Sample records for refinery gas coke

  1. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  3. Method for processing coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

    1980-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke oven gas is subjected, immediately after the discharge thereof from coke ovens, and without any preliminary cooling operation or any purification operation other than desulfurization, to a catalytic cracking operation to form a hot cracked gas which is rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The catalytic cracking reaction is carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing and/or CO2-containing gas, with a steam reforming catalyst.

  4. Wireless Critical Process Control in oil and gas refinery plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Wireless Critical Process Control in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1, Sergio Guardiano control in in- dustrial plants and oil/gas refineries. In contrast to wireline communication, wireless of an oil refinery is illustrated in Fig. 1: typical locations of wireless devices used for re- mote control

  5. Flare Gas Recovery in Shell Canada Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, G. D.; Wey, R. E.; Chan, H. H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the flow properties for compressor selection? What controls should be incorporated? How much operator and maintenance effort will be required for safe, efficient operation? What kind of process and hardware problems should be watched for? When...? This paper will touch on all these issues. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION A schematic of a typical refinery flare gas recovery facility is shown in Figure I. The facilities include the following pieces of equipment: - compressor suction drum - compressor set...

  6. Refinery gas waste heat energy conversion optimization in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A.D.; Francuz, D.J.; West, E.W. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of refinery fuel gas in gas turbines poses special challenges due to the combustion characteristics of the fuel gas which contains significant concentrations of hydrogen. Proper modifications to the combustion system of the existing gas turbines are required in order to combust such fuel gas streams in gas turbines while minimizing the NO{sub x} emissions. A novel approach to the utilization of this hydrogen bearing fuel gas in gas turbines consists of humidifying the fuel gas with water vapor by direct contact with hot water in a counter-current column, the feed water to the humidifier being first circulated through the refinery to recover waste heat. The refinery waste heat produces additional motive fluid with a result that the waste heat is converted to power in the gas turbine. Furthermore, the water vapor introduced into the fuel gas reduces the NO{sub x} formation and increases the gas turbine output, while the hydrogen present in the fuel gas provides the flame stability required when combusting a fuel gas containing a large concentration of water vapor.

  7. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vari, J.

    Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams. This paper explores ways in which gas separation membranes are used in the refinery and petrochemical industries to recover and purify...

  9. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  10. Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

    normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

  11. Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

  12. New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

  13. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

  14. Problem of improving coke oven gas purification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldin, I.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discussion of the problems of improving desulfurization processes of coke oven gas was presented. Of particular interest were control systems and increasing capacity of the coke ovens. Included in the discussion were the vacuum-carbonate and arsenic-soda sulfur removal systems. Problems involved with these systems were the number of treatment operations, the volume of the reagents used, and the operation of equipment for naphthalene and cyanide removal.

  15. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  16. Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1 modeling approach is validated by experimental measurements in two oil refinery sites using industry and gas refinery sites are characterized by harsh environments where radio signals are prone to blockage

  17. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  18. Coke oven gas desulphurization by the Carl Still process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steubenville East Coke Plant need a desulfurization process that would desulfurize an eventual 95 million standard cubic feet per day of coke oven gas from an inlet of 450 gr/DSCF to an outlet of 45 gr/DSCF of hydrogen sulfide. The Dravo/Still plant process was selected, due to the use of ammonia which was available in the gas, as the absorbing agent. It was also a proven process. Dravo/Still also was capable of building a sulfuric acid plant. The desulfurization efficiency of the plant has consistently provided an average final gas sulfur loading below the guaranteed 45 gr/DSCF. This removal efficiency has enabled production of an average of 4615 tons per day of 66/sup 0/Be acid. Also SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 3/ conversion has averaged 98%. 3 figures. (DP)

  19. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  20. Coke Gasification - A Solution to Excess Coke Capacity and High Energy Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, S. S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effectively to produce medium-Btu (300 Btu/scf) gas which, in turn, can fuel the refinery furnaces to replace natural gas. Coke gasification should prove economical with natural gas price decontrol and the average price projected to rise to over $14.0 per...

  1. Coke Gasification - A Solution to Excess Coke Capacity and High Energy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, S. S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effectively to produce medium-Btu (300 Btu/scf) gas which, in turn, can fuel the refinery furnaces to replace natural gas. Coke gasification should prove economical with natural gas price decontrol and the average price projected to rise to over $14.0 per...

  2. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  3. X-ray evaluation of coke-oven gas line deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, Y.T.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of coke-oven gas pipeline deposits has been facilitated through the use of an X-ray technique that provides quantitative data without disrupting plant operations.

  4. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

  5. High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

  6. Takahax-Hirohax process for coke oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastwirth, H.; Miner, R.; Stengle, W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Takahax-Hirohax process to desulfurize coke oven gas and to produce an ammonium sulfate end product. A review is also made of current operating experience and recent technical developments. The Takahax-Hirohax process is extremely useful when the COG contains a suitable ammonia to sulfur ratio and when ammonium sulfate is a desirable end product. No contaminated effluent streams are emitted from the process. The process is simple, reliable, flexible, and responds easily to COG variations. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

  7. Desulphurization of coke oven gas by the Stretford Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plenderleith, J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Stretford process is probably the most effective means available for removing hydrogen sulphide from gas streams. For streams which do not contain hydrogen cyanide or excessive oxygen it should be nearly ideal. However, the large volume of waste liquor generated by fixation of hydrogen cyanide has prevented its widespread adoption for coke oven gas treatment. Investigations of various proposals for treating the waste liquor indicate that the only practicable way of dealing with it is by reductive incineration. Although attempts to apply the Peabody-Holmes reductive incineration process have been disappointing, significant progress in overcoming some of its deficiencies has been made. The Zimpro wet oxidation process will provide a convenient method of treating the HCN scrubber effluent at No. 1 Plant. However, it will not treat the sodium based liquor from the Stretford plant. Its application to Stretford waste treatment is limited to situations where ammonium liquors and ammonium sulphate recovery facilities are available. Commissioning of this plant has been delayed while a defect in the air compressor supplied for the plant is being remedied. When the problem of liquid effluent disposal has been overcome, and if reagent chemicals continue to be available at reasonable prices, the Stretford process will be a good choice for coke oven gas desulphurization. 8 figures.

  8. Method for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, H.

    1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved sulfur-ammonia process is disclosed for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases. In the improved process, a concentrator formerly used for standby operation is used at all normal times as an ammonia scrubber to improve the efficiency of gas separation during normal operation and is used as a concentrator for its intended standby functions during the alternative operations. In its normal function, the concentrator/scrubber functions as a scrubber to strip ammonia gas from recirculating liquid streams and to permit introduction of an ammonia-rich gas into a hydrogen sulfide scrubber to increase the separation efficiency of that unit. In the standby operation, the same concentrator/scrubber serves as a concentrator to concentrate hydrogen sulfide in a ''strong liquor'' stream for separate recovery as a strong liquor.

  9. Process for dissolving coke oven deposits comprising atomizing a composition containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone into the gas lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, M.L.; Nicholson, G.M.

    1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for cleaning gas lines in coke oven batteries comprising atomizing a composition into the gas lines of coke oven batteries, where the composition comprises N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

  10. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  11. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  12. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NOx emissions while also generating electricity at an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented....

  13. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  14. Use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marakhovskii, L.F.; Popov, A.A.; Rezunenko, Yu.I.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution which show that the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be recovered in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

  15. The use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marakhovskii, L.F.; Rezunenko, Y.I.; Popov, A.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution showed the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be used in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

  16. Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, E.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

  17. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  18. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  19. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  20. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, P.A.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

  2. Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, H.

    1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

  3. Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

  4. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  5. Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terza, R.R. (USS Clairton Works, PA (United States)); Sardesai, U.V. (Westfield Engineering and Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

  6. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. (Refining Consulting Services, Englewood, CO (US)); Roderick, D. (Western Slope Refining Co., Fruita, CO (US)); Nastri, A. (NATEC Resources Inc., Dallas, TX (US))

    1991-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  7. Summing up of discussion on improvement trends in coke-oven gas purification flowsheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemblevskii, K.K.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reference is made to a previously published article that included flowsheets for purification of coke-oven gas. It is concluded that the flowsheets for a process using arsenic-soda and vacuum-carbonate methods of sulfur removal in which the gas is cooled to 303-308/sup 0/K are seriously in error. Schemes involving minor refrigeration, sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method and ammonia recovery as ammonia liquor are seen as promising but in need of further improvement. One scheme discussed (the VUKhIN scheme) involves ammonia recovery by the circulating phosphate method and sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method is seen as a replacement for the minor refrigeration method. Since liquid ammonia consumption in agriculture is continually increasing, schemes that result in production of liquid ammonia rather than ammonia liquor should be seriously considered.

  8. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  9. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coke calcination is a process that involves the heating of green petroleum coke in order to remove volatile material and purify the coke for further processing. Calcined coke is vital to the...

  10. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasHeating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasRefueling in China Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of How the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, K.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of how the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR Kelly Patrick U.S. Environmental Protection Agency kelly...

  12. SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

  13. ,"U.S. Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected Petroleum Products"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected Petroleum

  14. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

  15. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

  16. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 1, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

  17. Refinery Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Leveraging existing refining infrastructure potentially reduces costs for biofuel production but we first need to understand the impacts Petroleum Refinery Picture courtesy...

  18. Development and introduction of methods for extracting hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, M.S.; Zaichenko, V.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress between 1933 and the present in desulfurizing coal gas from coke ovens and making use of the by-products to produce sulfuric acid, thioyanates, etc. is described. The vacuum carbonate process and the monoethanolamine method are apparently now preferred, but some plants are still using modified arsenic-soda processes. More recently additional by-products have been thiocyanates (for producing acrylonitrile fiber) and hydrogen xanthanates. The production of other organic sulfur and cyanide compounds has been investigated for use as herbicides, corrosion inhibitors, etc. (LTN)

  19. Influence of technological factors on statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the ammonia process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarov, V.G.; Kamennykh, B.M.; Rus'yanov, N.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic technological factors that determine the effectiveness of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the cyclic ammonia process are the initial H/sub 2/S content of the gas, the degree of purification, the absorption temperature and the NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ contents of the absorbent solution. The effects of these factors on the statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption are studied. The investigation is based on the phase-equilibrium distributions of components in the absorption-desorption gas-cleaning cycle. The mathematical model is presented which includes the solution of a system of chemical equilibrium equations for reactions in the solution, material balances, and electrical neutrality. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  20. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwasnoski, D.

    1993-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Work on this coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project (CCT-II) this quarter has been focused on Phase IIB tasks, and include engineering, procurement, construction, and training. Additionally, plans for changes in the operating schedule of the coke plant that affect the demonstration project are described. Engineering efforts are nearly complete. Remaining to be finalized is an assessment of electrical heat tracing/insulation needs for pipe lines, assessment of fire protection requirements, and instrument modifications. Procurement of all major equipment items is complete, except for possible additions to fire fighting capabilities. Major focus is on expediting pipe and structural steel to the project site. Civil construction is complete except for minor pads and bases as required for pipe supports, etc. Erection of the hydrogen sulfide and ammonia scrubber vessels is complete. Installation of scrubber vessel internals is underway. A subcontractor has been retained to develop a computerized program for operations and maintenance training for the coke oven gas treatment plant. Recent developments in the coke plant operating plans will result in reductions in the rate of production of coke oven gas to be processed in the demonstration project.

  1. Trends in the automation of coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  2. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasPower Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Total ConsumptionHeating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries Gas

  3. Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

  4. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  5. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries Gas Works Gas Works -Gas Petroleum Other Products Refinery Production by ProductGas Petroleum Other Products Refinery Gas Consumption Total

  6. Multiperiod Refinery Planning Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Multiperiod Refinery Planning Optimization with Nonlinear CDU Models Abdulrahman Alattas, Advisor #12;Refinery Planning Model Development 2 Extension to Multiperiod Planning #12;3 Multiperiod Refinery: refinery configuration Determine · What crude oil to process and in which time period? · The quantities

  7. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel Oil Fuel Oil LPG Refinery Gas Other PetroleumPipelines. All still gas/refinery gas in China is reportedlubricants petroleum coke refinery feedstock still gas/

  8. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  9. Refinery Fuel Balancing with Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passman, K. W.; Taylor, R. I.; Williams, D. E.; Emanuel, D.

    in order to tie-in during a scheduled refinery wide turnaround and to be on line during the summer 1990 operating period. The two gas turbines exhaust to two existing boilers where the oxygen in the turbine exhaust is utilized for combustion. Supplementary...

  10. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  11. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 3, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  12. Delayed coking of decant oil and coal in a laboratory-scale coking unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oemer Guel; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute, C205 Coal Utilization Laboratory

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we describe the development of a laboratory-scale delayed coker and present results of an investigation on the recovered liquid from the coking of decant oil and decant oil/coal mixtures. Using quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, a study was made of the chemical composition of the distillate liquids isolated from the overheads collected during the coking and co-coking process. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses of combined liquids from coking and co-coking did not show any substantial differences. These NMR results of coking and co-coking liquids agree with those of GC/MS. In these studies, it was observed that co-coking with coal resulted in a decrease in the paraffins contents of the liquid. The percentage of cycloparaffins, indenes, naphthalenes, and tetralins did not change significantly. In contrast, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate were higher in the co-coking experiments which may have resulted from the distillation of thermally cracked coal macromolecules and the contribution of these molecules to the overall liquid composition. 40 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas petroleum waxes coking coal t C/TJ other bituminous coalprocesses of coal washing, coking, petroleum refineries, gaslosses include coal washing, coking, petroleum refining, gas

  14. Heat treatment of exchangers to remove coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating the furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas containing molecular oxygen at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F (427{degrees}C) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of five thousand pounds per square inch.

  15. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  17. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  18. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeder, W.R. [Teck Corp. (Canada); Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  19. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J. III.

    1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for recycling of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a relatively high oil content sludge and a relatively high water content sludge; introducing the high oil content sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  20. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 3. Engineering development. Annual report, April 1, 1995--May 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C; Gaddy, J.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refineries discharge large volumes of H2, CO, and CO 2 from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This R&D program seeks to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol for blending with gasoline. A 200,000 BPD refinery could produce up to 38 million gallons ethanol per year. The program is being conducted in 3 phases: II, technology development; III, engineering development; and IV, demonstration. Phase I, exploratory development, has been completed. The research effort has yielded two strains (Isolates O-52 and C-01) which are to be used in the pilot studies to produce ethanol from CO, CO2, and H2 in petroleum waste gas. Results from single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) laboratory tests have shown that 20-25 g/L ethanol can be produced with < 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Laboratory studies with two CSTRs in series have yielded ethanol concentrations of 30-35 g/L with 2-4 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Water recycle from distillation back to the fermenter shows that filtration of the water before distillation eliminates the recycle of toxic materials back to the fermenter. Product recovery in the process will use direct distillation to the azeotrope, followed by adsorption to produce neat ethanol. This is less energy intensive than e.g. solvent extraction, azeotropic distillation, or pervaporation. Economic projections are quite attractive; the economics are refinery stream dependent and thus vary depending on refinery location and operation.

  1. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J.

    1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for disposing of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a first sludge and a second sludge, the first sludge being of high oil content relative to the second sludge and the second sludge being of high water content relative to the first sludge; dewatering the first, high oil content sludge; introducing the dewatered sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed coking conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the second, high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  2. Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

  3. Method for removal of furfural coke from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating ship furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas with a total pressure of less than 100 psig containing molecular oxygen. The gas being at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F. (427{degrees}C.) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of about 5000 psi.

  4. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  5. Refinery Energy Profiling Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, R. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a four-step procedure developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy for preparing energy profiles for a refinery, for a single unit, or for an individual piece of equipment. The four steps are preparation, data...

  6. Refinery Energy Profiling Procedure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, R. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a four-step procedure developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy for preparing energy profiles for a refinery, for a single unit, or for an individual piece of equipment. The four steps are preparation, data...

  7. Met coke world summit 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: industry overview and market outlook; coke in the Americas; the global coke industry; and new developments. All the papers (except one) only consist of a copy of the overheads/viewgraphs.

  8. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E. [British Steel plc, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom). Scunthorpe Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  9. Coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  10. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  11. Tenneco revamps chalmette refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heck, W.E.; Ragsdale, R.

    1985-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A major expansion and modernization project has been completed at Tenneco Oil Co.'s Chalmette, La. refinery, which is on the outskirts of New Orleans. The $559 million project, called the Chalmette heavy oil processing program, included revamps and construction of new units. These new and modified facilities have increased the crude oil capacity of the refinery by 30,000 b/d to 127,000 b/d. Gasoline and/or middle distillate output potential has also been lifted by 30,000 b/d. Numerous studies were made and economic cases worked to determine the process configuration and selection for the project. These conclusions varied depending on the raw material chosen as the feedstock (crude source). The configuration finally chosen was driven by the decision to be able to process high metals crudes from around the world.

