Sample records for refineries remain shutdown

  1. Refinery Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Leveraging existing refining infrastructure potentially reduces costs for biofuel production but we first need to understand the impacts Petroleum Refinery Picture courtesy...

  2. Multiperiod Refinery Planning Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Multiperiod Refinery Planning Optimization with Nonlinear CDU Models Abdulrahman Alattas, Advisor #12;Refinery Planning Model Development 2 Extension to Multiperiod Planning #12;3 Multiperiod Refinery: refinery configuration Determine · What crude oil to process and in which time period? · The quantities

  3. Refinery Energy Profiling Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, R. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a four-step procedure developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy for preparing energy profiles for a refinery, for a single unit, or for an individual piece of equipment. The four steps are preparation, data...

  4. Refinery Energy Profiling Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, R. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a four-step procedure developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy for preparing energy profiles for a refinery, for a single unit, or for an individual piece of equipment. The four steps are preparation, data...

  5. Shutdown 2013 Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 SeptemberSettingUncertainties in the3ArieShutdown

  6. Fermilab | Tevatron | Shutdown Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget » FYU.S.at500-mileFYGrowing|The Shutdown

  7. Tenneco revamps chalmette refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heck, W.E.; Ragsdale, R.

    1985-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A major expansion and modernization project has been completed at Tenneco Oil Co.'s Chalmette, La. refinery, which is on the outskirts of New Orleans. The $559 million project, called the Chalmette heavy oil processing program, included revamps and construction of new units. These new and modified facilities have increased the crude oil capacity of the refinery by 30,000 b/d to 127,000 b/d. Gasoline and/or middle distillate output potential has also been lifted by 30,000 b/d. Numerous studies were made and economic cases worked to determine the process configuration and selection for the project. These conclusions varied depending on the raw material chosen as the feedstock (crude source). The configuration finally chosen was driven by the decision to be able to process high metals crudes from around the world.

  8. Analysis Patterns for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Zhen; Guangzhen Shao

    We present analysis patterns to describe the structure of oil refineries. The Refinery Produc tion Unit Pattern describes the structure of units and unit groups. The Oil Storage Pattern describes the structure of tanks and tank groups. The Oil Delivery Pattern describes the structure of stations for import and export of oil. The Production Process Pattern describes the productionprocess. The audience for this paper includes analysts, designers, and programmers who are involved in developing Refinery Information Systems.

  9. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April 25, 20137a.06 2.013 1.673Refinery

  10. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) - HouseholdshortEIA-782A andS FRecord U.S. oilRefinery1

  11. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2000 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and Issues: World refinery production of germanium remained steady in 2000. The recycling of scrap continued

  12. Hulett's South African Refineries Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. P. Jennings

    The improvement in the quality of raw sugars sent to Hulett's Refinery during the three seasons, 1963164 to 1965166, was the subject of a paper presented to this association last year. (1) These

  13. Encon Motivation in European Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambera, S.; Lockett, W., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One essential element in a successful energy conservation or Encon program is effective motivation of employees and organizations to conserve energy. Encon motivation in our European refineries is a continuing effort that requires utilization...

  14. Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in RefineryCDU Models in Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in RefineryCDU Models in Refinery Planning Optimization Carnegie Mellon University EWO Meeting ­ March 2011 1 #12;I t d tiIntroduction Refinery production planning models Optimizing refinery operation C d l ti Crude selection Maximizing profit; minimizing cost

  15. Retrofitting analysis of integrated bio-refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cormier, Benjamin R.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    the economic performance of fossil-based facilities can be enhanced by retrofitting and incorporation of bio-mass feedstocks. These systems can be regarded as bio-refineries or integrated fossilbio- refineries. This work presents a retrofitting analysis...

  16. A Texas Refinery Success Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kacsur, D.

    A Texas Refinery Success Story Dennis Kacsur Spirax Sarco Common knowledge rules that maintenance is the key to long-lasting machinery performance. Yet steam traps are often left to their own devices, to fail or succeed alone. And without... steam trap programs, plants are certain to experience a high failure rate. An oil refinery in Texas was continuously experiencing a high failure rate on its 4,790-steam trap system. Finally, the steam losses were judged to be too high, and plant...

  17. Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in Refinery Planning Optimization Abdulrahman Alattas, Advisor #12;Refinery Planning Model Development Fixed-yieldModels SwingcutsModels LPPlanningModels Aggregate for the CDU #12;Planning Model Example Typical Refinery Configuration (Adapted from Aronofsky, 1978) Cat Ref

  18. Refinery Fuel Balancing with Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passman, K. W.; Taylor, R. I.; Williams, D. E.; Emanuel, D.

    in order to tie-in during a scheduled refinery wide turnaround and to be on line during the summer 1990 operating period. The two gas turbines exhaust to two existing boilers where the oxygen in the turbine exhaust is utilized for combustion. Supplementary...

  19. Fluidized bed controls refinery emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulally, I.F.; Kersey, B.R.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 1983, two fluidized bed, waste heat boilers entered into service at the Ashland Petroleum Company refinery site in Ashland, Kentucky. These fluidized bed units are coupled to the regeneration end of a newly developed reduced crude conversion (RCC) process and served the purpose of reducing CO, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions while recuperating waste heat from the regenerator process off gases.

  20. Getting it right at Catlettsburg: How Ashland Petroleum`s flagship refinery transformed itself

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitt, R.E.; Kennison, R.H.M.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Life has its surprises. In the midst of the pain and excitement of a massive organizational overhaul, Ashland Petroleum`s Catlettsburg refinery--a 220,000-b/d facility in Ashland, Ky.,--experienced an unplanned cracker shutdown, a few production mishaps, a two-week employee walk-out, and belt-tightening necessitated by competitive pressures. Yet, despite these adverse circumstances, the Catlettsburg Refinery Initiative (CRI), a 20-month effort that shifted from planning to implementation in October 1995, yielded remarkable results. By 1996, the refinery began achieving record levels of through-put with lower maintenance costs, increasing company profitability by about 15% in the first half of 1996, over the same period in 1995. In a post-initiative survey, refinery employees expressed enthusiam for the changes and their new work-roles. A number of factors converged to give the initiative drive and direction: a pervasive discomfort with the status quo, a determination by top management to make fundamental changes, a commitment to rapid implementation and effective use of an outside consultant. But above all, success at Catlettsburg was a result of a grassroots approach to the process of change.

  1. Refinery Production Planning: Multiperiod MINLP with Nonlinear CDU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Refinery Production Planning: Multiperiod MINLP with Nonlinear CDU Model-Rivera (2011) developed a single-period, nonlinear programing refinery planning model production, distribution, sales and inventory management1,2. The refinery

  2. Refinery Fuel Balancing with Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passman, K. W.; Taylor, R. I.; Williams, D. E.; Emanuel, D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of independent operation of boilers and turbines dictated that a dump stack be provided. CONTROL SYSTEM The turbines are controlled locally. Remote monitoring and shutdown are provided in the Refine& Control Center. The existing system of remote boiler... control was left in place. The turbines will normally operate in a base load mode. At normal steaming rates, sUPPlementa~ firing will maintain steam header pressure utilizing the oxygen in the turbine exhaust. During peak stea GENERAL ARRANGEMENT...

  3. Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work Planning and Control is Not Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work Planning and Control...

  4. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters -...

  5. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  6. Lunar descent using sequential engine shutdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Springmann, Philip N

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion of sequential engine shutdown is introduced and its application to lunar descent is motivated. The concept calls for the utilization of multiple fixed thrust engines in place of a single continuously throttleable ...

  7. Perspectives on Low Power and Shutdown Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAMP,ALLEN L.; WHITEHEAD,DONNIE W.; WHEELER,TIMOTHY A.; LEHNER,JOHN; CHU,TSONG-LUN; LOIS,ERASMAI; DROUIN,MARY

    2000-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results from a program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the risks from low power and shutdown operations. Significant progress has been made by the industry in reducing such risks; however, important operational events continue to occur. Current perceptions of low power and shutdown risks are discussed in the paper along with an assessment of the current methods for understanding important events and quantifying their associated risk.

  8. Recent trends in refinery hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitani, A.M.; Siddiqui, M.A.B. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Refiners are experiencing a rise in hydrogen requirements to improve product quality and process heavy sour crudes. Fuel reformulation has disrupted refinery hydrogen balance in two ways: more hydrogen is needed for hydroprocessing and less hydrogen is coproduced from catalytic naphtha reforming. The purpose of this paper is to review trends in maximizing refinery hydrogen production by modifications and alternatives to the conventional steam methane reforming, recovery from refinery off gases and {open_quote}across-the-fence{close_quote} hydrogen supply. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2DBuilding Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  10. Upgrade Your Refinery for Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnnie, D. H., Jr.; Klooster, H. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Upgrading existing refineries for efficient energy utilization imposes strict restraints upon design engineers. Present and future production requirements must be defined. Reliable operating data must be obtained from historical records and test...

  11. Making Refinery Wastewater Clean | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Refinery Wastewater Clean Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on...

  12. Retrofitting analysis of integrated bio-refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cormier, Benjamin R.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    to integrated bio-refineries. Focus is given to the problem of process modification to an existing plant by considering capacity expansion and material substitution with biomass feedstocks. Process integration studies were conducted to determine cost...

  13. Application of Pinch Technology in Refinery Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, W. R.; Siegell, J. H.; Sideropoulos, T.; Robertson, J. L.; Papoulias, S. A.

    APPLICATION OF PINCH TECHNOLOGY IN REFINERY RETROFITS W. R. L. Thomas, J. H. Siegell, T. Sideropoulos, J. L. Robertson, S. A. Papoulias Exxon Research and Engineering Company Florham Park, New Jersey ABSTRACT This paper reviews... the application of pinch technology in the identification of the most attractive retrofit prospects in typical refineries. In the first part of the paper, methodology is described to identify attractive inter-unit heat integration opportunities as well...

  14. Monitoring and Management of Refinery Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelham, R. O.; Moriarty, R. D.; Hudgens, P. D.

    MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT OF REFINERY ENERGY CONSUMPTION Roger O. Pelham Richard D. Moriarty Patrie D. Hudgens Profimatics, Inc. Thousand Oaks, California ABSTRACT Since 1972, the u.s. refining industry has made much progress in reduci... ng energy consumption. Lately, falling energy prices have de-emphasized the need to appropriate new capital for additional energy conservation projects. One area neglected in most refineries is the need to monitor and man age the daily use...

  15. Refinery siting workbook: appendices A and B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this effort is to develop and provide basic refinery-related information for use by state and local government officials as a basis for establishing responsible refinery siting requirements and policies consistent with the federal clean air and water standards and socio-economic concerns. The report will be organized into two volumes. The main text comprises the basic topics of physical concerns, regulatory requirements, and permitting activities, while the second volume includes the detailed appendix materials such as the applicable laws, and the necessary permits, as available and a glossary of pertinent terms. As a means to this objective, three refinery sizes, 200,000, 100,000 and 30,000 barrels per day crude charge will be discussed in technical terms. Process unit configuration will be presented which will maximize either gasoline or heating oil production with either sweet or sour crude oil feedstocks. The major issues affecting the socio-economic impact of siting the refinery in a given locale will be presented. These data will review the factors affecting the human environment and the issues that must be addressed to assess the impact that a refinery will have on a community. The key federal registrations which impact upon a refinery siting decision shall be reviewed. Summaries of these regulations and a simplified decision diagram for the air and water acts shall be presented to assist both government and refinery officials in understanding the scope of regulatory impact. All pertinent procedures required for refinery permitting shall be reviewed under the generalized headings of air, water, health and safety, land use, and miscellaneous permits. This categorization at the federal, state and local levels of government shall be used as a basis for establishing degrees of emphasis.

  16. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, E.F.; Olson, A.P.; Wade, D.C.; Robinson, B.W.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion. 8 figs.

