance. Nonetheless, the cryogenic separation needs low process temperatures, substantially increasing the refrigeration load requirements and, attendantly, the compression requirements associated with the refrigeration system. In this paper, the cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is applied to light hydrocarbons cryogenic separation process to replace the compression refrigeration system on the basis of one China refinery. The results show that LNG can provide 14,373 kW cold energy for the separation process, resulting in a direct compression power saving of 7973 kW and making the utilization rate of LNG cold energy as high as 71.9%.

Yajun Li; Hao Luo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A Case Study of Steam System Evaluation in a Petroleum Refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Refinery's management's interest, more technical details and accurate savings & investment estimates will be provided during the Development phase that includes Basic Engineering Design & Detailed Engineering Design. ? Armstrong Service Inc. 176 ESL...-IE-03-05-21 Proceedings from theTwenty-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 13-16, 2003 Sio-Data of Presenters: Name: Ven V. Venkatesan, Title: Director of Engineering Services Company: Armstrong Service, Inc., 8545...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Iordanova, N.

185

Decision support for integrated refinery supply chains: Part 1. Dynamic simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Supply chain studies are increasingly given top priority in enterprise-wide management. Present-day supply chains involve numerous, heterogeneous, geographically distributed entities with varying dynamics, uncertainties, and complexity. The performance of a supply chain relies on the quality of a multitude of design and operational decisions made by the various entities. In this two-part paper, we demonstrate that a dynamic model of an integrated supply chain can serve as a valuable quantitative tool that aids in such decision-making. In this Part 1, we present a dynamic model of an integrated refinery supply chain. The model explicitly considers the various supply chain activities such as crude oil supply and transportation, along with intra-refinery supply chain activities such as procurement planning, scheduling, and operations management. Discrete supply chain activities are integrated along with continuous production through bridging procurement, production, and demand management activities. Stochastic variations in transportation, yields, prices, and operational problems are considered in the proposed model. The economics of the refinery supply chain includes consideration of different crude slates, product prices, operation costs, transportation, etc. The proposed model has been implemented as a dynamic simulator, called Integrated Refinery In-Silico (IRIS). IRIS allows the user the flexibility to modify not only parameters, but also replace different policies and decision-making algorithms in a plug-and-play manner. It thus allows the user to simulate and analyze different policies, configurations, uncertainties, etc., through an easy-to-use graphical interface. The capabilities of IRIS for strategic and tactical decision support are illustrated using several case studies.

Suresh S. Pitty; Wenkai Li; Arief Adhitya; Rajagopalan Srinivasan; I.A. Karimi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

The Viscosity of Compressed Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New data and a new theory for the viscosity of compressed gases are presented. Data for nitrogen, hydrogen and a mixture of these gases are given, in the calculation of which, the "end effects" are not neglected as has been done in the past. Previous viscosity data are of doubtful validity owing to neglect of this factor. The theory is based on an analogy between the kinetic pressure and viscosity of a gas and is derived using an equation of state of the Lorentz type. Allowance is made for the difference between the viscosity and compressibility covolumes. The theory is substantiated experimentally and further confirmed by the recalculation of other data on the variation of Reynolds' criterion with the pressure, which is here shown to be constant. The mixture data offer a direct opportunity of comparing the Lorentz and linear rules for the calculation of the covolume of a mixture from the covolumes of the components and such comparison indicates that the Lorentz rule is not to be preferred. The substantiation of the new theory is the first direct proof of the validity of the separate treatment of the kinetic and cohesive pressures in the equation of state.

James H. Boyd; Jr.

1930-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

ARM - Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

released into the air, additional CO2 Would intensify an already-problematic greenhouse effect. Preparation Demonstrate that water contains invisible gases. Collect and cover...

188

Granular gases under extreme driving  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady-state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

W. Kang; J. Machta; E. Ben-Naim

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

189

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 September 2013 Table 32. Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD District, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 308 5 313 45 44 345 434 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... - - - - 2 75 77 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 308 5 313 45 42 270 357 Normal Butane .................................................. 308 5 313 45 42 270 357 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

190

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.PDF 0.PDF Table 20. Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD Districts, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 158 5 163 47 18 168 233 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... 5 - 5 - - 5 5 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 153 5 158 47 18 163 228 Normal Butane .................................................. 153 5 158 47 18 163 228 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

191

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Blender Net Inputs of Petroleum Products by PAD Districts, 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 1,744 80 1,824 345 324 2,161 2,830 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... 63 - 63 - - 87 87 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 1,681 80 1,761 345 324 2,074 2,743 Normal Butane .................................................. 1,681 80 1,761 345 324 2,074 2,743 Isobutane .......................................................... - - - - - - - Other Liquids ..........................................................

192

Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A., Rome, Italy ABSTRACT Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NO emissions while also generating electricity ~t an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented..., described in Figure 1, 2. The combustion oxygen is carried by a more I I i I' has been used as a design basis. The heater is based on the actual design of a unit built by KTI SpA. The furnace does not include air preheater or steam generation...

Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

193

BLENDING PROBLEM A refinery blends four petroleum components into three grades of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BLENDING PROBLEM A refinery blends four petroleum components into three grades of gasoline/day $/barrel #1 5,000 $9.00 #2 2,400 7.00 #3 4,000 12.00 #4 1,500 6.00 Blending formulas and selling price 4,000 x4R + x4P + x4L 1,500 #12;blending: (1) x1R / (x1R + x2R + x3R + x4R) .40 or x1R .40(x1R

Shier, Douglas R.

194

Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raman spectra of gaseous CO2, N2O, NH3, CH4 and C2H4 have been photographed using the line ?2536 of mercury as the exciting radiation. Vibrational transitions have been observed in all the gases investigated, and rotational transitions in the cases of NH3 and CH4. For the frequency shifts due to the vibrational transitions, the following numerical values (in cm-1) have been found: CO2: 1264.5; 1285.1; 1387.7; 1408.4.CH4: 2914.8; 3022.1; 3071.5.N2O: 1281.8C2H4: 1342.4; 1623.3; 2880.1; 3019.3; 3240.3; 3272.3.NH3: 3333.6  Raman spectra of liquid NH3 have been photographed and found to give the two frequency shifts: 3298.4 and 3214.5. In the case of gaseous NH3, pure rotational transitions lead to a moment of inertia having the value I0=2.79×10-40. In the case of methane, the positive and negative branches of the 3022.1 band lead to the value I0=5.17×10-40. The relations between these data and infra-red absorption data are discussed.

R. G. Dickinson, R. T. Dillon, and F. Rasetti

1929-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

PAFC fed by biogas produced by the anaerobic fermentation of the waste waters of a beet-sugar refinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beet-washing waters of a beet-sugar refinery carry a high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), and their conditioning to meet legal constraints before disposal considerably contributes to the operation costs of the refinery. Their fermentation in an anaerobic digestor could instead produce readily disposable non-polluting waters, fertilizers and biogas, useful to feed a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) heat and power generator system. A real refinery case is considered in this work, where the electrical characteristics V = V(I) of a laboratory PAFC stack, fueled with a dry simulated reforming gas (having the same H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} content as the biogas obtainable by the above said anaerobic digestion), are determined. The encouraging results show that a possible market niche for fuel cells, in the food-industry waste partial recovery and residual disposal, deserves attention.

Ascoli, A.; Elias, G. [Univ. Diegli Studi di Milano (Italy); Bigoni, L. [CISE Tecnologie Innovative S.p.A., Segrate (Italy); Giachero, R. [Du Pont Pharma Italia, Firenze (Italy)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

197

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What are...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gases such as hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride). The Greenhouse Effect Concentrations of several important greenhouse gases have increased by about 33...

198

(Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1996 producer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1996 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and two base metal mining operations, one in Tennessee and another in Alaska. Both of these mining

199

(Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1995  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1995 producer price, was approximately industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and a mining operation in Tennessee. The company in Tennessee exported germanium-bearing residues generated

200

Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( ES)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Forecast of U. S. Refinery Demand for NGL's (natural gas liquids) in 1978-1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A forecast of U.S. Refinery Demand for NGL's (Natural Gas Liquids) in 1978-1985 is based on a predicted 1.4%/yr decline in motor gasoline consumption from 7.4 to 6.7 million bbl/day (Mbd), including a 2.6%/yr reduction from 5.3 to 4.4 Mbd for automobiles and a 1.3%/yr growth from 2.1 to 2.3 Mbd for trucks, because of slow growth rates in the U.S. automobile fleet (1.1%/yr) and average annual miles driven (0.9%/yr), a 3.9%/yr growth in average mileage from 14.2 to 18.6 mpg, and diesel penetration to the automobile market which should increase from 0.3 to 3.3%. Leaded gasoline's share is expected to decline from 68% of the market (5.1 Mbd, including 0.8 Mbd leaded premium) to 24% (1.7 Mbd, leaded regular only), including a drop from 56 to 6% for automobiles and from approx. 100 to 60% for trucks. This will require increased production of clean-octane reformates and alkylates and reduce the need for straight-run gasolines, but because of the decline in the total gasoline demand, these changes should be minimal. Butane demand from outside-refinery production should decrease by 5-6%/yr, and natural gasoline will be consumed according to available production as an isopentane source.

Laskosky, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Using Relative Risk Analysis to Set Priorities For Pollution Prevention At A Petroleum Refinery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter outlines the development of a detailed refinery release inventory that identifies sources and quantities of releases. It identifies options for preventing releases and minimizing health and environmental risks and discusses a system for evaluating and ranking the options in light of cost, risk, regulatory requirements, and other factors. The chapter also describes the methods of evaluating the incentives and obstacles to implementing the pollution prevention options. The chapter highlights the progress that can occur in identifying creative, cost-effective options for pollution prevention when government, industry, and the public establish partnerships rather than operate as adversaries. Pollution prevention cannot be adequately implemented or monitored for effectiveness unless facility operators and regulators know what is being released from the facility and its origin. Government regulatory systems—such as those established by the Clean Water Act or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)—require refineries and other facilities to monitor and measure releases from a few specific points, such as the end of a discharge pipe, or in specific media, such as groundwater. To bridge the gaps in existing data, a multimedia sample collection and analysis effort needs to be undertaken.

Ronald E. Schmitt; Howard Klee; Debora M. Sparks; Mahesh K. Podar

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Comparing greenhouse gases for policy purposes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to derive optimal policies for greenhouse gas emissions control, the discounted marginal damages of emissions of different gases must be compared. The greenhouse warming potential (GWP) index, which is most often ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

TABLE17.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7. Refinery Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Liquefied Refinery Gases ... 576 -7...

206

Gases for an SSC muon detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent measurements of electron drift velocities as a function of the density-reduced electric field E/N are reported for a number of unitary gases and the mixtures CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}/CF{sub 4}/Ar. Calculated values of the mean electron energy as a function of E/N are also reported for unitary gases and mixtures of CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Datskos, P.G.; Carter, J.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA) Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 6 September 2013 Table 10. PAD District 2 - Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 366,285 - - - - 501,418 159,175 -109,633 -12,929 918,349 11,825 0 102,610 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 122,918 -4,579 37,556 21,926 4,444 - - 15,132 24,244 34,819 108,070 58,830 Pentanes Plus ..................................................

208

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

20 20 September 2013 Table 14. PAD District 3 - Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................ 1,188,751 - - - - 1,015,091 -112,708 94,064 20,399 2,158,191 6,608 0 882,207 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 440,766 -88 123,986 10,625 46,383 - - 16,960 76,972 72,880 454,860 114,138 Pentanes Plus ..................................................

209

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

September 2013 Table 2. U.S. Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 2,003,948 - - - - 2,123,490 65,265 6,899 4,157,486 28,318 0 1,067,149 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 686,936 -4,909 195,516 47,812 - - 36,219 127,051 118,364 643,721 189,672 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 92,842 -4,909 - - 10,243 - -

210

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

TABLE7.PDF TABLE7.PDF Table 7. PAD District 3 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................ 109,919 - - - - 142,073 -20,272 -3,481 6,003 222,236 - 0 858,776 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 43,678 -17 9,648 1,838 7,546 - - -2,299 8,340 4,663 51,989 65,215 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 4,840 -17 - - 1,688 -3,010 - -

211

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 8 September 2013 Table 22. PAD District 5 - Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 300,668 - - - - 297,837 - 31,342 -3,713 633,292 267 0 52,719 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 17,739 -73 18,288 1,401 - - - 3,536 17,170 3,791 12,858 8,270 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 7,914

212

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

September 2013 Table 6. PAD District 1 - Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 8,672 - - - - 230,125 -359 62,824 2,069 289,586 9,606 0 10,326 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 19,329 -83 12,151 10,808 21,118 - - 168 4,287 2,821 56,047 6,541 Pentanes Plus ..................................................

213

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

December 2011 December 2011 Table 9. PAD District 2 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, December 2011 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 29,019 - - - - 52,699 26,041 2,973 12 109,175 1,544 0 93,189 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 14,079 -560 812 2,541 -423 - - -6,605 4,051 2,114 16,889 48,197 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 1,354 -560 - - 21 2,843 - - 110 1,049

214

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

TABLE5.PDF TABLE5.PDF Table 5. PAD District 2 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 29,902 - - - - 53,695 23,732 5,619 2,406 108,247 2,295 0 95,547 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 13,989 -544 1,333 2,797 949 - - -6,644 3,628 2,687 18,853 41,545 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 1,274 -544 - - 11 4,162 - - 233 966

215

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 September 2013 Table 18. PAD District 4 - Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 139,573 - - - - 79,019 -46,108 -13,333 1,073 158,068 10 0 19,287 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 86,184 -86 3,535 3,052 -71,945 - - 423 4,378 4,054 11,885 1,893 Pentanes Plus ..................................................

216

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PAD District 3 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................ 1,386,172 - - - - 1,630,908 -244,084 67,631 8,560 2,830,779 1,288 0 861,333 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 540,336 -180 150,143 11,694 101,692 - - 29,480 109,476 61,693 603,036 96,994 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 66,222 -180 - - 10,282 -16,515 - -

217

THE FUTURE OF ENERGY GASES David G. Howell, Editor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

totally independent of oil. Methane is found in association with coal; it is a byproduct of metabolic the term "energy gases" to distinguish those natural gases, primarily methane, that have utility for energy consequences associated with an expanded role of energy gases? Energy gases, particularly methane, are commonly

218

Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

noble gases. #12;Exploring the Solar Wind94 Light solar wind noble gases were directly measured by mass of the light gases are known to vary with energy, so none of these provided solar isotopic and elemental5 Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases Alex Meshik, Charles Hohenberg, Olga

219

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users should follow Berkeley Lab policy, as described below, for the purchase, delivery, storage, and use of all gases at the ALS. See Shipping and Receiving for information on any non-gas deliveries. Contacts: Gas purchase or delivery: ALS Receiving, 510-486-4494 Gas use and storage: Experiment Coordination, 510-486-7222, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it Gas Storage: Berkeley Lab Chemical Inventory All gas bottles and cylinders at the ALS must be identified with bar code and logged into the Berkeley Lab Chemical Inventory by ALS staff. The inventory will be updated periodically; for more information contact Experiment Coordination. Gases are stored either in the racks between buildings 6 and 7; toxic and corrosive gases are stored in Building 6, room 6C across the walkway from beamline 10.0.

220

Market Assessment of Refinery Outages Planned for October 2010 through January 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

10)/2 10)/2 Market Assessment of Refinery Outages Planned for October 2010 through January 2011 November 2010 Energy Information Administration Office of Petroleum, Gas, and Biofuels Analysis U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. E nergy Information Adminis tration Market As s es s ment of P lanned R

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Market Assessment of Refinery Outages Planned for October 2009 through January 2010  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

09)/2 09)/2 Market Assessment of Refinery Outages Planned for October 2009 through January 2010 November 2009 Energy Information Administration Office of Oil and Gas U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views herein should not be construed as representing those of the Department or the Administration. Preface and Contacts The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the independent statistical and analytical

222

Bio-char refineries: an accessible approach for the development of biomass-based industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Being a by-product of the well-established charcoal industry, slow pyrolysis bio-oil can be an excellent, cost-effective and renewable liquid fuel. However, even in Brazil, a country with a very clean energy profile and large-scale charcoal production, bio-oil is not properly utilised yet. A simple upgrade of traditional methods of charcoal production can significantly increase liquid fuel output. The concept of a bio-char-refinery, introduced in this paper, for production of charcoal, activated carbon, liquid fuel and variety of chemicals presents a possible approach for the development of biomass-based industry. Successful implementation of this concept could provide significant amounts of fuel and chemicals able to enhance economic development and reduce the consumption of petroleum derived products.

Venelin Stamatov; Jose Dilcio Rocha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Standard guide for evaluating and qualifying oilfield and refinery corrosion inhibitors in the laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This guide covers some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oilfield and refinery applications in well defined flow conditions. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather covers a range of approaches which have found application in inhibitor evaluation. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in inhibitor evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for evaluating corrosion inhibitors. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Classification of bacterial isolates of the Jordanian oil refinery petroleum sludge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to characterise the bacterial isolates of Jordanian oil refinery sludge for the purpose of using microorganisms in treating industrial wastewater effluents that contains hydrocarbons. Morphological, physiological, biochemical, antimicrobial susceptibility tests and 16S-23S rRNA spacer region polymorphism were used to characterise the isolated thermotolerant Bacillus, with specific reference to Bacillus strains. Data were coded and analysed by numerical techniques using the Gower coefficients and by average linkage (UPGMA) analysis. The study resulted in allocation of strains into two areas at 50.0% similarity levels and ten major phenons at 78.0% similarity level. Amplification of 16S-32S rRNA genes divided all strains into two areas at 48.0% similarity level; however, at 78.0% similarity level five taxonomically distinct phenons were evident.