  12. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  13. Analysis Patterns for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Zhen; Guangzhen Shao

    We present analysis patterns to describe the structure of oil refineries. The Refinery Produc tion Unit Pattern describes the structure of units and unit groups. The Oil Storage Pattern describes the structure of tanks and tank groups. The Oil Delivery Pattern describes the structure of stations for import and export of oil. The Production Process Pattern describes the productionprocess. The audience for this paper includes analysts, designers, and programmers who are involved in developing Refinery Information Systems.

  14. Conversion of high carbon refinery by-products. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katta, S.; Henningsen, G.; Lin, Y.Y.; O`Donnell, J.

    1996-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate that a partial oxidation system, which utilizes a transport reactor, is a viable means of converting refinery wastes, byproducts, and other low value materials into valuable products. The primary product would be a high quality fuel gas, which could also be used as a source of hydrogen. The concept involves subjecting the hydrocarbon feed to pyrolysis and steam gasification in a circulating bed of solids. Carbon residue formed during pyrolysis, as well as metals in the feed, are captured by the circulating solids which are returned to the bottom of the transport reactor. Air or oxygen is introduced in this lower zone and sufficient carbon is burned, sub-stoichiometrically, to provide the necessary heat for the endothermic pyrolysis and gasification reactions. The hot solids and gases leaving this zone pass upward to contact the feed material and continue the gasification process. The Transport Reactor Test Unit (TRTU) was commissioned to conduct studies on pyrolysis of Rose Bottoms using spent FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) catalyst as the circulating medium and gasification of this carbon over a temperature range of 1,600 to 1,700 F. The Rose Bottoms (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) was produced in the Rose unit. Studies were done in the Bench Scale Reactor Unit (BRU) to develop suitable catalyst formulations and to study the steam reforming of methane and propane in support of the experiments to be conducted in the TRTU. Studies were also conducted on gasification of coke breeze, petroleum cokes and carbon deposited on FCC catalyst. The catalytic effect of potassium on gasification of these solids was studied. Studies were conducted in the CFS (cold flow simulator) to investigate flow problems experienced in the TRTU. Results from these studies are presented in this report.

  15. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  16. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal mining, petroleum extraction and refining, coking, andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking and

  17. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  18. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  19. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April 25, 20137a.06 2.013 1.673Refinery

  20. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) - HouseholdshortEIA-782A andS FRecord U.S. oilRefinery1

  1. COKEMASTER: Coke plant management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanning, J.; Reinke, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To keep coke utilization in ironmaking as competitive as possible, the potential to improve the economics of coke production has to be utilized. As one measure to meet this need of its customers, Krupp Koppers has expanded its existing ECOTROL computer system for battery heating control to a comprehensive Coke Plant Management System. Increased capacity utilization, lower energy consumption, stabilization of plant operation and ease of operation are the main targets.

  2. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. for Cokemaking and Fuel Technology; Hofherr, K. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  3. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  4. Hulett's South African Refineries Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. P. Jennings

    The improvement in the quality of raw sugars sent to Hulett's Refinery during the three seasons, 1963164 to 1965166, was the subject of a paper presented to this association last year. (1) These

  5. Encon Motivation in European Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambera, S.; Lockett, W., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One essential element in a successful energy conservation or Encon program is effective motivation of employees and organizations to conserve energy. Encon motivation in our European refineries is a continuing effort that requires utilization...

  6. Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  7. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  8. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  9. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  10. Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in RefineryCDU Models in Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in RefineryCDU Models in Refinery Planning Optimization Carnegie Mellon University EWO Meeting ­ March 2011 1 #12;I t d tiIntroduction Refinery production planning models Optimizing refinery operation C d l ti Crude selection Maximizing profit; minimizing cost

  11. Retrofitting analysis of integrated bio-refineries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cormier, Benjamin R.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    the economic performance of fossil-based facilities can be enhanced by retrofitting and incorporation of bio-mass feedstocks. These systems can be regarded as bio-refineries or integrated fossilbio- refineries. This work presents a retrofitting analysis...

  12. Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Reforming Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon...

  13. A Texas Refinery Success Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kacsur, D.

    A Texas Refinery Success Story Dennis Kacsur Spirax Sarco Common knowledge rules that maintenance is the key to long-lasting machinery performance. Yet steam traps are often left to their own devices, to fail or succeed alone. And without... steam trap programs, plants are certain to experience a high failure rate. An oil refinery in Texas was continuously experiencing a high failure rate on its 4,790-steam trap system. Finally, the steam losses were judged to be too high, and plant...

  14. Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in Refinery Planning Optimization Abdulrahman Alattas, Advisor #12;Refinery Planning Model Development Fixed-yieldModels SwingcutsModels LPPlanningModels Aggregate for the CDU #12;Planning Model Example Typical Refinery Configuration (Adapted from Aronofsky, 1978) Cat Ref

  15. International Journal of Chemistry; 2013[02] ISSN 2306-6415 Preservation Ways and Energy Consumption in Oil Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Samimi

    Abstract: Preservation increase and energy return is one of the effective tools in saving. Studies show that energy consumption for each productive crude oil barred is dependence on the refinery complicated in reconfiguration of forge. Energy recovery increase in refinery over time that is due to economic factors like consumption fuel increase, it means that return increase is consistent with fuel price. It developed use of crude oil capability, distillation products in modern refinery. Modern refinery recovery dead to 10 to 15 % saving in energy consumption, Modern refinery.can developed energy return in several ways such as: Thermal exchange increase between processes streams, effective hydro exchange in process units, use of heaters with high thermal return and use of gas turbines with preheated air and produce steam of waste thermal. This paper investigates management ways and energy consumption recovery in different parts of oil refinery.

  16. Biomass Gas Cleanup Using a Therminator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Dayton; Atish Kataria; Rabhubir Gupta

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate a novel fluidized-bed process module called a �¢����Therminator�¢��� to simultaneously destroy and/or remove tar, NH3 and H2S from raw syngas produced by a fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. The raw syngas contains as much as 10 g/m3 of tar, 4,000 ppmv of NH3 and 100 ppmv of H2S. The goal of the Therminator module would be to use promising regenerable catalysts developed for removing tar, ammonia, and H2S down to low levels (around 10 ppm). Tars are cracked to a non-condensable gas and coke that would deposit on the acid catalyst. We will deposit coke, much like a fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) in a petroleum refinery. The deposited coke fouls the catalyst, much like FCC, but the coke would be burned off in the regenerator and the regenerated catalyst would be returned to the cracker. The rapid circulation between the cracker and regenerator would ensure the availability of the required amount of regenerated catalyst to accomplish our goal. Also, by removing sulfur down to less than 10 ppmv, NH3 decomposition would also be possible in the cracker at 600-700���°C. In the cracker, tar decomposes and lays down coke on the acid sites of the catalyst, NH3 is decomposed using a small amount of metal (e.g., nickel or iron) catalyst incorporated into the catalyst matrix, and H2S is removed by a small amount of a metal oxide (e.g. zinc oxide or zinc titanate) by the H2S-metal oxide reaction to form metal sulfide. After a tolerable decline in activity for these reactions, the catalyst particles (and additives) are transported to the regenerator where they are exposed to air to remove the coke and to regenerate the metal sulfide back to metal oxide. Sulfate formation is avoided by running the regeneration with slightly sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen. Following regeneration, the catalyst is transported back to the cracker and the cycling continues. Analogous to an FCC reactor system, rapid cycling will allow the use of very active cracking catalysts that lose activity due to coking within the order of several seconds.

  17. Methods applied to investigate the major VCE that occured in the TOTAL refinery's Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit at La Mede,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    95-35 Methods applied to investigate the major Ă?VCE that occured in the TOTAL refinery's Fluid.V.C.E, occured in the Gas Plant of the TOTAL refinery's Fluid Catalytic Cracking ĂĽnit at La Mede, France

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  19. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  20. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  1. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  2. Exergy Analysis of the Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery and Evaluation with New Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaei, H.; Taheri, R.; Arghandeh, R.

    oil refinery, Exergy Analysis, Steam Network, Retrofit, Optimization 1. INTRODUCTION Refinery steam network is considered as a unit that consumes energy greatly. The main objective of the network is to produce the steam, which is required...) Using heat recovery steam generating systems and gas turbines instead of old boilers and so on. Figure 1 shows the opportunities of optimization in steam networks. in this paper, we complete the lost works such as optimization and estimation...

  3. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

  4. Teamwork in planning and carrying out the first inspection of the coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant of the Kaiserstuhl Coking Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchardt, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant Kaiserstuhl operates a coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant with a downstream installed waste heat boiler to satisfy statutory pollution control rules and requirements. This CDQ which went on stream in March 1993 cools the whole coke production output from the Kaiserstuhl coke plant in counterflow to an inert cooling gas. This brief overview on the whole CDQ plant should elucidate the complex of problems posed when trying to make an exact plant revision plan. After all it was impossible to evaluate or to assess all the interior process technology relevant components during the planning stage as the plant was in operation. The revision data for the first interior check was determined and fixed by the statutory rule for steam boilers and pressure vessels. The relevant terms for this check are mandatorily prescribed. In liaison with the testing agency (RW TUEV) the date for the first revision was fixed for April 1995, that means two years after the first commissioning.

  5. Method and apparatus for quenching coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calderon, A.

    1980-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for controlling pollutions during the discharge of coke from a coke oven having a pusher side and a coke discharge opening. The method comprises the steps of moving a carriage into alignment with the coke discharge opening, pushing a body of hot coke out of the discharge opening of the oven, guiding the coke pushed from the oven into a chamber supported on said carriage, quenching the coke by directing liquid at coke which is pushed into said chamber for dropping the temperature of the coke, confining steam and vapor generated during the dropping of the temperature of the coke in the chamber for building a positive pressure within the chamber, forcing the steam and vapors generated from the quenching of the coke out of the chamber through a venturi-like opening by means of the positive pressure built up in the chamber, and spraying liquid at the gases forced through said venturi-like opening by the positive pressure in the chamber for cleaning the gases.

  6. Fluidized bed controls refinery emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulally, I.F.; Kersey, B.R.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 1983, two fluidized bed, waste heat boilers entered into service at the Ashland Petroleum Company refinery site in Ashland, Kentucky. These fluidized bed units are coupled to the regeneration end of a newly developed reduced crude conversion (RCC) process and served the purpose of reducing CO, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions while recuperating waste heat from the regenerator process off gases.

  7. The nature and formation of coke in the reaction of methanol to hydrocarbons over chabazite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Kenneth Woot

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    45 Figure 9. Relationship between enhanced coke formation with increasing yields of paraffins and diminishing yields of olefins 46 Figure 10. Gas chromatogram of the concentrated carbon tetrachloride extract of spent catalyst pellets . . . 49...THE NATURE ABD FORMATION OF COKE IB THE REACTIOB OF METHANOL TO HIDROCARBOBS OVER CHABAZITE A Thesis KENNETH WOOT MCLAUGHLLN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM Univers ty partial. fulfillment nf the req~nt fo~he degree of MASTER...

  8. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A DOE/PETC funded study was conducted to examine the use of a liquid phase mixed alcohol synthesis (LPMAS) plant to produce gasoline blending ethers. The LPMAS plant was integrated into three utilization scenarios: a coal fed IGCC power plant, a petroleum refinery using coke as a gasification feedstock, and a standalone natural gas fed partial oxidation plant. The objective of the study was to establish targets for the development of catalysts for the LPMAS reaction. In the IGCC scenario, syngas conversions need only be moderate because unconverted syngas is utilized by the combined cycle system. A once through LPMAS plant achieving syngas conversions in the range of 38--49% was found to be suitable. At a gas hourly space velocity of 5,000 sL/Kg-hr and a methanol:isobutanol selectivity ratio of 1.03, the target catalyst productivity ranges from 370 to 460 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the petroleum refinery scenario, high conversions ({approximately}95%) are required to avoid overloading the refinery fuel system with low Btu content unconverted syngas. To achieve these high conversions with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas, a recycle system was required (because of the limit imposed by methanol equilibrium), steam was injected into the LPMAS reactor, and CO{sub 2} was removed from the recycle loop. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 265 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the standalone LPMAS scenario, essentially complete conversions are required to achieve a fuel balanced plant. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 285 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. The economics of this scenario are highly dependent on the cost of the natural gas feedstock and the location of the plant. For all three case scenarios, the economics of a LPMAS plant is marginal at current ether market prices. Large improvements over demonstrated catalyst productivity and alcohol selectivity are required.

  9. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's commercially proved technology to recover oil from the Athabasca oil sands, as practiced by Suncor and Syncrude, involves two major operations, namely: separation of the bitumen from the sand and upgrading of the bitumen to refinery oil. Significant amounts of petroleum coke are produced during the bitumen upgrading process. Suncor burns the bulk of its petroleum coke in boilers to fulfill the energy requirements of the entire operation, still meeting government regulations restricting the amount of sulfur dioxide that can be released to the environment. In contrast, Syncrude is able to burn only 20% of its coke production because of high sulphur dioxide emissions from elsewhere in its operations. The boiler ash (Fly ash) which contains appreciable amounts of metals, such as vanadium, nickel, titianium, iron, aluminum and other elements, is collected in the boiler hoppers and cyclones of the petroleum coke fired steam generation plants. There has been relatively little effort made towards the understanding of the chemical or physical nature of these materials. Knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of these materials will be helpful in assessing their beneficiation and potential use as fuel or metallurigcal coke and the feasibility of extracting some metals, especially Ni and V. In this communication the authors report studies of acid demineralization as a means of reducing ash content of these materials for /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  10. Refinery Production Planning: Multiperiod MINLP with Nonlinear CDU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Refinery Production Planning: Multiperiod MINLP with Nonlinear CDU Model-Rivera (2011) developed a single-period, nonlinear programing refinery planning model production, distribution, sales and inventory management1,2. The refinery

  11. Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work Planning and Control is Not Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work Planning and Control...

  12. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters -...

  13. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  14. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  15. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  16. Estimating Coke and Pepsi's price and advertising strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golan, Amos; Karp, Larry; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI’ PRICE S AND ADVERTISINGAdvertising Strategies: Coke and Pepsi) by Amos Golan, LarryMarch 1999 Estimating Coke and Pepsi’s Price and Advertising

  17. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  18. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  19. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  20. Simulation of industrial coking -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todoschuk, T.W.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two statistically designed experimental programs using an Appalachian and a Western Canadian coal blend were run in CANMET`s 460mm (18 inch) movable wall oven. Factors included coal grind, moisture, oil addition, carbonization rate and final coke temperature. Coke quality parameters including CSR, coal charge characteristics and pressure generation were analyzed.

  1. Recent trends in refinery hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitani, A.M.; Siddiqui, M.A.B. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Refiners are experiencing a rise in hydrogen requirements to improve product quality and process heavy sour crudes. Fuel reformulation has disrupted refinery hydrogen balance in two ways: more hydrogen is needed for hydroprocessing and less hydrogen is coproduced from catalytic naphtha reforming. The purpose of this paper is to review trends in maximizing refinery hydrogen production by modifications and alternatives to the conventional steam methane reforming, recovery from refinery off gases and {open_quote}across-the-fence{close_quote} hydrogen supply. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  3. Upgrade Your Refinery for Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnnie, D. H., Jr.; Klooster, H. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Upgrading existing refineries for efficient energy utilization imposes strict restraints upon design engineers. Present and future production requirements must be defined. Reliable operating data must be obtained from historical records and test...

  4. Making Refinery Wastewater Clean | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Refinery Wastewater Clean Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on...

  5. Retrofitting analysis of integrated bio-refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cormier, Benjamin R.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    to integrated bio-refineries. Focus is given to the problem of process modification to an existing plant by considering capacity expansion and material substitution with biomass feedstocks. Process integration studies were conducted to determine cost...

  6. Application of Pinch Technology in Refinery Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, W. R.; Siegell, J. H.; Sideropoulos, T.; Robertson, J. L.; Papoulias, S. A.

    APPLICATION OF PINCH TECHNOLOGY IN REFINERY RETROFITS W. R. L. Thomas, J. H. Siegell, T. Sideropoulos, J. L. Robertson, S. A. Papoulias Exxon Research and Engineering Company Florham Park, New Jersey ABSTRACT This paper reviews... the application of pinch technology in the identification of the most attractive retrofit prospects in typical refineries. In the first part of the paper, methodology is described to identify attractive inter-unit heat integration opportunities as well...

  7. Monitoring and Management of Refinery Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelham, R. O.; Moriarty, R. D.; Hudgens, P. D.

    MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT OF REFINERY ENERGY CONSUMPTION Roger O. Pelham Richard D. Moriarty Patrie D. Hudgens Profimatics, Inc. Thousand Oaks, California ABSTRACT Since 1972, the u.s. refining industry has made much progress in reduci... ng energy consumption. Lately, falling energy prices have de-emphasized the need to appropriate new capital for additional energy conservation projects. One area neglected in most refineries is the need to monitor and man age the daily use...