  17. Shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, Edward F. (Naperville, IL); Olson, Arne P. (Western Springs, IL); Wade, David C. (Naperville, IL); Robinson, Bryan W. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultimate shutdown system is provided for termination of neutronic activity in a nuclear reactor. The shutdown system includes bead chains comprising spherical containers suspended on a flexible cable. The containers are comprised of mating hemispherical shells which provide a ruggedized enclosure for reactor poison material. The bead chains, normally suspended above the reactor core on storage spools, are released for downward travel upon command from an external reactor monitor. The chains are capable of horizontal movement, so as to flow around obstructions in the reactor during their downward motion.

  18. Kyrgyzstan starts up its first refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLeod, G. [Petrofac LLC, Tyler, TX (United States)

    1997-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan started up its first oil refinery in October 1996. The 10,000 b/d plant is designed to produce gasoline, diesel, and mazut (heavy fuel oil) from local Kyrgyz crude. Before construction of the Jalalabad refinery, all finished petroleum products were imported from neighboring countries. Kyrgyzstan`s demand for finished products is about 40,000 b/d. The new refinery was designed and constructed by Petrofac of Tyler, Texas, on behalf of Kyrgoil Corp., Calgary. Kyrgoil is a partner with the Kyrgyz state oil company, Kyrgyzsneft, in a venture called Kyrzgyz Petroleum Co. (KPC). KPC has undertaken restoration and continued development of the oil fields in Kyrgyzstan`s Fergana basin, in addition to the refinery project. The company also has marketing rights for finished products within Kyrgyzstan. The refinery comprises: a hydroskimming (atmospheric distillation) section, diesel steam stripping, gasoline blending, and utilities and off-sites, including steam generation, power generation, tank farm, truck and rail tank-car loading and unloading facilities, crude inlet pipeline, high-voltage power line, substation, air compression, laboratory, and maintenance facilities.

  19. WASTE INCINERATION wr090203 Activity 090203 SNAP CODE: 090203 SOURCE ACTIVITY TITLE: WASTE INCINERATION Flaring in Oil Refinery NOSE CODE: 109.03.11 NFR CODE:

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    So Nox; Nmvoc Ch; Co Co; No Nh

    Flares are commonly used during petroleum refining for the safe disposal of waste gases during process upsets (e.g., start-up, shut-down, system blow-down) and emergencies to combust the organic content of waste emission streams without recovering/using the associated energy. 2 CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL EMISSIONS Although flaring emission estimates are approximate, total hydrocarbon emissions from flaring at Canadian petroleum refineries during 1988 represented about 0.1 % of the refinery sector process and fugitive emissions that also included petroleum marketing emissions (CPPE, 1990). Thus the flaring operation at refineries is estimated to contribute a very small fraction of the total HC emissions in Canada. Emissions from flaring activities may also include: particulate, SOx, NOx, CO and other NMVOC. The CO2 contribution of both miscellaneous vent and flare emission sources represented approximately 9 % of the total petroleum refinery SO2 emission in Canada during 1988. Emissions estimates from flaring in petroleum refineries as reported in the CORINAIR90 inventory are summarised in Table 1. Table 1: Contribution to total emissions of the CORINAIR90 inventory (28 countries) Source-activity SNAP-code Contribution to total emissions [%

  20. Steam System Management Program Yields Fuel Savings for Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, L. D.; Hagan, K. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Phillips refinery at Borger, Texas, determined the need to develop a utility monitoring system. Shortly after this commitment was made, the refinery was introduced to a flowsheet modeling program that could be used to model and optimize steam...

  1. Software communications integrated into refinery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodpaster, R.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1989-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashland Oil Co. is integrating software communications, using real-time data, into the computerized information system at its Catlettsburg, Ky., refinery. The Ashland real-time information system (Artis) was designed to improve timeliness and accuracy of yield accounting to the refinery, and to standardize software communications between applications. With the system, real-time data are collected in a central data server and used to feed normal data reconciliation software for validation. This part of the system has been successfully implemented. Standardization of software communications is still under design, but most of the communication paths have been defined because a highly evolved information system already exists at the refinery. And efforts are under way to integrate information from the process to optimization.

  2. Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha , Kevin C at the front-end of a petroleum refinery. The model relies on a continuous time representation making use-412-268-7139. Email address: grossmann@cmu.edu (I.E. Grossmann) #12;2 Keywords: Refinery scheduling; Nonconvex MINLP

  3. Wireless Critical Process Control in oil and gas refinery plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Wireless Critical Process Control in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1, Sergio Guardiano control in in- dustrial plants and oil/gas refineries. In contrast to wireline communication, wireless of an oil refinery is illustrated in Fig. 1: typical locations of wireless devices used for re- mote control

  4. Determinants of HR Effectiveness and Refinery Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaine Mccormick; Gary C. Mcmahan; W. Scott Sherman; Patrick M. Wright; Patrick M. Wright; Gary C. Mcmahan; Blaine Mccormick; W. Scott Sherman

    This paper has not undergone formal review or approval of the faculty of the ILR School. It is intended to make results of Center research available to others interested in preliminary form to encourage discussion and suggestions. Page 1SHRM and Refinery Performance WP 97-16 Strategy, Core Competence and HR Involvement as

  5. Refinery siting workbook: appendices C to O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applicable laws and permits available for the selection and building of petroleum refineries are enclosed. A glossary of pertinent terms is also included. References related to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substance Control Act, and Wetlands and Coastal Zone are included. Permit information is also presented. (DC)

  6. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  7. High level waste facilities -- Continuing operation or orderly shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, L.A.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two options for Environmental Impact Statement No action alternatives describe operation of the radioactive liquid waste facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The first alternative describes continued operation of all facilities as planned and budgeted through 2020. Institutional control for 100 years would follow shutdown of operational facilities. Alternatively, the facilities would be shut down in an orderly fashion without completing planned activities. The facilities and associated operations are described. Remaining sodium bearing liquid waste will be converted to solid calcine in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) or will be left in the waste tanks. The calcine solids will be stored in the existing Calcine Solids Storage Facilities (CSSF). Regulatory and cost impacts are discussed.

  8. Flare Gas Recovery in Shell Canada Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, G. D.; Wey, R. E.; Chan, H. H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the flow properties for compressor selection? What controls should be incorporated? How much operator and maintenance effort will be required for safe, efficient operation? What kind of process and hardware problems should be watched for? When...? This paper will touch on all these issues. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION A schematic of a typical refinery flare gas recovery facility is shown in Figure I. The facilities include the following pieces of equipment: - compressor suction drum - compressor set...

  9. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  10. Hazard Classification for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Final hazard classification for the 300 Area N Reactor fuel storage facility resulted in the assignment of Nuclear Facility Hazard Category 3 for the uranium metal fuel and feed material storage buildings (303-A, 303-B, 303-G, 3712, and 3716). Radiological for the residual uranium and thorium oxide storage building and an empty former fuel storage building that may be used for limited radioactive material storage in the future (303-K/3707-G, and 303-E), and Industrial for the remainder of the Fuel Supply Shutdown buildings (303-F/311 Tank Farm, 303-M, 313-S, 333, 334 and Tank Farm, 334-A, and MO-052).

  11. Projection and Reaction for Decision Support in Refineries: Combining Multiple Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krebsbach, Kurt D.

    Projection and Reaction for Decision Support in Refineries: Combining Multiple Theories Kurt D system to provide decision support for refinery operations personnel (Krebsbach & Musliner 1997; Musliner to provide sufficiently flexible decision support in complex environments. Background: Refinery Control

  12. Review of petroleum transport network models and their applicability to a national refinery model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, J. N.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines four petroleum transport network models to determine whether parts of them can be incorporated into the transportation component of a national refinery model. Two questions in particular are addressed. (a) How do the models under examination represent the oil transport network, estimate link capacities, and calculate transport costs. (b) Are any of these network representations, capacity estimates, or cost functions suitable for inclusion in a linear programming model of oil refinery and primary distribution in the US. Only pipeline and waterway transport is discussed. The models examined are the Department of Energy's OILNET model, the Department of Transportation's Freight Energy Model, the Federal Energy Administration Petroleum Transportation Network Model, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory oil pipeline energy model. Link capacity and cost functions are recommended for each transport mode. The coefficients of the recommended pipeline cost functions remain to be estimated.

  13. Self-actuating reactor shutdown system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, Donald M. (San Jose, CA); Brummond, Willian A (Livermore, CA); Peterson, Leslie F. (Danville, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for the automatic or self-actuated shutdown or "scram" of a nuclear reactor. The system is capable of initiating scram insertion by a signal from the plant protection system or by independent action directly sensing reactor conditions of low-flow or over-power. Self-actuation due to a loss of reactor coolant flow results from a decrease of pressure differential between the upper and lower ends of an absorber element. When the force due to this differential falls below the weight of the element, the element will fall by gravitational force to scram the reactor. Self-actuation due to high neutron flux is accomplished via a valve controlled by an electromagnet and a thermionic diode. In a reactor over-power, the diode will be heated to a change of state causing the electromagnet to be shorted thereby actuating the valve which provides the changed flow and pressure conditions required for scramming the absorber element.

  14. Nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bilibin, Konstantin (North Hollywood, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature responsive, self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly 10. The upper end 18 of a lower drive line 17 fits within the lower end of an upper drive line 12. The lower end (not shown) of the lower drive line 17 is connected to a neutron absorber. During normal temperature conditions the lower drive line 17 is supported by detent means 22,26. When an overtemperature condition occurs thermal actuation means 34 urges ring 26 upwardly sufficiently to allow balls 22 to move radially outwardly thereby allowing lower drive line 17 to move downwardly toward the core of the nuclear reactor resulting in automatic reduction of the reactor powder.

  15. U.S. Refinery Net Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.0949,797.6(MillionRefinery3,028,561- - -

  16. Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

    normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

  17. Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

  18. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

  19. Fuel cell system logic for differentiating between rapid and normal shutdown commands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the operation of a fuel cell system wherein each shutdown command for the system is subjected to decision logic which determines whether the command should be a normal shutdown command or rapid shutdown command. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a normal shutdown command, then the system is shutdown in a normal step-by-step process in which the hydrogen stream is consumed within the system. If the logic determines that the shutdown command should be a rapid shutdown command, the hydrogen stream is removed from the system either by dumping to atmosphere or routing to storage.

  20. Nigerian refineries strive for product balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obuasi, P.A.

    1985-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the growth patterns of the Nigerian refining industry. Production and consumption are expected to follow the pattern of consumption of fuel products by the domestic market, Presently, however, production and consumption are not evenly balanced for most fuel products, and non-fuel products are domestically consumed but not produced. Some progress has been made in the effort to match production and consumption of fuel products. But the progress that would have been made to balance non-fuel products has been nullified by 50% of the Daduna refinery being idle. This is due to problems associated with importation of heavy crude oil into Nigeria and also a weak market for asphalt in Nigeria.

  1. RCC complex now cornerstone of Ashland refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.; Krock, R.P.

    1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance of the first grassroots RCC process unit during its initial 1 1/2 years of operation at Ashland's principal refinery at Catlettsburg, Ky., has confirmed the commercial viability and process advantages of this new technology for heavy oil conversion. The unit has successfully processed untreated atmospheric residuum having Ramsbottom carbon content as high as 7.1 wt%, and metals contamination up to 70 ppm nickel plus vanadium into high yields of transportation and distillate fuels and other light products. The startup of this 40,000 b/d facility in March 1983 brought to fruition nearly 8 years of diligent process development and a 3-year accelerated engineering and construction program. The commercial unit was expressly designed and built to exploit process, hardware, and catalyst innovations flowing from the development effort and demonstrated to be especially applicable to converting long resids. The unit has generally met and exceeded technical expectations.