Mohammed N. Battikhi; Bassam Mrayyan; Manar Atoum

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules (Released in the STEO January 1998)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On August 27, 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an individual refinery baseline is not available to domestic refiners.) If a foreign refiner did not establish and use an individual baseline, the gasoline they export to the United States would be regulated through the importer, and subject to the importer's baseline (most likely the statutory baseline). Specific regulatory provisions are implemented to ensure that the option to use an individual baseline would not lead to adverse environmental impacts. This involves monitoring the average quality of imported gasoline, and if a specified benchmark is exceeded, remedial action would be taken by adjusting the requirements applicable to imported gasoline.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Integrity management of a HIC-damaged pipeline and refinery pressure vessel through hydrogen permeation measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen permeation measurements were used in the successful operation of a sour gas pipeline subsequent to a hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) failure in September 1992. Two joints of HIC-resistant pipe were used to repair the failed section and adjacent cut-outs. The pipeline has been operated for five years with no further instances of HIC failure. Hydrogen permeation monitoring was chosen as an integrity management tool because no techniques are currently available to inspect for HIC damage in a pipeline this size. Self-powered electrochemical devices installed on the pipeline were employed to monitor and control the effectiveness of a batch inhibition program in maintaining diffusing hydrogen atom concentrations below the laboratory-measured threshold for initiation of HIC damage. Permeation monitoring of a HIC-damaged refinery pressure vessel indicated very high hydrogen atom flux, despite attempts to inhibit corrosion with ammonium polysulfide injection. In this instance it was decided that replacement of the vessel was necessary.

Hay, M.G.; Rider, D.W. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

BIO?REFINERIES: BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTE?WATER TREATMENT, ENERGY AND PRODUCT VALORIZATION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increasing pressure is being exerted on communities and nations to source energy from forms other than fossil fuels. Also potable water is becoming a scarce resource in many parts of the world and there remains a large divide in the demand and utilization of plant products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non?GMOs. The most extensive user and manager of terrestrial ecosystems is agriculture which is also the de facto steward of natural resources. As stated by Miller (2008) no other industry or institution comes close to the comparative advantage held for this vital responsibility while simultaneously providing food fiber and other biology?based products including energy. Since modern commercial agriculture is transitioning from the production of bulk commodities to the provision of standardized products and specific?attribute raw materials for differentiated markets we can argue that processes such as mass cultivation of microalgae and the concept of bio?refineries be seen as part of a ‘new’ agronomy. EBRU is currently exploring the integration of bioprocess technologies using microalgae as biocatalysts to achieve waste?water treatment water polishing and endocrine disruptor (EDC) removal sustainable energy production and exploitation of the resultant biomass in agriculture as foliar fertilizer and seed coatings and for commercial extraction of bulk commodities such as bio?oils and lecithin. This presentation will address efforts to establish a fully operational solar?driven microalgae bio?refinery for use not only in waste remediation but to transform waste and biomass to energy fuels and other useful materials (valorisation) with particular focus on environmental quality and sustainability goals.

A. Keith Cowan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery and Blender Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Crude Oil ................................................................. 302,582 33,648 336,230 808,927 164,619 286,280 1,259,826 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 7,184 80 7,264 25,975 1,308 11,193 38,476 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... 63 - 63 7,891 53 3,375 11,319 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 7,121 80 7,201 18,084 1,255 7,818

229

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 September 2013 Table 28. Refinery and Blender Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Crude Oil ................................................................. 29,611 2,906 32,517 67,983 12,033 22,460 102,476 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ....................................................... 793 5 798 2,014 100 1,032 3,146 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... - - - 777 2 340 1,119 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 793 5 798 1,237 98 692 2,027

230

Soot and SO[subscript 2] contribution to the supersites in the MILAGRO campaign from elevated flares in the Tula Refinery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work presents a simulation of the plume trajectory emitted by flaring activities of the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery in Mexico. The flame of a representative sour gas flare is modeled with a CFD combustion code in order ...

Molina, Luisa Tan

231

Chemical Properties of the Rare Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of argon of about 100 atm. I have already shown by an independent method1 that radon, too, forms a hydrate which is much more stable than those of other rare ... , forms a hydrate which is much more stable than those of other rare gases. Radon is easily held by crystals of sulphur dioxide hydrates, when they are formed from ...

B. A. NIKITIN

1937-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

232

New instruments for measuring landfill gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New instruments for measuring landfill gases ... The legislation mandates that landfill operators monitor more than 1200 active sites for specific pollution products. ... According to Varian, the instrumentation systems can be adapted easily to meet landfill testing requirements that might be enacted in states other than California. ...

RUDY BAUM

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Crude Oil ..................................................................... 6,647 398 7,045 8,842 1,644 1,917 12,403 Petroleum Products ................................................... 17,842 2,339 20,181 30,832 7,611 10,741 49,184 Pentanes Plus .......................................................... - - - 175 - 191 366 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ...................................... 769 34 803 2,779 493 1,377 4,649 Ethane/Ethylene ...................................................

234

TABLE16.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6. 6. Refinery Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Crude Oil ................................................................... 44,047 2,783 46,830 70,320 12,891 21,794 105,005 Natural Gas Liquids ................................................. 252 0 252 2,613 131 1,076 3,820 Pentanes Plus ....................................................... 0 0 0 202 45 522 769 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ................................... 252 0 252 2,411 86 554 3,051 Ethane ............................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Propane ............................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Normal Butane .................................................. 162 0 162 1,792 76 435 2,303 Isobutane ..........................................................

235

PEMEX selects the H-Oil{reg_sign} process for their hydrodesulfurization residue complex at the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) has selected the H-Oil Process for the conversion and upgrading of a blend of Maya and Isthmus vacuum residua at the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery. The 8,450 metric ton/day (50,000 bpsd) H-Oil Plant will produce a low sulfur (0.8 wt%) fuel oil, diesel, naphtha, and LPG. The H-Oil Plant will be a key component of the Hydrodesulfurization Residue (HDR) Complex which will be located at the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery in Tula, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. The project is part of PEMEX`s Ecology Projects currently underway in Mexico. This paper describes the HDR Complex and the design basis of the H-Oil Plant and provides the current status of this project.

Wisdom, L.I.; Colyar, J.J. [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARp?) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution Benjamin Brant Sabine Brueske Donald Erickson Riyaz Papar Planetec Planetec Energy Concepts Company Energy... in Denver, Colorado. The Waste Heat Ammo nia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP?) is based on a patented process and cycle design developed by Energy Concepts Co. (ECC) to cost effectively re cover 73,000 barrels a year of salable LPGs and gasoline...

Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

237

Gas Cleaning Methods for Ambient Air and Compressed Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cleaning air or compressed gases in cleanroom installations requires removal of particulate and/or ... The technology used for cleaning gases for the cleanroom is derived from processes long used in ... fossil fu...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity This presentation was given at the July 17, 2012, Community Renewable Energy Deployment webinar on successful landfill...

239

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases BOCLH Jump to: navigation, search Name BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) Place Taipei, Taiwan Sector Solar Product BOCLH is a joint venture between the Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation and the BOC Group in the United Kingdom and produces high-purity gases used in solar component production. References BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH) is a company located in Taipei, Taiwan . References ↑ "BOC Lienhwa Industrial Gases (BOCLH)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=BOC_Lienhwa_Industrial_Gases_BOCLH&oldid=342956

240

Economic and European Union Environmental Sustainability Criteria Assesment of Bio-Oil-Based Biofuel Systems: Refinery Integration Cases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Between bio-oil gasification and upgrading routes in Figure 2, the former route comprises of proven technologies and “can be commercially deployable by industrial companies with infrastructure and expertise available to produce marketable products”. ... For the scenario with all hydrogen sold by the refinery, (61.5 + 20.67) kmol/t of bio-oil at the market rate of 1200 $/t and stable oil sold by the upgrader to the refinery at the market rate of 490 $/t, 141.8 $/t or 19.8 $/bbl of crude oil of economic incentive from the selling of all the hydrogen and 39.3 $/t or 3.3 $/bbl of crude oil of economic incentive from the replacement of final biodiesel blending by the renewable diesel production from the stable oil coprocessing are obtained. ... Given the volatile and vulnerable petroleum markets, oil companies are under pressure for moving toward a greener future, within which refinery expansion strategy may be a commonplace. ...

Jhuma Sadhukhan; Kok Siew Ng

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1993" Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1993" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_stoc_st_a_epm0f_str_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_stoc_st_a_epm0f_str_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"11/25/2013 11:32:19 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks" "Sourcekey","MGFSXUS1","MGFSXP11","MGFSXCT1","MGFS3_SDE_1","MGFSXFL1","MGFSXGA1","MGFS3_SME_1","MGFS3_SMD_1","MGFSXMA1","MGFS3_SNH_1","MGFSXNJ1","MGFSXNY1","MGFSXNC1","MGFSXPA1","MGFSXRI1","MGFSXSC1","MGFS3_SVT_1","MGFSXVA1","MGFSXWV1","MGFSXP21","MGFSXIL1","MGFSXIN1","MGFSXIA1","MGFS3_SKS_1","MGFSXKY1","MGFSXMI1","MGFSXMN1","MGFSXMO1","MGFS3_SNE_1","MGFS3_SND_1","MGFSXOH1","MGFSXOK1","MGFS3_SSD_1","MGFSXTN1","MGFSXWI1","MGFSXP31","MGFSXAL1","MGFSXAR1","MGFSXLA1","MGFSXMS1","MGFSXNM1","MGFSXTX1","MGFSXP41","MGFSXCO1","MGFSXID1","MGFSXMT1","MGFSXUT1","MGFSXWY1","MGFSXP51","MGFSXAK1","MGFSXAZ1","MGFSXCA1","MGFSXHI1","MGFSXNV1","MGFSXOR1","MGFSXWA1"

243

,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012,"6/30/1993" Annual",2012,"6/30/1993" ,"Release Date:","9/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","9/26/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_stoc_st_a_epm0f_str_mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_stoc_st_a_epm0f_str_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"11/25/2013 11:32:18 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks" "Sourcekey","MGFSXUS1","MGFSXP11","MGFSXCT1","MGFS3_SDE_1","MGFSXFL1","MGFSXGA1","MGFS3_SME_1","MGFS3_SMD_1","MGFSXMA1","MGFS3_SNH_1","MGFSXNJ1","MGFSXNY1","MGFSXNC1","MGFSXPA1","MGFSXRI1","MGFSXSC1","MGFS3_SVT_1","MGFSXVA1","MGFSXWV1","MGFSXP21","MGFSXIL1","MGFSXIN1","MGFSXIA1","MGFS3_SKS_1","MGFSXKY1","MGFSXMI1","MGFSXMN1","MGFSXMO1","MGFS3_SNE_1","MGFS3_SND_1","MGFSXOH1","MGFSXOK1","MGFS3_SSD_1","MGFSXTN1","MGFSXWI1","MGFSXP31","MGFSXAL1","MGFSXAR1","MGFSXLA1","MGFSXMS1","MGFSXNM1","MGFSXTX1","MGFSXP41","MGFSXCO1","MGFSXID1","MGFSXMT1","MGFSXUT1","MGFSXWY1","MGFSXP51","MGFSXAK1","MGFSXAZ1","MGFSXCA1","MGFSXHI1","MGFSXNV1","MGFSXOR1","MGFSXWA1"

244

Summary of the proceedings of the workshop on the refinery of the future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report on the Workshop on the Refinery of the Future has been prepared for participants to provide them with a succinct summary of the presentations, deliberations, and discussions. In preparing the summary, we have striven to capture the key findings (conclusions) and highlight the issues and concerns raised during the plenary and breakout sessions. The presentation of the summary of the proceedings follows the final workshop agenda, which is given in Section I; each section is tabbed to facilitate access to specific workshop topics. The material presented relies heavily on the outline summaries prepared and presented by the Plenary Session Chairman and the Facilitators for each breakout group. These summaries are included essentially as presented. In addition, individuals were assigned to take notes during each session; these notes were used to reconstruct critical issues that were discussed in more detail. The key comments made by the participants, which tended to represent the range of views expressed relative to the issues, are presented immediately following the facilitator`s summary outline in order to convey the flavor of the discussions. The comments are not attributed to individuals, since in many instances they represent a composite of several similar views expressed during the discussion. The facilitators were asked to review the writeups describing the outcomes of their sessions for accuracy and content; their suggested changes were incorporated. Every effort has thus been made to reconstruct the views expressed as accurately as possible; however, errors and/or misinterpretations undoubtedly have occurred.

Not Available

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

IFDM modelling for optimal siting of air quality monitoring stations around five oil refineries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An IFDM modelling study has been conducted to determine the optimal siting of air quality monitoring stations around five oil refineries. The purpose of this immission monitoring network is specified in environmental legislation. The most appropriate output parameter of the IFDM model for this study is the 98th percentile of the moving 24 h averages, P98,m24h. Modelling for the optimal siting of air quality monitoring stations turned out to be different from modelling for permit granting. Of interest is not the peak value of a relevant immission parameter, but the places where this parameter is most likely to have a higher peak value compared with neighbouring places. For this study, modelling has been done for eleven years of hourly meteorological data. The eleven yearly immission fields obtained by modelling are synthesized using the minimum, median and maximum values of the P98,m24h values obtained for each receptor point. This synthesis of the modelling results was complemented with an analysis of the available immission data for the region, so that the resulting air quality monitoring network is expected to monitor the impact of all emissions, not only those emissions that are in the emission inventory used for modelling.

G. Cosemans; G. Dumont; E. Roekens; J.G. Kretzschmar

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Gasification of refinery sludge in an updraft reactor for syngas production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study probes into the investigation on gasification of dry refinery sludge. The details of the study includes; influence of operation time oxidation temperature and equivalence ratios on carbon gas conversion rate gasification efficiency heating value and fuel gas yield are presented. The results show that the oxidation temperature increased sharply up to 858°C as the operating time increased up to 36 min then bridging occurred at 39 min which cause drop in reaction temperature up to 819 °C. This bridging was found to affect also the syngas compositions meanwhile as the temperature decreased the CO H 2 CH 4 compositions are also found to be decreases. Higher temperature catalyzed the reduction reaction ( CO 2 + C ?=?450?2 CO ) and accelerated the carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies resulted in more solid fuel is converted to a high heating value gas fuel. The equivalence ratio of 0.195 was found to be the optimum value for carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies high heating value of gas and fuel gas yield to reach their maximum values of 96.1 % and 53.7 % 5.42 MJ Nm?3 of and 2.5 Nm3 kg?1 respectively.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Efficieny handling effluent gases through chemical scrubbing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is presented as an information source for efficiencies of chemical scrubbing. In it, we will discuss the specific problems of scrubbing silane, disilane, diborane, phosphine, hydrogen selenide and arsine. We will explain the scrubber dynamics, gases and flow rates used along with liquid mediums. The equipment and procedures used for testing, as well as the determination of the results, will be discussed. We intend to give examples of possible reactions and documentation of our efficiencies. Installation and maintenance will be touched, as well as our experiments into accidental catastrophic releases. From all of this we will derive conclusions as to the best possible means of wet chemical scrubbing.

Herman, T.; Soden, S.

1988-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Heat conduction in relativistic neutral gases revisited  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The kinetic theory of dilute gases to first order in the gradients yields linear relations between forces and fluxes. The heat flux for the relativistic gas has been shown to be related not only to the temperature gradient but also to the density gradient in the representation where number density, temperature and hydrodynamic velocity are the independent state variables. In this work we show the calculation of the corresponding transport coefficients from the full Boltzmann equation and compare the magnitude of the relativistic correction.

A. L. Garcia-Perciante; A. R. Mendez

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

251

Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

Not Available

1993-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Determination of naphthenic acids in California crudes and refinery waste waters by fluoride ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method based on negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry using fluoride (F/sup -/) ions produced from NF/sub 3/ reagent gas has been applied to the analysis of naphthenic acids in California crude oils and refinery waste waters. Since complex mixtures of naphthenic acids cannot be separated into individual components, only the determination of relative distribution of acids classified by the hydrogen deficiency was possible. The identities and relative distribution of paraffinic and mono-, di-, tri, and higher polycyclic acids were obtained from the intensities of the carboxylate (RCOO/sup -/) ions.

Dzidic, I.; Somerville, A.C.; Raia, J.C.; Hart, H.V.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Feasibility study for the retrofitting of used oil re-refineries to the BETC solvent treatment/distillation process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Federal policy encourages recycle of used oil, but requires that recycling be done in an environmentally sound manner. In order to encourage such recycling the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has developed the DOE/BETA solvent treatment/distillation re-refining process. The feasibility of retrofitting existing used oil re-refineries to the DOE/BETC process has been studied in this work. Twelve potential sites were chosen from almost 300 firms thought to be interested in re-refining technology. Three of these twelve sites have been recommended as prime candidates.