  8. Refinery siting workbook: appendices A and B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this effort is to develop and provide basic refinery-related information for use by state and local government officials as a basis for establishing responsible refinery siting requirements and policies consistent with the federal clean air and water standards and socio-economic concerns. The report will be organized into two volumes. The main text comprises the basic topics of physical concerns, regulatory requirements, and permitting activities, while the second volume includes the detailed appendix materials such as the applicable laws, and the necessary permits, as available and a glossary of pertinent terms. As a means to this objective, three refinery sizes, 200,000, 100,000 and 30,000 barrels per day crude charge will be discussed in technical terms. Process unit configuration will be presented which will maximize either gasoline or heating oil production with either sweet or sour crude oil feedstocks. The major issues affecting the socio-economic impact of siting the refinery in a given locale will be presented. These data will review the factors affecting the human environment and the issues that must be addressed to assess the impact that a refinery will have on a community. The key federal registrations which impact upon a refinery siting decision shall be reviewed. Summaries of these regulations and a simplified decision diagram for the air and water acts shall be presented to assist both government and refinery officials in understanding the scope of regulatory impact. All pertinent procedures required for refinery permitting shall be reviewed under the generalized headings of air, water, health and safety, land use, and miscellaneous permits. This categorization at the federal, state and local levels of government shall be used as a basis for establishing degrees of emphasis.

  9. Soot and SO[subscript 2] contribution to the supersites in the MILAGRO campaign from elevated flares in the Tula Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molina, Luisa Tan

    This work presents a simulation of the plume trajectory emitted by flaring activities of the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery in Mexico. The flame of a representative sour gas flare is modeled with a CFD combustion code in order ...

  10. New and revised standards for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  11. Mozambique becomes a major coking coal exporter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffini, A.

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to its potential role as a major international supplier of coking coal, Mozambique will also become a major source of power generation for southern Africa. 3 figs.

  12. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  13. Design, construction and start-up of a modern coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.E.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planning and design of a 60-oven, 6m replacement coke battery and associated by-products plant for Republic Steel Corp, Chicago, are described together with the constructional methods used and problems experienced through start-up of the facility. Pushing emission control is achieved with a Mitsubishi-type land-based system and changing emission control with a Nippon Steel combination car and land-based system. A Takahax-Hirohax coke-oven gas desulphurization unit is included in the by-product plant. Construction began in March 1979 with the first push in December 1981.

  14. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A. [National Steel Corp., Granite City, IL (United States). Granite City Div.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  15. Kyrgyzstan starts up its first refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLeod, G. [Petrofac LLC, Tyler, TX (United States)

    1997-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan started up its first oil refinery in October 1996. The 10,000 b/d plant is designed to produce gasoline, diesel, and mazut (heavy fuel oil) from local Kyrgyz crude. Before construction of the Jalalabad refinery, all finished petroleum products were imported from neighboring countries. Kyrgyzstan`s demand for finished products is about 40,000 b/d. The new refinery was designed and constructed by Petrofac of Tyler, Texas, on behalf of Kyrgoil Corp., Calgary. Kyrgoil is a partner with the Kyrgyz state oil company, Kyrgyzsneft, in a venture called Kyrzgyz Petroleum Co. (KPC). KPC has undertaken restoration and continued development of the oil fields in Kyrgyzstan`s Fergana basin, in addition to the refinery project. The company also has marketing rights for finished products within Kyrgyzstan. The refinery comprises: a hydroskimming (atmospheric distillation) section, diesel steam stripping, gasoline blending, and utilities and off-sites, including steam generation, power generation, tank farm, truck and rail tank-car loading and unloading facilities, crude inlet pipeline, high-voltage power line, substation, air compression, laboratory, and maintenance facilities.

  16. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  17. Unmanned operation of the coke guides at Hoogovens IJmuiden Coke Plant 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, D.; Mannes, N.; Poppema, B. [Hoogovens IJmuiden B.V. (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the bad condition of batteries and many ovens under repair, Hoogovens was forced to partially repair and rebuild the Coke plant No. 1. The production of coke at Coke plant No. 1 is realized in 3 production blocks subdivided in 6 batteries. Besides a renovated installation, all coke oven machines were renewed. A total of five identical machine sets are available. Each consists of a pusher machine, larry car, coke guide and quench car with diesel locomotive. A complete automated control system was implemented. The main objectives were a highly regular coking and pushing process, automated traveling and positioning and a centrally coordinated interlocking of machine functions. On each operational machine however an operator performed the supervisory control of the automated machine functions. After years of good experience with the automated system, economical reasons urged further personnel reduction from 1994 on. Totally 375 people were involved, including the maintenance department. To reduce the occupation at coke plant No. 1, the coke guide was the first machine to be fully automated because of the isolated and uncomfortable working place.

  18. Survey and assessment of the effects of nonconventional gases on gas distribution equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasionowski, W.J.; Scott, M.I.; Gracey, W.C.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature search and a survey of the gas industry were conducted to assess potential problems in the distribution of nonconventional gases. Available literature did not uncover data that would describe potential problems or substantiate the presence of harmful trace elements in final gas compositions produced from various SNG processes. Information from the survey indicates that some companies have encountered problems with nonconventional gases and extraneous additives such as landfill gas, refinery off-gases, oil gas, carbureted water gas, coke-oven gas, propane-air, and compressor lubricant oils. These nonconventional gases and compressor oils may 1) cause pipeline corrosion, 2) degrade some elastomeric materials and greases and affect the integrity of seals, gaskets, O-rings, and meter and regulator diaphragms, and 3) cause operational and safety problems. The survey indicated that 62% of the responding companies plan to use supplemental gas, with most planning on more than one type. Distribution companies intend to significantly increase their use of polyethylene piping from 11.6% in 1980 to 22.4% in 2000 for gas mains and from 33.4% to 50.3% in 2000 for gas service lines.

  19. Steam System Management Program Yields Fuel Savings for Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, L. D.; Hagan, K. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Phillips refinery at Borger, Texas, determined the need to develop a utility monitoring system. Shortly after this commitment was made, the refinery was introduced to a flowsheet modeling program that could be used to model and optimize steam...

  20. Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Software communications integrated into refinery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodpaster, R.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1989-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashland Oil Co. is integrating software communications, using real-time data, into the computerized information system at its Catlettsburg, Ky., refinery. The Ashland real-time information system (Artis) was designed to improve timeliness and accuracy of yield accounting to the refinery, and to standardize software communications between applications. With the system, real-time data are collected in a central data server and used to feed normal data reconciliation software for validation. This part of the system has been successfully implemented. Standardization of software communications is still under design, but most of the communication paths have been defined because a highly evolved information system already exists at the refinery. And efforts are under way to integrate information from the process to optimization.

  2. Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha , Kevin C at the front-end of a petroleum refinery. The model relies on a continuous time representation making use-412-268-7139. Email address: grossmann@cmu.edu (I.E. Grossmann) #12;2 Keywords: Refinery scheduling; Nonconvex MINLP

  3. Allocation of Energy Use LCA Case Studies LCA Case Studies Allocation of Energy Use in Petroleum Refineries to Petroleum Products Implications for Life-Cycle Energy Use and Emission Inventory of Petroleum Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Wang; Hanjie Lee; John Molburg

    Aim, Scope, and Background. Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differences associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products

  4. Fuel Effects on a Low-Swirl Injector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlejohn, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equivalent to those from landfill gas to liquified petroleumlandfill and biomass fuels, H 2 -enriched CH 4 to simulate refinery gas

  5. Determinants of HR Effectiveness and Refinery Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaine Mccormick; Gary C. Mcmahan; W. Scott Sherman; Patrick M. Wright; Patrick M. Wright; Gary C. Mcmahan; Blaine Mccormick; W. Scott Sherman

    This paper has not undergone formal review or approval of the faculty of the ILR School. It is intended to make results of Center research available to others interested in preliminary form to encourage discussion and suggestions. Page 1SHRM and Refinery Performance WP 97-16 Strategy, Core Competence and HR Involvement as

  6. Refinery siting workbook: appendices C to O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applicable laws and permits available for the selection and building of petroleum refineries are enclosed. A glossary of pertinent terms is also included. References related to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substance Control Act, and Wetlands and Coastal Zone are included. Permit information is also presented. (DC)

  7. Working Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    Working Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE AND ADVERTISING STRATEGIES (formerly Estimating Firms'Mixed Price and Advertising Strategies: Coke and Pepsi) by Amos Golan, Larry S. Karp. #12;Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan* Larry S. Karp** Jeffrey M

  8. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L. [Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  9. Process for treatment of residual gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolden, K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

  10. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  11. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  12. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  13. ,"U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant StocksPetroleum

  14. Converting Petroleum Coke to Electricity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will compete economically with conventional coal and nature gas, both of which are currently experiencing low prices. Pipeline quality natural gas at the well is selling on average for $1.50 IM- Btu, while cleaned coal at the mine is under $1.00/M... pneumatically into the firebox. Supplementary fuel (10%) would be necessary to ignite the process. and be required continuously to maintain flame stability Firebox temperatues would average 2000-2500 degF. Air would be introduced at several different stages...

  15. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  16. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  17. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  18. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  19. Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, R. J.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

  20. Coking properties of perhydrous low-rank vitrains. Influence of pyrolysis conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    generally lead to increased coking potential of coals characterised in the resulting cokes by large sizes equivalent to natural coking coals, since the cokes from these residues are always made of smaller MOD than those obtained for coking coals. For comparison, a similar characterisation, carried out

  1. Projection and Reaction for Decision Support in Refineries: Combining Multiple Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krebsbach, Kurt D.

    Projection and Reaction for Decision Support in Refineries: Combining Multiple Theories Kurt D system to provide decision support for refinery operations personnel (Krebsbach & Musliner 1997; Musliner to provide sufficiently flexible decision support in complex environments. Background: Refinery Control

  2. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P. [BHP Research, Mulgrave (Australia). Melbourne Labs.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K. [BHP Steel, Pt Kembla, New South Wales (Australia). Coal and Coke Technical Development Group

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  3. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  4. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  5. U.S. Refinery Net Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.0949,797.6(MillionRefinery3,028,561- - -

  6. Method of operating a coal predrying and heating plant in connection with a coking plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bocsanczy, J.; Knappstein, J.; Stalherm, D.

    1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing and delivering coal to a coking plant comprises conveying the coal to the plant on a moving conveyor while an inert combustion gas is directed over the coal being conveyed. The combustion gas is generated by burning a fuel with air to produce a substantially inert combustion gas which is passed over the coal during its conveying and, thereafter, passed through a cooler for removing the moisture which has been picked up from the coal by the gas. The heating and predrying inert gases are advantageously generated by the direct combustion of air and fuel which are passed through flash dryer tubes and one or more separate separator systems and then delivered into a conveyor pipeline through which the coal is conveyed. A portion of the gases which are generated are also directed with a return gas to a filter for removal of any coal therefrom and to a cooler for removing the moisture picked up from the coal and then back into the stream for delivery to the conveyor for the coal. The inert gas may also be a gas which is circulated in heat exchange relationship with combustion gases which are generated by a combustion of the coal itself. In such a system, a portion of the combustion gases generated are also passed through a condenser or cooler and the cooled and dried waste gases are circulated over the coal being conveyed to the coking oven or its bunkers.

  7. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

  8. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  9. Syncrude coke burned in bubbling fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Syncrude Canada Ltd.'s byproduct coke is high in sulfur (7%) and vanadium (0.2%), and moderate in ash (5.9%). It contains a high proportion of unreactive forms of carbon and is low in volatiles, 6.6%. It is unsuitable for combustion by established technologies, and at present the entire production of over 2000 tons per day is being stockpiled. Experiments with atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) are described. The AFBC provides abatement of SO/sub 2/ emissions by means of limestone sorbent fed to the combustor together with the fuel. The pilot plant, combustion efficiency, and sulfur capture are discussed. 3 figures.

  10. Nigerian refineries strive for product balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obuasi, P.A.

    1985-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the growth patterns of the Nigerian refining industry. Production and consumption are expected to follow the pattern of consumption of fuel products by the domestic market, Presently, however, production and consumption are not evenly balanced for most fuel products, and non-fuel products are domestically consumed but not produced. Some progress has been made in the effort to match production and consumption of fuel products. But the progress that would have been made to balance non-fuel products has been nullified by 50% of the Daduna refinery being idle. This is due to problems associated with importation of heavy crude oil into Nigeria and also a weak market for asphalt in Nigeria.

  11. RCC complex now cornerstone of Ashland refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.; Krock, R.P.

    1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance of the first grassroots RCC process unit during its initial 1 1/2 years of operation at Ashland's principal refinery at Catlettsburg, Ky., has confirmed the commercial viability and process advantages of this new technology for heavy oil conversion. The unit has successfully processed untreated atmospheric residuum having Ramsbottom carbon content as high as 7.1 wt%, and metals contamination up to 70 ppm nickel plus vanadium into high yields of transportation and distillate fuels and other light products. The startup of this 40,000 b/d facility in March 1983 brought to fruition nearly 8 years of diligent process development and a 3-year accelerated engineering and construction program. The commercial unit was expressly designed and built to exploit process, hardware, and catalyst innovations flowing from the development effort and demonstrated to be especially applicable to converting long resids. The unit has generally met and exceeded technical expectations.

  12. Saber's heavy oil cracking refinery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benefield, C.S.; Glasscock, W.L.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perhaps more than any other industry, petroleum refining has been subjected to the radical swings in business and political climates of the past several decades. Because of the huge investments and long lead times to construct refining facilities, stable government policies, predictable petroleum prices, secure feedstock supplies and markets, and reliable cost estimates are necessary ingredients to effectively plan new refinery projects. However, over the past ten years the political and economic climates have provided anything but these conditions. Yet, refiners have demonstrated a willingness to undertake risks by continuing to expand and modernize their refineries. The refining business -- just as most businesses -- responds to economic incentives. These incentives, when present, result in new technology and capacity additions. In the 1940's, significant technology advances were commercialized to refine higher-octane motor gasolines. Such processes as continuous catalytic cracking (Houdry Process Corporation), fluid catalytic cracking (Standard Oil Development Company), HF alkylation (UOP and Phillips Petroleum Company), and catalytic reforming (UOP) began to supply a growing gasoline market, generated from the war effort and the ever increasing numbers of automobiles on the road. The post-war economy of the 1950's and 1960's further escalated demand for refined products, products which had to meet higher performance specifications and be produced from a wider range of raw materials. The refining industry met the challenge by introducing hydro-processing technology, such as hydrocracking developed in 1960. But, the era must be characterized by the large crude processing capacity additions, required to meet demand from the rapidly expanding U.S. economy. In 1950, refining capacity was 6.2 million BPD. By 1970, capacity had grown to 11.9 million BPD, an increase of 91%.

  13. ©Wilolud Online Journals, 2008. THE NIGERIAN FUEL ENERGY SUPPLY CRISIS AND THE PROPOSED PRIVATE REFINERIES – PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agwom Sani Z

    Dynamism of the world economy has compelled Nigerians to accept the liberalization of its economy to encourage private sector participation and induce managerial efficiency. This has become very imperative most especially, in the downstream sub-sector of the Nigerian oil and gas industry by the establishment and management of private refineries in view of the persistent fuel energy crisis. An attempt is made here at analyzing the prospects and problems of such refineries that are expected to end the fuel energy crisis which started in the 1970s due to increased demand for petroleum products for rehabilitation and reconstruction after the civil war but later metamorphosed into a hydraheaded monster in the 1980s to date. Efforts towards arresting this crisis by the government through the establishment of more refineries, storage depots and network of distribution pipelines etc achieved a short-term solution due to the abysmal low performance of the refineries and facilities in contrast to increasing demand for petroleum products. It is deduced that the low performance resulted from bad and corrupt management by indigenous technocrats and political leaders as well as vandalization of facilities. Prospects for such investments were identified, as well as some of the problems to content with. This is in order to understand the pros and cons of such investments in view of their capital intensiveness and the need to achieve economic goals that must incorporate environmental and social objectives.

  14. Overcoming Fuel Gas Containment Limitations to Energy Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil refineries convert crude oil into high value products such as gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and petrochemical feedstocks. After squeezing as much saleable product from the crude oil as possible, there remains a light gas...

  15. Integrating NABC bio-oil intermediates into the petroleum refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2–D: Working Together: Conventional Refineries and Bio-Oil R&D Technologies Thomas Foust, Director, National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  16. Implementing an Energy Management Strategy for a Houston Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, S. C.; Agrawal, R. K.; Canon, D.

    and maintained energy management program translates to PROFIT added directly to the BOTTOM LINE. Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) recently implemented and energy management program at the Lyondell-Citgo Refinery in Houston, Texas. The basis of the program...

  17. Refinery Energy Conservation Experience with Enhanced Surface Reboilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragi, E. G.; O'Neill, P. S.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examples of refinery services where existing reboilers were retubed or replaced with enhanced High Flux tubing to better utilize or conserve energy are reported. (1) Retubing an existing toluene column reboiler permitted the use of low cost 115...

  18. Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is essential that the operation and maintenance of these furnaces be optimized to minimize production costs. This paper describes the performance testing and evaluation of a set of ten refinery furnaces used to thermally drive several reforming reactors...

  19. Optimization of Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaie, H.; Nasr, M. R. J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dominated energy crisis in the world dictates to reduce energy consumption and identify energy saving opportunities in large and complex industries especially in oil refining industry. In this paper, Tehran oil refinery is considered as a proper...