  2. Saber's heavy oil cracking refinery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benefield, C.S.; Glasscock, W.L.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perhaps more than any other industry, petroleum refining has been subjected to the radical swings in business and political climates of the past several decades. Because of the huge investments and long lead times to construct refining facilities, stable government policies, predictable petroleum prices, secure feedstock supplies and markets, and reliable cost estimates are necessary ingredients to effectively plan new refinery projects. However, over the past ten years the political and economic climates have provided anything but these conditions. Yet, refiners have demonstrated a willingness to undertake risks by continuing to expand and modernize their refineries. The refining business -- just as most businesses -- responds to economic incentives. These incentives, when present, result in new technology and capacity additions. In the 1940's, significant technology advances were commercialized to refine higher-octane motor gasolines. Such processes as continuous catalytic cracking (Houdry Process Corporation), fluid catalytic cracking (Standard Oil Development Company), HF alkylation (UOP and Phillips Petroleum Company), and catalytic reforming (UOP) began to supply a growing gasoline market, generated from the war effort and the ever increasing numbers of automobiles on the road. The post-war economy of the 1950's and 1960's further escalated demand for refined products, products which had to meet higher performance specifications and be produced from a wider range of raw materials. The refining industry met the challenge by introducing hydro-processing technology, such as hydrocracking developed in 1960. But, the era must be characterized by the large crude processing capacity additions, required to meet demand from the rapidly expanding U.S. economy. In 1950, refining capacity was 6.2 million BPD. By 1970, capacity had grown to 11.9 million BPD, an increase of 91%.

  3. Fuel cell system shutdown with anode pressure control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A venting methodology and pressure sensing and vent valving arrangement for monitoring anode bypass valve operating during the normal shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in vehicle propulsion systems. During a normal shutdown routine, the pressure differential between the anode inlet and anode outlet is monitored in real time in a period corresponding to the normal closing speed of the anode bypass valve and the pressure differential at the end of the closing cycle of the anode bypass valve is compared to the pressure differential at the beginning of the closing cycle. If the difference in pressure differential at the beginning and end of the anode bypass closing cycle indicates that the anode bypass valve has not properly closed, a system controller switches from a normal shutdown mode to a rapid shutdown mode in which the anode inlet is instantaneously vented by rapid vents.

  4. Autonomic Shutdown of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Thermoresponsive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Autonomic Shutdown of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Thermoresponsive Microcapsules M. Baginska, B.J. Blaiszik, R.J. Merriman, J.S. Moore, N. R. Sottos, and S.R. White, University of...

  5. O'Leary orders shutdown over cost, few missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early December, Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary ordered that the process be started to shut down the Fast Flux Test Facility, the large liquid-metal cooled test reactor at the Hanford site in Richland, WA. Activities connected with the shutdown process were to have begun on December 15, and it is expected that it will take about five years for the FFTF to enter an industrially and radiologically safe shutdown condition.

  6. Passive shut-down heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hundal, Rolv (Greensburg, PA); Sharbaugh, John E. (Bullskin Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved shut-down heat removal system for a liquid metal nuclear reactor of the type having a vessel for holding hot and cold pools of liquid sodium is disclosed herein. Generally, the improved system comprises a redan or barrier within the reactor vessel which allows an auxiliary heat exchanger to become immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool whenever the reactor pump fails to generate a metal-circulating pressure differential between the hot and cold pools of sodium. This redan also defines an alternative circulation path between the hot and cold pools of sodium in order to equilibrate the distribution of the decay heat from the reactor core. The invention may take the form of a redan or barrier that circumscribes the inner wall of the reactor vessel, thereby defining an annular space therebetween. In this embodiment, the bottom of the annular space communicates with the cold pool of sodium, and the auxiliary heat exchanger is placed in this annular space just above the drawn-down level that the liquid sodium assumes during normal operating conditions. Alternatively, the redan of the invention may include a pair of vertically oriented, concentrically disposed standpipes having a piston member disposed between them that operates somewhat like a pressure-sensitive valve. In both embodiments, the cessation of the pressure differential that is normally created by the reactor pump causes the auxiliary heat exchanger to be immersed in liquid sodium from the hot pool. Additionally, the redan in both embodiments forms a circulation flow path between the hot and cold pools so that the decay heat from the nuclear core is uniformly distributed within the vessel.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report. In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on Americas Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  8. Integrating NABC bio-oil intermediates into the petroleum refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2D: Working Together: Conventional Refineries and Bio-Oil R&D Technologies Thomas Foust, Director, National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  9. Implementing an Energy Management Strategy for a Houston Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, S. C.; Agrawal, R. K.; Canon, D.

    and maintained energy management program translates to PROFIT added directly to the BOTTOM LINE. Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) recently implemented and energy management program at the Lyondell-Citgo Refinery in Houston, Texas. The basis of the program...

  10. Refinery Energy Conservation Experience with Enhanced Surface Reboilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragi, E. G.; O'Neill, P. S.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examples of refinery services where existing reboilers were retubed or replaced with enhanced High Flux tubing to better utilize or conserve energy are reported. (1) Retubing an existing toluene column reboiler permitted the use of low cost 115...

  11. Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vari, J.

    Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams. This paper explores ways in which gas separation membranes are used in the refinery and petrochemical industries to recover and purify...

  12. Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is essential that the operation and maintenance of these furnaces be optimized to minimize production costs. This paper describes the performance testing and evaluation of a set of ten refinery furnaces used to thermally drive several reforming reactors...

  13. Optimization of Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaie, H.; Nasr, M. R. J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dominated energy crisis in the world dictates to reduce energy consumption and identify energy saving opportunities in large and complex industries especially in oil refining industry. In this paper, Tehran oil refinery is considered as a proper...

  14. Obstacles and Opportunity: Turbine Motorization in Refineries Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Hua; Liu, Jinghing; Liu, Xiang; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Deng, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines have been widely used in oil refineries for driving pumps, compressors and other rotary machines. However, in recent years, the authors of this paper have seen substantial turbine motorization projects completed or being planned...

  15. Obstacles and Opportunity: Turbine Motorization in Refineries Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Hua; Liu, Jinghing; Liu, Xiang; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Deng, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines have been widely used in oil refineries for driving pumps, compressors and other rotary machines. However, in recent years, the authors of this paper have seen substantial turbine motorization projects completed or being planned...

  16. Steps taken at Malelane refinery to improve refined sugar quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; Pm Schorn

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refinery at Malelane has in the past produced refined sugar for the consumer market. A decision was taken by the management of Transvaal Sugar (TSB) to produce a quality of refined sugar that would also be acceptable to the industrial and the export markets. The processes that were evaluated and implemented at the Malelane refinery during the past three seasons to achieve this objective, are described.

  17. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clingerman, Bruce J. (Palmyra, NY); Doan, Tien M. (Columbia, MD); Keskula, Donald H. (Webster, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  18. Staged venting of fuel cell system during rapid shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A venting methodology and system for rapid shutdown of a fuel cell apparatus of the type used in a vehicle propulsion system. H.sub.2 and air flows to the fuel cell stack are slowly bypassed to the combustor upon receipt of a rapid shutdown command. The bypass occurs over a period of time (for example one to five seconds) using conveniently-sized bypass valves. Upon receipt of the rapid shutdown command, the anode inlet of the fuel cell stack is instantaneously vented to a remote vent to remove all H.sub.2 from the stack. Airflow to the cathode inlet of the fuel cell stack gradually diminishes over the bypass period, and when the airflow bypass is complete the cathode inlet is also instantaneously vented to a remote vent to eliminate pressure differentials across the stack.

  19. International Collaboration with the Shutdown of the BN-350 Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Michelbacher; P.B. Wells; N. Organ; D. Wells

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Representatives from the United States and the United Kingdom discussed areas where collaboration on the shutdown of the BN-350 Reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan would benefit not only Kazakhstan, but would also help to assure the successful shutdown of the reactor. A fundamental understanding of the basis for collaboration has been for each side to add value to each of the project areas, rather than simply substitute for each others experience. This approach has brought distinct technical and management benefits to the decommissioning activities in Kazakhstan.

  20. Puget Sound acidity levels drop after ASARCO shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The levels of acidity in Puget Sound region rainfall have decreased significantly since the shutdown of the ASARCO copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington, according to a study funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Results indicate that sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations obtained from samples taken before the closure were significantly different than those collected after the shutdown. Rainwater samples collected downwind during smelter operation were also significantly different from those collected upwind. Sulfur dioxide is considered to be one of the principal contributors to acid rain. The smelter was a major source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the Puget Sound region before it shut down in March 1985.

  1. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  2. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  3. VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING Phuong NGUYEN*, Pier-Paolo SAVIOTTI, refinery processes, variety, niche theory, Weitzman measure. JEL classification : L15 -L93 -O3 1

  4. STAMP-Based Analysis of a Refinery Overflow Accident Nancy Leveson, Margaret Stringfellow, and John Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveson, Nancy

    1 STAMP-Based Analysis of a Refinery Overflow Accident Nancy Leveson, Margaret Stringfellow, and John Thomas As an example of STAMP, we have taken an accident report produced for a real refinery

  5. Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session...

  6. Gross Error Detection in Chemical Plants and Refineries for On-Line Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Gross Error Detection in Chemical Plants and Refineries for On-Line Optimization Xueyu Chen, Derya) British Petroleum Applications mainly crude units in refineries and ethylene plants #12;Companies

  7. Mixed reality training application for an oil refinery: user requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjaana Trskbck

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing mixed reality (MR) into safety-critical environment like oil refinery is difficult, since the environment and organization lays demanding restrictions for the application. In order to develop usable and safe MR application, we need to study the context of use and derive user requirements from it. This paper describes the user requirements for an MR based oil refinery training tool. The application is aimed to train employees of a specific process unit in the refinery. Training is currently done mainly in a classroom and on-site only when the process is closed down. On-site training is necessary, but expensive and rarely possible. The use of mixed reality offers a way to train employees on-site while the process is running. Users can virtually see inside the columns and can modify virtually the process..

  8. Potentials for Fuel Cells in Refineries and Chlor-Alkali Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altseimer, J. H.; Roach, F.

    POTENTIALS FOR FUEL CELLS IN REFINERIES AND CHLOR-ALKALI PLANTS John H. Altseimer and Fred Roach Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico ABSTRACT The market potentials for fuel cell cogenera tion systems in petroleum refineries... in the production process are favorable to the use of fuel cells. The energy use in refineries is steam intensive with the required steam pressures ranging from approximately 15 to 650 psig. The near-term use of fuel cell cogeneration in refineries...

  9. Ashland outlines $261 million in refinery unit construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Ashland Petroleum Co. has spelled out $261 million in projects completed, under way, or planned to produce cleaner fuel and further reduce emissions at two U.S. refineries. The company: Started up at $13 million pollution control system at its 213,400 b/cd Catlettsburg, Ky., plant. Started construction on six projects at its 67,100 b/cd St. Paul Park, Minn., refinery that will cost about $114 million and enable the plant to produce cleaner burning diesel fuel and further reduce emissions.

  10. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning (Performance Analysis. Grossmann #12;2 Motivation · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies HF REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL

  11. The effects of soil type and chemical treatment on nickel speciation in refinery enriched soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The effects of soil type and chemical treatment on nickel speciation in refinery enriched soils Aerial deposition of Ni from a refinery in Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada has resulted in the enrichment in vegetable crops grown in the vicinity of the refinery. Conversely, dolomitic lime- stone additions resulted

  12. Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries Armen Gholian, Hamed units finish their operations. Considering an oil refinery industry as an example, we not only identify Terms­Demand response, load management, manufactur- ing industries, oil refineries, optimal scheduling

  13. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial, University Park, PA 16802, USA h i g h l i g h t s Refinery wastewaters were tested as fuels in MECs effective for treatment or pre-treatment of some refinery wastewaters. The best way to start up MECs

  14. Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1 modeling approach is validated by experimental measurements in two oil refinery sites using industry and gas refinery sites are characterized by harsh environments where radio signals are prone to blockage

  15. Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition Sylvain: refinery planning and crude-oil operations scheduling. The proposed approach consists of using Lagrangian-study and a larger refinery problem show that the Lagrangian decomposition algorithm is more robust than the other

  16. Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced 2013 Available online 5 November 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cells Refinery wastewater Biodegradability Separator electrode assembly a b s t r a c t The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW

  17. JANUARY 2007 THE BP U.S. REFINERIES INDEPENDENT SAFETY REVIEW PANEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveson, Nancy

    OF JANUARY 2007 THE REPORT THE BP U.S. REFINERIES INDEPENDENT SAFETY REVIEW PANEL #12;From left;PANEL STATEMENT The B.P. U.S. Refineries Independent Safety Review Panel i Process safety accidents can be prevented. On March 23, 2005, the BP Texas City refinery experienced a catastrophic process accident

  18. Perception of an emergency Situation by operators in an oil refinery L.Pioche&J.RPineau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Perception of an emergency Situation by operators in an oil refinery L.Pioche&J.RPineau Institut de the operators' behaviour during an emergency Situation m an oil refinery. The aim ofthis stage the general objective is to analyse the operators' behaviour during an emergency Situation in an oil refinery

  19. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  20. Synthesis of Schedulers for Planned Shutdowns of Power Plants Carla P. Gomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas R.