Weinstein, N.J.; Brinkman, D.W.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Fourth Street Abandoned Refinery Site, Oklahoma City, OK, September 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Fourth Street Refinery Site (FSR site), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, for the Ground Water Operable Unit. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the contamination in the ground water, which includes non-aqueous phase liquids. Principal threat wastes include 'pools' of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) submerged beneath the ground water or in fractured bedrock, or NAPLs floating on water. This Ground Water Operable Unit addresses the principal threat at the site by monitoring the ground water to ensure that the contaminant levels are reduced with time due to natural attenuation, once the surface contamination is removed.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 6): Double Eagle Refinery Site, operable unit 2, Oklahoma City, OK, April 19, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Double Eagle Refinery Site (DER site), in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, for the Ground Water Operable Unit. Principal threat wastes include `pools` of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) submerged beneath the ground water or in fractured bedrock. The Ground Water Operable Unit (GOU) addresses the principal threat at the site by monitoring the ground water to ensure that the contaminant levels are reduced with time due to natural attenuation, once the surface contamination is addressed, so that the surface contamination will no longer provide a source of contamination to the ground water.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP) (From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605) GREENHOUSE GAS NAME GREENHOUSE GAS CODE FORMULA GWP TAR1 AR42 (1) Carbon Dioxide CO2 CO2 1 1 (2) Methane CH4 CH4 23 25 (3) Nitrous Oxide N2O N2O 296 298 (4) Hydroflourocarbons HFC-23 (trifluoromethane) 15 CHF3 12000 14800 HFC-32 (difluoromethane) 16 CH2F2 550 675 HFC-41 (monofluoromethane) 43 CH3F 97 -3 HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane) 17 CHF2CF3 3400 3500 HFC-134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane) 44 CHF2CHF2 1100 -3 HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) 18 CH2FCF3 1300 1430 HFC-143 (1,1,2-trifluorethane) 45 CHF2CH2F 330 -3 HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane) 46 CF3CH3 4300 4470 HFC-152 (1,2-difluorethane) 47 CH2FCH2F

257

Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

259

Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.

Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Antoni, T. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France and Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

260

Total Energy - Data - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Flow, (Million Barrels per Day) Petroleum Flow, (Million Barrels per Day) Petroleum Energy Flow diagram image Footnotes: 1 Unfinished oils, hydrogen/oxygenates/renewables/other hydrocarbons, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. 2 Renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (0.972), net imports (1.164) and adjustments (0.122) minus stock change (0.019) and product supplied (0.001). 3 Finished petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gases, and pentanes plus. 4 Natural gas plant liquids. 5 Field production (2.183) and renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (-.019) minus refinery and blender net imputs (0.489). 6 Production minus refinery input. (s)= Less than 0.005. Notes: * Data are preliminary. * Values are derived from source data prior to rounding for publication.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Emission...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AP-42 Volume 2 mobile sources Global Warming Potentials The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) revised GWPs for certain greenhouse gases in 2007 for the Fourth...

262

Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

263

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Bulletin 627 Bulletin 627 BUREAU o b MINES FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS By Michael G. Zabetakis DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

264

Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium sta...

Schaff, Jean-François; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Vignolo, Patrizia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium states.

Jean-François Schaff; Pablo Capuzzi; Guillaume Labeyrie; Patrizia Vignolo

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

266

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Bogoliubov spectrum of interacting Bose gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the large-N limit of a system of N bosons interacting with a potential of intensity 1/N. When the ground state energy is to the first order given by Hartree's theory, we study the next order, predicted by Bogoliubov's theory. We show the convergence of the lower eigenvalues and eigenfunctions towards that of the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian (up to a convenient unitary transform). We also prove the convergence of the free energy when the system is sufficiently trapped. Our results are valid in an abstract setting, our main assumptions being that the Hartree ground state is unique and non-degenerate, and that there is complete Bose-Einstein condensation on this state. Using our method we then treat two applications: atoms with ''bosonic'' electrons on one hand, and trapped 2D and 3D Coulomb gases on the other hand.

Mathieu Lewin; Phan Thành Nam; Sylvia Serfaty; Jan Philip Solovej

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

268

Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

269

OBTAINING LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR IDEAL GASES USING ELASTIC COLLISIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OBTAINING LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR IDEAL GASES USING ELASTIC COLLISIONS STEPHEN MONTGOMERY law of expansion of ideal gases. 1. The Second Law of Thermodynamics A thermally isolated container-SMITH AND HANNAH MORGAN Abstract. The purpose of this note is to see to what extent ideal gas laws can be obtained

Montgomery-Smith, Stephen

270

Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

271

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. High-GWP gases 5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA Vintaging Model. Emissions from manufacturing and utilities are derived by the EPA from a mix of public and proprietary data, including from the EPA's voluntary emission reduction partnership programs. For this year's EIA inventory, 2008 values for HFC-23 from HCFC-22

272

The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet) Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas, Transportation Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: greet.es.anl.gov/main Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool, The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model, GREET References: GREET Fleet Main Page[1] Logo: The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Model (GREET Fleet)

273

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Greenhouse Gases Program of Greenhouse Gases Program Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program ***THE VOLUNTARY REPORTING OF GREENHOUSE GASES ("1605(b)") PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUSPENDED.*** This affects all survey respondents. Please visit the What's New page for full details. What Is the Voluntary Reporting Program? logo Established by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program encourages corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. The Program provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. More information on the program...

274

A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of feedstock; and a blender unit which blends feedstock and gasoline stock (at no loss). (Note that "ONA blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production in feedstock (maximum 200,000 bbl/day) and produces gasoline stock with 98 ON at a rate of .5 bbl per bbl

Galvin, David

275

Measuring non-condensable gases in steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

1 - Solubility of Atmospheric Gases in Freshwater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter presents tabular information on the standard air saturation concentration (moist air at 1 atm) for oxygen, nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide gas in terms of ?mol/kg, mg/L, and mL/L; and in terms of Bunsen coefficients L real gas/(L atm); mg real gas/(L mmHg); and mg real gas/(L kPa) for 0–40°C and freshwater conditions. Because the mole fraction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is changing, solubility information is provided for 2010 (390 ?atm) and for 2030 (440 ?atm) based on projected atmospheric values. Tabular information is also provided to allow computation of standard air saturation concentrations of carbon dioxide gas directly as a function of atmospheric mole fraction. Conversion factors are presented to convert these concentrations to other commonly used units. Equations and tabular information are provided to compute air saturation concentration for moist air at local barometric pressure for the four atmospheric gases. Because of the importance of dissolved oxygen in biological processes, the air solubility concentration is also presented as a function of elevation for both metric and English elevations. Equations and tabular information are provided to allow conversion of concentrations in mg/L to partial pressures in mmHg. Sample problems are included for representative examples. Keywords gas solubility, freshwater, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, standard air solubility, air solubility, Bunsen coefficients, partial pressures

John Colt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former St. Marks Refinery in St. Marks, Florida  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

853 853 September 2010 Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former St. Marks Refinery in St. Marks, Florida A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Lands Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites Lars Lisell and Gail Mosey National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-48853 September 2010 Feasibility Study of Economics

278

Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Efficiency Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program as defined in Executive Order (EO) 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, and (EO) 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability, and approved by LM. The team incorporates requirements for energy efficiency and reductions in greenhouse gases, and it advocates conserving environmental resources and improving operational capabilities and mission sustainability. Scope The team evaluates how to maintain and operate its buildings and facilities in a resource-efficient, sustainable, and economically viable manner. The

279

Unified Theory of Lattice Boltzmann Models for Nonideal Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nonideal gas lattice Boltzmann model is directly derived, in an {ital a priori} fashion, from the Enskog equation for dense gases. The model is rigorously obtained by a systematic procedure to discretize the Enskog equation (in the presence of an external force) in both phase space and time. The lattice Boltzmann model derived here is thermodynamically consistent and is free of the defects which exist in previous lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases. The existing lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases are analyzed and compared with the model derived here. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Luo, L. [ICASE, MS 403, NASA Langley Research Center, 6 North Dryden Street, Building 1298, Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001 (United States)] [ICASE, MS 403, NASA Langley Research Center, 6 North Dryden Street, Building 1298, Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001 (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon.

Susana L.D. Paiva; Marcelo A. Savi; Flavio M. Viola; Albino J.K. Leiroz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

residential rooms residential rooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-59303 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 41 Start Page Chapter Pagination 3251-3265 Keywords adsorption, hazardous air pollutants, nerve agents, sink effect, volatile organic compounds Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied ''as-is'' with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms

282

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Jump to: navigation, search Name Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Agency/Company /Organization United States Department of Agriculture Sector Land Focus Area Agriculture Topics GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website http://globalresearchalliance. References Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases [1] Background "The Alliance is a bottom-up network, founded on the voluntary, collaborative efforts of countries. It will coordinate research on agricultural greenhouse gas emission reductions by linking up existing and new research efforts across a range of sub-sectors and work areas. It will

284

Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases Opportunity Research is currently active on the patented technology "Semi-Continuous Detection of Mercury in Gases." The technology, which is a spinoff of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) GP-254 Process (U.S. patent 6,576,092), is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's NETL. Overview This invention discloses a method for the quantitative detection of heavy metals, especially mercury, in effluent gas streams. The method employs photo-deposition and an array of surface acoustic wave sensors where each sensor monitors a specific metal. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a national regulation for mercury removal from coal-derived flue and fuel gases in December 2011,

285

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

BIOSIGNATURE GASES IN H?-DOMINATED ATMOSPHERES ON ROCKY EXOPLANETS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Super-Earth exoplanets are being discovered with increasing frequency and some will be able to retain stable H2-dominated atmospheres. We study biosignature gases on exoplanets with thin H2 atmospheres and habitable surface ...

Seager, Sara

287

Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spontaneous detonation of a mixture of two odd electron gases ... Instructions for safe detonation of ClO2 and NO (the fastest known reaction between two stable molecules at room temperature). ...

Thomas S. Briggs

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Suitability of Non-Energy Greenhouse Gases for Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper assesses the suitability of different sources of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading. Different forms of emissions trading are defined and criteria for determining whether a source is sui...

Erik Haites; Angelo Proestos

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,980 842 4,204 1,948 672 -339 187 3,995 240 4,886 ,980 842 4,204 1,948 672 -339 187 3,995 240 4,886 Crude Oil 1,472 - - - - 1,839 556 -359 17 3,416 76 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 508 -17 115 63 -14 - - 75 105 71 404 Pentanes Plus 63 -17 - - 0 98 - - -18 37 53 72 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 444 - - 115 63 -112 - - 93 68 18 332 Ethane/Ethylene 163 - - - 0 -100 - - 11 - - 52 Propane/Propylene 186 - - 104 49 -22 - - 66 - 7 244 Normal Butane/Butylene 52 - - 16 5 5 - - 22 17 11 29 Isobutane/Isobutylene 43 - - -4 8 5 - - -6 50 - 7 Other Liquids - - 858 - - 12 -143 127 346 474 40 -6 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 858 - - 5 -547 -8 11 271 26 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 23 - - 23 0 - -

291

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 0 September 2013 Table 49. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1 ............................................................ 94 2,282 598 1 - 2,975 99 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 453 2,129 10,579 380 396 13,937 465 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 300 1,599 652 346 92 2,989 100 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 153 530 9,927 34 304 10,947 365 Ethane/Ethylene ........................................... - - - - - - - Propane/Propylene ....................................... 126 199 9,412 4 299 10,040 335 Normal Butane/Butylene ...............................

292

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

562 822 4,163 1,839 735 -69 52 3,955 244 4,801 562 822 4,163 1,839 735 -69 52 3,955 244 4,801 Crude Oil 1,116 - - - - 1,730 800 -87 62 3,442 55 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 446 -16 121 74 -25 - - -12 105 111 395 Pentanes Plus 50 -16 - - 1 82 - - -4 31 101 -12 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 396 - - 121 73 -107 - - -8 74 11 407 Ethane/Ethylene 163 - - - 0 -108 - - -2 - - 58 Propane/Propylene 156 - - 108 59 -24 - - -3 - 2 300 Normal Butane/Butylene 48 - - 11 9 10 - - -4 29 9 45 Isobutane/Isobutylene 29 - - 2 6 14 - - 1 46 - 5 Other Liquids - - 838 - - 5 -258 -159 8 408 25 -16 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 838 - - 3 -565 4 1 257 21 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 22 - - 22 0 - -

293

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

294

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

124 22 3,585 1,761 3,291 117 -137 3,532 241 5,264 124 22 3,585 1,761 3,291 117 -137 3,532 241 5,264 Crude Oil 34 - - - - 897 1 113 -43 1,084 3 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 90 0 25 32 86 - - 16 27 15 174 Pentanes Plus 15 0 - - - - - - 0 - 10 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 75 - - 25 32 86 - - 16 27 5 169 Ethane/Ethylene 1 - - 0 - - - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 51 - - 36 27 83 - - 24 - 4 168 Normal Butane/Butylene 16 - - -11 3 3 - - -8 17 1 0 Isobutane/Isobutylene 8 - - 0 2 - - - -1 9 - 0 Other Liquids - - 22 - - 555 1,614 193 -31 2,421 5 -10 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 22 - - 25 273 -19 -35 332 5 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 4 - - 4 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

295

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1,164 20 3,171 1,425 308 193 28 2,990 349 2,914 1,164 20 3,171 1,425 308 193 28 2,990 349 2,914 Crude Oil 1,104 - - - - 1,209 - 140 10 2,443 - 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 61 0 66 4 - - - 36 59 13 22 Pentanes Plus 26 0 - - - - - - 5 18 3 -1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 34 - - 66 4 - - - 30 41 10 23 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 14 - - 49 4 - - - 12 - 10 45 Normal Butane/Butylene 5 - - 15 0 - - - 13 19 0 -11 Isobutane/Isobutylene 15 - - 1 - - - - 5 22 - -12 Other Liquids - - 20 - - 107 252 94 -71 488 13 43 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 20 - - 19 143 37 -2 219 3 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 47 - - 47 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

296

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1,173 16 2,988 1,321 324 106 21 2,811 344 2,751 1,173 16 2,988 1,321 324 106 21 2,811 344 2,751 Crude Oil 1,111 - - - - 1,160 2 62 4 2,331 0 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 61 0 50 5 - - - 1 66 15 35 Pentanes Plus 28 0 - - - - - - 0 21 3 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 33 - - 50 5 - - - 1 45 12 31 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 12 - - 46 4 - - - 1 - 10 51 Normal Butane/Butylene 6 - - 6 1 - - - 0 26 1 -14 Isobutane/Isobutylene 15 - - -2 0 - - - 0 20 - -7 Other Liquids - - 16 - - 74 245 103 11 414 13 1 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 16 - - 7 138 37 2 193 3 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 43 - - 43 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) - - - - 1 1 0

297

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5.PDF 5.PDF Table 25. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels, Except Where Noted) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1,2 ................................................................................. 26,390 54,466 143,796 8,286 31,410 264,348 8,527 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ...... 1,606 2,797 1,838 502 192 6,935 224 Pentanes Plus .......................................................................... - 11 1,688 - - 1,699 55 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ...................................................... 1,606 2,786 150 502 192 5,236 169 Ethane .................................................................................. - - - - - - - Ethylene ................................................................................

298

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 December 2011 Table 50. Year-to-Date Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD District, January-December 2011 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Crude Oil 1 ............................................................ 2,147 13,574 1,237 191 9 17,158 47 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases ................................................... 3,739 15,542 42,403 2,288 6,081 70,053 192 Pentanes Plus .................................................. 2,075 11,913 179 1,415 340 15,922 44 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............................. 1,664 3,628 42,224 873 5,741 54,131 148 Ethane/Ethylene ........................................... - - - - - - - Propane/Propylene ....................................... 401 514 40,084 58 4,187 45,243

299

TABLE29.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

9. Refinery Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, July 2004 Liquefied Refinery Gases ... 2,082 70...

300

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

Dennis, J A

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Pester Refinery, Butler County, El Dorado, KS. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 10-acre Pester Refinery site is a former petroleum refining facility located in El Dorado, Butler County, Kansas. Petroleum refining operations in the area began in 1917, and from 1958 to 1977, Fina Oil Company operated a petroleum refinery at this site. Process wastes, such as slop-oil emulsion solids, API separator sludge, and heat exchanger bundle cleaning sludge were sent through a pipe to a burn pond. Gaseous waste products were ignited at the end of the pipe, and whatever did not burn was discharged to the pond. The ROD provides a final remedy for the principal source of contamination at the site, the burn pit sludge. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and sludge are VOCs, including ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes; other organics, including PAHs and phenols; and metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead.

Not Available

1992-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

304

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

305

North Carolina used motor oil re-refining program: site selection, permits, and environmental impact study. [Re-refinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The State of North Carolina has a used motor oil re-refining program that collects crankcase drainings from various sources, re-refines it in a plant purchased from the Phillips Petroleum Company, and distributes the product to State and other governmental garages. This report describes the steps between the initial decision to establish a used oil re-refining demonstration program and receipt of a final permit to operate a facility. The report covers in some detail those issues faced in obtaining approval to establish the program, select a site, gain permits for construction and operation, prepare an acceptable environmental impact statement, and start re-refining used motor oil. Many of the considerations made during this experience are germaine to other states and to private enterprise, although the details may vary. This is the first in what is expected to be a related series of reports; subsequent numbers will cover the economics of plant acquisition and start-up, technical considerations, and long term operations of the re-refinery.