  20. Obstacles and Opportunity: Turbine Motorization in Refineries Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Hua; Liu, Jinghing; Liu, Xiang; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Deng, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines have been widely used in oil refineries for driving pumps, compressors and other rotary machines. However, in recent years, the authors of this paper have seen substantial turbine motorization projects completed or being planned...

  1. Obstacles and Opportunity: Turbine Motorization in Refineries Today 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Hua; Liu, Jinghing; Liu, Xiang; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Deng, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines have been widely used in oil refineries for driving pumps, compressors and other rotary machines. However, in recent years, the authors of this paper have seen substantial turbine motorization projects completed or being planned...

  2. ,"U.S. Working Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. Underground NaturalWorking

  3. Steps taken at Malelane refinery to improve refined sugar quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; Pm Schorn

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refinery at Malelane has in the past produced refined sugar for the consumer market. A decision was taken by the management of Transvaal Sugar (TSB) to produce a quality of refined sugar that would also be acceptable to the industrial and the export markets. The processes that were evaluated and implemented at the Malelane refinery during the past three seasons to achieve this objective, are described.

  4. Coke profile and effect on methane/ethylene conversion process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Solami, Bandar

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with distance along the reactor, and therefore the coke distribution should follow a similar pattern. A distribution of coke deposits along the reactor was also observed by Noda er al. (1974) in a study of iso-pentane isomerization. In this case the coke..., methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, iso-butane, butane, iso-pentane, pentane and hexanes. Also, the flow rate of the effluent stream is measured using the bubble meter. The mole percentages of methane and ethylene are subtracted of the effluent stream...

  5. REMEDIAT1NG AT MANUFACTURED GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    , comhusti- hle gas manufactured Pfrom coke, coal, and oil 1 served as the major gas- eous fuel for urban for the three primary gas production meth- ods: coal carbonization, carbureted water gas production, and oil gas, and metals. Tar resid- uals were produced from the vola- tiIe component of bituminous coals in coal

  6. Operating temperature effects on nozzle coking in a cottonseed oil fueled diesel engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarbrough, Charles Michael

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J/'CA] volume rate of change [m /'CA) ? apparent rate of heat release [kJ/'CA] fuel air ratio [kg/kg] heat transfer coefficient [kJ/m 'K sec] ratio of specific heats connecting rod length [m] fuel lower heating value [kJ/kg] total mass of combustion gas...OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE COKING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree cf...

  7. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  8. Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golan, Amos; Karp, Larry S.; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2b: GME-Nash Estimates of Pepsi’s Strategies (First QuarterStrategy Distributions for Pepsi (First Quarter 1977) a)789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE ADVERTISING STRATEGIES

  9. An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Guidelines for Company Reporting on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annexes updated July 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    0.32 LPG kWh x 0.214 therms x 6.27 litres x 1.49 Coking Coal tonnes x 2736 kWh x 0.331 Aviation.63 Petrol tonnes x 3135 kWh x 0.24 litres x 2.30 Fuel Oil tonnes x 3223 kWh x 0.27 Coal2 tonnes x 2548 kWh xWh x 0.25 Petroleum Coke tonnes x 3410 kWh x 0.34 Refinery Miscellaneous kWh x 0.24 therms x 7

  11. Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use asFeet)Second QuarterTheStocks

  12. Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarkets EnergyConsumption5ValuesJune 2010 1

  13. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  14. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  15. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Washed Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other CokingTJ) Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Coking Products

  16. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  17. VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING Phuong NGUYEN*, Pier-Paolo SAVIOTTI, refinery processes, variety, niche theory, Weitzman measure. JEL classification : L15 -L93 -O3 1

  18. STAMP-Based Analysis of a Refinery Overflow Accident Nancy Leveson, Margaret Stringfellow, and John Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveson, Nancy

    1 STAMP-Based Analysis of a Refinery Overflow Accident Nancy Leveson, Margaret Stringfellow, and John Thomas As an example of STAMP, we have taken an accident report produced for a real refinery

  19. Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session...

  20. Gross Error Detection in Chemical Plants and Refineries for On-Line Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Gross Error Detection in Chemical Plants and Refineries for On-Line Optimization Xueyu Chen, Derya) British Petroleum Applications mainly crude units in refineries and ethylene plants #12;Companies

  1. Mixed reality training application for an oil refinery: user requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjaana Träskbäck

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing mixed reality (MR) into safety-critical environment like oil refinery is difficult, since the environment and organization lays demanding restrictions for the application. In order to develop usable and safe MR application, we need to study the context of use and derive user requirements from it. This paper describes the user requirements for an MR based oil refinery training tool. The application is aimed to train employees of a specific process unit in the refinery. Training is currently done mainly in a classroom and on-site only when the process is closed down. On-site training is necessary, but expensive and rarely possible. The use of mixed reality offers a way to train employees on-site while the process is running. Users can virtually see “inside ” the columns and can modify virtually the process..

  2. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The EMP consists of a Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program and a Supplemental monitoring Sampling Program. The Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program will be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Project and during a summer and a winter period following the successful Startup and Operational phase of the completed Project. compliance monitoring consist of conducting all the sampling and observation programs associated with existing required Federal, State, and Local Regulations, Permits and Orders. These include air, water, and waste monitoring and OSHA and NESHAP monitoring. The Supplemental Monitoring Program will also be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Demonstration Facility and during a summer and a winter period following the successful startup and Operational phase of the completed Facility. Supplemental Monitoring includes sampling of 27 additional streams that are important to measure operational or environmental performance and impacts of the installation of the new COG treatment facilities.

  3. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    All of the project work since the previous report has been on Phase 2B tasks. Therefore, this quarterly progress report summarizes the period's activities in Engineering, Procurement and Civil Construction. Engineering is 95% complete, but revisions and changes are still being incorporated particularly in the Instrument and Electrical areas. Procurement has only valves 4 in. and above yet to order to complete all major items purchased. The scheduled material curve was based on the original estimate of the job. The projected curve reflects the previous month's estimate. Construction of civil work is proceeding according to schedule in the field. The initial bid packages for the Mechanical General Contractor portion of the work have been reviewed and evaluated. Order placement is scheduled for the end of July. The Electrical package is due back from the bidders on July 6. It requires additional evaluation by BSC and DSO and will not be placed until late August. The cost of the project is ahead of the cost or spending plan because of the accelerated progress in the field and early delivery of equipment. However, there are some concerns that the mechanical and electrical bid packages are higher than planned. Although we plan to determine the causes of the increases, we do not intend to let it effect the progress of the project. 7 figs.

  4. Potentials for Fuel Cells in Refineries and Chlor-Alkali Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altseimer, J. H.; Roach, F.

    POTENTIALS FOR FUEL CELLS IN REFINERIES AND CHLOR-ALKALI PLANTS John H. Altseimer and Fred Roach Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico ABSTRACT The market potentials for fuel cell cogenera tion systems in petroleum refineries... in the production process are favorable to the use of fuel cells. The energy use in refineries is steam intensive with the required steam pressures ranging from approximately 15 to 650 psig. The near-term use of fuel cell cogeneration in refineries...

  5. Ashland outlines $261 million in refinery unit construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Ashland Petroleum Co. has spelled out $261 million in projects completed, under way, or planned to produce cleaner fuel and further reduce emissions at two U.S. refineries. The company: Started up at $13 million pollution control system at its 213,400 b/cd Catlettsburg, Ky., plant. Started construction on six projects at its 67,100 b/cd St. Paul Park, Minn., refinery that will cost about $114 million and enable the plant to produce cleaner burning diesel fuel and further reduce emissions.

  6. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning (Performance Analysis. Grossmann #12;2 Motivation · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies HF REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL

  7. The effects of soil type and chemical treatment on nickel speciation in refinery enriched soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The effects of soil type and chemical treatment on nickel speciation in refinery enriched soils Aerial deposition of Ni from a refinery in Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada has resulted in the enrichment in vegetable crops grown in the vicinity of the refinery. Conversely, dolomitic lime- stone additions resulted

  8. Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries Armen Gholian, Hamed units finish their operations. Considering an oil refinery industry as an example, we not only identify Terms­Demand response, load management, manufactur- ing industries, oil refineries, optimal scheduling

  9. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial, University Park, PA 16802, USA h i g h l i g h t s Refinery wastewaters were tested as fuels in MECs effective for treatment or pre-treatment of some refinery wastewaters. The best way to start up MECs

  10. Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition Sylvain: refinery planning and crude-oil operations scheduling. The proposed approach consists of using Lagrangian-study and a larger refinery problem show that the Lagrangian decomposition algorithm is more robust than the other

  11. Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced 2013 Available online 5 November 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cells Refinery wastewater Biodegradability Separator electrode assembly a b s t r a c t The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW

  12. JANUARY 2007 THE BP U.S. REFINERIES INDEPENDENT SAFETY REVIEW PANEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveson, Nancy

    OF JANUARY 2007 THE REPORT THE BP U.S. REFINERIES INDEPENDENT SAFETY REVIEW PANEL #12;From left;PANEL STATEMENT The B.P. U.S. Refineries Independent Safety Review Panel i Process safety accidents can be prevented. On March 23, 2005, the BP Texas City refinery experienced a catastrophic process accident

  13. Perception of an emergency Situation by operators in an oil refinery L.Pioche&J.RPineau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Perception of an emergency Situation by operators in an oil refinery L.Pioche&J.RPineau Institut de the operators' behaviour during an emergency Situation m an oil refinery. The aim ofthis stage the general objective is to analyse the operators' behaviour during an emergency Situation in an oil refinery

  14. Strategic Planning, Design and Development of the Shale Gas Supply Chain Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    and fluids from the pure gas (methane) to produce what is known as "pipeline quality" dry natural gas.[2 in wells, providing raw materials for oil refineries or petrochemical plants, and as sources of energy.[3

  15. Gasification of refinery sludge in an updraft reactor for syngas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Reem; Eldmerdash, Usama [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Sinnathambi, Chandra M., E-mail: chandro@petronas.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The study probes into the investigation on gasification of dry refinery sludge. The details of the study includes; influence of operation time, oxidation temperature and equivalence ratios on carbon gas conversion rate, gasification efficiency, heating value and fuel gas yield are presented. The results show that, the oxidation temperature increased sharply up to 858°C as the operating time increased up to 36 min then bridging occurred at 39 min which cause drop in reaction temperature up to 819 °C. This bridging was found to affect also the syngas compositions, meanwhile as the temperature decreased the CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} compositions are also found to be decreases. Higher temperature catalyzed the reduction reaction (CO{sub 2}+C?=?450?2CO), and accelerated the carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies, resulted in more solid fuel is converted to a high heating value gas fuel. The equivalence ratio of 0.195 was found to be the optimum value for carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies, high heating value of gas, and fuel gas yield to reach their maximum values of 96.1 % and 53.7 %, 5.42 MJ Nm{sup ?3} of, and 2.5 Nm{sup 3} kg{sup ?1} respectively.

  16. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to individual refineries, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  17. Recovering Flare Gas Energy - A Different Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, W.

    depend on a compressor to pull suction on the pressurized flare line and pump the gas into a plant-wide fuer gas system. Because SunOlin shares its flare system with an adjacent oil refinery, any change to the flare system operation could have far... design and operating scheme incorporating the results of the HAZOP study. The major features of our flare gas recovery system, then, are as follows: A 30" main flare gas header originating in the adjacent oil refinery is routed through the Sun...

  18. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  19. Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan* Larry S. Karp** Jeffrey M strategies in prices and advertising for Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola. Separate strategies for each firm theory. We use these methods to estimate the pricing and adver- tising strategies of Coca-Cola and Pepsi

  20. Coke profile and effect on methane/ethylene conversion process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Solami, Bandar

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to investigate the coke profile with respect to time on stream and the change of product distribution due to catalyst deactivation. A fixed bed reactor was used to conduct this investigation. A series of runs were...

  1. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb MarDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

  2. The MTBE solution: Octanes, technology, and refinery profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lander, E.P.; Hubbard, J.N.; Smith, L.A.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been developed to provide refiners with business decision insight regarding the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from refinery - (FCC) produced isobutylene. The driving forces making MTBE an attractive investment are examined with regard to the increasing demand for higher octane unleaded gasolines. The decision to proceed with MTBE production depends on the profitability of such an investment and the refiner's ability to meet market demands using available processing equipment, refinery produced streams and external feedstocks. The factors affecting this decision are analyzed in this paper and include: industry ability to meet rising octane demand; profit potential realized by diverting isobutylene to MTBE; availability of technology for producing MTBE; and investment and operating costs required to produce MTBE. Chemical Research and Licensing and NEOCHEM have developed a simple, low cost process to produce MTBE, reducing the excessive equipment and high operating costs that were associated with conventional MTBE designs. The economics and process benefits of installing a CRandL/NEOCHEM MTBE process are examined within the framework of a generalized medium-sized refinery configuration.

  3. Controlling Silver Dust and Fumes at Mine Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Haney; M. P. Valoski

    ABSTRACT: As part of the refining of gold and silver molten metal, silver dust and fumes are released into the atmosphere. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) enforces an 8-hour, equivalent Time Weighted Average concentration limit for silver dust and fumes of 10 µg/m 3. MSHA initiated a program to assess the controls that were being used to control silver dust and fume exposure. Refineries were visited at six mines. The layout of each refinery and the controls used varied at each refinery. At each operation, personal and area silver fume and dust samples were collected to assess worker exposures and to determine sources of fume. Primary source of silver dust and fume exposure was the pouring of molten metal from the furnace. Secondary sources of exposure included: precipitate mixing, bar cooling, and housekeeping. Guidelines were developed addressing housekeeping, exhaust ventilation, general ventilation, administrative controls, and system monitoring. In most cases, housekeeping and general ventilation were adequate; however, the exhaust ventilation systems needed to be improved. 1 INRODUCTION Silver dust and fumes become airborne during the refining step of producing gold and silver. The dust

  4. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  5. Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laufhutte, D.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

  6. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  7. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning Department of Chemical · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies on the accuracy of the CDU REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL AGO HGO HFO

  8. Updated estimation of energy efficiencies of U.S. petroleum refineries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palou-Rivera, I.; Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems)

    2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of life-cycle (or well-to-wheels, WTW) energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems requires energy use (or energy efficiencies) of energy processing or conversion activities. In most such studies, petroleum fuels are included. Thus, determination of energy efficiencies of petroleum refineries becomes a necessary step for life-cycle analyses of vehicle/fuel systems. Petroleum refinery energy efficiencies can then be used to determine the total amount of process energy use for refinery operation. Furthermore, since refineries produce multiple products, allocation of energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products is needed for WTW analysis of individual fuels such as gasoline and diesel. In particular, GREET, the life-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory with DOE sponsorship, compares energy use and emissions of various transportation fuels including gasoline and diesel. Energy use in petroleum refineries is key components of well-to-pump (WTP) energy use and emissions of gasoline and diesel. In GREET, petroleum refinery overall energy efficiencies are used to determine petroleum product specific energy efficiencies. Argonne has developed petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006 (see Wang, 2008). This memo documents Argonne's most recent update of petroleum refining efficiencies.

  9. Process for separating, especially in multiple stages, acid components such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and specifically H/sub 2/S, from gases, especially from coke oven gases, by means of ammonia recirculation scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, H.K.; Otte, E.A.W.

    1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of separating in multiple stages acid components in coke oven gas such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and particularly H/sub 2/S by ammonia scrubbing wherein the ammonia used in scrubbing is deacidified to remove the acid components and is recirculated to the scrubbing process at least in part as substantially pure liquid ammonia.

  10. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2004 producer refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery

  11. An overview of crisis management in the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, D.A.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Members of the American Coke and Coal Chemicals Institute (ACCCI), as responsible corporate citizens, have embraced the concepts of crisis management and progress down the various paths of planning and preparation, monitoring, media communications, community outreach, emergency response, and recovery. Many of the concepts outlined here reflect elements of crisis management guidelines developed by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA). At a coke plant, crises can take the form of fires, chemical releases, labor strikes, feedstock supply disruptions, and excessive snowfall, just to name a few. The CMA defines a crisis as: ``an unplanned event that has the potential to significantly impact a company`s operability or credibility, or to pose a significant environment, economic or legal liability``; and crisis management as: ``those activities undertaken to anticipate or prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from any incident that has the potential to greatly affect the way a company conducts its business.

  12. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  13. New environmental concepts in the chemical and coke industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.Yu. Naletov; V.A. Naletov [Mendeleev Russian Chemical-Engineering University (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We know that environmentally pure technologies do not exist. Coke production is no exception to the rule. The article considers the logic of environmental decision making. Attention focuses on a new bank of ecologically appropriate materials whose release to the biosphere must be considered solely in quantititative terms. Qualitativily all these materials are familiar; they are assimilated by populations of microorganisms and tar thus compatible with the biosphere.