    Synthesis of Schedulers for Planned Shutdowns of Power Plants Carla P. Gomes Rome Laboratory describe the synthesis of efficient schedulers for planned shutdowns of power plants for refueling of power plants. 1 An outage is a planned shutdown for refueling, repair, and mainte nance. It is a rather

  1. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to individual refineries, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.; Massaro, Lawrence M.; Jensen, Philip J.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site visits. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its UNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. Additional conclusions from this evaluation include: The 12 shutdown sites use designs from 4 different suppliers involving 9 different (horizontal and vertical) dry storage systems that would require the use of 8 different transportation cask designs to remove the UNF and GTCC waste from the shutdown sites. Although there are common aspects, each site has some unique features and/or conditions. Although some regulatory actions will be required, all UNF at the initial 9 shutdown sites (Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion) is in licensed systems that can be transported, including a small amount of high-burnup fuel. Each site indicated that 2-3 years of advance time would be required for its preparations before shipments could begin. Most sites have more than one transportation option, e.g., rail, barge, or heavy haul truck, as well as constraints and preferences. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  3. The MTBE solution: Octanes, technology, and refinery profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lander, E.P.; Hubbard, J.N.; Smith, L.A.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been developed to provide refiners with business decision insight regarding the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from refinery - (FCC) produced isobutylene. The driving forces making MTBE an attractive investment are examined with regard to the increasing demand for higher octane unleaded gasolines. The decision to proceed with MTBE production depends on the profitability of such an investment and the refiner's ability to meet market demands using available processing equipment, refinery produced streams and external feedstocks. The factors affecting this decision are analyzed in this paper and include: industry ability to meet rising octane demand; profit potential realized by diverting isobutylene to MTBE; availability of technology for producing MTBE; and investment and operating costs required to produce MTBE. Chemical Research and Licensing and NEOCHEM have developed a simple, low cost process to produce MTBE, reducing the excessive equipment and high operating costs that were associated with conventional MTBE designs. The economics and process benefits of installing a CRandL/NEOCHEM MTBE process are examined within the framework of a generalized medium-sized refinery configuration.

  4. Controlling Silver Dust and Fumes at Mine Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Haney; M. P. Valoski

    ABSTRACT: As part of the refining of gold and silver molten metal, silver dust and fumes are released into the atmosphere. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) enforces an 8-hour, equivalent Time Weighted Average concentration limit for silver dust and fumes of 10 g/m 3. MSHA initiated a program to assess the controls that were being used to control silver dust and fume exposure. Refineries were visited at six mines. The layout of each refinery and the controls used varied at each refinery. At each operation, personal and area silver fume and dust samples were collected to assess worker exposures and to determine sources of fume. Primary source of silver dust and fume exposure was the pouring of molten metal from the furnace. Secondary sources of exposure included: precipitate mixing, bar cooling, and housekeeping. Guidelines were developed addressing housekeeping, exhaust ventilation, general ventilation, administrative controls, and system monitoring. In most cases, housekeeping and general ventilation were adequate; however, the exhaust ventilation systems needed to be improved. 1 INRODUCTION Silver dust and fumes become airborne during the refining step of producing gold and silver. The dust

  5. Refinery gas waste heat energy conversion optimization in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A.D.; Francuz, D.J.; West, E.W. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of refinery fuel gas in gas turbines poses special challenges due to the combustion characteristics of the fuel gas which contains significant concentrations of hydrogen. Proper modifications to the combustion system of the existing gas turbines are required in order to combust such fuel gas streams in gas turbines while minimizing the NO{sub x} emissions. A novel approach to the utilization of this hydrogen bearing fuel gas in gas turbines consists of humidifying the fuel gas with water vapor by direct contact with hot water in a counter-current column, the feed water to the humidifier being first circulated through the refinery to recover waste heat. The refinery waste heat produces additional motive fluid with a result that the waste heat is converted to power in the gas turbine. Furthermore, the water vapor introduced into the fuel gas reduces the NO{sub x} formation and increases the gas turbine output, while the hydrogen present in the fuel gas provides the flame stability required when combusting a fuel gas containing a large concentration of water vapor.

  6. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  7. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning Department of Chemical · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies on the accuracy of the CDU REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL AGO HGO HFO

  8. Shutdown heat removal system reliability in thermal reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Y.H.; Bari, R.A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of the failure probability per year of the shutdown heat removal system (SHRS) at hot standby conditions for two thermal reactor designs is presented. The selected reactor designs are the Pressurized Water Reactor and the Nonproliferation Alternative System Assessment Program Heavy Water Reactor. Failures of the SHRS following the initiating transients of loss of offsite power and loss of main feedwater system are evaluated. Common mode failures between components are incorporated in this anlaysis via the ..beta..-factor method and the sensitivity of the system reliability to common mode failures is investigated parametrically.

  9. Updated estimation of energy efficiencies of U.S. petroleum refineries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palou-Rivera, I.; Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems)

    2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of life-cycle (or well-to-wheels, WTW) energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems requires energy use (or energy efficiencies) of energy processing or conversion activities. In most such studies, petroleum fuels are included. Thus, determination of energy efficiencies of petroleum refineries becomes a necessary step for life-cycle analyses of vehicle/fuel systems. Petroleum refinery energy efficiencies can then be used to determine the total amount of process energy use for refinery operation. Furthermore, since refineries produce multiple products, allocation of energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products is needed for WTW analysis of individual fuels such as gasoline and diesel. In particular, GREET, the life-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory with DOE sponsorship, compares energy use and emissions of various transportation fuels including gasoline and diesel. Energy use in petroleum refineries is key components of well-to-pump (WTP) energy use and emissions of gasoline and diesel. In GREET, petroleum refinery overall energy efficiencies are used to determine petroleum product specific energy efficiencies. Argonne has developed petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006 (see Wang, 2008). This memo documents Argonne's most recent update of petroleum refining efficiencies.

  10. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2004 producer refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery

  11. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment. During the late 1960s and 1970s, some of the abandoned buildings were used for offices, special projects, and storage. Some of the remaining electrical transformers contain PCBs in concentrations less than 500 ppm. Many of the steam and hot water pipes in the buildings are insulated with asbestos insulation, but none of the equipment or buildings have high counts of surface radioactive contamination. The general conditions of the buildings are from fair to poor. Many should be boarded-up to prevent personnel entry and in some cases demolitions would be the safer alternative.

  12. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  13. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) reactor shutdown system reliability reevaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, B.F.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reliability analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor shutdown system was reevaluated. Failure information based on five years of plant operating experience was used to verify original reliability numbers or to establish new ones. Also, system modifications made subsequent to performance of the original analysis were incorporated into the reevaluation. Reliability calculations and sensitivity analyses were performed using a commercially available spreadsheet on a personal computer. The spreadsheet was configured so that future failures could be tracked and compared with expected failures. A number of recommendations resulted from the reevaluation including both increased and decreased surveillance intervals. All recommendations were based on meeting or exceeding existing reliability goals. Considerable cost savings will be incurred upon implementation of the recommendations.

  14. Mnoa Green Days Checklist for Buildings Being Closed Due to AC Shutdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    Mnoa Green Days Checklist for Buildings Being Closed Due to AC Shutdown The following Mnoa Green Days in which air conditioning to participating buildings will be shutdown over the weekends is a checklist for building occupants to use as a reference to successfully conserve energy during the Expanded

  15. The Energy Minimization Method: A Multiobjective Fitness Evaluation Technique and Its Application to the Production Scheduling in a Petroleum Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    to the Production Scheduling in a Petroleum Refinery Mayron Rodrigues de Almeida Slvio Hamacher Industrial applied to production scheduling of a petroleum refinery. The experimental results are presented of the method when applied to the production scheduling in a petroleum refinery. Section 5 discusses

  16. High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on Americas Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  18. Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Mechanisms behind the temporary shutdown of deep convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsman, Caroline

    consequences for the oceanic heat supply to the North Atlantic region. An AMOC shutdown (caused by an extreme

  19. Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Mechanisms behind the temporary shutdown of deep convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsman, Caroline

    al. 2003), and a shutdown of the AMOC would have significant consequences for the oceanic heat supply

  20. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1995 producer price, was approximately industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery production Reserves6 Reserve base6 1994

  1. Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, R. J.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

  2. Advanced wind turbine with lift cancelling aileron for shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Clint (Warren, VT); Juengst, Theresa M. (Warren, VT); Zuteck, Michael D. (Kemah, TX)

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced aileron configuration for wind turbine rotors featuring an independent, lift generating aileron connected to the rotor blade. The aileron has an airfoil profile which is inverted relative to the airfoil profile of the main section of the rotor blade. The inverted airfoil profile of the aileron allows the aileron to be used for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor while deflected to angles within a control range of angles. The aileron functions as a separate, lift generating body when deflected to angles within a shutdown range of angles, generating lift with a component acting in the direction opposite the direction of rotation of the rotor. Thus, the aileron can be used to shut down rotation of the rotor. The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron. The location of the center of rotation optimizes aerodynamically and gyroscopically induced hinge moments and provides a fail safe configuration.

  3. Advanced wind turbine with lift-destroying aileron for shutdown

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Clint (Warren, VT); Juengst, Theresa M. (Warren, VT); Zuteck, Michael D. (Kemah, TX)

    1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced aileron configuration for wind turbine rotors featuring an aileron with a bottom surface that slopes upwardly at an angle toward the nose region of the aileron. The aileron rotates about a center of rotation which is located within the envelope of the aileron, but does not protrude substantially into the air flowing past the aileron while the aileron is deflected to angles within a control range of angles. This allows for strong positive control of the rotation of the rotor. When the aileron is rotated to angles within a shutdown range of deflection angles, lift-destroying, turbulence-producing cross-flow of air through a flow gap, and turbulence created by the aileron, create sufficient drag to stop rotation of the rotor assembly. The profile of the aileron further allows the center of rotation to be located within the envelope of the aileron, at or near the centers of pressure and mass of the aileron. The location of the center of rotation optimizes aerodynamically and gyroscopically induced hinge moments and provides a fail safe configuration.

  4. Thermionic switched self-actuating reactor shutdown system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, Donald M. (San Jose, CA); Shires, Charles D. (San Jose, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-actuating reactor shutdown system incorporating a thermionic switched electromagnetic latch arrangement which is responsive to reactor neutron flux changes and to reactor coolant temperature changes. The system is self-actuating in that the sensing thermionic device acts directly to release (scram) the control rod (absorber) without reference or signal from the main reactor plant protective and control systems. To be responsive to both temperature and neutron flux effects, two detectors are used, one responsive to reactor coolant temperatures, and the other responsive to reactor neutron flux increase. The detectors are incorporated into a thermionic diode connected electrically with an electromagnetic mechanism which under normal reactor operating conditions holds the the control rod in its ready position (exterior of the reactor core). Upon reaching either a specified temperature or neutron flux, the thermionic diode functions to short-circuit the electromagnetic mechanism causing same to lose its holding power and release the control rod, which drops into the reactor core region under gravitational force.

  5. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of opportunity gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burners aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeecos offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the projects burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of air pollutant emissions. In Phase 3, the team retrofitted three fuel-flexible burners into a fired heater at a Shell plant and demonstrated the projects technology over a 6-month period. The project burners performed well during this period. They remain in commercial service at the Shell plant. Through this work, an improved understanding of flame stabilization mechanisms was gained. Also, methods for accommodating a wide range of fuel compositions were developed. This knowledge facilitated the commercialization of a new generation of burners that are suitable for the fuels of the future.