Griffith, W.C.; Holland, G.M.; Taylor, A.; Taylor, S.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Agency/Company /Organization: EPA and NHTSA Focus Area: Standards - Incentives - Policies - Regulations Topics: Policy Impacts Resource Type: Reports, Journal Articles, & Tools Website: www.epa.gov/oms/climate/regulations/420f10014.pdf This document establish a national program consisting of new standards for model year 2012 through 2016 light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. EPA is finalizing the first-ever national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards under the

308

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity Factors  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting Program > Coefficients Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Emission Coefficients Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion Table 4: Specific Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Biogenic Fuel Sources Table 5: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Factors for Highway Vehicles Table 6: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Alternative Fuel Vehicles Table 7: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Non-Highway Mobile Combustion

309

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model Agency/Company /Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools Website: greet.es.anl.gov/ This full life-cycle model evaluates the energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels. The model allows users to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations. How to Use This Tool This tool is most helpful when using these strategies: Shift - Change to low-carbon modes Improve - Enhance infrastructure & policies Learn more about the avoid, shift, improve framework for limiting air

310

Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

311

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 513 491 515 539 557 534 541 579 574 585 558 573 1998 578 536 591 581 517 456 486 486 471 477 457 468 1999 466 438 489 495 499 510 547 557 544 555 541 579 2000 587 539 605 587 615 570 653 629 591 627 609 611 2001 658 591 677 690 718 694 692 679 686 697 688 700 2002 639 591 587 621 622 605 654 639 649 650 623 638 2003 689 624 649 676 702 691 733 732 704 734 719 748 2004 741 697 727 692 692 688 718 729 706 723 711 718

313

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings Assess Potential Agency Size Changes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases Using Renewable Energy in Buildings October 7, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis To support planning for using renewable energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the Federal agency or program-level, it is important to consider what changes to the agencies building or land-holding portfolio may have on opportunities for renewable energy. Changes to consider include: Addition of new buildings or sites to the agencies portfolio Major renovations to existing buildings Office moves into or out of agency-owned or leased space. As is the case with planning energy efficiency measures, planning for renewable energy in new construction can be more cost-effective than

314

Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Mitigation Options for Mitigation Options for Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases VASILIS M. FTHENAKIS Department of Applied Science Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, N Y 11973 ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies indude: secondary confinement, de- inventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented. 1. ACCIDENT PREVENTION & MITIGATION OPTIONS Accident prevention and mitigation in the process industries is based on the military concept of defense in

316

Dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in Bose gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action that describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using the functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low-frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

Barankov, R.A. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Burmistrov, S.N. [RRC 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3. Continued. SO 2 NO Ethene Propane n- Butane n- Heptanebetween CH 4 , ethane and propane suggest low levels ofa n/a n/a Alkanes Ethane Propane i-Butane n-Butane i-Pentane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

320

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function of the z coordinate #27; Ã? is a constant. 3. Show that if the potential function, U(r), varies as 1=r 4

Groth, Clinton P. T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book the particle number density and temperature are both slowly varying functions of the z coordinate of the previous problem is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function

Groth, Clinton P. T.

322

OPTIONS FOR ABATING GREENHOUSE GASES FROM EXHAUST STREAMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines different alternatives for replacing, treating, and recycling greenhouse gases. It is concluded that treatment (abatement) is the only viable short-term option. Three options for abatement that were tested for use in semiconductor facilities are reviewed, and their performance and costs compared. This study shows that effective abatement options are available to the photovoltaic (PV) industry, at reasonable cost.

FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT RISING GREENHOUSE GASES AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methane, and nitrous oxides. The sun's energy passes through these gases, like light passing through risen by almost 40 percent. This is attributed primarily to the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline). Methane and nitrous oxides are also increasing rapidly, due in part to the expansion

324

Automatic Process Chromatographs for the Analysis of Corrosive Fluoride Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......hexaflu- oride matrix gas by a trapping procedure...the disadvantage of high cost and require skilled and...lacked reliability in gases of high halocarbon coolant...the uranium hexafluoride gas; impurities have a direct effect on production efficiency. Coolant-114......

J. G. Million; W. S. Pappas; C. W. Weber

1969-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Optical Third-Harmonic Coefficients for Inert Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optical third-harmonic coefficients ?zzzz(3?) for the inert gases have been calculated taking the LS coupling scheme for helium and Jj and jl coupling schemes for neon, argon, and krypton. Our calculated values agree reasonably well with the experimental values of set (i) of Ward and New.

B. P. Tripathi; R. K. Laloraya; S. L. Srivastava

1971-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

SAFT Modeling of the Solubility of Gases in Perfluoroalkanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SAFT Modeling of the Solubility of Gases in Perfluoroalkanes ... A molecular model within a SAFT context for quantitatively predicting the solubility of xenon and oxygen in n-perfluoroalkanes is presented and discussed here. ... Free-Volume Theory Coupled with Soft-SAFT for Viscosity Calculations: Comparison with Molecular Simulation and Experimental Data ...

Ana M. A. Dias; Josep C. Pàmies; João A. P. Coutinho; Isabel M. Marrucho; Lourdes F. Vega

2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

Strongly interacting Fermi gases : non-equilibrium dynamics and dimensional crossover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments using ultracold atomic gases address fundamental problems in many-body physics. This thesis describes experiments on strongly-interacting gases of fermionic atoms, with a focus on non-equilibrium physics and ...

Sommer, Ariel T. (Ariel Tjodolv)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Heat Transfer at Low Temperatures between Tube Walls and Gases in Turbulent Flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...September 1947 research-article Heat Transfer at Low Temperatures between Tube...counter-flow system to study heat transfer between tube walls and gases at...Determinations on friction accompanying heat transfer with gases in turbulent flow at...

1947-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions from Gas Field Water in Southern Gas Field, Sichuan Basin, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to assess correctly the gases emissions from oil/gas field water and its contributions to the source of greenhouse gases (GHG) at the atmospheric temperature and pressure, ... first developed to study th...

Guojun Chen; Wei Yang; Xuan Fang; Jiaai Zhong…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Simultaneous Gas Chromatographic Determination of Four Toxic Gases Generally Present in Combustion Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......determining these gases in mixtures...dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and...determining these gases in mixtures...dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and...to the solubility of A HCN in water, which was...thevariationin gas con- centrations......

Boyd R. Endecott; Donald C. Sanders; Arvind K. Chaturvedi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric gases final Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on Climate and Planets http:icp.giss.nasa.gov The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in Summary: gases, and scenario 3 - an atmosphere and greenhouse gases. Use...

333

Conceptual design assessment for the co-firing of bio-refinery supplied lignin project. Quarterly report, June 23--July 1, 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Conceptual Design Assessment for the Co-Firing of Bio-Refinery Supplied Lignin Project was successfully kicked off on July 23, 2000 during a meeting at the TVA-PPI facility in Muscle Shoals, AL. An initial timeline for the study was distributed, issues of concern were identified and a priority actions list was developed. Next steps include meeting with NETL to discuss de-watering and lignin fuel testing, the development of the mass balance model and ethanol facility design criteria, providing TVA-Colbert with preliminary lignin fuel analysis and the procurement of representative feed materials for the pilot and bench scale testing of the hydrolysis process.

Berglund, T.; Ranney, J.T.; Babb, C.L.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

334

System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

Vogel, John S. (San Jose, CA); Ognibene, Ted J. (Oakland, CA); Bench, Graham S. (Livermore, CA); Peaslee, Graham F. (Holland, MI)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric greenhouse gases Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to longwave radiation 12;Greenhouse Gases Polyatomic molecules... the greenhouse effect ... Source: Frierson, Dargan - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of...

336

What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

back into space. However, greenhouse gases will not let all the infrared light pass throughWhat are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as greenhouse gases the land and oceans. The warmed Earth releases this heat in the form of infrared light (longwave radiation

337

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Agricultural Mitigation of Greenhouse Gases: Science and Policy Options Keith Paustian (keithp@nrel.colostate.edu; 970-491-1547) Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University Ft. Collins, CO 80523 Bruce Babcock (babcock@iastate.edu; 515-294-6785) Cathy Kling (ckling@iastate.edu; 515-294-5767) Center for Agriculture and Rural Development Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011-1070 Jerry Hatfield (hatfield@nstl.gov; 515-294-5723) USDA - National Soil Tilth Laboratory Ames, IA 50011 Rattan Lal (lal.1@osu.edu; 614-292-9069) School of Natural Resources The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210-1085 Bruce McCarl (mccarl@tamu.edu; 979-845-1706) Department of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843-2124 Sandy McLaughlin (un4@ornl.gov; 865-574-7358)

338

CO2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,842,126 entitled "Co 2 Separation from Low-Temperature Flue Gases." Disclosed in this patent are novel methods for processing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from combustion gas streams. Researchers at NETL are focused on the development of novel sorbent systems that can effectively remove CO 2 and other gases in an economically feasible manner with limited impact on energy production cost. The current invention will help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions by using an improved, regenerable aqueous amine and soluble potassium carbonate sorbent system. This novel solvent system may be capable of achieving CO 2 capture from larger emission streams at lower overall cost. Overview Sequestration of CO

339

EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Environment Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) This report-the eighteenth annual report-presents the U.S. Energy Information Administration's latest estimates of emissions for carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and other greenhouse gases. Download the GHG Report Introduction For this report, activity data on coal and natural gas consumption and electricity sales and losses by sector were obtained from the January 2011 Monthly Energy Review (MER). In keeping with current international practice, this report presents data on greenhouse gas emissions in million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data can be converted to carbon equivalent units by

340

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Getting Started  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Getting Started Getting Started Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Getting Started Form EIA-1605 may seem daunting at first, even for entities that have reported under the original program. That's why EIA has developed the Getting Started page to help entities take a systematic approach to reporting their emissions and reductions. The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program suggests that prospective reporters familiarize themselves with the specific requirements for reporting their entity's inventory and reductions by answering the questions embodied in the 10 steps below. In addition, EIA has prepared the interactive Getting Started tool to help reporters determine what parts of Form EIA-1605 they need to complete. Getting Started Tool Getting Started PDF Tables

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Transporting & Shipping Hazardous Materials at LBNL: Compressed Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Compressed Gases Compressed Gases Self-Transport by Hand & Foot Self-Transport by Vehicle Ship by Common Carrier Conduct Field Work Return Cylinders Self-Transport by Hand & Foot Staff may personally move (self-transport) compressed gas cylinders by hand & foot between buildings and in connecting spaces (i.e., hallways, elevators, etc.) within buildings provided it can be done safely. The following safety precautions apply: Use standard cylinder dollies to transport compressed gas cylinders. While dollies are preferred, cylinders weighing 11 Kg (25 lbs) or less may be hand-carried. Never move a cylinder with a regulator connected to it. Cylinder valve-protection caps and valve-opening caps must be in place when moving cylinders. Lecture bottles and other cylinders that are

342

Recovery of CO2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan G. Chapel (dan.chapel@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) Carl L. Mariz (carl.mariz@fluor.com; 949-349-7530) FluorDaniel One Fluor Drive Aliso Viejo CA, 92698 John Ernest (john.ernest@minimed.com; 818-576-4293) Advanced Quality Services Inc 11024 Balboa Blvd. PMB154, Granada Hills, CA 91344-5007 1 Recovery of CO 2 from Flue Gases: Commercial Trends Originally presented at the Canadian Society of Chemical Engineers annual meeting October 4-6, 1999, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada Authors: Dan Chapel - Fluor Daniel Inc., Senior Vice President Technology; Oil, Gas & Power John Ernest - Advanced Quality Services Inc., Validation Engineer

343

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon dioxide. PPPL reduced leaks of SF6 by 65 percent over three years - reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions by 48 percent between 2008 and 2011. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon

344

Reading Comprehension - Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Properties of Solids, Liquids, and Gases A solid has a definite _________ mass texture volume and a _________ 3D irregular definite shape. The particles in a solid are _________ free to move around motionless packed tightly together . Particles in a solid move by _________ sliding past one another vibrating back and forth slightly jiggling around . _________ Viscosity Amorphous Crystalline solids soften before melting. The particles in this type of solid are not arranged in regular pattern. Amorphous solids _________ do don't have a distinct melting point. Crystalline solids have a _________ distinct color and shape distinct pattern and melting point . Liquids have no _________ volume mass shape of their own. A liquid takes the shape of its container. Without a container liquids spread into a wide,

345

PPPL Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse Gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL's Tim Stevenson takes inventory of the SF6 levels at a power supply tank for NSTX. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has received a federal Sustainability Award for reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions 48 percent since 2008 - far exceeding the U.S. government's goal of a 28 percent reduction. Members of the PPPL staff were among the 20 recipients of the Sustainability Awards in a ceremony in Washington, D.C., on Thursday, Sept.

346

The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain conditions, powerful ultrashort laser pulses can form greatly extended, propagating filaments of concentrated high intensity in gases, leaving behind a very long trail of plasma. Such filaments can be much longer than the longitudinal scale over which a laser beam typically diverges by diffraction, with possible applications ranging from laser-guided electrical discharges to high power laser propagation in the atmosphere. Understanding in detail the microscopic processes leading to filamentation requires ultrafast measurements of the strong field nonlinear response of gas phase atoms and molecules, including absolute measurements of nonlinear laser-induced polarization and high field ionization. Such measurements enable the assessment of filamentation models and make possible the design of experiments pursuing applications. In this paper, we review filamentation in gases and some applications, and discuss results from diagnostics developed at Maryland for ultrafast measurements of laser-gas interactions.

Milchberg, H. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Jhajj, N.; Palastro, J. P.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Varma, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

Kang, M.

1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

349

Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Reduction of greenhouse gases using renewable energies in Mexico 2025  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fueloil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy, in particular renewable hydrogen, is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG), acid rain precursor gases (ARPG), and environment–energy intensity factors.

F Manzini; J Islas; M Mart??nez

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions associated to colombian biofuels lifecycle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth (2012) Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment… (more)

Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases Comparative Analysis of Alternative Means for Removing Noncondensable Gases from Flashed-Steam Geothermal Power Plants:April 1999 - March 2000 Dataset Summary Description This dataset corresponds to the final report on a screening study to compare six methods of removing noncondensable gases from direct-use geo-thermal steam power plants. This report defines the study methodologies and compares the performance and economics of selected gas-removal systems. Recommendations are presented for follow-up investigations and implementation of some of the technologies discussed. The specific gas-removal methods include five vacuum system configurations using the conventional approach of evacuating gas/vapor mixtures from the power plant condenser system and a system for physical separation of steam and gases upstream of the power turbine. The study focused on flashed-steam applications, but the results apply equally well to flashed-steam and dry-steam geothermal power plant configurations. Two gas-removal options appear to offer profitable economic potential. The hybrid vacuum system configurations and the reboiler process yield positive net present value results over wide-ranging gas concentrations. The hybrid options look favorable for both low-temperature and high-temperature resource applications. The reboiler looks profitable for low-temperature resource applications for gas levels above about 20,000 parts per million by volume. A vacuum system configuration using a three-stage turbocompressor battery may be profitable for low-temperature resources, but results show that the hybrid system is more profitable. The biphase eductor alternative cannot be recommended for commercialization at this time. The report is available from NREL's publication database.

353

Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Analysis of greenhouse gases trading system using conversations among stakeholders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreement makes up the targeted reduction of a legally binding GHG for each country or region. It enables us to buy and sell some GHG with other countries; it is the GHG trading system. But now, some free riders, ... Keywords: GHG emissions, GHG trading systems, MAS, agent-based modelling, agent-based systems, consumer behaviour, emissions reduction, free riders, genetic algorithms, global warming, greenhouse gases, multi-agent simulation, multi-agent systems

Setsuya Kurahashi; Masato Ohori

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Production of quantum degenerate strontium gases: Larger, better, faster, colder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on an improved scheme to generate Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and degenerate Fermi gases of strontium. This scheme allows us to create quantum gases with higher atom number, a shorter time of the experimental cycle, or deeper quantum degeneracy than before. We create a BEC of 84-Sr exceeding 10^7 atoms, which is a 30-fold improvement over previously reported experiments. We increase the atom number of 86-Sr BECs to 2.5x10^4 (a fivefold improvement), and refine the generation of attractively interacting 88-Sr BECs. We present a scheme to generate 84-Sr BECs with a cycle time of 2s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the shortest cycle time of BEC experiments ever reported. We create deeply-degenerate 87-Sr Fermi gases with T/T_F as low as 0.10(1), where the number of populated nuclear spin states can be set to any value between one and ten. Furthermore, we report on a total of five different double-degenerate Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi mixtures. These studies prepare an excellent starting poi...

Stellmer, Simon; Schreck, Florian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - What's New  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Environment > Voluntary Reporting Program > What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program What's New Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Suspended May 2011 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases ("1605(b)") Program has been suspended. The suspension is due to recent reductions in budget appropriations and is effective immediately. Survey respondents may still submit data to the 1605(b) Program using the program's Workbook Form via EIA's Secure File Transfer mechanism. However, EIA will not be able to process and review submitted data or offer respondent support on the submitted data. Should a respondant submit data under the current collection cycle to EIA, the data will be retained in our electronic records. If the 1605(b) Program resumes normal operations, your submitted data will be reviewed and processed at that time. You will be notified in the future if the 1605(b) Program resumes normal operation. If you have any questions, please contact the survey manager, Paul McArdle, at paul.mcardle@eia.gov

359

Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Refinery Capacity Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 (Barrels per Stream Day, Except Where Noted) ......................................................... Alabama 120,100 0 130,000 0 48,000 32,000 0 0 0 Goodway Refining LLC 4,100 0 5,000 0 0 0 0 0 ............................................................................................................................... 0 Atmore Hunt Refining Co 36,000 0 40,000 0 18,000 32,000 0 0 ............................................................................................................................... 0 Tuscaloosa Shell Chemical LP 80,000 0 85,000 0 30,000 0 0 0 ............................................................................................................................... 0 Saraland .........................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Refinery Energy Profiling Procedure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coolers Steam System Petroleum Coke Electrical System '" Cf) .Po Feed Streams Radiation and Convection Exothermic Reaction Products and Wastes Endothermic Reactions Oil Charge Losa 2 Oil and Gas Losses Subtotal Imbalance TOTAL TOTAL 560...