  14. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of air pollutant emissions. In Phase 3, the team retrofitted three fuel-flexible burners into a fired heater at a Shell plant and demonstrated the project’s technology over a 6-month period. The project burners performed well during this period. They remain in commercial service at the Shell plant. Through this work, an improved understanding of flame stabilization mechanisms was gained. Also, methods for accommodating a wide range of fuel compositions were developed. This knowledge facilitated the commercialization of a new generation of burners that are suitable for the fuels of the future.

  15. Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. How to implement a quality program in a coking plant. The AHMSA experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes M, M.A.; Perez, J.L.; Garza, C. de la; Morales, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AHMSA (Altos Hornos de Mexico) is the largest integrated Steel Plant in Mexico, with its 3.1 MMMT of Liquid Steel production program for 1995. AHMSA operates two coke plants which began operations in 1955 and 1976. Total coke monthly production capacity amounts to as much as 106,000 Metric Tons (MT). The coke plants working philosophy was discussed and established in 1986 as part of the Quality Improvement Program, where its ultimate goal is to give the best possible coke quality to its main client--the blast furnaces. With this goal in mind, a planned joint effort with their own coal mines was initiated. This paper deals with the implementation process of the Quality Program, and the results of this commitment at the coal mines, coke plants and blast furnaces. The coke quality improvement is shown since 1985 to 1994, as well as the impact on the blast furnace operation.

  17. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Kobe Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  18. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  19. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  20. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  1. The Importance of the Oil & Gas Industry to Northern Colorado and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Crude Oil 0% Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas 3% Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum,681 Natural Gas Distribution Natural Gas Liquid Extraction Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil Pipeline Transportation of Refined... Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas Petroleum Refineries Oil and Gas Pipeline

  2. The effects of ash and maceral composition of Azdavay and Kurucasile (Turkey) coals on coking properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroglu, I. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, investigations were made as to the effect of the maceral compositions and mineral matter content of Azdavay and Kurucasile coals on the coking property. Chemical and maceral analyses and coking properties were determined for the products of the float-sink procedure. The coking properties were established on the basis of free swelling index and Ruhr dilatometer tests. Maceral analyses showed that as the ash content of a coal containing both high and medium volatile matter increases, its effective maceral proportion decreases, and the coking property is affected in an unfavorable way.

  3. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  4. The Energy Minimization Method: A Multiobjective Fitness Evaluation Technique and Its Application to the Production Scheduling in a Petroleum Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    to the Production Scheduling in a Petroleum Refinery Mayron Rodrigues de Almeida Sílvio Hamacher Industrial applied to production scheduling of a petroleum refinery. The experimental results are presented of the method when applied to the production scheduling in a petroleum refinery. Section 5 discusses

  5. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two

  6. Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

  7. Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yu, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

  8. Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau (CPM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - 1 - Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau with thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The objective is to define the safe limits of coke oven of walls, roof and larry car, pre-stresses (anchoring system), lateral pressure due to coal pushing A 3D

  9. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1995 producer price, was approximately industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery production Reserves6 Reserve base6 1994

  10. In: . Proceedings of the 91st Annual Meeting (held June 14-18 in San Diego, CA), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1998 (CD-ROM). 1998 H.C. Frey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    natural gas, petroleum residuals, petroleum coke, refinery wastes, and coal as inputs. In recent years 27695-7908 ABSTRACT Gasification systems, such as coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle there is currently a lack of high-value markets for low-value liquid residues and coke.(2) Integrated Gasification

  11. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2011. The World Coke & Coking Coal Markets, Global Steel2010. India's Domestic Coking Coal Scenario. New WorldSTEELEASE, 2011. China Coking Coal and Coke Weekly Monitor,

  12. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  14. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash reduction of the cokes and fly ash samples derived from the Athabasca oil sands bitumen was attempted by dissolving the mineral matter in acids. The samples used for this investigation included Syncrude fluid coking coke, Suncor delayed coking coke and the two fly ash samples obtained from the combustion of these cokes. All samples were analyzed for C,H,N,O, and S before and after acid demineralization and the analyses results compared. Further, the ash from the samples before and after acid demineralization was analyzed for silica, alumina, iron titanium, nickel and vanadium to assess the acid leaching of these elements. CP/MAS, /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic study of the demineralized coke and fly ash samples was also attempted.

  15. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  16. CO2 Reduction through Optimization of Steam Network in Petroleum Refineries: Evaluation of New Scenario 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manesh, M. H. K; Khodaie, H.; Amidpour, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam network of petroleum refinery is energy intensive, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions. A simple model for the estimation of CO2 emissions associated with operation of steam network as encountered...

  17. SELECTED TOPICS in APPLIED COMPUTER SCIENCE Data Mining and Data Gathering in a Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoud Reza Saybani A; Teh Ying Wah B

    This article handles one of critical steps of data mining, which is data collection. It will show how the researcher could get access to the valuable data of a refinery. And it explains the procedures of refining criteria for data collection. It also briefly explains the oil refining procedures to make the concept of data gathering at the refinery easier to understand. Each manufacturing company has its own specifications and rules that are needed to be considered when collecting data. As such the result of data gathering is almost always different for different manufacturing companies. Key-Words: Data gathering, data collection, data mining, oil refinery Data mining algorithms play an important and successful role in many manufacturing companies including oil refineries. Profit management, quality and process control in

  18. CO2 Reduction through Optimization of Steam Network in Petroleum Refineries: Evaluation of New Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manesh, M. H. K; Khodaie, H.; Amidpour, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam network of petroleum refinery is energy intensive, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions. A simple model for the estimation of CO2 emissions associated with operation of steam network as encountered...

  19. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Mizushima, Kurashiki (Japan). Mizushima Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  20. Assuring Mechanical Integrity of Refinery Equipment Through Global ON-Stream Inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John W. Berthold

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of global on-stream inspection technology will have a dramatic effect on how refinery operations are managed in the U.S. in the future. Global on-stream inspection will provide assurance of the mechanical integrity of critical plant equipment and will allow refineries to operate more efficiently with less impact on our environment and with an increased margin of safety.

  1. Energy Efficient Refinery Process Developed with U.S. D.O.E. Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mings, W. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENERGY EFFICIENT REFINERY PROCESS DEVELOPED WITH U.S. D.O.E. SUPPORT Walter J. Mings, P.E. EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, Idaho Abstract The United States Department of Energy histori cally has encouraged private efforts to develop en ergy... with potential for extensive industrial energy savings. INTRODUCTION An innovative energy saving refinery process (also called the catalytic distillation process) for pro ducing MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) was devel oped by two Houston companies...

  2. Affordability analysis of lead emission controls for a smelter-refinery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherer, T.M.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document evaluates the affordability and economic impact of additional control measures deemed necessary for a smelter-refinery to meet the lead emission standard. The emphasis in the analysis is on the impact of control costs on the smelter-refinery's profitability. The analysis was performed using control-cost data from two different lead-smelter studies in conjunction with other existing industry data.

  3. Technologies for the separation and recovery of hydrogen from refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcher, F.P.; Miller, G.Q.; Mitariten, M.J. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective use and recovery of hydrogen from the major hydrogen-containing streams in the refinery is an important strategy to meet the refining demands of the 1990`s. Hydrogen upgrading in refinery applications can be achieved by pressure swing adsorption (PSA), selective permeation using polymer membranes, and cryogenic separation. Each of these processes has different characteristics which are of advantage in different situations. Process selection and specific application examples are discussed.

  4. Energy efficiency of alternative coke-free metallurgical technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.G. Lisienko; A.V. Lapteva; A.E. Paren'kov [Ural State Technical University - Ural Polytechnic Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy analysis is undertaken for the blast-furnace process, for liquid-phase processes (Corex, Hismelt, Romelt), for solid-phase pellet reduction (Midrex, HYL III, LP-V in a shaft furnace), for steel production in systems consisting of a blast furnace and a converter, a Midrex unit and an arc furnace, or a Romelt unit and an arc furnace, and for scrap processing in an arc furnace or in an LP-V shaft furnace. Three blast-furnace processes with sinter and coke are adopted as the basis of comparison, as in: the standard blast-furnace process used in Russia; the improved blast-furnace process with coal-dust injection; and the production of vanadium hot metal from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ore (with a subsequent duplex process, ferrovanadium production, and its use in the arc furnace).

  5. The oil and gas journal databook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book provides the statistical year in review plus articles that cover significant events of the past year. It features the surveys and reports that quantify industry activity throughout the year. This book includes: Worldwide petrochemical survey; Midyear forecast and review; Worldwide gas processing report; Ethylene report; Sulfur survey; International refining survey; Nelson cost index; Smith Rig Count; and the API refinery report.

  6. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  7. Innovative coal gas cleaning at Sparrows Point Coal Chemical Plant, Maryland for Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antrobus, K.; Platts, M. (Davy/Still Otto, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Harbold, L. (Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (USA)); Kornosky, R. (Office of Clean Coal Technology, US DOE, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the Clean Coal II solicitation, Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) submitted a proposal to the DOE in May 1988. The proposal submitted by BSC describes a Unique integration of commercial technologies developed by Davy/Still Otto to clean coke oven gas being produced at its Sparrows Point, Maryland steel plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines secondary gas cooling with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia removal, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia recovery, ammonia destruction and sulfur recovery to produce a cleaner fuel gas for plant use. The primary environmental benefit associated with employing this innovative coke oven gas cleaning system is realized when the fuel gas is burned within the steel plant. Emissions of sulfur dioxide are reduced by more than 60 percent. The removal, recovery and destruction of ammonia eliminates the disposal problems associated with an unmarketable ammonium sulfate by-product. Significant reduction in benzene and hydrogen cyanide emissions are also obtained.

  8. Producing and controlling of the pollutant in the coal`s coking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S. [Shanxi Environmental Protection Bureau (China); Fan, Z. [Shanxi Central Environmental Monitoring Station (China)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the process of heating and coke shaping, different pollutants and polluting factors will be produced and lost to the environment due to the different coking methods. The paper analyzes the production mechanism, type, emission, average quantity, and damage to the environment of the major pollutants and polluting factors produced in several kinds of coking processes in China at the present. Then, the paper concludes that an assessment for any coking method should include a comprehensive beneficial assessment of economical benefit, environmental benefit and social benefit. The items in the evaluation should consist of infrastructure investment, which includes production equipment and pollution control equipment, production cost, benefit and profit produced by one ton coal, whether the pollution complies with the environmental requirement, extent of the damage, influence to the social development, and etc.

  9. Current developments at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.B. Kamenyuka; O.N. Surenskii; G.E. Kos'kova; V.V. Derevich; V.A. Gushchin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches developed at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction are considered. Recommendations regarding furnace construction and reconstruction are made on the basis of Ukrainian and world experience.

  10. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D. [Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau, Forbach (France)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  11. Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bangor, NSW (Australia)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. REFEREED PAPER PRE-TREATMENT OF REFINERY FINAL RUN-OFF FOR CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh I; Stolz Hnp; Ndhlala T

    In the case of a back-end refinery, the final run-off or return syrup of 92-95 % purity and 75 ° brix is generally returned to the raw mill to be combined with raw syrup and boiled in the A-pans. Approximately 8 % of the input raw sugar brix into a refinery is returned, consequently locking up A-pan capacity and, in the case of a factory with marginal pan capacity, cane throughput is restricted. In addition, energy consumption is increased and sugar losses in final molasses are elevated. A number of processes have been considered to eliminate recycling refinery run-off, most of which require pre-treatment and/or high capital investment with a high degree of commercial risk. Test work was undertaken at the Tsb Malalane cane sugar refinery to determine the optimal pre-treatment option for decolorising and softening refinery return syrup. The pre-treatment results indicate that chemical softening, followed by the addition of a cationic colour precipitant and pH adjustment with sulphur dioxide, yields appreciable calcium reduction and modest decolourisation. The overall benefit indicates that the treated final run-off is of suitable quality to apply another crystallisation step and/or alternatively consider for further purification by chromatographic separation and/or resin decolourisation.

  14. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  15. TSNo s02-roberts104537-O Microscopic and Spectroscopic Speciation of Ni in Soils in the Vicinity of a Ni Refinery.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    in the Vicinity of a Ni Refinery. abstract Accurately predicting the fate and bioavailability of metals in smelter REFINERY ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings - October 21 - 25, 2001 - Charlotte, NC #12;

  16. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unit in 1990, using two gas turbines and two heat recovery steamunit, FCC power recovery, and optimum load allocation of boilers, as well as selection of steam

  17. Potentials for fuel cells in refineries and chlor-alkali plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Roach, F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market potentials for fuel cell cogeneration systems in petroleum refineries and chlor-alkali plants were evaluated. the most promising application appears to be in chlor-alkali plants where the production process is electricity intensive. Future anticipated changes in the production process are favorable to the use of fuel cells. The energy use in refineries is steam intensive with the required steam pressures ranging from approximately 15 to 650 psig. The near-term use of fuel cell cogeneration in refineries is not as attractive as in chlor-alkali plants. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is the most developed and the most competitive, but its use is limited by its being able to produce only low-pressure steam. Over the longer term, the molten carbonate and the solid oxide fuel cell both of which operate at significantly higher temperatures, are technically very attractive. However, they do not appear to be cost competitive with conventional systems.

  18. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILVA, Taranto (Italy); Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE SACCHAROFLEX 2000 REFLECTANCE MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR REFINED SUGAR COLOUR ESTIMATION AT HULETTS REFINERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; N K Padayachee; V Govender

    Due to the successful use of the Saccharoflex 2000 reflectance measurement instrument on the estimation of refined sugar colour elsewhere in the world, it was decided by Tongaat-Hulett Sugar to evaluate the instrument at the refinery in Durban. Tests were carried out on first, second, third and fourth refined sugars, the results of which showed a good correlation between the ICUMSA colour measurement and the reflectance reading obtained from the Saccharoflex 2000. The instrument offers a number of advantages, the main one being that a refined sugar colour value can be obtained in less than a minute. The refinery has therefore purchased one for process control.

  20. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2000 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and Issues: World refinery production of germanium remained steady in 2000. The recycling of scrap continued

  1. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2003 producer. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production of fiber optics, infrared

  2. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2002 producer price-bearing materials generated from the processing of zinc ores. The germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. The refinery in Oklahoma doubled its production

  3. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2001 producer price-bearing materials generated from the processing of zinc ores. The germanium refineries in New York and Oklahoma and set up in New York. The refinery in Oklahoma expanded, and a new secondary facility was built in North

  4. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2008 producer of 2008. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production of fiber optics

  5. Problem 65 in Section 4.1 (Page 274) Constructing a pipeline Supertankers off-load oil at a docking facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, Anne

    facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery is 9 mi east of the shore point nearest the docking facility. A pipeline must be constructed connecting the docking facility with the refinery. The pipeline costs $300.42 miles away from the refinery, or equivalently 3.58 miles away from Point A (as the back of the book has

  6. 2:00-2:30 Beverages, 2:30-4 PM Seminar Chevron operates two refineries on the west coast of California. Large parcels of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    4/18/2014 2:00-2:30 Beverages, 2:30-4 PM Seminar Abstract Chevron operates two refineries fuel must be moved between the refineries by ship to balance production. The El Segundo Marine Terminal these vapors are returned to the refinery for processing via a vapor return pipeline. El Segundo's terminal

  7. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1999 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania@usgs.gov, fax: (703) 648-7757] #12;73 GERMANIUM Events, Trends, and Issues: World refinery production

  8. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1996 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1996 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and chemotherapy), 5%. Salient Statistics--United States: 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996e Production, refinery 13,000 10

  9. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2007 producer in the fourth quarter of 2007. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production

  10. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the right place to get compost, or how you get the beststerilized or pasteurized our compost before we put it out.

  11. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  12. Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

  13. Energy Guideline Factors Provide a Better Measure of Refinery Energy Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libbers, D. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exxon Company, U.S.A. refineries reduced energy consumption by 25% between 1972 and 1978 compared with an 18% reduction for the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry over the same period. The Exxon approach to conserving energy in petroleum refining...

  14. THE NEW GASIFICATION PROJECT AT ENI SANNAZZARO REFINERY AND ITS INTEGRATION WITH A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mwe Power Plant; Guido Collodi; Dario Camozzi; Snamprogetti Italy

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the new regulation introduced in Europe in the last years, defining more stringent limits for the emissions to the atmosphere, the necessity to find an alternative use for the fuel oil has created a new challenge for the refineries. At the same time the need to improve the Italian power production has pushed Eni, the Italian energy company, to enter the electricity market.

  15. Getting it right at Catlettsburg: How Ashland Petroleum`s flagship refinery transformed itself

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitt, R.E.; Kennison, R.H.M.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Life has its surprises. In the midst of the pain and excitement of a massive organizational overhaul, Ashland Petroleum`s Catlettsburg refinery--a 220,000-b/d facility in Ashland, Ky.,--experienced an unplanned cracker shutdown, a few production mishaps, a two-week employee walk-out, and belt-tightening necessitated by competitive pressures. Yet, despite these adverse circumstances, the Catlettsburg Refinery Initiative (CRI), a 20-month effort that shifted from planning to implementation in October 1995, yielded remarkable results. By 1996, the refinery began achieving record levels of through-put with lower maintenance costs, increasing company profitability by about 15% in the first half of 1996, over the same period in 1995. In a post-initiative survey, refinery employees expressed enthusiam for the changes and their new work-roles. A number of factors converged to give the initiative drive and direction: a pervasive discomfort with the status quo, a determination by top management to make fundamental changes, a commitment to rapid implementation and effective use of an outside consultant. But above all, success at Catlettsburg was a result of a grassroots approach to the process of change.