  6. EA-0993: Shutdown of the Fast Flux Testing Facility, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site's proposal to place the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown...

  7. Status of the Surry low power and shutdown PRA (probabilistic risk analysis)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T-L.; Luckas, W.; Musicki, Z.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Surry low power and shutdown probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) is an ongoing project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to identify and quantify potential accident scenarios that may occur in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during low power and shutdown. It was initiated as a result of various incidents and accidents that have occurred within the United States and overseas. The project involves review and evaluation of PWR experience at shutdown, identification of accident scenarios, determination of methods to mitigate the accidents, and performance a level 1 PRA. An evaluation of accident progression, source terms, and consequences has also been initiated. The results will be used to address issues related to shutdown conditions. The objective of this paper is to provide a progress report on the project, and to present the approach used as well as preliminary results of the ongoing and completed tasks. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. CO2 Reduction through Optimization of Steam Network in Petroleum Refineries: Evaluation of New Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manesh, M. H. K; Khodaie, H.; Amidpour, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam network of petroleum refinery is energy intensive, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions. A simple model for the estimation of CO2 emissions associated with operation of steam network as encountered...

  9. SELECTED TOPICS in APPLIED COMPUTER SCIENCE Data Mining and Data Gathering in a Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoud Reza Saybani A; Teh Ying Wah B

    This article handles one of critical steps of data mining, which is data collection. It will show how the researcher could get access to the valuable data of a refinery. And it explains the procedures of refining criteria for data collection. It also briefly explains the oil refining procedures to make the concept of data gathering at the refinery easier to understand. Each manufacturing company has its own specifications and rules that are needed to be considered when collecting data. As such the result of data gathering is almost always different for different manufacturing companies. Key-Words: Data gathering, data collection, data mining, oil refinery Data mining algorithms play an important and successful role in many manufacturing companies including oil refineries. Profit management, quality and process control in

  10. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NOx emissions while also generating electricity at an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented....

  11. CO2 Reduction through Optimization of Steam Network in Petroleum Refineries: Evaluation of New Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manesh, M. H. K; Khodaie, H.; Amidpour, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam network of petroleum refinery is energy intensive, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions. A simple model for the estimation of CO2 emissions associated with operation of steam network as encountered...

  12. Computer Automated Start-Up and Shutdown of an Air Separation Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russek, S. L.; Beckowski, T. M.; Vinson, D. R.

    ~ .. COMPUTER AUTOMATED START-UP AND SHUTDOWN OF AN AIR SEPARATION PLANT S. L. Russek, T. M. Beckowksl, D. R. Vlnson Alr Products and Chemlcals, Inc., Allentown, PA ABSTRACT Process control computers have gal ned wlde acceptance wlthln...-of-day" electrlc power rates are causlng many companles to conslder lntermlttent operatlon; thls has also provlded the 1mpetus for computer automated start-up and shutdown. Alr Products and Chemlcals, Inc. has 1mplemented a computer automated start...

  13. Assuring Mechanical Integrity of Refinery Equipment Through Global ON-Stream Inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John W. Berthold

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of global on-stream inspection technology will have a dramatic effect on how refinery operations are managed in the U.S. in the future. Global on-stream inspection will provide assurance of the mechanical integrity of critical plant equipment and will allow refineries to operate more efficiently with less impact on our environment and with an increased margin of safety.

  14. Exergy Analysis of the Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery and Evaluation with New Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaei, H.; Taheri, R.; Arghandeh, R.

    oil refinery, Exergy Analysis, Steam Network, Retrofit, Optimization 1. INTRODUCTION Refinery steam network is considered as a unit that consumes energy greatly. The main objective of the network is to produce the steam, which is required...) Using heat recovery steam generating systems and gas turbines instead of old boilers and so on. Figure 1 shows the opportunities of optimization in steam networks. in this paper, we complete the lost works such as optimization and estimation...

  15. Energy Efficient Refinery Process Developed with U.S. D.O.E. Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mings, W. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENERGY EFFICIENT REFINERY PROCESS DEVELOPED WITH U.S. D.O.E. SUPPORT Walter J. Mings, P.E. EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, Idaho Abstract The United States Department of Energy histori cally has encouraged private efforts to develop en ergy... with potential for extensive industrial energy savings. INTRODUCTION An innovative energy saving refinery process (also called the catalytic distillation process) for pro ducing MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) was devel oped by two Houston companies...

  16. Affordability analysis of lead emission controls for a smelter-refinery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherer, T.M.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document evaluates the affordability and economic impact of additional control measures deemed necessary for a smelter-refinery to meet the lead emission standard. The emphasis in the analysis is on the impact of control costs on the smelter-refinery's profitability. The analysis was performed using control-cost data from two different lead-smelter studies in conjunction with other existing industry data.

  17. Technologies for the separation and recovery of hydrogen from refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcher, F.P.; Miller, G.Q.; Mitariten, M.J. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective use and recovery of hydrogen from the major hydrogen-containing streams in the refinery is an important strategy to meet the refining demands of the 1990`s. Hydrogen upgrading in refinery applications can be achieved by pressure swing adsorption (PSA), selective permeation using polymer membranes, and cryogenic separation. Each of these processes has different characteristics which are of advantage in different situations. Process selection and specific application examples are discussed.

  18. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  19. International Journal of Chemistry; 2013[02] ISSN 2306-6415 Preservation Ways and Energy Consumption in Oil Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Samimi

    Abstract: Preservation increase and energy return is one of the effective tools in saving. Studies show that energy consumption for each productive crude oil barred is dependence on the refinery complicated in reconfiguration of forge. Energy recovery increase in refinery over time that is due to economic factors like consumption fuel increase, it means that return increase is consistent with fuel price. It developed use of crude oil capability, distillation products in modern refinery. Modern refinery recovery dead to 10 to 15 % saving in energy consumption, Modern refinery.can developed energy return in several ways such as: Thermal exchange increase between processes streams, effective hydro exchange in process units, use of heaters with high thermal return and use of gas turbines with preheated air and produce steam of waste thermal. This paper investigates management ways and energy consumption recovery in different parts of oil refinery.

  20. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. REFEREED PAPER PRE-TREATMENT OF REFINERY FINAL RUN-OFF FOR CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh I; Stolz Hnp; Ndhlala T

    In the case of a back-end refinery, the final run-off or return syrup of 92-95 % purity and 75 brix is generally returned to the raw mill to be combined with raw syrup and boiled in the A-pans. Approximately 8 % of the input raw sugar brix into a refinery is returned, consequently locking up A-pan capacity and, in the case of a factory with marginal pan capacity, cane throughput is restricted. In addition, energy consumption is increased and sugar losses in final molasses are elevated. A number of processes have been considered to eliminate recycling refinery run-off, most of which require pre-treatment and/or high capital investment with a high degree of commercial risk. Test work was undertaken at the Tsb Malalane cane sugar refinery to determine the optimal pre-treatment option for decolorising and softening refinery return syrup. The pre-treatment results indicate that chemical softening, followed by the addition of a cationic colour precipitant and pH adjustment with sulphur dioxide, yields appreciable calcium reduction and modest decolourisation. The overall benefit indicates that the treated final run-off is of suitable quality to apply another crystallisation step and/or alternatively consider for further purification by chromatographic separation and/or resin decolourisation.

  2. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  3. TSNo s02-roberts104537-O Microscopic and Spectroscopic Speciation of Ni in Soils in the Vicinity of a Ni Refinery.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    in the Vicinity of a Ni Refinery. abstract Accurately predicting the fate and bioavailability of metals in smelter REFINERY ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings - October 21 - 25, 2001 - Charlotte, NC #12;

  4. Armament remains from His Majesty's sloop Boscawen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Brinnen Stiles

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    His Majesty's Sloop Boscawen was built on Lake Champlain by British forces in 1759 as part of their successful campaign to drive the French Army from the Champlain Valley. This thesis describes and analyzes the armament remains found in and around...

  5. Coal remains a hot commodity for Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bram, L.

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based largely on analyses by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics in late 2005 and early 2006, the article looks at the recent and near future export market for Australian coal. Demand in Asia is growing; European demand remains steady. Developments existing and new mines in Queensland are summarised in the article. 3 tabs.

  6. Potentials for fuel cells in refineries and chlor-alkali plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Roach, F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market potentials for fuel cell cogeneration systems in petroleum refineries and chlor-alkali plants were evaluated. the most promising application appears to be in chlor-alkali plants where the production process is electricity intensive. Future anticipated changes in the production process are favorable to the use of fuel cells. The energy use in refineries is steam intensive with the required steam pressures ranging from approximately 15 to 650 psig. The near-term use of fuel cell cogeneration in refineries is not as attractive as in chlor-alkali plants. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is the most developed and the most competitive, but its use is limited by its being able to produce only low-pressure steam. Over the longer term, the molten carbonate and the solid oxide fuel cell both of which operate at significantly higher temperatures, are technically very attractive. However, they do not appear to be cost competitive with conventional systems.

  7. Methods applied to investigate the major VCE that occured in the TOTAL refinery's Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit at La Mede,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    95-35 Methods applied to investigate the major ?VCE that occured in the TOTAL refinery's Fluid.V.C.E, occured in the Gas Plant of the TOTAL refinery's Fluid Catalytic Cracking ünit at La Mede, France

  8. EVALUATION OF THE SACCHAROFLEX 2000 REFLECTANCE MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR REFINED SUGAR COLOUR ESTIMATION AT HULETTS REFINERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; N K Padayachee; V Govender

    Due to the successful use of the Saccharoflex 2000 reflectance measurement instrument on the estimation of refined sugar colour elsewhere in the world, it was decided by Tongaat-Hulett Sugar to evaluate the instrument at the refinery in Durban. Tests were carried out on first, second, third and fourth refined sugars, the results of which showed a good correlation between the ICUMSA colour measurement and the reflectance reading obtained from the Saccharoflex 2000. The instrument offers a number of advantages, the main one being that a refined sugar colour value can be obtained in less than a minute. The refinery has therefore purchased one for process control.

  9. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2003 producer. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production of fiber optics, infrared

  10. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2002 producer price-bearing materials generated from the processing of zinc ores. The germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. The refinery in Oklahoma doubled its production

  11. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2001 producer price-bearing materials generated from the processing of zinc ores. The germanium refineries in New York and Oklahoma and set up in New York. The refinery in Oklahoma expanded, and a new secondary facility was built in North

  12. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2008 producer of 2008. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production of fiber optics

  13. Problem 65 in Section 4.1 (Page 274) Constructing a pipeline Supertankers off-load oil at a docking facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, Anne

    facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery is 9 mi east of the shore point nearest the docking facility. A pipeline must be constructed connecting the docking facility with the refinery. The pipeline costs $300.42 miles away from the refinery, or equivalently 3.58 miles away from Point A (as the back of the book has

  14. 2:00-2:30 Beverages, 2:30-4 PM Seminar Chevron operates two refineries on the west coast of California. Large parcels of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    4/18/2014 2:00-2:30 Beverages, 2:30-4 PM Seminar Abstract Chevron operates two refineries fuel must be moved between the refineries by ship to balance production. The El Segundo Marine Terminal these vapors are returned to the refinery for processing via a vapor return pipeline. El Segundo's terminal

  15. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1999 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania@usgs.gov, fax: (703) 648-7757] #12;73 GERMANIUM Events, Trends, and Issues: World refinery production

  16. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1996 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1996 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and chemotherapy), 5%. Salient Statistics--United States: 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996e Production, refinery 13,000 10

  17. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2007 producer in the fourth quarter of 2007. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production

  18. Wind Turbine Shutdowns and Upgrades in Denmark: Timing Decisions and the Impact of Government Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    Wind Turbine Shutdowns and Upgrades in Denmark: Timing Decisions and the Impact of Government structural econometric model of wind turbine owners' decisions about whether and when to add new turbines the underlying profit structure for wind producers and evaluate the impact of technology and government policy

  19. Shutdown of Departmental Operations Upon Failure by Congress to Enact Appropriations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish the procedure for the orderly shutdown of Department of Energy (DOE) operations in the absence of needed appropriations during a fiscal year. Cancels DOE 5500.6A. Canceled by DOE O 137.1 dated 9-4-98.