Maier, R. W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Refinery Outages: Fall 2014  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

well- supplied with middle distillate fuel oil, not only from Europe but also from Russia, India and the Middle East. As a result, planned maintenance this fall at Eastern...

363

Hydrogen Generation for Refineries  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

bottoms (VTB), vacuum resid) * Dilbit (tar sand bitumen diluted with 30% condensate) * Biomass fast pyrolysis oil (whole raw oil) * Norpar 12 (C 11 C 12 paraffinic solvent -...

364

Refinery Planning under Uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The planning/scheduling of the supply chain under uncertainty is important in light of the ever-changing market conditions. ... Examples of the open-shop mode, such as the news vendor model26 in which the sales of holiday lights disappear after Christmas, for instance, can be found in the real world. ...

Wenkai Li; Chi-Wai Hui; Pu Li; An-Xue Li

2004-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

365

Multiperiod Refinery Planning Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;7 Example 1: 5 crudes, 4 weeks Produce fuel gas, regular gasoline, premium gasoline, distillate, fuel oil seconds (94% NLP, 6% MIP) #12;8 Example 2: 8 crudes, 6 weeks Produce fuel gas, regular gasoline, premium gasoline, distillate, fuel oil and treated residu Optimal solution ($1000's) Profit 3641.3 Sales 33790

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

366

Word Pro - Untitled1  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum and Other Liquids Petroleum and Other Liquids THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK Figure 5.0. Petroleum Flow, 2011 (Million Barrels per Day) U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 117 1 Unfinished oils, hydrogen/oxygenates/renewables/other hydrocarbons, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. 2 Renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (0.972), net imports (1.164) and adjustments (0.122) minus stock change (0.019) and product supplied (0.001). 3 Finished petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gases, and pentanes plus. 4 Natural gas plant liquids. 5 Field production (2.183) and renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (-.019) minus refinery and blender net inputs (0.489). 6 Petroleum products supplied. (s)=Less than 0.005.

367

TABLE18.CHP:Corel VENTURA  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8. 8. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Crude Oil .................................................................... 14,835 511 15,346 8,591 1,779 2,386 12,756 Petroleum Products .................................................. 53,526 2,604 56,130 37,545 10,689 14,376 62,610 Pentanes Plus .......................................................... 0 0 0 4 209 225 438 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ...................................... 1,482 13 1,495 2,085 308 672 3,065 Ethane/Ethylene ................................................... 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 Propane/Propylene ............................................... 564 5 569 1,196 16 332 1,544 Normal Butane/Butylene ....................................... 584 6 590 608 205 232 1,045 Isobutane/Isobutylene ...........................................

368

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. 0. Petroleum Flow, 2011 (Million Barrels per Day) U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 117 1 Unfinished oils, hydrogen/oxygenates/renewables/other hydrocarbons, and motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components. 2 Renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (0.972), net imports (1.164) and adjustments (0.122) minus stock change (0.019) and product supplied (0.001). 3 Finished petroleum products, liquefied petroleum gases, and pentanes plus. 4 Natural gas plant liquids. 5 Field production (2.183) and renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production (-.019) minus refinery and blender net inputs (0.489). 6 Petroleum products supplied. (s)=Less than 0.005. Notes: * Data are preliminary. * Values are derived from source data prior to rounding for

369

Petroleum Supply Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8.PDF 8.PDF Table 18. Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 2012 (Thousand Barrels, Except Where Noted) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Crude Oil ................................................................. 22,762 2,792 25,554 70,449 14,098 23,700 108,247 Natural Gas Plant Liquids ...................................... 544 - 544 2,607 144 644 3,395 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... - - - 689 5 267 961 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 544 - 544 1,918 139 377 2,434 Normal Butane ..................................................

370

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

38 38 September 2013 Table 30. Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels, Except Where Noted) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Crude Oil ................................................................. 29,611 2,906 32,517 67,983 12,033 22,460 102,476 Natural Gas Plant Liquids ...................................... 485 - 485 1,969 56 687 2,712 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... - - - 777 - 265 1,042 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 485 - 485 1,192 56 422 1,670 Normal Butane ..................................................

371

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 4 September 2013 Table 34. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, September 2013 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Crude Oil ..................................................................... 7,701 438 8,139 9,500 1,435 1,985 12,920 Petroleum Products ................................................... 14,683 1,697 16,380 31,875 7,020 10,626 49,521 Pentanes Plus .......................................................... - - - 120 - 295 415 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ...................................... 771 66 837 4,084 535 1,142 5,761 Ethane/Ethylene ...................................................

372

untitled  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, 2012 (Thousand Barrels, Except Where Noted) Commodity PAD District 1 - East Coast PAD District 2 - Midwest East Coast Appalachian No. 1 Total Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri Total Crude Oil ................................................................. 302,582 33,648 336,230 808,927 164,619 286,280 1,259,826 Natural Gas Plant Liquids ...................................... 5,440 - 5,440 25,630 984 9,032 35,646 Pentanes Plus ...................................................... - - - 7,891 53 3,288 11,232 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .................................. 5,440 - 5,440 17,739 931 5,744 24,414 Normal Butane ..................................................

373

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Title Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms and bathrooms Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-56787 Year of Publication 2005 Authors Singer, Brett C., Alfred T. Hodgson, Toshifumi Hotchi, Katherine Y. Ming, Richard G. Sextro, Emily E. Wood, and Nancy J. Brown Conference Name Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate - Indoor Air 2005 Volume 2(9) Publisher Tsinghua University Press Conference Location Beijing, China Abstract Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential bedrooms (n=4), bathrooms (n=2), and a furnished test chamber. Rooms were studied "as-is" with material surfaces and furnishings unaltered. Surface materials were characterized and areas quantified. Experiments included rapid volatilization of a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture with the room closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase, followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. The mixture included n-alkanes, aromatics, glycol ethers, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, dichlorobenzene, and organophosphorus compounds. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at one surface sink and one potential embedded sink. The 2-parameter sink model tracked measurements for most compounds, but improved fits were obtained for some VOCs with a 3-parameter sink-diffusion or a 4-parameter two-sink model. Sorptive partitioning and initial adsorption rates increased with decreasing vapour pressure within each chemical class.

374

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

375

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

376

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Reporting Guidelines  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Reporting Guidelines Reporting Guidelines Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Reporting Guidelines The purpose of the guidelines is to establish the procedures and requirements for filing voluntary reports, and to ensure that the annual reports of greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities submitted by corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit are complete, reliable, and consistent. Over time, it is anticipated that these reports will provide a reliable record of the contributions reporting entities have made toward reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. General Guidelines General Guidelines Technical Guidelines Technical Guidelines Appendices to the Technical Guidelines:

377

Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Coherence Length of Cold Exciton Gases in Coupled Quantum Wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Mach-Zehnder interferometer with spatial and spectral resolution was used to probe spontaneous coherence in cold exciton gases, which are implemented experimentally in the ring of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells. A strong enhancement of the exciton coherence length is observed at temperatures below a few Kelvin. The increase of the coherence length is correlated with the macroscopic spatial ordering of excitons. The coherence length at the lowest temperature corresponds to a very narrow spread of the exciton momentum distribution, much smaller than that for a classical exciton gas.

Sen Yang, A. T. Hammack, M. M. Fogler, L. V. Butov, and A. C. Gossard

2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

Zero sound modes of dilute Fermi gases with arbitrary spin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motivated by the recent success of optical trapping of alkali-metal bosons, we have studied the zero sound modes of dilute Fermi gases with arbitrary spin-f, which are spin-S excitations (0<~S<~2f). The dispersion of the mode (S) depends on a single Landau parameter F(S), which is related to the scattering lengths of the system through a simple formula. Measurement of (even a subset of) these modes in finite magnetic fields will enable one to determine all the interaction parameters of the system.

S.-K. Yip and Tin-Lun Ho

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

382

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

383

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

384

Synthetic Lorentz force in classical atomic gases via Doppler effect and radiation pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We theoretically predict a novel type of synthetic Lorentz force for classical (cold) atomic gases, which is based on the Doppler effect and radiation pressure. A fairly uniform and strong force can be constructed for gases in macroscopic volumes of several cubic millimeters and more. This opens the possibility to mimic classical charged gases in magnetic fields, such as those in a tokamak, in cold atom experiments.

Dub?ek, T; Juki?, D; Aumiler, D; Ban, T; Buljan, H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

E-Print Network 3.0 - automobile exhaust gases Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

exhaust gases Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution Summary: Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST...

386

E-Print Network 3.0 - aircraft exhaust gases Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gases FAA, 2005. Water in the aircraft exhaust at altitude may have a greenhouse effect... . Aircraft ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques...

387

Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

organic gases (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) that new light vehicles with gasoline engines are allowed to produce for model years 2017 to 2025. These standards apply to...

388

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Vehicles and Mobile Equipment Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles and Mobile Equipment October 7, 2013 - 11:31am Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 Planned changes in a Federal agency's size, missions, transportation needs, and vehicle inventory all impact the strategic portfolio planning efforts that target greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation for vehicles and mobile equipment. Under Section 142 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) and Section 8 of Executive Order (E.O.) 13514, agencies are required to develop a plan that will reduce fleet GHG emissions to meet Federally mandated petroleum reduction and alternative fuel increase targets. Agencies can use these plans as a basis for determining potential changes in fleet size and

389

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Why Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Why Report Why Report Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Why Report What Is the Purpose of Form EIA-1605? Form EIA-1605 provides the means for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions, reductions, and sequestration under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The purpose of the Voluntary Reporting Program is to encourage corporations, government agencies, non-profit organizations, households, and other private and public entities to submit annual reports of their greenhouse gas emissions, emission reductions, and sequestration activities. Form EIA-1605 provides a means for voluntary reporting that is complete, reliable, and consistent. How Will My Entity Benefit From Reporting? There are a number of ways for your entity to benefit from reporting, including:

390

Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image Weak ignition behind a reflected Mach=1.5 shock in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 0.1 atm initial pressure. Picture shows a numerically generated pseudo-schlieren image of the onset of a detonation in a turbulent boundary layer. Alexei Khokhlov, University of Chicago; Charles Bacon, Argonne National Laboratory, Joanna Austin, Andrew Knisely, University of Illinois at Urbanna-Champaign Simulations of Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Reactive Gases PI Name: Alexei Khokhlov PI Email: ajk@oddjob.uchicago.edu Institution: The University of Chicago Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 130 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Chemistry Hydrogen is an abundant, environmentally friendly fuel with the potential

391

Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Employee Commuting Employee Commuting Assess Potential Agency Size Changes that Impact Greenhouse Gases from Employee Commuting October 7, 2013 - 1:42pm Addthis YOU ARE HERE Step 1 For employee commuting, it is important to account for any planned or expected changes in a Federal agency's size when estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential for different operating units or worksites. Considerations include: Are employment levels expected to change in the next decade at specific facilities or agency-wide? Are there any planned facility moves at major worksites? Employee commute coordinators may want to engage human resources and strategic planners in this effort to establish likely changes in employment numbers. Facility planners may be engaged to understand changes in commutes

392

The Breakdown of Gases in High Frequency Electrical Fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theory is proposed to explain the mechanism of breakdown of gases in high frequency electrical fields. It is assumed that breakdown occurs when the electrical field and the frequency are such that an electron acquires the ionizing energy at the end of one mean free path. The field for breakdown is thus a function of the frequency of the applied potential and the ionization potential and pressure of the gas. The fields for breakdown of argon and xenon are calculated and expressed as functions of the frequency and the gas pressure. The calculated potentials are compared with experimental data, and good agreement is found for frequencies greater than 10×106 c.p.s.

Donald H. Hale

1948-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

WIMP Dark Matter Direct-Detection Searches in Noble Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cosmological observations and the dynamics of the Milky Way provide ample evidence for an invisible and dominant mass component. This so-called dark matter could be made of new, colour and charge neutral particles, which were non-relativistic when they decoupled from ordinary matter in the early universe. Such weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are predicted to have a non-zero coupling to baryons and could be detected via their collisions with atomic nuclei in ultra-low background, deep underground detectors. Among these, detectors based on liquefied noble gases have demonstrated tremendous discovery potential over the last decade. After briefly introducing the phenomenology of direct dark matter detection, I will review the main properties of liquefied argon and xenon as WIMP targets and discuss sources of background. I will then describe existing and planned argon and xenon detectors that employ the so-called single- and dual-phase detection techniques, addressing their complementarity and science...

Baudis, Laura

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

WIMP Dark Matter Direct-Detection Searches in Noble Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cosmological observations and the dynamics of the Milky Way provide ample evidence for an invisible and dominant mass component. This so-called dark matter could be made of new, colour and charge neutral particles, which were non-relativistic when they decoupled from ordinary matter in the early universe. Such weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are predicted to have a non-zero coupling to baryons and could be detected via their collisions with atomic nuclei in ultra-low background, deep underground detectors. Among these, detectors based on liquefied noble gases have demonstrated tremendous discovery potential over the last decade. After briefly introducing the phenomenology of direct dark matter detection, I will review the main properties of liquefied argon and xenon as WIMP targets and discuss sources of background. I will then describe existing and planned argon and xenon detectors that employ the so-called single- and dual-phase detection techniques, addressing their complementarity and science reach.

Laura Baudis

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

395

Trace gases, CO2, climate, and the greenhouse effect  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Weather is driven by the sun’s energy input and the difference between insolation per unit area of the poles and the equator. The energy flux of the Earth is in long?term balance—as much is radiated away by the Earth as is absorbed or the mean temperature would have to increase or decrease steadily (and of course this is not observed). CO2 and other ‘‘trace gases’’ can cause the Earth’s mean temperature to rise through the Greenhouse Effect. The mean temperature in the Little Ice Age was only 1?°C cooler but large effects were felt especially toward the poles. The CO2 which stays in the atmosphere will raise Earth’s mean temperature with effects which are relatively certain: a lot of warming at the poles and a very small amount of warming at the equator.

Gordon J. Aubrecht II

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Highly polarized Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We address the phase of a highly polarized Fermi gases across a narrow Feshbach resonance starting from the problem of a single down-spin fermion immersed in a Fermi sea of up spins. Both polaron and pairing states are considered using the variational wave function approach, and we find that the polaron-to-pairing transition will take place on the BCS side of the resonance, strongly in contrast to a wide resonance where the transition is located at the BEC side. For the pairing phase, we find the critical strength of the repulsive interaction between pairs above which the mixture of pairs and fermions will not phase separate. Therefore, nearby a narrow resonance, it is quite likely that magnetism can coexist with s-wave BCS superfluidity at large Zeeman fields, which is a remarkable property absent in conventional BCS superconductors (or fermion-pair superfluids).

Ran Qi and Hui Zhai

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

397

Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

Martin Gebert

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

398

Granular Gases of Rod-Shaped Grains in Microgravity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Granular gases are convenient model systems to investigate the statistical physics of nonequilibrium systems. In the literature, one finds numerous theoretical predictions, but only few experiments. We study a weakly excited dilute gas of rods, confined in a cuboid container in microgravity during a suborbital rocket flight. With respect to a gas of spherical grains at comparable filling fraction, the mean free path is considerably reduced. This guarantees a dominance of grain-grain collisions over grain-wall collisions. No clustering was observed, unlike in similar experiments with spherical grains. Rod positions and orientations were determined and tracked. Translational and rotational velocity distributions are non-Gaussian. Equipartition of kinetic energy between translations and rotations is violated.

K. Harth; U. Kornek; T. Trittel; U. Strachauer; S. Höme; K. Will; R. Stannarius

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

399

Carrier cooling and exciton formation in GaSe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The initial cooling of hot carriers and the subsequent exciton formation in GaSe are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) using femtosecond up-conversion techniques. From the time-resolved PL spectra of this layered III-VI semiconductor two different energy relaxation channels are derived. After an initial subpicosecond cooling due to Fröhlich-type interaction of carriers with longitudinal optical E?(22) phonons a slower regime follows, which is dominated by deformation potential interaction with the nonpolar optical A1?(12) phonons. The coupling constant for nonpolar optical phonon scattering is derived. The subsequent formation of excitons is studied at different carrier densities and detection energies. A cross section for the free-exciton formation is determined based on a rate equation model.

S. Nüsse; P. Haring Bolivar; H. Kurz; V. Klimov; F. Levy

1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

400

Kovacs-like memory effect in driven granular gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While memory effects have been reported for dense enough disordered systems such as glasses, we show here by a combination of analytical and simulation techniques that they are also intrinsic to the dynamics of dilute granular gases. By means of a certain driving protocol, we prepare the gas in a state where the granular temperature $T$ coincides with its long time limit. However, $T$ does not subsequently remain constant, but exhibits a non-monotonic evolution before reaching its non-equilibrium steady value. The corresponding so-called Kovacs hump displays a normal behavior for weak dissipation (as observed in molecular systems), but is reversed under strong dissipation, where it thus becomes anomalous.