  16. Application and Operation of a 2-MW Organic Rankine Cycle System on a Refinery FCC Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drake, R. L.

    The nation's largest organic Rankine cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system was started up in July 1984 at a West Coast oil refinery. The system includes two hermetically sealed turbine-generator units, each rated at 1070 kW. Each turbine...

  17. Restoration of Refinery Heaters Using the Technique of Prefabricated Ceramic Fiber Lined Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sento, H. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery heater fuel requirements often represent 50% of a units operating cost. A one percent change in the efficiency of a heater firing 100 MBtu/hr amounts to more than $25,000 per year. Heater efficiency is influenced by casing hot spots, air...

  18. Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production (crude refineryLand Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil Production and Oil Sands S O N I A Y E H and Alberta as examples for conventional oil production as well as oil sands production in Alberta

  19. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Worsztynowicz, A.; Ulfig, K. [Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

    1997-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH`s, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass.

  20. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore Torquatob)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, Salvatore

    Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore of a Brownian particle diffusing among a, digitized lattice-based domain of traps. Following the first, the inverse of the trapping rate, is obtained for a variety of configurations involving digitized spheres

  2. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  3. Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffit, Alfred Edward

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediments contaminated with highly weathered petroleum was evaluated at a contaminated oil refinery. The sediments were chronically contaminated...

  4. Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    A first-of-its-kind Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP™) was installed by Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc. in partnership with Energy Concepts Co. at Ultramar Diamond Shamrock's 30,000 barrel per day refinery in Denver...

  5. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    25 273 950 4 38 34 328 780 TABLE 5: Turbine Cost (F.O.B. USA) $/kW k~J Efficiency, % Garret 1M831 483 518 21 Allison 501KB5 404 3700 29 N.P. 1002 281 4500 25 GE LM2500-20 469 12,800 34 GE LM2500-33* 326 21,500 36 * same Frame... Plant Emissions; paper presented at the' EPA/EPRI Joint Symposium Stationery Combustion:NO Control, Denver Colorado, October 6-9, 1980. I x 12. William F. Kenney. Combustion Air preheat Saves Energy in Olefins Production at Ethylene: Plants; Oil...

  6. U.S. Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and InstitutionalArea: U.S. East Coast (PADDPetroleum

  7. Distillate Fuel Oil Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy : b ra&le.com

  8. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"for Selected

  9. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPrice (Dollars per ThousandLiquids

  10. Refinery fuel oxygenates in view of the complex model for reformulated gasline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.D.; Haelsig, C.P. [Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The final version of the Complex Model for reformulated gasoline (RFG) has now been issued with some surprising features that will significantly affect refinery fuel oxygenates planning. These include the following: (1) The only oxygenates included in the model are MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and Ethanol. (2) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME are significantly more effective for reduction of air toxics emissions than Ethanol and ETBE. (3) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME typically produce about equal reduction in air toxics emissions at the same RFG oxygen content. Although gasoline certification by the Complex Model is optional prior to 1998, after 1998 it will be mandatory for both reformulated and conventional gasolines. This paper considers refinery oxygenates production in view of these features of the Complex Model for RFG, basing the discussion on 2.0 weight percent oxygen content for RFG.

  11. Review of petroleum transport network models and their applicability to a national refinery model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, J. N.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines four petroleum transport network models to determine whether parts of them can be incorporated into the transportation component of a national refinery model. Two questions in particular are addressed. (a) How do the models under examination represent the oil transport network, estimate link capacities, and calculate transport costs. (b) Are any of these network representations, capacity estimates, or cost functions suitable for inclusion in a linear programming model of oil refinery and primary distribution in the US. Only pipeline and waterway transport is discussed. The models examined are the Department of Energy's OILNET model, the Department of Transportation's Freight Energy Model, the Federal Energy Administration Petroleum Transportation Network Model, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory oil pipeline energy model. Link capacity and cost functions are recommended for each transport mode. The coefficients of the recommended pipeline cost functions remain to be estimated.

  12. Nigeria: after crude, the gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Misinterpretation of the laws of the marketplace have already brought Nigeria to the brink of a catastrophe in 1978, when the government had built up heavy stocks expecting a substantial increase in price. When it did not materialize and the production had to be dropped to 50% of the previous rate, in a country where crude constitutes 90% of the export revenues, the system was changed. The new plan is intended to reduce the dependence of Nigeria on oil exports. The production rate is set at between 2.2 and 2.5 million bpd. Due to a significant increase in domestic demand, the 2 existing refineries cannot fill the gap; 2 more refineries are planned. There also are substantial gas reserves; the associated gas, now flared, is to be recovered. A gas liquefaction plant also is in operation, with one-half of the output going to Europe and one-half to the US. Some of the oil and gas is earmarked for local petrochemical plants.

  13. Diffusion and Reactivity of Gas Oil in FCC Catalysts SULAIMAN Al-KHATTAF, HUGO I. de LASA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    developed in a novel CREC Simulator, is employed to estimate the unconverted gas oil, the gasoline and secondary cracking reactions and the yields of gasoline, coke and light gas yields. Key words: FCC, cracking in FCC units has become more prevalent due to the declining availability and as a result higher prices

  14. High-purity hydrogen gas from the reaction between BOF steel slag and water in the 473e673 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    . Iron reduction is achieved witha reducing gas (generally,a gas mixture ofH2 and CO produced by coal reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.03.163 #12;agent such as coke, in a blast furnace

  15. Cleaning method for removing sulfur containing deposits from coke oven gas lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumansky, L.W.

    1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for removing hard to remove deposits containing elemental sulfur and multivalent compounds from a surface comprising contacting the deposits with a cleaning composition comprising (a) a major portion of aliphatic amine, (b) water, and (c) an oxidizing or reducing agent, allowing the cleaning composition to remain in contact with the deposits for sufficient time to allow sufficient dissolution of said solid to take place to allow removal of the deposits to take place, and applying such force as is necessary to remove these partially dissolved deposits from the surface. A preferred cleaning composition comprises from about 60 to about 90 volume percent aliphatic amine, from about 10 to about 40 volume percent water, and from about 1 to about 3 weight percent of a moderate oxidizing or reducing agent, such percentages based on the total composition.

  16. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1998 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1998 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania Production, refinery 10,000 10,000 18,000 20,000 22,000e Total imports 14,700 16,200 27,500 23,700 20

  17. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1997 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1997 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, refinery 10,000 10,000 10,000 18,000 20,000e Total imports 15,000 15,000 16,000 27,000 17,0001 Exports NA

  18. Seaway conversion moves Oklahoma gas to Texas plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazin, G.L. II; Ince, R.L.

    1986-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Purchase and conversion to natural gas transmission of the Seaway crude oil pipeline was an effort to capitalize on the line's location to gather raw gas in Oklahoma and Texas for use as fuel at Phillips Petroleum Co.'s Sweeny, Tex., refinery. The Seaway pipeline was planned during the early 1970s as a major midwest oil artery. The purpose of the 30-in., 500-mile pipeline, extending from Jones Creek, Tex., to Cushing, Okla., was to feed inland midcontinent refineries with lower-cost imported oil. Owned by a consortium of seven companies, the pipeline began operation in mid-1976 and continued almost uninterrupted until 1982, at which time excess U.S. refining capacity, coupled with reduced oil imports, resulted in the closing of several large inland refineries. These refinery closings, along with reduced crude oil import demands, caused the Seaway pipeline to become inactive for several long periods of time. Since the forecast use of the pipeline was not favorable, the pipeline and its terminals were put up for sale.

  19. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Coke oven doors: Historical methods of emission control and evaluation of current designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettrey, J.O.; Greene, D.E. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The containment of oven door leakage has presented challenges to coke producers for many years as the requirements of environmental regulatory agencies have become increasingly stringent. A description and evaluation of past door modifications, leakage control methodologies and luting practices on Armco Steel Company, L.P.'s Ashland No. 4 Battery is detailed to provide a background for recent work, and to expand the industry's technology base. The strict door leakage standards of the 1990 amendments to the USA Clean Air Act has prompted additional technical studies. Both a joint Armco committee's evaluation of successful systems world wide and test door installations at Ashland were incorporated to determine compliance strategy. The eventual installation of Ikio Model II coke oven doors, along with modifications to ancillary equipment, has resulted in door leakage rates approaching zero. Associated methods, problems, results and evaluations are discussed.

  1. Cogeneration Waste Heat Recovery at a Coke Calcining Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, R. L.

    and performance summary at the plant design point is shown in Figure 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT The plant has three steam generation units. Each boiler is a natural circulation, single pressure level waste heat recovery boiler. Two of the boilers..." per ANSI/ASME PTC 4 4-1981, Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generator' All units tested above their design value. The turbine generator set was tested using station instrumentation to verify it was performin at its design point. The overall plant...

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths.

  3. Usiing NovoCOS cleaning equipment in repairing the furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries 4 & 5 at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Protasov; R. Linden; A. Gross [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experience with a new surface-preparation technology for the ceramic resurfacing of the refractory furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries is described.

  4. New Concepts in Hardware and Processes to Conserve Oil and Gas in Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrey, J. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad program to identify and evaluate new types of hardware and processes to conserve oil and gas in chemical plants and petroleum refineries has been completed. During the course of this program, which was sponsored by the Office of Industrial...

  5. Initial coke deposition on a NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bitumen hydroprocessing catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, S.M.; Nagaishi, Hiroshi; Gray, M.R. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Athabasca bitumen was hydrocracked over a commercial NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in two reactors, a microbatch reactor and a 1-L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Coke deposition on catalyst was measured as a function of hydrogen pressure, time on stream, and liquid composition by measuring the carbon content of the cleaned spent catalyst. The carbon content ranged from 11.3% to 17.6% over the pressure range 6.9--15.2 MPa in CSTR experiments. Batch and CSTR experiments showed a rapid approach to a constant coke content with increasing oil/catalyst ratio. Coke deposition was independent of product composition for residue concentrations ranging from 8% to 32% by weight. Removal of the coke by tetralin at reaction conditions suggested reversible adsorption of residue components on the catalyst surface. A physical model based on clearance of coke by hydrogen in the vicinity of metal crystallites is presented for the coke deposition behavior during the first several hours of hydrocracking use. This model gives good agreement with experimental data, including the effect of reaction time, the ratio of total feed weight to catalyst weight, hydrogen pressure, and feed composition, and it agrees with general observations from industrial usage. The model implies that except at the highest coke levels, the active surfaces of the metal crystallites remain exposed. Severe mass-transfer limitations are caused by the overall narrowing of the pore structure, which in {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} would give very low effective diffusivity for residuum molecules in micropores.

  6. Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

  7. Morbidity And Sulfur Dioxide: Evidence From French Strikes At Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Neidell; Emmanuelle Lavaine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the impact of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in France on health outcomes at a census track level. To do so, we use recent strikes affecting oil refineries in France, in October 2010, as a natural experiment. Our work offers several contributions. We first show that a temporal shut down in the refining process leads to a reduction in sulfur dioxide concentration. We then use this narrow time frame exogenous shock to assess the impact of a change in air pollution concentration on respiratory outcomes. Our estimates suggest that daily variation in SO2 air pollution has economically significant health effects at levels below the current standard. 0

  8. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Experience and results of new heating control system of coke oven batteries at Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanljung, J.; Palmu, P. [Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (Finland)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest development and results of the heating control system at Raahe Steel are presented in this paper. From the beginning of coke production in Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (October 1987) the heating control systems have been developed. During the first stage of development work at the coking plant (from year 1987 to 1992), when only the first coke oven battery consisting of 35 ovens was in production, the main progress was in the field of process monitoring. After commissioning of the second stage of the coking plant (November 1992), the development of the new heating control model was started. Target of the project was to develop a dynamic control system which guides the heating of batteries through the various process conditions. Development work took three years and the heating control system was commissioned in the year 1995. Principle of the second generation system is an energy balance calculation, coke end temperature determination and dynamic oven scheduling system. The control is based on simultaneous feedforward and feedback control. The fuzzy logic components were added after about one year experience.

  10. Oil and Gas Company Oil and Gas Company Address Place Zip Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dhahran Saudi Arabia http www saudiaramco com en home html Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company SAMREF Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company SAMREF P O Box Yanbu S audi...

  11. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( ES)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  12. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuels used in the refinery sector were also collected fromof the emissions from the refinery sector are included incommitment of 44% and the refinery and food sectors

  13. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J. [Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp., Follansbee, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  14. Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

  15. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M; Farrell, Alexander E; Plevin, Richard J; Jones, Andrew D; Nemet, Gregory F; Delucchi, Mark A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extraction (e.g. crude oil production and shipment),production arises in petroleum refineries. A refinery turns crude oil

  16. ,"Utah Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plant Liquids,

  17. ,"Vermont Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plantand Wyoming

  18. Refinery Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida4 U.S. Manufacturing Energy UseMary

  19. ,"U.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. Underground Natural Gas

  20. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  1. Standard guide for evaluating and qualifying oilfield and refinery corrosion inhibitors in the laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide covers some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oilfield and refinery applications in well defined flow conditions. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather covers a range of approaches which have found application in inhibitor evaluation. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in inhibitor evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for evaluating corrosion inhibitors. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

  2. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules (Released in the STEO January 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On August 27, 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an individual refinery baseline is not available to domestic refiners.) If a foreign refiner did not establish and use an individual baseline, the gasoline they export to the United States would be regulated through the importer, and subject to the importer's baseline (most likely the statutory baseline). Specific regulatory provisions are implemented to ensure that the option to use an individual baseline would not lead to adverse environmental impacts. This involves monitoring the average quality of imported gasoline, and if a specified benchmark is exceeded, remedial action would be taken by adjusting the requirements applicable to imported gasoline.

  3. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kerosene Petroleum Other Products Refinery Gas Diesel OilGasoline Liquid Petroleum Gas Refinery Production by ProductPetroleum Other Products Refinery Gas Diesel Oil Gasoline

  4. Petroleum Coke

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent)82,516 82,971 84,053 85,190

  5. Petroleum Coke

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office(BillionYearPricePrice (Percent)theCity

  6. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  7. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation, heating, coking and coal gas production, andgeneration, heating, coking and coal gas production, andgeneration, heating, coking and coal gas production, and

  8. Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Prot Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PROPRIETARY INFORMATION? 2011 KBC Advanced Technologies plc. All Rights Reserved. Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Port Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility May... Improvements ? Cost-savings initiatives ? Increasing environmental awareness ? Increasing throughput by debottlenecking processes ? Increasing government mandates 2May 2013 Energy Costs for a 200kBPD Complex refinery Typically, energy efficiency programs...

  9. The oil and gas journal databook, 1991 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book provides the statistical year in review plus selected articles that cover significant events of the past year. In addition, the Data Book features the popular surveys and special reports that quantify industry activity throughout the year. This book contains information on Midyear forecast and review; Worldwide gas processing report; Ethylene report; Sulfur survey; International refining survey; Nelson cost index; Smith rig count; API refinery report; API imports of crude and products; The catalyst compilation; Annual refining survey; Worldwide construction report; Pipeline economics report; Worldwide production and refining report; Morgan pipeline cost index for oil and gas; Hughes rig count; OBJ production report.

  10. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  11. Technical and operational overview of the C[sub 4] Oleflex process at Valero refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohnholt, J.F.; Payne, D. (Valero Refining Co., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)); Gregor, J.; Smith, E. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in gasoline composition stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments prompted Valero Energy Corporation to evaluate options for producing reformulated gasoline. The evaluation culminated in a project to upgrade butanes into methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Technology selection focused on the dehydrogenation of isobutane, and the UOP Oleflex process was selected. The MTBE project was implemented in 34 months and was $3 million under budget. The guaranteed MTBE production of 12,500 BPSD was achieved within one month of mechanical completion and has since reached 15,000 BPSD. Even at the low MTBE prices prevailing in late 1993, the butane upgrading project contributed significantly to Valero Refinery's overall profitability. Worldwide demand is expected to increase MTBE prices in 1996, thereby further increasing profits. The paper describes the project evaluation activities which led to the selection of the Oleflex process, engineering and construction, the MTBE complex start-up and operation, the Valero MTBE complex performance, and future plans. The paper also discusses feedstock utilization efficiency and MTBE market analysis.