  20. Model to Predict Temperature and Capillary Pressure Driven Water Transport in PEFCs After Shutdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    Manish Khandelwal,a, * Sungho Lee,b and M. M. Mencha, **,z a Fuel Cell Dynamics and Diagnostics-912 Korea To enhance durability and cold-start performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells PEFCs , residual water in the fuel cell components must be minimized during operation and after shutdown

  1. UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings Sunday 19 heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES

  2. Response of deep-sea CaCO3 sedimentation to Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shutdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chikamoto, Megumi O.

    Response of deep-sea CaCO3 sedimentation to Atlantic meridional overturning circulation shutdown of the preservation and burial of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in deep ocean sediments and associated atmospheric pCO2 significantly decreases the CaCO3 content in North Atlantic sediments. This is a consequence of a decrease

  3. Computer Automated Start-Up and Shutdown of an Air Separation Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russek, S. L.; Beckowski, T. M.; Vinson, D. R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operator. The combined efforts of start-up, plant effic1ency, and computer process control engineers were ut1l1zed to adapt the seemingly qualHatrve art of process start-up and shutdown into well defined algorithms. In addH10n to the start...

  4. Energy Guideline Factors Provide a Better Measure of Refinery Energy Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libbers, D. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exxon Company, U.S.A. refineries reduced energy consumption by 25% between 1972 and 1978 compared with an 18% reduction for the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry over the same period. The Exxon approach to conserving energy in petroleum refining...

  5. THE NEW GASIFICATION PROJECT AT ENI SANNAZZARO REFINERY AND ITS INTEGRATION WITH A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mwe Power Plant; Guido Collodi; Dario Camozzi; Snamprogetti Italy

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the new regulation introduced in Europe in the last years, defining more stringent limits for the emissions to the atmosphere, the necessity to find an alternative use for the fuel oil has created a new challenge for the refineries. At the same time the need to improve the Italian power production has pushed Eni, the Italian energy company, to enter the electricity market.

  6. Application and Operation of a 2-MW Organic Rankine Cycle System on a Refinery FCC Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drake, R. L.

    The nation's largest organic Rankine cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system was started up in July 1984 at a West Coast oil refinery. The system includes two hermetically sealed turbine-generator units, each rated at 1070 kW. Each turbine...

  7. Restoration of Refinery Heaters Using the Technique of Prefabricated Ceramic Fiber Lined Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sento, H. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery heater fuel requirements often represent 50% of a units operating cost. A one percent change in the efficiency of a heater firing 100 MBtu/hr amounts to more than $25,000 per year. Heater efficiency is influenced by casing hot spots, air...

  8. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Worsztynowicz, A.; Ulfig, K. [Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

    1997-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH`s, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass.

  9. Evaluation of respiratory variables in smelter and control workers before and during a shutdown period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holness, D.L.; Batten, B.; Broder, I.; Corey, P.; Mintz, S.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirty-six smelter workers examined in this pilot study were found to have a higher prevalence of cough and dyspnea and lower baseline lung function than did 31 controls. They also experienced decreases in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) over the workweek while the controls did not. Baseline airflow rates and change in FVC and FEV1 over the workweek varied with levels of sulfur dioxide and particulates. Twenty-three smelter workers and 21 controls were seen on a second occasion, six months into an extended shutdown. The smelter workers continued to have a higher prevalence of cough and dyspnea and lower baseline lung function than the controls. There was, however, a slight increase in lung function in both the exposed workers and the controls during the shutdown. The results suggest that smelter workers may develop both acute and chronic work-related pulmonary effects and that the chronic effects may be nonreversible.

  10. Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffit, Alfred Edward

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediments contaminated with highly weathered petroleum was evaluated at a contaminated oil refinery. The sediments were chronically contaminated...

  11. Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    A first-of-its-kind Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) was installed by Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc. in partnership with Energy Concepts Co. at Ultramar Diamond Shamrock's 30,000 barrel per day refinery in Denver...

  12. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  13. Refinery fuel oxygenates in view of the complex model for reformulated gasline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.D.; Haelsig, C.P. [Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The final version of the Complex Model for reformulated gasoline (RFG) has now been issued with some surprising features that will significantly affect refinery fuel oxygenates planning. These include the following: (1) The only oxygenates included in the model are MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and Ethanol. (2) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME are significantly more effective for reduction of air toxics emissions than Ethanol and ETBE. (3) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME typically produce about equal reduction in air toxics emissions at the same RFG oxygen content. Although gasoline certification by the Complex Model is optional prior to 1998, after 1998 it will be mandatory for both reformulated and conventional gasolines. This paper considers refinery oxygenates production in view of these features of the Complex Model for RFG, basing the discussion on 2.0 weight percent oxygen content for RFG.

  14. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  15. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  16. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  17. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  19. ,"U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant StocksPetroleum

  20. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  1. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1998 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1998 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania Production, refinery 10,000 10,000 18,000 20,000 22,000e Total imports 14,700 16,200 27,500 23,700 20

  2. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1997 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1997 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, refinery 10,000 10,000 10,000 18,000 20,000e Total imports 15,000 15,000 16,000 27,000 17,0001 Exports NA

  3. Shutdown 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 SeptemberSettingUncertainties in the3Arie DataHow

  4. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling...

  5. Control assembly for controlling a fuel cell system during shutdown and restart

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Ramki; Berntsen, George; Carlson, Glenn L.; Farooque, Mohammad; Beachy, Dan; Peterhans, Stefan; Bischoff, Manfred

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system and method in which the fuel cell system receives and an input oxidant gas and an input fuel gas, and in which a fuel processing assembly is provided and is adapted to at least humidify the input fuel gas which is to be supplied to the anode of the fuel cell of the system whose cathode receives the oxidant input gas via an anode oxidizing assembly which is adapted to couple the output of the anode of the fuel cell to the inlet of the cathode of the fuel cell during normal operation, shutdown and restart of the fuel cell system, and in which a control assembly is further provided and is adapted to respond to shutdown of the fuel cell system during which input fuel gas and input oxidant gas cease to be received by the fuel cell system, the control assembly being further adapted to, when the fuel cell system is shut down: control the fuel cell system so as to enable a purging gas to be able to flow through the fuel processing assembly to remove humidified fuel gas from the processing assembly and to enable a purging gas to be able to flow through the anode of the fuel cell.

  6. Experiments in DIII-D toward achieving rapid shutdown with runaway electron suppression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollmann, E. M.; James, A. N.; Yu, J. H.; Izzo, V. A. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Baylor, L. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Eidietis, N. W.; Parks, P. B.; Wesley, J. C.; Brooks, N. H.; Jackson, G. L.; Zeeland, M. A. van; Wu, W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Evans, T. E.; Humphreys, D. A.; Strait, E. J.; Austin, M. E. [Fusion Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been performed in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] toward understanding runaway electron formation and amplification during rapid discharge shutdown, as well as toward achieving complete collisional suppression of these runaway electrons via massive delivery of impurities. Runaway acceleration and amplification appear to be well explained using the zero-dimensional (0D) current quench toroidal electric field. 0D or even one-dimensional modeling using a Dreicer seed term, however, appears to be too small to explain the initial runaway seed formation. Up to 15% of the line-average electron density required for complete runaway suppression has been achieved in the middle of the current quench using optimized massive gas injection with multiple small gas valves firing simultaneously. The novel rapid shutdown techniques of massive shattered pellet injection and shell pellet injection have been demonstrated for the first time. Experiments using external magnetic perturbations to deconfine runaways have shown promising preliminary results.

  7. Experiments in DIII-D toward achieving rapid shutdown with runaway electron suppression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollmann, E. M. [University of California, San Diego; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Eidietis, N. W. [General Atomics, San Diego; Evans, T. E. [University of Texas, Austin; Humphreys, D. A. [University of Texas, Austin; James, A. N. [University of California, San Diego; Jernigan, T. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Strait, E. J. [University of Texas, Austin; Wesley, J. C. [General Atomics; Yu, J.H. [University of California, San Diego; Austin, M. E. [University of Texas, Austin; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Brooks, N. H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Izzo, V. A. [University of California, San Diego & La Jolla; Jackson, G. L. [General Atomics; Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, San Diego; Wu, W. [General Atomics, San Diego

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been performed in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] toward understanding runaway electron formation and amplification during rapid discharge shutdown, as well as toward achieving complete collisional suppression of these runaway electrons via massive delivery of impurities. Runaway acceleration and amplification appear to be well explained using the zero-dimensional (0D) current quench toroidal electric field. 0D or even one-dimensional modeling using a Dreicer seed term, however, appears to be too small to explain the initial runaway seed formation. Up to 15% of the line-average electron density required for complete runaway suppression has been achieved in the middle of the current quench using optimized massive gas injection with multiple small gas valves firing simultaneously. The novel rapid shutdown techniques of massive shattered pellet injection and shell pellet injection have been demonstrated for the first time. Experiments using external magnetic perturbations to deconfine runaways have shown promising preliminary results. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3309426

  8. Methods for nondestructive assay holdup measurements in shutdown uranium enrichment facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagenauer, R.C.; Mayer, R.L. II.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement surveys of uranium holdup using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are being conducted for shutdown gaseous diffusion facilities at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant). When in operation, these facilities processed UF{sub 6} with enrichments ranging from 0.2 to 93 wt % {sup 235}U. Following final shutdown of all process facilities, NDA surveys were initiated to provide process holdup data for the planning and implementation of decontamination and decommissioning activities. A three-step process is used to locate and quantify deposits: (1) high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are performed to generally define the relative abundances of radioisotopes present, (2) sizable deposits are identified using gamma-ray scanning methods, and (3) the deposits are quantified using neutron measurement methods. Following initial quantitative measurements, deposit sizes are calculated; high-resolution gamma-ray measurements are then performed on the items containing large deposits. The quantitative estimates for the large deposits are refined on the basis of these measurements. Facility management is using the results of the survey to support a variety of activities including isolation and removal of large deposits; performing health, safety, and environmental analyses; and improving facility nuclear material control and accountability records. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

  10. Morbidity And Sulfur Dioxide: Evidence From French Strikes At Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Neidell; Emmanuelle Lavaine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the impact of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in France on health outcomes at a census track level. To do so, we use recent strikes affecting oil refineries in France, in October 2010, as a natural experiment. Our work offers several contributions. We first show that a temporal shut down in the refining process leads to a reduction in sulfur dioxide concentration. We then use this narrow time frame exogenous shock to assess the impact of a change in air pollution concentration on respiratory outcomes. Our estimates suggest that daily variation in SO2 air pollution has economically significant health effects at levels below the current standard. 0

  11. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. ,"U.S. Working Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. Underground NaturalWorking

  13. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( ES)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  14. Risk analysis study of non-routine turbine/generator shutdown events and intake gate evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardy, D.M. [Hydroelectric Design Center, Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Corps of Engineers has undertaken a study to perform a reliability and risk analysis for evaluating non-routine turbine/generator shutdown scenarios. The study will evaluate the risks associated with events that would require a powerhouse to shut down a turbine/generator by using intake gates. The goal of this project is to estimate any potential damage that could occur for various intake gate configurations and closure times. The data obtained can also be used to evaluate any of the systems that affect reliability of the turbine/generator using established methods of risk analysis. This paper will briefly outline the study objectives and describe the progress of the study to this point.

  15. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D.; Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented.