A. Prados; E. Trizac

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a furnished room a furnished room Title Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-53943 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Singer, Brett C., Kenneth L. Revzan, Toshifumi Hotchi, Alfred T. Hodgson, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 38 Start Page Chapter Issue 16 Pagination 2483-2494 Abstract We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m3 room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h-1 and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium

402

Theory of the lattice Boltzmann method: Lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases Li-Shi Luo*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theory of the lattice Boltzmann method: Lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases Li-Shi Luo is presented. This treat- ment provides a unified theory of lattice Boltzmann models for nonideal gases. The lattice Boltzmann equation is systematically obtained by discretizing the Enskog equation in phase space

Luo, Li-Shi

403

Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle Helge M. Gonnermann1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a processed and out- gassed lower-mantle source, residues of mantle melting10,11 , depleted in uranium and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby melt, which forms the ocean crust and leaves the residual mantle severely depleted of noble gases

Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

404

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Helium isotope ratios in gases of thirty hot springs and geothermal wells and of five natural gas wells in the western United States show no relationship to regional conductive heat flow, but do show a correlation with magma-based thermal activity and reservoir fluid temperature (or total convective heat discharge). Gases from high-T (> 200°C) reservoirs have 3He/4He > 2 _ the atmospheric value, with high He

405

Use of hollow core fibers, fiber lasers, and photonic crystal fibers for spark delivery and laser ignition in gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fiber-optic delivery of sparks in gases is challenging as the output beam must be refocused to high

Joshi, Sachin; Yalin, Azer P; Galvanauskas, Almantas

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Rapid?sampling system for dusts and gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Bureau of Mines has developed a system for the rapid grab sampling of heterogeneous mixtures of gases and dusts during the preignition and postignition stages of dust explosions. The combustion chamber in which the explosion occurs is first fitted with a hypodermic sampling needle with its inlet end at the desired sampling point within the chamber and its sharp injecting end protruding outside of the chamber. Rapid sampling (approximately 25 to 50 ms) is achieved with a double?acting air?pressure?actuated cylinder. The forward stroke of the cylinder thrusts the rubber septum seal of an evacuated glass sampling tube onto the protruding needle which punctures the septum filling the tube with gas and dust from the combustion chamber. The return stroke of the cylinder reseals the sampling tube by returning the mechanism to its original position. The initial time of sampling and the duration of sampling are independently variable and controlled by a microprocessor. Results obtained with a trimodal distribution of coal dust show no significant size discrimination at least up to 70 ?m. Data obtained from laboratory?scale coal dust explosion tests are also presented. Such data provide valuable insights into the basic phenomena involved in explosions.

R. S. Conti; M. Hertzberg; F. T. Duda; K. L. Cashdollar

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids based on the bio-refinery concept using sunflower oil as an alternative solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A green, inexpensive and easy-to-use method for carotenoids extraction from fresh carrots assisted by ultrasound was designed in this work. Sunflower oil was applied as a substitute to organic solvents in this green ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE): a process which is in line with green extraction and bio-refinery concepts. The processing procedure of this original UAE was first compared with conventional solvent extraction (CSE) using hexane as solvent. Moreover, the UAE optimal conditions for the subsequent comparison were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and ultra performance liquid chromatography – diode array detector – mass spectroscopy (UPLC–DAD–MS). The results showed that the UAE using sunflower as solvent has obtained its highest ?-carotene yield (334.75 mg/l) in 20 min only, while CSE using hexane as solvent obtained a similar yield (321.35 mg/l) in 60 min. The green UAE performed under optimal extraction conditions (carrot to oil ratio of 2:10, ultrasonic intensity of 22.5 W cm?2, temperature of 40 °C and sonication time of 20 min) gave the best yield of ?-carotene.

Ying Li; Anne Sylvie Fabiano-Tixier; Valérie Tomao; Giancarlo Cravotto; Farid Chemat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

409

Gases as Working Fluid in Parabolic Trough CSP Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energetic dimension of actual economy is massively oriented towards the use of fossil fuels: they cover a share of 87% of the energy needs and the trend of this share is increasing, in spite of the commitments adopted by almost all the Countries in the World. Most crucial concern is CO2 levels in the atmosphere and the positive feedback between Earth's temperature increase and carbon. Actual technologies which make use of renewable sources seem to be not fully suitable to invert this continuous increase of fossil fuels. Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) have had, recently, a huge attention as a technology able to give, in the mean future, a strong contribution to the electrical energy generation. CSP technology has an intrinsic superiority with respect to the other renewable plants but actual plants suffer of many drawbacks which slow down a massive diffusion: these aspects increase costs and do not insure the reliability levels required to make the investments profitable. Gas as heat transfer fluid inside solar receiver in a CSP Parabolic Trough (PT) type plant is discussed in this paper: this would simplify actual technology in the conversion section, downstream the solar energy collecting phase. The use of gases calls for a new conversion section discussed in this paper based on a direct expansion in gas turbine plants. The success of this concept is related to the possibility to increase the fluid (gas) temperature above the actual operating maximum values. The paper discusses the performances of a new gas cycle, the performances of actual receivers when fed with gas and introduces and discusses an optimization design parameter which allows a cost decrease and industrial reliability improvement.

Roberto Cipollone; Andrea Cinocca; Angelo Gualtieri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

On surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols: models and observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and sulphate aerosols on near-surface temperature is investigated using a version of the Hadley Centre atmospheric model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. The scattering of sunlight by sulphate aerosols is represented by appropriately enhancing the surface albedo. On doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, the global mean temperature increases by 5.2 K. An integration with a 39% increase in CO{sub 2}, giving the estimated change in radiative heating due to increases in greenhouse gases since 1900, produced an equilibrium warming of 2.3 K, which, even allowing for oceanic inertia, is significantly higher than the observed warming over the same period. Furthermore, the simulation suggests a substantial warming everywhere, whereas the observations indicate isolated regions of cooling, including parts of the northern midlatitude continents. The addition of an estimate of the effect of scattering by current industrial aerosols (uncertain by a factor of at least 3) leads to improved agreement with the observed pattern of changes over the northern continents and reduces the global mean warming by about 30%. Doubling the aerosol forcing produces patterns that are still compatible with the observations, but further increase leads to unrealistically extensive cooling in the midlatitudes. The diurnal range of surface temperature decreases over most of the northern extratropics on increasing CO{sub 2}, in agreement with recent observations. The addition of the current industrial aerosol had little detectable effect on the diurnal range in the model because the direct effect of reduced solar heating at the surface is approximately balanced by the indirect effects of cooling. Thus, the ratio of the reduction in diurnal range to the mean warming is increased, in closer agreement with observations. Results from further sensitivity experiments with larger increases in aerosol and CO{sub 2} are presented.

Mitchell, J.F.B.; Davis, R.A.; Ingram, W.J.; Senior, C.A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)] [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Excitation spectrum and quasiparticles in quantum gases. A rigorous approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is devoted to a rigorous study of interacting quantum gases. The main objects of interest are the closely related concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. The immediate motivation of this work is to propose a spectral point of view concerning these two concepts. In the first part of this thesis we discuss the concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. We provide an overview of physical motivations and based on that we propose a spectral and Hamiltonian-based approach towards these terms. Based on that, we formulate definitions and propositions related to these concepts. In the second part we recall the Bogoliubov and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximations, which in the physics literature are used to obtain the quasiparticle picture. We show how these two approaches fit into a universal scheme which allows us to arrive at a quasiparticle picture in a more general setup. This scheme is based on the minimization of Hamiltonians over the so-called Gaussian states. Its abstract formulation is the content of Beliaev's Theorem. In the last part we present a rigorous result concerning the justification of the Bogoliubov approximation. This justification employs the concept of the mean-field and infinite-volume limit. We show that for a large number of particles, a large volume and a sufficiently high density, the low-lying energy-momentum spectrum of the homogeneous Bose gas is well described by the Bogoliubov approximation. This result, which is formulated in the form of a theorem, can be seen as the main result of this thesis.

Marcin Napiórkowski

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

412

Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999) Abstract This report tabulates an extensive geochemical database on waters, gases, scales,rocks, and hot-spring deposits from the Dixie Valley region, Nevada. The samples fromwhich the data were obtained were collected and analyzed during 1996 to 1999. Thesedata provide useful information for ongoing and future investigations on geothermalenergy, volcanism, ore deposits, environmental issues, and groundwater quality in thisregion. Authors Los Alamos National Laboratory and NM Published

413

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview Of The Data, Regional Patterns Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Intensive Sampling Of Noble Gases In Fluids At Yellowstone- I, Early Overview Of The Data, Regional Patterns Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Roving Automated Rare Gas Analysis (RARGA) lab of Berkeley's Physics Department was deployed in Yellowstone National Park for a 19 week period commencing in June, 1983. During this time 66 gas and water samples representing 19 different regions of hydrothermal activity within and around the Yellowstone caldera were analyzed on site. Routinely, the abundances of five stable noble gases and the isotopic compositions of He,

414

Clarifying the Roles of Greenhouse Gases and ENSO in Recent Global Warming through Their Prediction Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is well known that natural external forcings and decadal-to-millennial variability drove changes in the climate system throughout the Holocene. Regarding recent times, attribution studies have shown that greenhouse gases (GHGs) determined the ...

Umberto Triacca; Antonello Pasini; Alessandro Attanasio; Alessandro Giovannelli; Marco Lippi

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

Velasco, Erik

416

Characteristic parameters of geigermüller counter gases. Propane-argon and propane-helium mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of the Wilkinson and the Diethorn-Kohman expressions of counter operation was tested under conditions in which different rare gases were used with the same quench gas as Geiger-Müller counter f...

Richard G. Pannbacker; Robert W. Kiser

1962-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Cosmogenic and trapped rare gases in Luna-24 drill core samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The elemental and isotopic composition of noble gases in six samples from different depths of the Luna-24 drill core soil column, obtained by mass spectrometric analyses, are presented and the results are comp...

J. T. Padia; M. N. Rao; T. R. Venkatesan

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Adsorption Modeling of Coalbed Gases and the Effects of Water on Their Adsorption Behavior.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The simplified local-density/Peng-Robinson (SLD-PR) adsorption model was utilized to investigate the adsorption behavior of coalbed gases on coals of varying rank. The model parameters were… (more)

Mohammad, Sayeed Ahmed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet discusses how the thermal efficiency of a process heating system can be improved significantly by using heat contained in furnace flue gases to preheat the furnace load.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

Natesan, K.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

422

Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Factors affecting the recovery of petroleum in projects involving the injection of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM IN PROJECTS INVOLVING THE INJECTION OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES (LPG) A Thesis By GERRY A. GRAHAM Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1961 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering GERRY A. GRAHAM FACTORS AFFECTING THE RECOVERY OF PETROLEUM IN PROJECTS INVOLVING THE INJECTION OF LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES (LPG) A...

Graham, Gerry A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

425

What CO2 well gases tell us about the origin of noble gases in the mantle and their relationship to the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mantle-rich CO2 well gases, with samples lying on the air-solar mixing line. The most solar-rich gas, from Bravo Dome in New Mexico, had a 10 per cent excess above air value. Since solar and Q-Xe are so similar in composition, it is not possible...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Fast non-explosive gases for drift chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Typical gases which are stock at Fermilab are Ar:C/sub 2/H/sub 6/(50:50) and Ar:CO/sub 2/ (80:20). Argon:Ethane has the virtue of high gas gain and a saturated drift velocity. In fact, parametrizing the drift velocity as a function of electric field we find v/sub d/(E) = v/sub o/(1/minus/e/sup -E/E/o) with v/sub o/ approx. = 5.4 cm/..mu..sec and E/sub o/ = 160 V/cm. However, safety considerations make this gas somewhat inconvenient. The addition of alcohol as quencher also raises the saturation field to, for example, E/sub o/ approx. = 500 V/cm for 1.5% added alcohol. This gas also tends to break up in a high-beam flux environment and leave carbon deposits. The addition of alcohol to avoid such aging often takes a unit cell out of saturation over its entire volume. Finally, for collider applications it is useful to exclude free protons from the gas in order to reduce the sensitivity to the sea of slow neutrons which are present in the collider environment. In contrast, Ar:CO/sub 2/ (80:20) is a gas with more moderate gas gain. The drift velocity at high field is v/sub d/(E > 1.5 kV/cm) approx. = 5.8 cm/..mu..sec. For most field configurations this gas does not saturate, causing a long tail in the drift time distrubtion due to low field regions in the unit cell. The virtues of this gas mixture are that it is cheap, not flammable, and stable under high-beam flux. However as the Collider Upgrade progresses, we wish to find a gas which is faster than 5.0 cm/..mu..sec since the time separation between collisions will at some point be less than drift time of 1..mu..sec for drift distance of 5 cm. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Green, D.; Haggerty, H.; Oshima, N.; Yamada, R.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A Theory of the Electric Discharge Through Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three general differential equations are set up which determine the average behavior of a discharge of electricity through a gas. Approximate solutions, giving the electric field E and the concentration of electrons and positive ions, n1 and n2, at any distance x from the cathode, are found for several ranges of value of E.When E is large, the solution corresponds to the conditions in the cathode and anode fall spaces in a glow discharge. Equations are obtained for the potential drop V across the fall space; the current density at the electrode divided by the square of the gas pressure, jp2; and the thickness of the fall space times the pressure, pd.These equations indicate that for the cathode fall space there is a certain minimum value of V, called Vn; and for jp2, called jnp2; and a corresponding maximum value of pd, pdn, beyond which values the discharge ceases. These stationary values are shown to be constants, dependent only on the nature of the gas used and of the cathode material, and correspond to the normal cathode fall space. The equation determining Vn is shown to be of the right from by comparison with the experimentally determined values. From these values of Vn, values of jnp2 and of pdn are calculated for four gases and four cathode materials, and the calculated values check with the experimental data. The corresponding equations for the anode fall space show why there is no corresponding normal anode fall.A consideration of the discharge when E is large throughout the distance between electrodes indicates that there is another stationary value of the cathode fall space when the current density at the cathode reaches its maximum possible value. The V in this case is much smaller than the Vn for the glow discharge, and the form of the equations indicate that they describe the conditions in an electric arc.Another approximate equation is obtained when E is constant, which is the case in the positive column of a glow discharge. This solution indicates that within certain limits of pressure and current density, small sinusoidal variations about the average value Ep, are possible in E. These correspond to the striations sometimes observed in the positive column. The equations determining Ep and those determining the distance between striations check with the known empirical laws relating these amounts to the pressure, the radius of the discharge tube and the critical potentials of the gas used. A general discussion is given of the Faraday dark space and reasons are given why it should be near the cathode rather than the anode.

Philip M. Morse

1928-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROCARBON AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present period, the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) has been modified to improve its volumetric and equilibrium predictions. Specifically, the attractive term of the PGR equation was modified to enhance the flexibility of the model, and a new expression was developed for the temperature dependence of the attractive term in this segment-segment interaction model. The predictive capability of the modified PGR EOS for vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and vapor densities was evaluated for selected normal paraffins, normal alkenes, cyclo-paraffins, light aromatics, argon, carbon dioxide and water. The generalized EOS constants and substance-specific characteristic parameters in the modified PGR EOS were obtained from the pure component vapor pressures, and saturated liquid and vapor molar volumes. The calculated phase properties were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), the simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and the original PGR equations. Generally, the performance of the proposed EOS was better than the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations in predicting the pure fluid properties (%AAD of 1.3, 2.8 and 3.7 for vapor pressure, saturated liquid and vapor densities, respectively).

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1998-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

210Pb-derived history of PAH and PCB accumulation in sediments of a tropical inner lagoon (Las Matas, Gulf of Mexico) near a major oil refinery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in a sediment core from the tropical freshwater inner lagoon of Las Matas, near the petroleum industrial area of Minatitlán-Coatzacoalcos, in the Gulf of Mexico. A 210Pb-derived chronology was used to reconstruct the historical PAH and PCB accumulation in the site during one century (1906–2005). Both geochemical and sedimentological data indicated that a major change occurred in 1947 ± 4, including a shift to coarser sediments and a significant decrease of Al, Li, Fe, organic C and total N contents. This was likely due to the changes in hydrology caused by the confinement of Las Matas Lagoon due to the construction of the Trans-Isthmus road in 1946. \\{PAHs\\} in these samples show relatively low concentrations (259–1176 ng g?1), and the congener relative abundances indicate the influence of pyrogenic (petroleum combustion) sources. Total PCB concentrations in the sediments ranged from 24 to 77 ng g?1, and are composed by low chlorinated PCBs, with 3- and 4-CB as the prevalent species (51–65% and 29–40%, respectively). \\{PAHs\\} and \\{PCBs\\} were detected at depths corresponding to the early 1900s, when Minatitlán refinery started operations, although their time evolution appears to be influenced by different accumulation processes. The PCB background is most likely produced by the combustion of natural organic matter, and an industrial contribution can be recognized when normalizing with OC contents. We concluded that atmospheric deposition is the most significant source of \\{PAHs\\} and \\{PCBs\\} for this water body. This study also provided evidence of the alteration of the wetlands surrounding this industrial area due to urbanization; the fragmentation and alteration of Las Matas Lagoon hydrology contributes to the gradual loss of the wetlands in the zone.