  12. Summary of the proceedings of the workshop on the refinery of the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report on the Workshop on the Refinery of the Future has been prepared for participants to provide them with a succinct summary of the presentations, deliberations, and discussions. In preparing the summary, we have striven to capture the key findings (conclusions) and highlight the issues and concerns raised during the plenary and breakout sessions. The presentation of the summary of the proceedings follows the final workshop agenda, which is given in Section I; each section is tabbed to facilitate access to specific workshop topics. The material presented relies heavily on the outline summaries prepared and presented by the Plenary Session Chairman and the Facilitators for each breakout group. These summaries are included essentially as presented. In addition, individuals were assigned to take notes during each session; these notes were used to reconstruct critical issues that were discussed in more detail. The key comments made by the participants, which tended to represent the range of views expressed relative to the issues, are presented immediately following the facilitator`s summary outline in order to convey the flavor of the discussions. The comments are not attributed to individuals, since in many instances they represent a composite of several similar views expressed during the discussion. The facilitators were asked to review the writeups describing the outcomes of their sessions for accuracy and content; their suggested changes were incorporated. Every effort has thus been made to reconstruct the views expressed as accurately as possible; however, errors and/or misinterpretations undoubtedly have occurred.

  13. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.

  14. Corrosion in gas conditioning plants - An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, B.; Dupart, M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the early 1800's, fuel gases of various sorts (acetylene, blast furnace gas, flue water gas, carbureted water gas, coal gas, coke oven gas and producer gas) were transmitted at low pressures in pipelines and were conditioned for contaminate removal. The removal of such contaminates as H/sub 2/S was usually accomplished by solid absorbents such as iron oxide, a process that is still in use today. The discovery in the late 20's of a regenerative process employing alkanolamines was instrumental in rapid increase in the use of natural gas in large volumes. Also at this time, the development of wide diameter pipelines that could handle 500-700 psi gas pressure provided the means of handling these large volumes of gas. The protection of the pipeline from corrosion depended upon contaminate removal of water, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. In the process of contaminant removal, the process equipment suffered severe corrosion damage. Corrosion test methods and inhibitors were applied to those early processes and have advanced from weep holes and coupons to the present way of electronic and physical test methods. The trend is away from the primary amine at either low strength or inhibited at high concentration to less corrosive, ''tailor-made'' solvents that can be designed or formulated to perform a given task at acceptable corrosion rates and at much lower energy levels.

  15. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cities, December 1994 6. Ex-Refinery Oil Products Prices,and residential sectors. Includes refinery gas, LPG, variousOil Field Petroleum Refinery Output Natural Gas Production

  16. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission reduction at Engen refinery in South Durban. Paperenergy consumed in refineries and other energy conversionCement Membrane separation Refinery gas Natural gas Bio-

  17. ,"U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks ofReservesNatural

  18. ,"U.S. U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant

  19. ,"U.S. U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas

  20. ,"U.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. Underground Natural

  1. ,"US--Federal Offshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. Underground

  2. ,"Utah Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.

  3. ,"Vermont Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plantand Wyoming Natural

  4. ,"Virginia Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.PlantandCoalbed Methane

  5. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A 39 year follow-up of the UK oil refinery and distribution centre studies: results for kidney cancer and leukaemia. Environ Health Perspect Suppl 101(Suppl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesley Rushton

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents briefly some of the principal results of a mortality analysis of a cohort of workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1975 at eight oil refineries and approximately 750 distribution centers in the U.K, together with detailed results for kidney cancer and leukemia. Over 99 % of the workers were successfully traced. Their mortality was compared with that of all males in the national population. The mortality from all causes of death is lower than that of the comparison population in both studies, and reduced mortality is also found for many of the major nonmalignant causes of death. In the refinery study, some increased mortality patterns are found for diseases of the arteries, and no healthy worker effect is found in the distribution center study for ischemic heart disease. Mortality from all neoplasms is lower than expected overall in both studies, largely due to a deficit of deaths from malignant neoplasm of the lung. Mortality from malignant neoplasm of the kidney is increased overall in the distribution center study, and in drivers in particular. The mortality from this disease increases with increased time since first exposure. The observed deaths from leukemia are slightly less than expected in the refinery study and slightly more than expected in the distribution center study. One refinery shows increased mortality due to in myeloid leukemia, and mortality is increased among refinery operators. Mortality is also raised in distribution center drivers, particularly for myeloid leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia.

  7. WASTE INCINERATION wr090203 Activity 090203 SNAP CODE: 090203 SOURCE ACTIVITY TITLE: WASTE INCINERATION Flaring in Oil Refinery NOSE CODE: 109.03.11 NFR CODE:

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    So Nox; Nmvoc Ch; Co Co; No Nh

    Flares are commonly used during petroleum refining for the safe disposal of waste gases during process upsets (e.g., start-up, shut-down, system blow-down) and emergencies to combust the organic content of waste emission streams without recovering/using the associated energy. 2 CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL EMISSIONS Although flaring emission estimates are approximate, total hydrocarbon emissions from flaring at Canadian petroleum refineries during 1988 represented about 0.1 % of the refinery sector process and fugitive emissions that also included petroleum marketing emissions (CPPE, 1990). Thus the flaring operation at refineries is estimated to contribute a very small fraction of the total HC emissions in Canada. Emissions from flaring activities may also include: particulate, SOx, NOx, CO and other NMVOC. The CO2 contribution of both miscellaneous vent and flare emission sources represented approximately 9 % of the total petroleum refinery SO2 emission in Canada during 1988. Emissions estimates from flaring in petroleum refineries as reported in the CORINAIR90 inventory are summarised in Table 1. Table 1: Contribution to total emissions of the CORINAIR90 inventory (28 countries) Source-activity SNAP-code Contribution to total emissions [%

  8. Creating an Energy Strategy that Delivers Cost Savings While Optimizing Asset Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sears, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , switching to Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Consider petroleum coke as being a potential opportunity fuel. Increasingly, our refineries are switching to heavier crude oils coming from Alberta, which dramatically increases the supply of petroleum... or RECs, or, simply based on environmental benefits. • For larger facilities, consider switching from natural gas to coal. The benefit here is in capturing the price spread between coal and natural gas. Alternatively, for those facilities already...

  9. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  10. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using the rotating cylinder electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications in defined flow conditions. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of historical data and projections for supply, demand, and prices of these liquids, co-products, and competing products. To reduce confusion in terminology and improve its presentation of data, EIA has worked with industry and federal and state governments to clarify gas liquid terminology and has developed the term Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids, or HGL.

  12. K. S. Telang, R. W. Pike, F. C. Knopf, J. R. Hopper, J. Saleh, S. Waghchoure, S. C. Hedge and T. A. Hertwig,"An Advanced Process Analysis System for Improving Chemical and Refinery Processes," Computers and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 23, p. S727-730 (1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    . Hertwig,"An Advanced Process Analysis System for Improving Chemical and Refinery Processes," Computers Chemical and Refinery Processes K. S. Telang, X. Chen, R. W. Pike and F. C. Knopf Louisiana State and refineries for process improvements. The system integrates programs for on-line optimization, chemical

  13. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.PlantandCoalbedSummary"

  14. ,"Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. UndergroundState

  15. ,"Utah Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plant Liquids, Expected

  16. ,"Utah Nonassociated Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plant

  17. ,"Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plantand

  18. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.PlantandCoalbed

  19. Public health assessment for US Smelter and Lead Refinery, Inc. (A/K/A USS Lead Refinery Inc. ) East Chicago, Lake County, Indiana, Region 5. Cerclis no. IND047030226. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Smelter and Lead Refinery, Inc. (USS Lead), in East Chicago, Indiana, has been operating as a primary and secondary smelting facility since 1906. Wastes which were produced during smelting operations are calcium sulfate sludge, blast furnace flue-dust, baghouse bags, rubber and plastic battery casings, and waste slag. Limited sampling information is available, and indicates that on-site soils and wastes are contaminated with lead and other metals. Additional sampling off-site surface soils indicate that the contamination has spread off-site as far as one-half mile from the site. Surface water and sediment on-site has also become contaminated with lead and other metals, as well as waste oil. Based on the completed exposure pathways to lead through soil ingestion and dust inhalation, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concludes that contamination from the USS Lead site is a public health hazard.

  20. ,"U.S. Shale Gas Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of SelectedRefinerGas

  1. ,"U.S. Total Exports Natural Gas Plant Processing"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks ofReservesNatural Gas

  2. ,"U.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage

  3. ,"Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plantand Wyoming Natural Gas

  4. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen CROSS EFFECTS, TOTAL SYSTEM LAY-OUT 13.6.2001 10-1 Figure 10.1 Typical pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up system: dry scrubber +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up system: dry scrubber + baghouse filter for SO2 and particulate For a conventional pulverised coal-fired power plant a set-up is shown in Figure 10.1, with a gas clean-up system scrubber (pH ~ 6) 60 - 70 7 Re-heater 350 - 400 8 SCR DeNOx 300 - 400 9 Active coke bed 100 - 150 Figure 10

  5. Effective monitoring of non-chromate chemical treatment programs for refinery cooling systems using sewage water as make-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AlMajnouni, A.D.; Jaffer, A.E. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treated sewage water as make-up to the cooling tower requires novel approaches to control potential cooling water problems common to refineries besides meeting environmental regulations. An intensive field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of non-chromate treatment programs. On-line cleaning of the exchangers occurred prior to instituting the new chemical treatment program. Low carbon steel corrosion rates with minimal deposition was achieved. Microbiological fouling was controlled with chlorination and non-oxidizing biocide program. Field results are presented which compare the efficacy of these proprietary treatments to control corrosion and inhibit scale and fouling. Analytical results which provide a comprehensive performance evaluation of a new non-chromate chemical treatment program are presented.

  6. Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagan, Colin R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were "in" the petroleum refinery, EPA also pointed out thatintegral part" of the refinery. ' 3 ' The court, however,part of the adjacent petroleum refinery nor necessary to the

  7. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consumption of coking coal mainly for steelmaking will dropelectricity and town gas. Coking coal consumption mainly for

  8. ,"U.S. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+LiquidsAnnual",2014Annual",2014Gas,

  9. Shale Oil and Gas, Frac Sand, and Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ;Bakken Oil Shale scope · Light, Sweet crude ­ ideal for automotive fuels and mid-size refineries (Midwest

  10. MTBE will be a boon to U. S. gas processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.W. (Purvin and Gertz, Inc. Dallas, TX (United States))

    1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that the advent of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the primary oxygenate blending component for oxygenated and reformulated motor fuels promises significant benefits for the U.S. gas-processing industry. Increased demand for isobutane as MTBE-plant feedstock will buoy both normal butane and isobutane pricing in U.S. gulf Coast during the 1990s. Elimination of the need to crack normal butane in U.S. olefin plants will also strengthen competitive feedstocks somewhat, including ethane and propane. And increased use of normal butane as isomerization feedstock will result in wider recognition of the premium quality of gas plant normal butane production compared to most refinery C[sub 4] production.

  11. Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

  12. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  13. refinery BP Oil's Alliance refinery in Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    is the focus of an environmental control program, which is also being implemented in other BP plants

  14. Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION

  15. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Influence of low and high temperature coking of H-GaMFI propane aromatization catalyst on its surface and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, V.R.; Kinage, A.K.; Devadas, P. [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India)] [and others] [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); and others

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H-Gallosilicate (MFI) (i.e., H-GaMFI) zeolite shows high activity/selectivity in the aromatization of lower alkanes, which is processes of treat practical importance. The high aromatization activity of this catalyst is attributed to its high dehydrogenation activity due to the presence of high dispersed nonframework Ga-oxide species (which are formed during hydrothermal synthesis and/or pretreatments to the zeolite) along with the zeolitic acid sites (or framework Ga), resulting in a bifunctional catalyst. However, this zeolite undergoes fast catalyst deactivation in the propane aromatization. The catalyst deactivation is attributed mainly to the coke formation on the zeolite. Earlier, a few studies have been reported on the deactivation of H-GaMFI zeolite in the propane aromatization. The catalyst deactivation is attributed mainly to the coke formation on the zeolite. Earlier, a few studies have been reported on the deactivation of H-GaMFI zeolite in the propane aromatization at 500-550{degrees}C for a short time-on-stream (10 h). It is interesting to know the effect of catalyst deactivation due to coking in the propane aromatization for much longer periods both at low (at 400{degrees}C) and high (at 550{degrees}C) temperatures on the product selectivity and also on the surface (viz., sorption capacity, acidity/acid strength distribution) and catalytic properties of the zeolite. The present investigation was undertaken for this purpose. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Lifecycle Analysis of Air Quality Impacts of Hydrogen and Gasoline Transportation Fuel Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil refinery Pipeline Storage Truck distribution Gas stationOil refinery Pipeline Storage Truck distribution Gas stationrefinery Pipeline Terminal storage Truck distribution Gas

  18. ,"US--State Offshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. UndergroundState Offshore

  19. ,"Utah Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. UndergroundStateCoalbedDry

  20. ,"Utah Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. UndergroundStateCoalbedDryPrice

  1. ,"Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plant Liquids, Expected Future

  2. ,"Utah Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plant Liquids,Net Withdrawals

  3. ,"Utah Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plant Liquids,Net

  4. ,"Utah Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plant Liquids,NetWellhead Price

  5. ,"Utah Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plant Liquids,NetWellhead

  6. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.PlantandCoalbed MethanePrice

  7. ,"Virginia Natural Gas LNG Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.PlantandCoalbed MethanePriceLNG

  8. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.PlantandCoalbedSummary"Net

  9. Reduction of COD in leachate from a hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke-making facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, K.; O`Toole, T.J. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke manufacturing facility was in operation between July 1990 and December 1991. A system was constructed to collect and treat the leachate from the landfill prior to discharge to the river. Occasionally, the discharge from the treatment facility exceeded the permit limitations for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The objectives of this study were to determine treatment methods which would enable compliance with the applicable discharge limits; to establish the desired operating conditions of the process; and to investigate the effect of various parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, and reaction time on the COD destruction efficiency. The characteristics of the landfill leachate in question were significantly variable in terms of chemical composition. A review of the influent quality data suggests that the COD concentration ranges between 80 and 390 mg/l. The oxidation processes using Fenton`s reagent or a combination of UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst are capable of reducing the COD concentration of the leachate below the discharge limitation of 35 mg/l. The estimated capital cost associated with the Fenton`s reagent process is approximately $525,000, and the annual operating and maintenance cost is $560,000. The estimated capital cost for the UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst treatment system is $565,000. The annual operating and maintenance cost of this process would be approximately $430,000.

  10. Control of SOx emission in tail gas of the Claus Plant at Kwangyang Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.S.; Park, J.W.; Hyun, H.D. [POSCO, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works; Lee, D.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; Paik, S.C. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chung, J.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pilot and/or laboratory studies were conducted in order to find methods for reducing the SOx emission in the Claus tail gas of the cokes unit. The TGT process which is based on the complete hydrogenation of the sulfur-containing compounds (SO{sub 2}, S) into H{sub 2}S and returning to the COG main line can reduce the SOx emission to zero. In case the return to the COG main is impossible, the SPOR process (Sulfur removal based on Partial Oxidation and Reduction) can be successfully applied to reduce the SOx emission.

  11. Comparing air quality impacts of hydrogen and gasoline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil refinery Pipeline Storage Truck distribution Gas stationrefinery Pipeline Terminal storage Truck distribution Gas

  12. Evolution of gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showail, A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The beginning of the natural gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia is traced back to 1959 when Aramco embarked on a program to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) for export from low pressure gases such as stabilizer overhead, spheroid, tank farm, and refinery off-gases. The processing scheme involves compression and refrigeration to extract C3+ raw NGL, a raw NGL gathering system, and a fractionation plant to separate propane, butane, and natural gasoline. NGL extracted in Abqaiq and Ras Tanura is moved to Ras Tanura for fractionation, storage, and export. The system, built in several increments, has total design capacity of 500 MMscfd of feed gases to produce 320,000 bpd of NGL composed of 40% propane, 30% butane, and 30% natural gasoline. Phase II of the Saudi gas program envisages collection and processing of associated gas produced with Arabian medium and heavy crude oils largely in the northern onshore and offshore fields. Further domestic development may focus on more diversification in gas product utilization and on upgrading to higher value products.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  14. Wetland treatment of oil and gas well wastewaters. Quarterly technical report, May 25, 1992---August 24, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadlec, R.H.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to extend the knowledge base for wetland treatment to include processes and substances of particular importance to small, on-site systems receiving oil and gas well waste water. Collection of data on the sorption of heavy metals and the degradation of toxic organics is one of the key tasks. The toxic organics phenolics and anthracene, and chromium and copper have been selected as target adsorbates. An information search was performed on oil refinery waste treatment wetland systems.