  16. Hurricane Emergency Shutdown Actions June 24, 2014 Chancellor directs P&F to commence emergency preparations 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (SOM/SOD) 13 CS Remote Operations Teams, Payroll, and Human Res. personnel travel to DPS Data Center/central phone line (P&F) 23 48 Computer Services Remote Operations Teams work from remote sites (CS) 24 Confirm. (EH&S) 28 43-40 School of Dentistry - Shutdown Chiller/Cooling Tower (P&F) 29 School of Dentistry

  17. Refinery Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida4 U.S. Manufacturing Energy UseMary

  18. Wilolud Online Journals, 2008. THE NIGERIAN FUEL ENERGY SUPPLY CRISIS AND THE PROPOSED PRIVATE REFINERIES PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agwom Sani Z

    Dynamism of the world economy has compelled Nigerians to accept the liberalization of its economy to encourage private sector participation and induce managerial efficiency. This has become very imperative most especially, in the downstream sub-sector of the Nigerian oil and gas industry by the establishment and management of private refineries in view of the persistent fuel energy crisis. An attempt is made here at analyzing the prospects and problems of such refineries that are expected to end the fuel energy crisis which started in the 1970s due to increased demand for petroleum products for rehabilitation and reconstruction after the civil war but later metamorphosed into a hydraheaded monster in the 1980s to date. Efforts towards arresting this crisis by the government through the establishment of more refineries, storage depots and network of distribution pipelines etc achieved a short-term solution due to the abysmal low performance of the refineries and facilities in contrast to increasing demand for petroleum products. It is deduced that the low performance resulted from bad and corrupt management by indigenous technocrats and political leaders as well as vandalization of facilities. Prospects for such investments were identified, as well as some of the problems to content with. This is in order to understand the pros and cons of such investments in view of their capital intensiveness and the need to achieve economic goals that must incorporate environmental and social objectives.

  19. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  20. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  1. Standard guide for evaluating and qualifying oilfield and refinery corrosion inhibitors in the laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide covers some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oilfield and refinery applications in well defined flow conditions. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather covers a range of approaches which have found application in inhibitor evaluation. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in inhibitor evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for evaluating corrosion inhibitors. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

  2. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules (Released in the STEO January 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On August 27, 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an individual refinery baseline is not available to domestic refiners.) If a foreign refiner did not establish and use an individual baseline, the gasoline they export to the United States would be regulated through the importer, and subject to the importer's baseline (most likely the statutory baseline). Specific regulatory provisions are implemented to ensure that the option to use an individual baseline would not lead to adverse environmental impacts. This involves monitoring the average quality of imported gasoline, and if a specified benchmark is exceeded, remedial action would be taken by adjusting the requirements applicable to imported gasoline.

  3. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two

  4. Novel Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Technique for Shutdown Dose Rate Analyses of Fusion Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M [ORNL] [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL] [ORNL; Peterson, Joshua L [ORNL] [ORNL; Grove, Robert E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rigorous 2-step (R2S) method uses three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport simulations to calculate the shutdown dose rate (SDDR) in fusion reactors. Accurate full-scale R2S calculations are impractical in fusion reactors because they require calculating space- and energy-dependent neutron fluxes everywhere inside the reactor. The use of global Monte Carlo variance reduction techniques was suggested for accelerating the neutron transport calculation of the R2S method. The prohibitive computational costs of these approaches, which increase with the problem size and amount of shielding materials, inhibit their use in the accurate full-scale neutronics analyses of fusion reactors. This paper describes a novel hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic technique that uses the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) methodology but focuses on multi-step shielding calculations. The Multi-Step CADIS (MS-CADIS) method speeds up the Monte Carlo neutron calculation of the R2S method using an importance function that represents the importance of the neutrons to the final SDDR. Using a simplified example, preliminarily results showed that the use of MS-CADIS enhanced the efficiency of the neutron Monte Carlo simulation of an SDDR calculation by a factor of 550 compared to standard global variance reduction techniques, and that the increase over analog Monte Carlo is higher than 10,000.

  5. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy, Espoo (Finland); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested.

  6. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mankamo, T. (Avaplan Oy, Espoo (Finland)); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested.

  7. Demonstration of Rapid Shutdown Using Large Shattered Deuterium Pellet Injection in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Hollmann, E. M. [University of California, San Diego; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Humphrey, D. A. [General Atomics, San Diego; Wesley, J. C. [General Atomics; Yu, J.H. [University of California, San Diego

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A severe consequence of a disruption on large tokamaks such as ITER could be the generation of multi-megaelectronvolt electron beams that could damage the vacuum vessel and the structures of the machine if they hit the wall unmitigated. The mitigation of runaway electron beams is thus a key requirement for reliable operation of ITER. In order to achieve reliable disruption mitigation, a new fast shutdown technique has been developed: the injection of a large shattered cryogenic pellet in the plasma, which is expected to increase the electron density up to levels where the beam generation processes are mitigated by collisional losses. This technique has been implemented and tested for the first time ever on DIII-D. The first tests show evidence of an almost instantaneous deposition of more than 260 Pa m3 of deuterium deep in the core. Record local densities during the thermal quench were observed for each injection with a very high reliability. Pellet mass and plasma energy content scans show an improvement of the assimilation of the particles for higher plasma energy and larger pellet mass.

  8. Demonstration of rapid shutdown using large shattered deuterium pellet injection in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Hollmann, E. M. [University of California, San Diego; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Humphreys, D A [General Atomics, San Diego; Wesley, J. C. [General Atomics; Yu, J.H. [University of California, San Diego

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A severe consequence of a disruption on large tokamaks such as ITER could be the generation of multi-megaelectronvolt electron beams that could damage the vacuum vessel and the structures of the machine if they hit the wall unmitigated. The mitigation of runaway electron beams is thus a key requirement for reliable operation of ITER. In order to achieve reliable disruption mitigation, a new fast shutdown technique has been developed: the injection of a large shattered cryogenic pellet in the plasma, which is expected to increase the electron density up to levels where the beam generation processes are mitigated by collisional losses. This technique has been implemented and tested for the first time ever on DIII-D. The first tests show evidence of an almost instantaneous deposition of more than 260 Pa m(3) of deuterium deep in the core. Record local densities during the thermal quench were observed for each injection with a very high reliability. Pellet mass and plasma energy content scans show an improvement of the assimilation of the particles for higher plasma energy and larger pellet mass.

  9. A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains to Be Done to Achieve Its Potential - Cost-Effectiveness Working Group A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What...

  10. Soot and SO[subscript 2] contribution to the supersites in the MILAGRO campaign from elevated flares in the Tula Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molina, Luisa Tan

    This work presents a simulation of the plume trajectory emitted by flaring activities of the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery in Mexico. The flame of a representative sour gas flare is modeled with a CFD combustion code in order ...

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of How the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, K.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of how the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR Kelly Patrick U.S. Environmental Protection Agency kelly...

  12. Summary of Information Presented at an NRC-Sponsored Low-Power Shutdown Public Workshop, April 27, 1999, Rockville, Maryland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Lois, Erasmia

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a public workshop that was held on April 27, 1999, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop was conducted as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts to further develop its understanding of the risks associated with low power and shutdown operations at US nuclear power plants. A sufficient understanding of such risks is required to support decision-making for risk-informed regulation, in particular Regulatory Guide 1.174, and the development of a consensus standard. During the workshop the NRC staff discussed and requested feedback from the public (including representatives of the nuclear industry, state governments, consultants, private industry, and the media) on the risk associated with low-power and shutdown operations.

  13. Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Prot Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PROPRIETARY INFORMATION? 2011 KBC Advanced Technologies plc. All Rights Reserved. Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Port Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility May... Improvements ? Cost-savings initiatives ? Increasing environmental awareness ? Increasing throughput by debottlenecking processes ? Increasing government mandates 2May 2013 Energy Costs for a 200kBPD Complex refinery Typically, energy efficiency programs...

  14. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  15. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 3. Engineering development. Annual report, April 1, 1995--May 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C; Gaddy, J.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refineries discharge large volumes of H2, CO, and CO 2 from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This R&D program seeks to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol for blending with gasoline. A 200,000 BPD refinery could produce up to 38 million gallons ethanol per year. The program is being conducted in 3 phases: II, technology development; III, engineering development; and IV, demonstration. Phase I, exploratory development, has been completed. The research effort has yielded two strains (Isolates O-52 and C-01) which are to be used in the pilot studies to produce ethanol from CO, CO2, and H2 in petroleum waste gas. Results from single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) laboratory tests have shown that 20-25 g/L ethanol can be produced with < 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Laboratory studies with two CSTRs in series have yielded ethanol concentrations of 30-35 g/L with 2-4 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Water recycle from distillation back to the fermenter shows that filtration of the water before distillation eliminates the recycle of toxic materials back to the fermenter. Product recovery in the process will use direct distillation to the azeotrope, followed by adsorption to produce neat ethanol. This is less energy intensive than e.g. solvent extraction, azeotropic distillation, or pervaporation. Economic projections are quite attractive; the economics are refinery stream dependent and thus vary depending on refinery location and operation.

  16. ,"U.S. Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected Petroleum Products"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected Petroleum

  17. Mitigation Measures Following a Loss-of-Residual-Heat-Removal Event During Shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The transient following a loss-of-residual-heat-removal event during shutdown was analyzed to determine the containment closure time (CCT) to prevent uncontrolled release of fission products and the gravity-injection path and rate (GIPR) for effective core cooling using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. The plant conditions of Yonggwang Units 3 and 4, a pressurized water reactor (PWR) of 2815-MW(thermal) power in Korea, were reviewed, and possible event sequences were identified. From the CCT analysis for the five cases of typical plant configurations, it was estimated for the earliest CCT to be 40 min after the event in a case with a large cold-leg opening and emptied steam generators (SGs). However, the case with water-filled SGs significantly delayed the CCT through the heat removal to the secondary side. From the GIPR analysis for the six possible gravity-injection paths from the refueling water storage tank (RWST), the case with the injection point and opening on the other leg side was estimated to be the most suitable path to avoid core boiling. In addition, from the sensitivity study, it was evaluated for the plant to be capable of providing the core cooling for the long-term transient if nominal RWST water is available. As a result, these analysis methods and results will provide useful information in understanding the plant behavior and preparing the mitigation measures after the event, especially for Combustion Engineering-type PWR plants. However, to directly apply the analysis results to the emergency procedure for such an event, additional case studies are needed for a wide range of operating conditions such as reactor coolant inventory, RWST water temperature, and core decay heat rate.

  18. Allocation of Energy Use LCA Case Studies LCA Case Studies Allocation of Energy Use in Petroleum Refineries to Petroleum Products Implications for Life-Cycle Energy Use and Emission Inventory of Petroleum Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Wang; Hanjie Lee; John Molburg

    Aim, Scope, and Background. Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differences associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products

  19. Accomplishments and Remaining Challenges: THREDDS Data Server and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accomplishments and Remaining Challenges: THREDDS Data Server and Common Data Model Ethan Davis Unidata Policy Committee Meeting 23-24 May 2011 #12;THREDDS Data Server (TDS) Web server for scientific;THREDDS Data Server (TDS) ... Data access services: OPeNDAP OGC WMS and WCS NCSS Data

  20. Reply to Davies: Hydraulic fracturing remains a possible mechanism for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    LETTER Reply to Davies: Hydraulic fracturing remains a possible mechanism for observed methane in aquifers overlying the Marcellus formation but asserts that we prematurely ascribed its cause to hydraulic mechanisms were leaky gas well casings and the possibility that hydraulic fracturing might generate new

  1. Technical and operational overview of the C[sub 4] Oleflex process at Valero refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohnholt, J.F.; Payne, D. (Valero Refining Co., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)); Gregor, J.; Smith, E. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in gasoline composition stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments prompted Valero Energy Corporation to evaluate options for producing reformulated gasoline. The evaluation culminated in a project to upgrade butanes into methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Technology selection focused on the dehydrogenation of isobutane, and the UOP Oleflex process was selected. The MTBE project was implemented in 34 months and was $3 million under budget. The guaranteed MTBE production of 12,500 BPSD was achieved within one month of mechanical completion and has since reached 15,000 BPSD. Even at the low MTBE prices prevailing in late 1993, the butane upgrading project contributed significantly to Valero Refinery's overall profitability. Worldwide demand is expected to increase MTBE prices in 1996, thereby further increasing profits. The paper describes the project evaluation activities which led to the selection of the Oleflex process, engineering and construction, the MTBE complex start-up and operation, the Valero MTBE complex performance, and future plans. The paper also discusses feedstock utilization efficiency and MTBE market analysis.