Ana Carolina Ruiz-Fernández; Mario Sprovieri; Rossano Piazza; Mauro Frignani; Joan-Albert Sanchez-Cabeza; Maria Luisa Feo; Luca Giorgio Bellucci; Marco Vecchiato; Libia Hascibe Pérez-Bernal; Federico Páez-Osuna

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Pulsed Laser Deposition of Photoresponsive Two-Dimensional GaSe Nanosheet Networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we explore pulsed laser deposition (PLD), a well known and versatile synthesis method principally used for epitaxial oxide thin film growth, for the synthesis of functional metal chalcogenide (GaSe) nanosheet networks by stoichiometric transfer of laser vaporized material from bulk GaSe targets in Ar background gas. Uniform coverage of interconnected, crystalline, few-layer, photoresponsive GaSe nanosheets in both in-plane and out-of-plane orientations were achieved under different ablation plume conditions over ~1.5 cm2 areas. Plume propagation was characterized by in situ ICCD-imaging. High (1 Torr) Ar background gas pressures were found to be crucial for the stoichiometric growth of GaSe nanosheet networks. Individual 1-3 layer GaSe triangular nanosheets of ~ 200 nm domain size were formed within 30 laser pulses, coalescing to form nanosheet networks in as few as 100 laser pulses. The thickness of the deposited networks increased linearly with pulse number, adding layers in a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode while maintaining a surface roughness of 2 GaSe layers for increasing overall thickness. Field effect transistors using these interconnected crystalline GaSe networks showed p-type semiconducting characteristics with mobilities reaching as high as 0.1 cm2V-1s-1. Spectrally-resolved photoresponsivities and external quantum efficiencies ranged from 0.4 AW-1 and 100% at 700 nm, to 1.4 AW-1 and 600 % at 240 nm, respectively. Pulsed laser deposition under these conditions appears to provide a versatile and rapid approach to stoichiometrically transfer and deposit photoresponsive networks of 2D nanosheets with digital thickness control and substrate-scale uniformity for a variety of applications.

Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud [ORNL; Gresback, Ryan G [ORNL; Tian, Mengkun [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Duscher, Gerd [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Geohegan, David B [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

A BIOMASS-BASED MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE PLAUSIBILITY OF EXOPLANET BIOSIGNATURE GASES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4}, CH{sub 3}Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH{sub 3} as a biosignature gas on a 'cold Haber World', a planet with a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH{sub 3}Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such as CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}S, and N{sub 2}O) produced from life that extracts energy from chemical potential energy gradients will always have false positives because geochemistry has the same gases to work with as life does, and gases (such as DMS and CH{sub 3}Cl) produced for secondary metabolic reasons are far less likely to have false positives but because of their highly specialized origin are more likely to be produced in small quantities. The biomass model estimates are valid to one or two orders of magnitude; the goal is an independent approach to testing whether a biosignature gas is plausible rather than a precise quantification of atmospheric biosignature gases and their corresponding biomasses.

Seager, S.; Bains, W.; Hu, R. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such as CH4, H2S, and N2O) produced from life that extracts energy from chemical potential energy gradients will always have false positives because geochemistry has the same gases to work with as life does, and gases (such as DMS and CH3Cl) produced for secondary metabolic reasons are far less likely to have false positives but because of their highly specialized origin are more likely to be produced in small quantities. The biomass model estimates are valid to one or two orders of magnitude; the goal is an independent approach to testing whether a biosignature gas is plausible rather than a precise quantification of atmospheric biosignature gases and their corresponding biomasses.

S. Seager; W. Bains; R. Hu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROGEN AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the US Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, the solubilities of hydrogen in n-hexane, carbon monoxide in cyclohexane, and nitrogen in phenanthrene and pyrene were measured using a static equilibrium cell over the temperature range from 344.3 to 433.2 K and pressures to 22.8 MPa. The uncertainty in these new solubility measurements is estimated to be less than 0.001 in mole fraction. The data were analyzed using the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS). In general, the PR EOS represents the experimental data well when a single interaction parameter (C{sub ij}) is used for each isotherm. In addition, the predictive capability of the modified Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) was evaluated for selected carbon dioxide + normal paraffins, ethane + normal paraffins, and hydrogen + normal paraffins. A set of mixing rules was proposed for the modified EOS to extend its predictive capabilities to mixtures. The predicted bubble point pressures for the ethane + n-paraffin and carbon dioxide + n-paraffin binaries were compared to those of the Peng-Robinson (PR), simplified-perturbed-hard-chain theory (SPHCT) and original PGR equations. The predictive capability of the proposed equation is better or comparable to the PR, SPHCT and original PGR equations of state for the ethane binaries (%AAD of 1.9) and carbon dioxide binaries (%AAD of 2.0). For the hydrogen binaries, the modified PGR EOS showed much better performance (%AAD of 1.7) than the original PGR equation and comparable to the PR equation.

KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Combustion behavior of a spark ignition engine fueled with synthetic gases derived from biogas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Combustion results obtained from a spark ignition engine fueled with two synthetic gases obtained from catalytic decomposition of biogas are presented in this paper. These results are compared with those obtained when the engine was fueled with gasoline, methane and with the biogas from which synthetic gases are extracted. Experimental tests were performed under a wide range of speeds and at three equivalence ratios. Results showed that fractions of hydrogen in synthetic gases increased maximum pressures inside cylinder. Moreover, peak pressures were detected closer to top dead center than methane and biogas. Despite the fraction of diluents in the composition of synthetic gases, high speeds and lean conditions resulted in higher indicated efficiencies than those obtained with gasoline. Moreover, combustion speed and heat release rate were strongly influenced by the proportion of diluents and hydrogen in gaseous blends. CO and CO2 content in the composition of synthetic gases contributed to increase the exhaust concentrations of these pollutants compared with the other fuels, while HC decreased because of the small fraction of methane which remained unburned. Although \\{NOx\\} emissions were mitigated by diluents, like CO2 and air excess, high hydrogen fraction in composition of syngas involved elevated \\{NOx\\} emissions due to the increase in flame temperature that hydrogen produces.

J. Arroyo; F. Moreno; M. Muñoz; C. Monné; N. Bernal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Solubility Coefficients for Solar Liquids, a New Method to Quantify Undissolved Gases and Practical Recommendations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solubility of nitrogen in propylene glycol/water mixtures (25%, 41.84% and 100% glycol by weight) have been determined in a temperature range from 10 °C to 110 °C using a static isochoric measuring method and are compared to the solubility of a typical solar liquid. To evaluate the amount of gas in a solar system it is necessary to measure the part of gases dissolved in the solar liquid, but also to consider the fraction of free gases (gas bubbles or gas cushions) in the system. Measuring this part was either not possible or only possible with a big technical effort until now. Therefore a new method was developed, which easily and fast identifies the volume of undissolved gases (“Gas Bubble Test”). The method was validated in extensive investigations in real solar systems.

Martin Heymann; Felix Panitz; Karin Rühling; Clemens Felsmann

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Extractive stripping of inert-rich hydrocarbon gases with a preferential physical solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for treating a natural gas stream containing methane, heavier hydrocarbons, and an inert gas, an improvement comprising: selectivity extracting natural gas liquids from the natural gas stream with a preferential physical solvent which provides selective capability for recovery according to the selected degree of: (a) ethane in amounts ranging from 2-98%, (b) propane in amounts ranging from 2-99%, (c) butanes in amounts ranging from 2-100%, or (d) pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons in amounts ranging up to 100%, the improvement comprising the following steps: A. selecting the preferential physical solvent which is selective for ethane and heavier hydrocarbon components of the gas stream such that: (1) relative volatility of methane over ethane is at least 5.0 and the hydrocarbon loading capacity, defined as solubility of ethane in the solvent, is at least 0.25 standard cubic feet of ethane per gallon of the solvent, or (2) the preferential factor, determined by the multiplication of relative volatility of methane over ethane by the solubility of ethane in solvent, in standard cubic feet of ethane per gallon of solvent, is at least 1.25; B. selectively extracting and stripping the natural gas stream with the physical solvent to produce an inert gas stream and a rich solvent stream containing methane and the hydrocarbons heavier than methane; and C. distilling the rich solvent stream to produce a stream vent to form a solution having a molar ratio of silicon alkoxide to water in the range of about 1 to about 10.

Mehra, Y.R.

1987-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

439

Outlook for Refinery Outages and Available Refinery Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PADD 3 are moving farther into the global market. For example, U.S. gasoline exports to Africa averaged a record 32,000 bbld year-to-date 2013 through November, up from 9,000...

440

GEI 41040G - Specification for Fuel Gases for COmbustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Turbine Gas Turbine Revised, January 2002 GEI 41040G These instructions do not purport to cover all details or variations in equipment nor to provide for every possible contingency to be met in connection with installation, operation or maintenance. Should further information be desired or should particular problems arise which are not covered sufficiently for the purchaser's purposes the matter should be referred to the GE Company. © 1999 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY Specification for Fuel Gases for Combustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines GEI 41040G Specification for Fuel Gases for Combustion in Heavy-Duty Gas Turbines 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Dissipative Dynamics of a Josephson Junction In the Bose-Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose-gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action which describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose-gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

R. A. Barankov; S. N. Burmistrov

2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

442

Spin noise spectroscopy to probe quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We theoretically demonstrate that optical measurements of electron spin noise can be a spectroscopic probe of the entangled quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases and unambiguously reveal the detailed nature of the underlying interatomic correlations. Different models of the effective interatomic interactions predict entirely new sets of resonances in the spin noise spectrum. Once the correct effective interatomic interaction model is identified, the detailed noise line shapes of the spin noise can be used to constrain this model. We estimate the magnitude of spin noise signals expected in ultracold fermionic atom gases via noise measurements in classical alkali vapors, which demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

Mihaila, Bogdan; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Smith, Darryl L. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Crooker, Scott A.; Rickel, Dwight G. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Littlewood, Peter B. [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

445

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

446

The Energies of the Atomic Linkages in the Normal Paraffin Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...No previous data Normal pentane...The new values for the heats of combustion of the hydrocarbon gases,4'5 together with new data obtained by Jessup4 on the heats of combustion of normal heptane and...

Frederick D. Rossini

1934-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

U.S. Refinery Stocks  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Area: U.S. PADD 1 East Coast Appalachian No. 1 PADD 2 Ind., Ill. and Ky. Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. Okla., Kans., Mo. PADD 3 Texas Inland Texas Gulf Coast La. Gulf Coast N. La., Ark New Mexico PADD 4 PADD 5 Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels Area: U.S. PADD 1 East Coast Appalachian No. 1 PADD 2 Ind., Ill. and Ky. Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. Okla., Kans., Mo. PADD 3 Texas Inland Texas Gulf Coast La. Gulf Coast N. La., Ark New Mexico PADD 4 PADD 5 Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 353,802 345,413 343,062 345,025 342,763 342,727 1993-2013 Crude Oil 97,563 90,880 93,075 97,586 90,778 91,946 1981-2013 Petroleum Products 256,239 254,533 249,987 247,439 251,985 250,781 1993-2013

448

Electrodialysis Treatment of Refinery Wastewater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water is fundamental in the oil refining process,...3 water being consumed per m3 of oil processed. Water is used in the oil refining process ... general. Industries are having difficulties in obtaining water due...

Mara de Barros Machado; Vânia M. J. Santiago

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

2010-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

450

Detection of Irradiated Frozen Deboned Seafood with the Level of Radiolytic H2 and CO Gases as a Probe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method to detect irradiated frozen shrimp without cuticle, cod slices, and deshelled oyster has been developed based on the fact that radiolytic H2 and CO gases are retained in the irradiated samples for a certain period during the storage. These gases ...

Masakazu Furuta; Takaaki Dohmaru; Tadashi Katayama; Hirokazu Toratani; Atsuhiko Takeda

1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

452

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

Judkins, Roddie R. (9917 Rainbow Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Burchell, Timothy D. (109 Greywood Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Theoretical Gas Phase Mass Transfer Coefficients for Endogenous Gases in the Lungs PETER CONDORELLI of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA (Received 18 November 1997; accepted 9 February 1999) Abstract--Gas phase in terms of a lumped variable, Per(L/D)n . (Sh) increases as the solu- bility of the gas in tissue

George, Steven C.

454

Photoconductivity and luminescence in GaSe crystals at high levels of optical excitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photoconductivity and luminescence of GaSe layered crystals at high levels of optical excitation are studied experimentally. The specific features observed in the photoconductivity and photoluminescence spectra are controlled by the nonlinear optical absorption in the region of excitonic resonance.

Kyazym-zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M., E-mail: vagif_salmanov@yahoo.com; Salmanova, A. A. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Alieva, A. M.; Ibaeva, R. Z. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

Vallino, Joseph J.

456

Operational aspects of the desulfurization process of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Energy rich off-gases such as biogas are sometimes not used for electric power generation due impurities. H2S concentrations in biogas can range from 0.1 to 5 We dedicate this article to the memory/v (1000e20,000 ppmv), whereas the specifications for the maximum content of H2S in typical biogas

457

1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change on trace gases and the biosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This proposal seeks multi-agency funding to conduct an international, multidisciplinary 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change to take place from August 7 through 21, 1988, on the topic: Trace Gases and the Biosphere. The institute, to be held in Snowmass, Colorado, is envisioned as a pilot version of a continuing series of institutes on Global Change (IGC). This proposal seeks support for the 1988 pilot institute only. The concept and structure for the continuing series, and the definition of the 1988 pilot institute, were developed at an intensive and multidisciplinary Summer Institute Planning Meeting in Boulder, Colorado, on August 24--25, 1987. The theme for the 1988 PIGC, Trace Gases and the Biosphere, will focus a concerted, high-level multidisciplinary effort on a scientific problem central to the Global Change Program. Dramatic year-to-year increases in the global concentrations of radiatively-active trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are now well documented. The predicted climatic effects of these changes lend special urgency to efforts to study the biospheric sources and sinks of these gases and to clarify their interactions and role in the geosphere-biosphere system.

Eddy, J.A.; Moore, B. III

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is instructive to compare orders of magnitude typical for the thermal and condensed gas samples. For atom gasBose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik M. Smoluchowski on the Bose-Einstein condensate. We also present main parameters and expected characteristics of the first Pol

459

Ion fragmentation in an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer interface with different gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the gas phase. However, particularly in multi- component samples, this may not be enough to unambigu predicts that the degree of ion fragmentation increases with increasing mass of the curtain gas. However with argon and krypton is caused by condensation of the gases within the free jet expansion between

Chen, David D.Y.

460

UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change Toxic Researchers at the University of Alicante have developed and patented a novel catalyst capable of decomposing gas streams. "However, nitrous oxide can be decomposed at lower temperatures using a suitable catalyst

Escolano, Francisco

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Radiative-convective model of warming Mars with artificial greenhouse gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spectra of seven artificial greenhouse gases (CF4, C2F6, C3F8, SF6, CF3Cl, CF3Br, CF2Cl2 ecosynthesis, CF4, C2F6, and SF6 were 17%, 49%, and 48% as effective as C3F8, respectively. The optimal mixture

Kite, Edwin

462

A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

Seager, S; Hu, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395 National Corridors.1002/ghg.1395 #12;1 Introduction The need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by present energy.1, 2 Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most worrisome GHG because of its long residence time

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

Ballistic spin transport in exciton gases A. V. Kavokin,1, 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or spin-optronics challeng- ing. How possibly one can explore the current, which is carried by neutral are possible in exciton and exciton-polariton Bose gases. Bosonic spintronics or spin-optronics operates,28 . Combined with evident advantages of bosonic amplifica- tion and low dephasing, this makes spin-optronics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

465

ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

digestion, aerobic digestion, dewatering, al composting, drying) and sludge disposal route (land applicationORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

466

Gas Chromatographic Measurement of Trace Oxygen and Other Dissolved Gases in Thermally Stressed Jet Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......additional light hydrocarbon gases (e.g...stream, and the data can be obtained...system. The output data from this analytical...F33615-87-C-2714 and the Combustion and Heat Transfer Studies...from deoxygenated hydrocarbons: I. General features......

Wayne A. Rubey; Richard C. Striebich; Michael D. Tissandier; Debra A. Tirey; Steven D. Anderson

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Experimental observation of a traveling plasma grating formed by two crossing filaments in gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spatial motion and effective duration of a traveling plasma grating formed by two interfering femtosecond laser filaments in gases is characterized by its Doppler effect imparted on a probe pulse. The shift velocity determined experimentally agrees with the theoretical calculations.

Durand, Magali [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France); ONERA, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Liu Yi; Forestier, Benjamin; Houard, Aurelien; Mysyrowicz, Andre [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

468

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

Boyer, Edmond

469

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network on the overall power consumption and on the GHG emissions with just 25% of green energy sources. I. INTRODUCTION]. In the zero carbon approach, renewable (green) energy sources (e.g. sun, wind, tide) are employed and no GHGs

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

470

Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for dilute gases in equilibrium H. van Beijeren,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Posch,3 and Ch. Dellago3,4 1 Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Utrecht, Postbus 80006, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands 2 Institute for Physical Science and Technology and Department the kinetic theory of gases have been applied to compute the chaotic properties of simple systems such as hard

Dellago, Christoph

471

Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken, and Matthias Phl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial revolution" and their component companies. From David Landes's classic study, The Unbound of the industries of the second industrial revolution has been virtually ignored in this scholarship to date1 Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken

Guo, Zaoyang

472

K. S. Telang, R. W. Pike, F. C. Knopf, J. R. Hopper, J. Saleh, S. Waghchoure, S. C. Hedge and T. A. Hertwig,"An Advanced Process Analysis System for Improving Chemical and Refinery Processes," Computers and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 23, p. S727-730 (1999  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for pollution prevention. Keywords: on-line optimization, chemical reactor analysis, pinch analysis, pollution and simultaneously use programs for on-line optimization, chemical reactor analysis, flowsheeting, pinch analysis and refineries for process improvements. The system integrates programs for on-line optimization, chemical

Pike, Ralph W.