  15. ,"Vermont Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plantand Wyoming NaturalPrice

  16. Hydrogen Selective Inorganic membranes for Gas Separations under High Pressure Intermediate Temperature Hydrocarbonic Envrionment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Ciora; Paul KT Liu

    2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we have successfully developed a full scale commercially ready carbon molecular sieve (CMS) based membrane for applications in H{sub 2} recovery from refinery waste and other aggressive gas streams. Field tests at a refinery pilot plant and a coal gasification facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to recovery hydrogen from hydrotreating and raw syngas respectively. High purity H{sub 2} and excellent stability of the membrane permeance and selectivity were obtained in testing conducted over >500 hours at each site. The results from these field tests as well as laboratory testing conclude that the membranes can be operated at high pressures (up to 1,000 psig) and temperatures (up to 300 C) in presence of aggressive contaminants, such as sulfur and nitrogen containing species (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, etc), condensable hydrocarbons, tar-like species, heavy metals, etc. with no observable effect on membrane performance. By comparison, similar operating conditions and/or environments would rapidly destroy competing membranes, such as polymeric, palladium, zeolitic, etc. Significant cost savings can be achieved through recovering H{sub 2} from refinery waste gas using this newly developed CMS membrane. Annual savings of $2 to 4MM/year (per 20,000 scfd of waste gas) can be realized by recovering the H{sub 2} for reuse (versus fuel). Projecting these values over the entire US market, potential H{sub 2} savings from refinery waste gases on the order of 750 to 1,000MM scfd and $750 to $1,000MM per year are possible. In addition to the cost savings, potential energy savings are projected to be ca. 150 to 220 tBTU/yr and CO{sub 2} gas emission reductions are projected to be ca. 5,000 to 6,500MMtons/year. The full scale membrane bundle developed as part of this project, i.e., 85 x 30 inch ceramic membrane tubes packaged into a full ceramic potting, is an important accomplishment. No comparable commercial scale product exists in the inorganic membrane field. Further, this newly developed full scale bundle concept can be extended to other thin film inorganic membrane technology (Pd, zeolite, etc), providing a potential commercialization pathway for these membrane materials that demonstrate high potential in a variety of separation applications yet remain a laboratory 'novelty' for lack of a full scale support. Overall, the project has been highly successful and all of the project objectives have been met. We have developed the first of its kind commercial scale carbon molecular sieve membrane and demonstrated its performance in field testing under aggressive operating conditions and in the presence of chemical contaminants that would rapidly destroy alternative organic and inorganic membranes. This innovative membrane permits H{sub 2} recovery from gas streams that up until now have not been successfully treated with membrane or conventional technology. Our end user participant is currently pursuing the field demonstration of this membrane for hydrogen recovery at its refinery site.

  17. Refinery Capacity Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    by State as of January 1, 2006 PDF 5 Refiners' Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2006 PDF 6 Operable Crude Oil and Downstream Charge...

  18. Hydrogen Generation for Refineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single Cycle Shown for ATB SteamCarbon 3 * ATB reforming * Steamcarbon 3 * Syngas generated during reforming * 70% H 2 * 20% CO * Syngas composition agrees with...

  19. Refinery Capacity Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubic Feet) Yeara 436INCIDENCE OF AN2009

  20. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21

  1. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacity Report

  2. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacity Report5

  3. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacity

  4. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacity Operable

  5. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacity

  6. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacityof Last

  7. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacityof

  8. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21CapacityofVacuum

  9. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table

  10. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION / Refiner /

  11. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION / Refiner

  12. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION / RefinerAlkylates

  13. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION / RefinerAlkylates

  14. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION /

  15. Refinery Outages: Fall 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION /Product:

  16. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Capacity Report June 2014 With Data as of January 1, 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by...

  17. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source:Additions to Capacity onThousand(Dollars2009Rail

  18. Refinery Capacity Report Historical

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source:Additions to Capacity onThousand(Dollars2009Rail

  19. Hydrogen Generation for Refineries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department ofOral Testimony ofMonitoring, Protectionof

  20. U.S. Refinery

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil and Petroleum

  1. U.S. Refinery

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,932 130,902672009Dec-14

  2. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal Gas coal Fat coal Coking coal Lean coal Meagre coalCoal used for coking Natural Gas Coal used as fuel Source:

  3. Results of gas-fired flash-smelting tests. Phase 1-3. Topical technical report, November 1987-April 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pusateri, J.F.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A natural gas-fired burner for the HRD FLAME REACTOR Process was designed and successfully tested on over 450 tons of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) dust, and over a wide range of operating conditions. The coal/coke-fired FLAME REACTOR Process has already been demonstrated as an efficient and economic means of recovering zinc from EAF dust as a salable oxide product, and a salable nonhazardous, iron-rich slag product. The results of the work indicate that the natural gas-fired process has a higher zinc capacity for a given reactor size, with zinc recoveries 5-10 percentage points higher than coal/coke processing at high throughputs. Gas-fired capital costs are about 15% less than coal for a 20,000 STPY EAF dust plant. Smaller plants show even higher break-even costs. Net processing costs are about $100/ton of EAF dust, which is extremely competitive with land-filling and other recycling options.

  4. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications: Environmental Monitoring Program. Baseline sampling program report: Volume 2, Appendix sections 1--7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains no text. It consist entirely of results monitoring stack opacity, benzene surveys, chemical effluent in wastewater, etc.

  5. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 2, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The EMP consists of a Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program and a Supplemental monitoring Sampling Program. The Compliance Monitoring Sampling Program will be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Project and during a summer and a winter period following the successful Startup and Operational phase of the completed Project. compliance monitoring consist of conducting all the sampling and observation programs associated with existing required Federal, State, and Local Regulations, Permits and Orders. These include air, water, and waste monitoring and OSHA and NESHAP monitoring. The Supplemental Monitoring Program will also be conducted during a summer and a winter Baseline periods during the Pre-Construction/Construction phases of the Demonstration Facility and during a summer and a winter period following the successful startup and Operational phase of the completed Facility. Supplemental Monitoring includes sampling of 27 additional streams that are important to measure operational or environmental performance and impacts of the installation of the new COG treatment facilities.

  6. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard ErrorsNumber of Relative

  7. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales toReformulated, Average0.9 Relative Standard ErrorsNumber of Relative2

  8. Turbine fuels from tar-sands bitumen and heavy oil. Volume 2. Phase 3. Process design specifications for a turbine-fuel refinery charging San Ardo heavy crude oil. Final report, 1 June 1985-31 March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, A.F.; Swesey, J.R.; Magill, L.G.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engineering design was developed for a 50,000-BPSD grass-roots refinery to produce aviation turbine fuel grades JP-4 and JP-8 from San Ardo heavy crude oil. The design was based on the pilot-plant studies described in Phase III - Volume I of this report. The detailed plant design described in this report was used to determine estimated production costs.

  9. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  10. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  11. Cracking blends of gas oil and residual oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, G.D.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a catalytic cracking process unit wherein a gas oil feed is cracked in a cracking zone at an elevated temperature in the presence of a cracking catalyst, the cracking catalyst is regenerated in a regeneration zone by burning coke of the catalyst, and catalyst is circulated between the cracking zone and the regeneration zone. The improvement is described for obtaining a naphtha product of improved octane number comprising introducing sufficient of a nickel and vanadium metals-containing heavy feedstock with the gas oil feed introduced into the cracking zone to deposit nickel and vanadium metals on the catalyst and raise the nickel and metals-content of the catalyst to a level ranging from about 1500 to about 6000 parts per million of the metals expressed as equivalent nickel, based on the weight of the catalyst, and maintaining the nickel and vanadium metals level on the catalyst by withdrawing high nickel and vanadium metals containing catalyst and adding low nickel and vanadium metals-containing catalyst to the regeneration zone.

  12. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  13. Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

  14. Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

  15. Your Career as Alumni Student Careers Forum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Anode Plant Oak Ridge Reservation Bulgarian Wireless Network Khursaniyah Gas Plant Jamnagar Refinery Mountain Repository Refinery KG D6 Gas Development Thai Oil Paraxylene 4G Communications High Speed 1Hess Gas Development Motiva Refinery Yarwun 2 Refinery #12;10/23/2008 4 Rock Anchoring A di P j t Alumni

  16. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  17. Activated carbon cleanup of the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the details of a recently developed novel process using activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur recovery units. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This effect is especially evident in split flow Claus plants which bypass some of the acid gas feed stream around the initial combustion step because of a low hydrogen sulfide concentration. This new clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}{sup +} hydrocarbons from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated using low pressure steam. A post regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. This technology was extensively pilot tested in Saudi Aramco`s facilities in Saudi Arabia. Full scale commercial units are planned for two plants in the near future with the first coming on-line in 1997. The process described here represents the first application of activated carbon in this service, and a patent has been applied for. The paper will discuss the pilot plant results and the issues involved in scale-up to commercial size.

  18. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  19. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  20. Gas Storage Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any corporation which is engaged in or desires to engage in, the distribution, transportation or storage of natural gas or manufactured gas, which gas, in whole or in part, is intended for ultimate...

  1. Gas Companies Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Companies program is a set of rules that encourage the development of the natural gas industry in Tennessee. They empower gas companies to lay piped and extend conductors through the...

  2. Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rules regarding the production, sale, and transfer of manufactured gas will also apply to natural gas. This section regulates natural gas utilities that serve ten or more customers, more than one...

  3. Gas Utilities (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...

  4. Future of Natural Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts *...

  5. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  6. Supervisory Natural Gas Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energys Office of Fossil Energy, Office of Oil and Natural Gas, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply (FE) is responsible for regulating natural gas imports and exports...

  7. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal {bituminous} Coke Heavy Oil Natural Gas Electricity EAFoil and natural gas ( heavy fuel oil electricity generation

  8. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M; Farrell, Alexander E; Plevin, Richard J; Jones, Andrew D; Nemet, Gregory F; Delucchi, Mark A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    barrel. Fuel Ethanol Production Petroleum Price $ per gallonfuel ethanol production and petroleum prices Sources:issue of joint production arises in petroleum refineries. A

  9. Detailed Modeling of Industrial Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Integrated Assessment Model of Long-term Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, P.; Wise, M.; Smith, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the manufacturing sector, about 26% is electricity, 58% is natural gas, 10% is coal (excluding coal coke and breeze) and the remainder is from liquid fuels. 1 AdaptedfromTableE6.4. EndUsesofFuelConsumption,1998(URL: ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/consumption/industry/d98...FuelConsumptionbyEnd-UseforallMECSIndustries,1998,trillionBTU Electricity Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal (excluding Coal Cokeand Breeze) Total BoilerFuel 29 308 2,538 770 3,645 ProcessHeating 363 185 3,187 331 4,066 ProcessCoolingand Refrigeration 209 2 22 233 MachineDrive 1,881 25 99 7 2...

  10. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J. [Phillips66 Company, West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char cyclonefiltration hybrid unit in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process. These reductions would help to keep the E-Gas (TM) technology competitive among other coal-fired power generation technologies. The Wabash combined cyclone and gas filtration slipstream test program was developed to provide design information, equipment specification and process control parameters of a hybrid cyclone and candle filter particulate removal system in the E-Gas (TM) gasification process that would provide the optimum performance and reliability for future commercial use. The test program objectives were as follows: 1. Evaluate the use of various cyclone materials of construction; 2. Establish the optimal cyclone efficiency that provides stable long term gas filter operation; 3. Determine the particle size distribution of the char separated by both the cyclone and candle filters. This will provide insight into cyclone efficiency and potential future plant design; 4. Determine the optimum filter media size requirements for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; 5. Determine the appropriate char transfer rates for both the cyclone and filtration portions of the hybrid unit; 6. Develop operating procedures for the cyclone-filtration hybrid unit; and, 7. Compare the installed capital cost of a scaled-up commercial cyclone-filtration hybrid unit to the current gas filtration design without a cyclone unit, such as currently exists at the Wabash facility.

  11. Natural Gas Monthly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue...

  12. Gas Production Tax (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tax of 7.5 percent of the market value of natural gas produced in the state of Texas is imposed on every producer of gas.

  13. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  14. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  15. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  16. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  17. Results of the Independent Radiological Verification Survey of Remediation at Building 14, Former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawanda, New York (LI001V)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, S.P.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a radiological verification survey of Building 14 at the former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawanda, New York. The purpose of the survey was to verify that remedial action completed by the project management contractor had reduced contamination levels to within authorized limits. Prior to remediation, fixed and removable beta-gamma emitting material was Prevalent throughout Building 14 and in some of the process piping. Decontamination consisted of removal of surface contamination from floors, floor-wall interfaces, walls, wall-ceiling interfaces, and overhead areas; decontamination or removal of process piping; excavation and removal of subsurface soil; and vacuuming of dust. This independent radiological assessment was performed to verify that the remedial action had reduced contamination levels to within authorized limits. Building 14 at the former Linde site in Tonawanda, New York, was thoroughly investigated inside for radionuclide residues. Surface residual activity levels were generally well below applicable guidelines for protection against radiation. Similarly, removable alpha and beta-gamma activity levels were below guidelines. Gamma exposure rates within the building were at typical background levels, and no elevated indoor radon concentrations were measured. However, numerous areas exceeding U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) applicable guidelines still remain inside and underneath the building. These areas were either (1) inaccessible or (2) removal was not cost-effective or (3) removal would affect the structural integrity of the building. These above-guideline areas have been listed, described, and characterized by the remediation subcontractor (Appendix A), and dose to an exposed worker during typical exposure scenarios has been calculated. Based on the remediation subcontractor's characterization data and dose assessment calculations, these areas pose insignificant risk to building inhabitants under current use scenarios. However, future renovations, repairs, or demolition of the building must require prior evaluation and consideration of the areas. Analysis of the project management contractor's post-remedial action data and results of this independent radiological verification survey by ORNL confirm that residual contamination inside the building is either below the limits prescribed by DOE applicable guidelines for protection against radiation or areas exceeding applicable guidelines have been characterized and a risk assessment completed. Building 14 can be released for unrestricted use under current use scenarios; however, arrangements must be made to inform current and future building owners of the locations of areas exceeding DOE guidelines and any associated restrictions concerning renovations, repairs, or demolition of the building.

  18. Results of the Independent Radiological Verification Survey of Remediation at Building 31, Former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawanda, New York (LI001V)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, S.P.; Uziel, M.S.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Progmq a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a radiological veriihtion survey of Building 31 at the former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawau& New York. The purpose of the survey was to ver@ that remedial action completed by the project management contractor had reduced contamination levels to within authorized limits. Prior to remediatioq tied radioactive material was prevalent throughout the building and in some of the ductwork Decontaminadon consisted of removing surfhce contamination from floors, baseboards, and overhead areas; removing some air ducts; and vacuuming dust. Building 31 at the former Linde site in TonawandA New Yorlq was thoroughly investigated inside and outside for radionuclide residues. The verification team discovered previously undetected contaminadon beneath the concrete pad on the first floor and underneath floor tiles on the second floor. All suspect floor tiles were removed and any contamination beneath them cleaned to below guideline levels. The verification team also discovered elevated radiation levels associated with overhead air lines that led to the eventual removal of the entire air lige and a complete investigation of the history of all process piping in the building. Final verification surveys showed that residual surface beta-gamma activity levels were slightly elevated in some places but below U.S. Department of Energy applicable guidelines for protection against radiation (Table 1). Similarly, removable radioactive contamination was also below applicable guidelines. Exposure rates within the building were at typical background levels, and no consistently elevated indoor radon concentrations were measured. However, radionuclide analysis of subsurface soil from beneath the concrete floor on the ground level showed concentrations of `*U and'% that exceeded applicable guidelines. At the time of this survey, there was no measured exposure pathway for this subslab contamination under current use scenarios, and there was low risk associated with this contaminadon if the conaete slab is not cracked or penetrated. However, any penetration of the concrete slab caused by renovations, repairs, demolitio% or a naturally-occurring craclq would require further investigation and evaluation. Analysis of the project management contractor's post-remedial action data and results of this independent radiological vaification survey by ORNL confirm that all radiological measurements inside the building, on the exterior walls, and on the roof are below the limits prescribed by applicable guidelines for protection against radiation.

  19. Sweeney LUBRICATION OF STEAM, GAS AND WATER TURBINES IN POWER GENERATION- A CHEVRONTEXACO EXPERIENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter James Sweeney

    On 9 October 2001 two US oil companies Chevron and Texaco merged. Their long-term joint venture operation, known as Caltex (formed in 1936 and operating in East and Southern Africa, Middle East, Asia and Australasia), was incorporated into the one global energy company. This global enterprise will be highly competitive across all energy sectors, as the new company brings together a wealth of talents, shared values and a strong commitment to developing vital energy resources around the globe. Worldwide, ChevronTexaco is the third largest publicly traded company in terms of oil and gas reserves, with some 11.8 billion barrels of oil and gas equivalent. It is the fourth largest producer, with daily production of 2.7 million barrels. The company also has 22 refineries and more than 21,000 branded service stations worldwide. This paper will review the fundamentals of lubrication as they apply to the components of turbines. It will then look at three turbine types, steam, gas and water, to address the different needs of lubricating oils and the appropriate specifications for each. The significance of oil testing both for product development and in-service oil monitoring will be reviewed, together with the supporting field experience of ChevronTexaco. The environmental emissions controls on turbines and any impact on the lubricants will be discussed. Finally, the trends in specifications for lubricating oils to address the modern turbines designs will be reviewed. Key Words: geothermal, lubrication, turbines, in-service testing 1.

  20. Engineering Methane is a major component of shale gas. Recent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    catalytic reaction mechanisms of CH4 partial oxidation, dry reforming to syngas (CO2 + CH4 CO + H2 reforming reaction and eliminated the CH4 decomposition/coke formation pathway, producing syngas