473

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

96,229 107,478 106,354 120,656 114,693 108,925 1981-2013 96,229 107,478 106,354 120,656 114,693 108,925 1981-2013 Crude Oil 3,965 3,863 3,591 3,029 2,052 2,975 1920-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 12,522 14,761 10,699 17,203 15,796 13,937 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 3,327 4,292 1,655 7,308 5,315 2,989 1984-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 9,194 10,468 9,044 9,895 10,481 10,947 1981-2013 Ethane/Ethylene 1981-1992 Propane/Propylene 8,363 9,542 8,057 8,407 9,125 10,040 1981-2013 Normal Butane/Butylene 832 927 987 1,488 1,356 907 1981-2013 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1984-1992 Other Liquids 7,489 6,277 6,728 7,063 5,570 6,579 1991-2013 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons 2,897 3,520 3,180 3,430 4,056 3,543 1991-2013 Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol)

474

U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

302,265 311,620 293,713 317,538 316,119 299,380 1981-2013 302,265 311,620 293,713 317,538 316,119 299,380 1981-2013 Crude Oil 231,793 239,848 231,900 250,207 251,054 237,344 1920-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 5,268 5,261 4,667 4,819 3,708 4,020 1981-2013 Pentanes Plus 1,366 2,222 730 1,461 316 772 1981-2013 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,902 3,039 3,937 3,358 3,392 3,248 1981-2013 Ethane 1993-2006 Ethylene 9 12 8 12 12 9 1993-2013 Propane 2,585 1,818 2,474 2,105 1,901 1,875 1995-2013 Propylene 728 680 814 595 722 728 1993-2013 Normal Butane 181 121 149 106 272 194 1995-2013 Butylene 143 241 162 153 146 139 1993-2013 Isobutane 256 167 330 387 339 303 1995-2013 Isobutylene 1993-2010 Other Liquids 43,066 47,595 40,206 44,400 38,927 40,118 1981-2013

475

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

25,966 7,956 1,280,301 725,573 1,191,766 9,116 -19,377 1,260,324 25,966 7,956 1,280,301 725,573 1,191,766 9,116 -19,377 1,260,324 90,720 1,909,011 152,389 Crude Oil 9,418 - - - - 316,140 4,126 8,405 -1,574 336,230 3,434 0 8,328 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 16,548 -84 14,202 18,043 26,704 - - -1,588 7,264 3,052 66,685 6,377 Pentanes Plus 2,828 -84 - - 185 -19 - - 12 63 315 2,520 43 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,720 - - 14,202 17,858 26,723 - - -1,600 7,201 2,737 64,165 6,334 Ethane/Ethylene 174 - - 93 - - - - 0 - - 267 - Propane/Propylene 9,223 - - 12,922 16,074 26,601 - - -793 - 1,230 64,383 5,184 Normal Butane/Butylene 2,091 - - 1,435 616 122 - - -866 3,435 1,507 188 837 Isobutane/Isobutylene 2,232 - - -248 1,168 - - - 59 3,766 - -673 313

476

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3,707 661 107,540 52,842 98,737 3,513 -4,105 105,957 7,218 3,707 661 107,540 52,842 98,737 3,513 -4,105 105,957 7,218 157,931 153,902 Crude Oil 1,020 - - - - 26,908 20 3,378 -1,285 32,517 94 0 10,326 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,687 -11 747 945 2,568 - - 471 798 453 5,214 6,541 Pentanes Plus 443 -11 - - - - - - 2 - 300 130 82 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,244 - - 747 945 2,568 - - 469 798 153 5,084 6,459 Ethane/Ethylene 27 - - 9 - - - - 6 - - 30 15 Propane/Propylene 1,517 - - 1,078 813 2,483 - - 724 - 126 5,041 4,442 Normal Butane/Butylene 474 - - -333 80 85 - - -246 523 27 2 1,673 Isobutane/Isobutylene 226 - - -7 52 - - - -15 275 - 11 329 Other Liquids - - 672 - - 16,653 48,432 5,798 -936 72,642 156 -307 61,003

477

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

429,215 5,872 1,093,588 483,473 118,666 38,688 7,789 1,028,754 429,215 5,872 1,093,588 483,473 118,666 38,688 7,789 1,028,754 126,026 1,006,933 150,671 Crude Oil 406,791 - - - - 424,639 598 22,523 1,445 853,106 0 0 56,432 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 22,424 -123 18,260 1,933 - - - 404 24,108 5,319 12,663 4,734 Pentanes Plus 10,215 -123 - - - - - - -20 7,565 1,094 1,453 51 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 12,209 - - 18,260 1,933 - - - 424 16,543 4,225 11,210 4,683 Ethane/Ethylene 34 - - - - - - - - - - 34 - Propane/Propylene 4,422 - - 16,669 1,593 - - - 335 - 3,714 18,635 1,915 Normal Butane/Butylene 2,360 - - 2,258 332 - - - 129 9,346 512 -5,037 2,249 Isobutane/Isobutylene 5,393 - - -667 8 - - - -40 7,197 - -2,423 519

478

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

302,630 5,088 230,918 121,366 -164,290 -11,531 4,472 221,774 5,269 302,630 5,088 230,918 121,366 -164,290 -11,531 4,472 221,774 5,269 252,667 39,043 Crude Oil 163,870 - - - - 115,845 -53,264 -13,771 3,101 209,575 5 0 18,928 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 138,760 -110 3,391 3,503 -119,108 - - 94 6,946 4,261 15,135 1,470 Pentanes Plus 18,508 -110 - - - -13,355 - - 14 2,156 3,795 -922 194 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 120,252 - - 3,391 3,503 -105,753 - - 80 4,790 466 16,057 1,276 Ethane/Ethylene 63,265 - - - - -61,214 - - -6 - - 2,057 400 Propane/Propylene 36,541 - - 3,406 3,155 -28,078 - - 7 - 12 15,005 363 Normal Butane/Butylene 15,114 - - 294 255 -9,019 - - 88 2,241 455 3,860 366 Isobutane/Isobutylene 5,332 - - -309 93 -7,442 - - -9 2,549 - -4,866 147

479

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

315,006 29,943 578,101 299,380 14,453 11,088 543,388 108,925 315,006 29,943 578,101 299,380 14,453 11,088 543,388 108,925 573,483 1,831,621 Crude Oil 233,810 - - - - 237,344 8,334 7,688 468,825 2,975 0 1,067,149 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 81,196 -552 19,023 4,020 - - 3,027 16,794 13,937 69,929 189,672 Pentanes Plus 11,167 -552 - - 772 - - -700 5,666 2,989 3,432 18,036 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 70,029 - - 19,023 3,248 - - 3,727 11,128 10,947 66,498 171,636 Ethane/Ethylene 30,015 - - 379 9 - - -414 - - 30,817 34,444 Propane/Propylene 25,545 - - 17,254 2,603 - - 2,582 - 10,040 32,780 67,782 Normal Butane/Butylene 6,893 - - 1,738 333 - - 999 4,711 907 2,347 58,942 Isobutane/Isobutylene 7,576 - - -348 303 - - 560 6,417 - 554 10,468

480

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8,897 964 18,564 10,598 335 158 17,505 3,205 18,490 8,897 964 18,564 10,598 335 158 17,505 3,205 18,490 Crude Oil 6,489 - - - - 8,527 144 93 14,999 67 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,408 -18 630 170 - - 65 509 314 2,301 Pentanes Plus 317 -18 - - 29 - - -13 174 118 50 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,091 - - 630 141 - - 79 335 196 2,251 Ethane/Ethylene 974 - - 18 0 - - 34 - - 958 Propane/Propylene 712 - - 553 116 - - 36 - 171 1,175 Normal Butane/Butylene 179 - - 56 15 - - 5 143 26 77 Isobutane/Isobutylene 225 - - 3 9 - - 4 192 - 41 Other Liquids - - 981 - - 1,257 53 51 1,997 214 28 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 981 - - 40 151 5 1,050 116 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 190 - - 190 0 - -

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "refinery gases pentanes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

71 22 3,498 1,982 3,256 25 -53 3,444 248 5,216 71 22 3,498 1,982 3,256 25 -53 3,444 248 5,216 Crude Oil 26 - - - - 864 11 23 -4 919 9 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 45 0 39 49 73 - - -4 20 8 182 Pentanes Plus 8 0 - - 1 0 - - 0 0 1 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 37 - - 39 49 73 - - -4 20 7 175 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - 0 - - - - 0 - - 1 Propane/Propylene 25 - - 35 44 73 - - -2 - 3 176 Normal Butane/Butylene 6 - - 4 2 0 - - -2 9 4 1 Isobutane/Isobutylene 6 - - -1 3 - - - 0 10 - -2 Other Liquids - - 22 - - 717 1,611 114 -5 2,505 10 -47 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 22 - - 29 291 -9 3 324 6 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 4 - - 4 0 - - Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) - - - - 0 - 0 0

482

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

34,932 594 95,116 42,741 9,239 5,791 830 89,707 10,470 87,406 34,932 594 95,116 42,741 9,239 5,791 830 89,707 10,470 87,406 142,840 Crude Oil 33,114 - - - - 36,279 - 4,213 311 73,295 - 0 52,719 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 1,818 -8 1,970 134 - - - 1,076 1,782 396 660 8,270 Pentanes Plus 794 -8 - - - - - - 163 552 92 -21 314 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,024 - - 1,970 134 - - - 913 1,230 304 681 7,956 Ethane/Ethylene 3 - - - - - - - - - - 3 - Propane/Propylene 420 - - 1,475 124 - - - 374 - 299 1,346 2,272 Normal Butane/Butylene 158 - - 451 10 - - - 378 556 5 -320 5,110 Isobutane/Isobutylene 443 - - 44 - - - - 161 674 - -348 574 Other Liquids - - 602 - - 3,200 7,556 2,809 -2,126 14,630 387 1,276 46,625

483

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3,256,148 352,785 6,794,407 3,878,852 122,574 57,691 6,406,693 3,256,148 352,785 6,794,407 3,878,852 122,574 57,691 6,406,693 1,172,965 6,767,418 1,807,777 Crude Oil 2,374,842 - - - - 3,120,755 52,746 34,134 5,489,516 24,693 0 1,060,764 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 881,306 -6,534 230,413 62,192 - - 23,894 186,270 115,054 842,159 153,268 Pentanes Plus 116,002 -6,534 - - 10,680 - - -4,857 63,596 43,136 18,273 12,739 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 765,304 - - 230,413 51,512 - - 28,751 122,674 71,918 823,886 140,529 Ethane/Ethylene 356,592 - - 6,597 115 - - 12,504 - - 350,800 35,396 Propane/Propylene 260,704 - - 202,309 42,460 - - 13,013 - 62,490 429,970 67,991 Normal Butane/Butylene 65,555 - - 20,580 5,567 - - 1,795 52,246 9,428 28,233 28,574

484

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total Input 1,184,435 1,522,193 1,850,204 2,166,784 2,331,109 2,399,318 2005-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 3,445 5,686 6,538 7,810 10,663 2008-2012 Pentanes Plus 2,012 474 1,808 1,989 2,326 4,164 2005-2012 Liquid Petroleum Gases 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2008-2012 Normal Butane 2,943 2,971 3,878 4,549 5,484 6,499 2005-2012 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 1,518,748 1,844,518 2,160,246 2,323,299 2,388,655 2008-2012 Oxygenates/Renewables 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 234,047 274,974 286,837 295,004 2009-2012 Fuel Ethanol 131,810 182,772 232,677 273,107 281,507 287,433 2005-2012

485

U.S. Blender Net Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History Total Input 206,541 217,867 212,114 216,075 219,783 208,203 2005-2013 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 891 352 376 196 383 1,397 2008-2013 Pentanes Plus 261 301 313 67 287 393 2005-2013 Liquid Petroleum Gases 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2008-2013 Normal Butane 630 51 63 129 96 1,004 2005-2013 Isobutane 2005-2006 Other Liquids 205,650 217,515 211,738 215,879 219,400 206,806 2008-2013 Oxygenates/Renewables 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) 2005-2006 Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) 25,156 26,576 26,253 26,905 27,788 25,795 2009-2013 Fuel Ethanol 24,163 25,526 24,804 25,491 25,970 24,116 2005-2013

486

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

59,397 25,268 126,131 58,449 20,168 -10,157 5,610 119,848 7,211 59,397 25,268 126,131 58,449 20,168 -10,157 5,610 119,848 7,211 146,586 280,571 Crude Oil 44,167 - - - - 55,181 16,673 -10,758 505 102,476 2,282 0 102,610 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 15,230 -515 3,462 1,887 -432 - - 2,252 3,146 2,129 12,105 58,830 Pentanes Plus 1,896 -515 - - 6 2,928 - - -549 1,119 1,599 2,146 7,743 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 13,334 - - 3,462 1,881 -3,360 - - 2,801 2,027 530 9,959 51,087 Ethane/Ethylene 4,901 - - - 9 -3,013 - - 339 - - 1,558 4,694 Propane/Propylene 5,587 - - 3,111 1,470 -650 - - 1,991 - 199 7,328 24,444 Normal Butane/Butylene 1,561 - - 475 162 156 - - 651 514 331 858 20,078 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1,285 - - -124 240 147 - - -180 1,513 - 215 1,871

487

Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Exports Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Naphtha for Petro. Feed. Use Other Oils Petro. Feed. Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

488

U.S. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History Total 522,879 659,392 738,803 858,685 1,089,848 1,172,965 1981-2012 Crude Oil 10,006 10,464 15,985 15,198 17,158 24,693 1870-2012 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 25,584 36,951 50,681 59,842 90,968 115,054 1981-2012 Pentanes Plus 4,776 12,393 14,337 11,792 36,837 43,136 1984-2012 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 20,809 24,558 36,344 48,050 54,131 71,918 1981-2012 Ethane/Ethylene 1983-1992 Propane/Propylene 15,501 19,264 30,925 39,860 45,243 62,490 1981-2012 Normal Butane/Butylene 5,308 5,294 5,419 8,189 8,888 9,428 1981-2012 Isobutane/Isobutylene 1984-1992 Other Liquids 32,049 23,477 23,625 44,514 67,981 78,359 1991-2012 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/ Other Hydrocarbons

489

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

571,552 300,900 1,523,608 673,109 268,869 -25,130 18,853 1,447,490 571,552 300,900 1,523,608 673,109 268,869 -25,130 18,853 1,447,490 89,370 1,757,194 287,201 Crude Oil 408,314 - - - - 633,223 292,624 -31,767 22,602 1,259,826 19,966 0 115,743 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 163,238 -6,037 44,417 27,019 -9,288 - - -4,496 38,476 40,729 144,640 43,693 Pentanes Plus 18,229 -6,037 - - 213 29,889 - - -1,599 11,319 36,827 -4,253 6,686 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 145,009 - - 44,417 26,806 -39,177 - - -2,897 27,157 3,902 148,893 37,007 Ethane/Ethylene 59,649 - - - 115 -39,435 - - -716 - - 21,045 3,590 Propane/Propylene 57,022 - - 39,605 21,464 -8,812 - - -1,114 - 580 109,813 22,020 Normal Butane/Butylene 17,564 - - 4,181 3,156 3,807 - - -1,354 10,449 3,322 16,291

490

Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

10,500 998 19,270 9,979 482 370 18,113 3,631 19,116 10,500 998 19,270 9,979 482 370 18,113 3,631 19,116 Crude Oil 7,794 - - - - 7,911 278 256 15,628 99 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2,707 -18 634 134 - - 101 560 465 2,331 Pentanes Plus 372 -18 - - 26 - - -23 189 100 114 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,334 - - 634 108 - - 124 371 365 2,217 Ethane/Ethylene 1,001 - - 13 0 - - -14 - - 1,027 Propane/Propylene 852 - - 575 87 - - 86 - 335 1,093 Normal Butane/Butylene 230 - - 58 11 - - 33 157 30 78 Isobutane/Isobutylene 253 - - -12 10 - - 19 214 - 18 Other Liquids - - 1,015 - - 1,337 296 304 1,926 219 199 Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons - - 1,015 - - 75 121 -36 1,129 118 0 Hydrogen - - - - - - 208 - - 208 0 - -

491

Controlled Vapor Phase Growth of Single Crystalline, Two-Dimensional GaSe Crystals with High Photoresponse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract Compared with their bulk counterparts, atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals exhibit new physical properties, and have the potential to enable next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, controlled synthesis of large uniform monolayer and multi-layer 2D crystals is still challenging. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of 2D GaSe crystals on SiO2/Si substrates using a vapor phase deposition method. For the first time, uniform, large (up to ~60 m in lateral size), single-crystalline, triangular monolayer GaSe crystals were obtained and their atomic resolution structure were characterized. The size, density, shape, thickness, and uniformity of the 2D GaSe crystals were shown to be controllable by growth duration, growth region, growth temperature, and argon carrier gas flow rate. The theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition and progressive confinement-induced bandgap shifts for 2D GaSe crystals. The 2D GaSe crystals show p-type semiconductor characteristics and high photoresponsivity (~1.7 A/W under white light illumination) comparable to exfoliated GaSe nanosheets. These 2D GaSe crystals are potentially useful for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors and field-effect transistors.

Li, Xufan [ORNL; Lin, Ming-Wei [ORNL; Zhang, Huidong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Ma, Cheng [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Yoon, Mina [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Effects of land use on surface–atmosphere exchanges of trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing fluxes over oil palm plantations and a rainforest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...27 November 2011 research-article Articles...trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing...boundary layer using a research aircraft in Sabah...exchange fluxes of energy and trace gases...Geophys. Res. Abstracts 12, EGU2010-15408...trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

,"Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030oh2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030oh2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:25 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030OH2" "Date","Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0 33312,0

495

,"Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030tn2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030tn2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 6:56:27 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","N9030TN2" "Date","Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)" 33253,0 33284,0