  2. Gasification of refinery sludge in an updraft reactor for syngas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Reem; Eldmerdash, Usama [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Sinnathambi, Chandra M., E-mail: chandro@petronas.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The study probes into the investigation on gasification of dry refinery sludge. The details of the study includes; influence of operation time, oxidation temperature and equivalence ratios on carbon gas conversion rate, gasification efficiency, heating value and fuel gas yield are presented. The results show that, the oxidation temperature increased sharply up to 858C as the operating time increased up to 36 min then bridging occurred at 39 min which cause drop in reaction temperature up to 819 C. This bridging was found to affect also the syngas compositions, meanwhile as the temperature decreased the CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} compositions are also found to be decreases. Higher temperature catalyzed the reduction reaction (CO{sub 2}+C?=?450?2CO), and accelerated the carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies, resulted in more solid fuel is converted to a high heating value gas fuel. The equivalence ratio of 0.195 was found to be the optimum value for carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies, high heating value of gas, and fuel gas yield to reach their maximum values of 96.1 % and 53.7 %, 5.42 MJ Nm{sup ?3} of, and 2.5 Nm{sup 3} kg{sup ?1} respectively.

  3. Summary of the proceedings of the workshop on the refinery of the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report on the Workshop on the Refinery of the Future has been prepared for participants to provide them with a succinct summary of the presentations, deliberations, and discussions. In preparing the summary, we have striven to capture the key findings (conclusions) and highlight the issues and concerns raised during the plenary and breakout sessions. The presentation of the summary of the proceedings follows the final workshop agenda, which is given in Section I; each section is tabbed to facilitate access to specific workshop topics. The material presented relies heavily on the outline summaries prepared and presented by the Plenary Session Chairman and the Facilitators for each breakout group. These summaries are included essentially as presented. In addition, individuals were assigned to take notes during each session; these notes were used to reconstruct critical issues that were discussed in more detail. The key comments made by the participants, which tended to represent the range of views expressed relative to the issues, are presented immediately following the facilitator`s summary outline in order to convey the flavor of the discussions. The comments are not attributed to individuals, since in many instances they represent a composite of several similar views expressed during the discussion. The facilitators were asked to review the writeups describing the outcomes of their sessions for accuracy and content; their suggested changes were incorporated. Every effort has thus been made to reconstruct the views expressed as accurately as possible; however, errors and/or misinterpretations undoubtedly have occurred.

  4. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.

  6. A dynamic process model of a natural gas combined cycle -- Model development with startup and shutdown simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liese, Eric [U.S. DOE; Zitney, Stephen E. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in dynamic process simulation for integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with carbon capture has been ongoing at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), culminating in a full operator training simulator (OTS) and immersive training simulator (ITS) for use in both operator training and research. A derivative work of the IGCC dynamic simulator has been a modification of the combined cycle section to more closely represent a typical natural gas fired combined cycle (NGCC). This paper describes the NGCC dynamic process model and highlights some of the simulators current capabilities through a particular startup and shutdown scenario.

  7. A 39 year follow-up of the UK oil refinery and distribution centre studies: results for kidney cancer and leukaemia. Environ Health Perspect Suppl 101(Suppl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesley Rushton

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents briefly some of the principal results of a mortality analysis of a cohort of workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1975 at eight oil refineries and approximately 750 distribution centers in the U.K, together with detailed results for kidney cancer and leukemia. Over 99 % of the workers were successfully traced. Their mortality was compared with that of all males in the national population. The mortality from all causes of death is lower than that of the comparison population in both studies, and reduced mortality is also found for many of the major nonmalignant causes of death. In the refinery study, some increased mortality patterns are found for diseases of the arteries, and no healthy worker effect is found in the distribution center study for ischemic heart disease. Mortality from all neoplasms is lower than expected overall in both studies, largely due to a deficit of deaths from malignant neoplasm of the lung. Mortality from malignant neoplasm of the kidney is increased overall in the distribution center study, and in drivers in particular. The mortality from this disease increases with increased time since first exposure. The observed deaths from leukemia are slightly less than expected in the refinery study and slightly more than expected in the distribution center study. One refinery shows increased mortality due to in myeloid leukemia, and mortality is increased among refinery operators. Mortality is also raised in distribution center drivers, particularly for myeloid leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia.

  8. Conversion of high carbon refinery by-products. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katta, S.; Henningsen, G.; Lin, Y.Y.; O`Donnell, J.

    1996-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate that a partial oxidation system, which utilizes a transport reactor, is a viable means of converting refinery wastes, byproducts, and other low value materials into valuable products. The primary product would be a high quality fuel gas, which could also be used as a source of hydrogen. The concept involves subjecting the hydrocarbon feed to pyrolysis and steam gasification in a circulating bed of solids. Carbon residue formed during pyrolysis, as well as metals in the feed, are captured by the circulating solids which are returned to the bottom of the transport reactor. Air or oxygen is introduced in this lower zone and sufficient carbon is burned, sub-stoichiometrically, to provide the necessary heat for the endothermic pyrolysis and gasification reactions. The hot solids and gases leaving this zone pass upward to contact the feed material and continue the gasification process. The Transport Reactor Test Unit (TRTU) was commissioned to conduct studies on pyrolysis of Rose Bottoms using spent FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) catalyst as the circulating medium and gasification of this carbon over a temperature range of 1,600 to 1,700 F. The Rose Bottoms (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) was produced in the Rose unit. Studies were done in the Bench Scale Reactor Unit (BRU) to develop suitable catalyst formulations and to study the steam reforming of methane and propane in support of the experiments to be conducted in the TRTU. Studies were also conducted on gasification of coke breeze, petroleum cokes and carbon deposited on FCC catalyst. The catalytic effect of potassium on gasification of these solids was studied. Studies were conducted in the CFS (cold flow simulator) to investigate flow problems experienced in the TRTU. Results from these studies are presented in this report.

  9. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  10. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using the rotating cylinder electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications in defined flow conditions. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Preliminary results of the PWR low power and shutdown accident frequencies program: Coarse screening analysis for Surry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Luckas, W.; Wong, S.M.; Neymotin, L.; Diamond, D.J.; Hsu, C.J.; Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Fitzpatrick, R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Siu, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the preliminary internal events Level 1 results (including fire and flood) obtained as a result of a coarse screening analysis on the low power and shutdown accident frequencies of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant. The work was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES). This coarse screening analysis was performed in support of the NRC staff`s follow-up actions subsequent to the March 20, 1990 Vogtle incident with the objective of providing high-level qualitative insights within a relatively short time frame. It is the first phase of a major study that will ultimately produce estimates on the core damage frequency of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during low power and shutdown conditions. Phase 2 of the study will be guided by the Phase 1 results in order to concentrate the effort on the various plant operational states, the dominant accident sequences, and pertinent data items according to their importance to core damage frequency and risk.

  12. Preliminary results of the PWR low power and shutdown accident frequencies program: Coarse screening analysis for Surry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Luckas, W.; Wong, S.M.; Neymotin, L.; Diamond, D.J.; Hsu, C.J.; Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Fitzpatrick, R. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Siu, N. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the preliminary internal events Level 1 results (including fire and flood) obtained as a result of a coarse screening analysis on the low power and shutdown accident frequencies of the Surry Nuclear Power Plant. The work was performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES). This coarse screening analysis was performed in support of the NRC staff's follow-up actions subsequent to the March 20, 1990 Vogtle incident with the objective of providing high-level qualitative insights within a relatively short time frame. It is the first phase of a major study that will ultimately produce estimates on the core damage frequency of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) during low power and shutdown conditions. Phase 2 of the study will be guided by the Phase 1 results in order to concentrate the effort on the various plant operational states, the dominant accident sequences, and pertinent data items according to their importance to core damage frequency and risk.

  13. Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment of low power and shutdown operations at a PWR: Phase 2 results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Musicki, Z.; Wong, S.M.; Yang, J.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Su, R.F. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Holmes, B. (AEA Technology, London (United Kingdom)); Siu, N. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Bley, D.; Lin, J. (Pickard, Lowe and Garrick, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident and other precursor events (e.g., Diablo Canyon), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) initiated an extensive project during 1989 to carefully examine the potential risks during Low Power and Shutdown (LP S) operations. Shortly after the program began, an event occurred at the Vogtle plant during shutdown, which further intensified the effort of the LP S program. In the LP S program, one pressurized water reactor (PWR), Surry, and one boiling water reactor (BWR), Grand Gulf, were selected, mainly because they were previously analyzed in the NUREG-1150 Study. The Level-1 Program is being performed in two phases. Phase 1 was dedicated to performing a coarse screening level-1 analysis including internal fire and flood. A draft report was completed in November, 1991. In the phase 2 study, mid-loop operations at the Surry plant were analyzed in detail. The objective of this paper is to present the approach of the phase 2 study and the preliminary results and insights.

  14. Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment of low power and shutdown operations at a PWR: Phase 2 results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Musicki, Z.; Wong, S.M.; Yang, J.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Su, R.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, London (United Kingdom); Siu, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Bley, D.; Lin, J. [Pickard, Lowe and Garrick, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident and other precursor events (e.g., Diablo Canyon), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) initiated an extensive project during 1989 to carefully examine the potential risks during Low Power and Shutdown (LP&S) operations. Shortly after the program began, an event occurred at the Vogtle plant during shutdown, which further intensified the effort of the LP&S program. In the LP&S program, one pressurized water reactor (PWR), Surry, and one boiling water reactor (BWR), Grand Gulf, were selected, mainly because they were previously analyzed in the NUREG-1150 Study. The Level-1 Program is being performed in two phases. Phase 1 was dedicated to performing a coarse screening level-1 analysis including internal fire and flood. A draft report was completed in November, 1991. In the phase 2 study, mid-loop operations at the Surry plant were analyzed in detail. The objective of this paper is to present the approach of the phase 2 study and the preliminary results and insights.

  15. K. S. Telang, R. W. Pike, F. C. Knopf, J. R. Hopper, J. Saleh, S. Waghchoure, S. C. Hedge and T. A. Hertwig,"An Advanced Process Analysis System for Improving Chemical and Refinery Processes," Computers and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 23, p. S727-730 (1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    . Hertwig,"An Advanced Process Analysis System for Improving Chemical and Refinery Processes," Computers Chemical and Refinery Processes K. S. Telang, X. Chen, R. W. Pike and F. C. Knopf Louisiana State and refineries for process improvements. The system integrates programs for on-line optimization, chemical

  16. Self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown system using induction pump to facilitate sensing of core coolant temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert K. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Cooper, Martin H. (Churchill, PA); Tupper, Robert B. (Greensburg, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-actuated shutdown system incorporated into a reactivity control assembly in a nuclear reactor includes pumping means for creating an auxiliary downward flow of a portion of the heated coolant exiting from the fuel assemblies disposed adjacent to the control assembly. The shutdown system includes a hollow tubular member which extends through the outlet of the control assembly top nozzle so as to define an outer annular flow channel through the top nozzle outlet separate from an inner flow channel for primary coolant flow through the control assembly. Also, a latching mechanism is disposed in an inner duct of the control assembly and is operable for holding absorber bundles in a raised position in the control assembly and for releasing them to drop them into the core of the reactor for shutdown purposes. The latching mechanism has an inner flow passage extending between and in flow communication with the absorber bundles and the inner flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating primary coolant flow upwardly through the control assembly. Also, an outer flow passage separate from the inner flow passage extends through the latching mechanism between and in flow communication with the inner duct and the outer flow channel of the top nozzle for accommodating inflow of a portion of the heated coolant from the adjacent fuel assemblies. The latching mechanism contains a magnetic material sensitive to temperature and operable to cause mating or latching together of the components of the latching mechanism when the temperature sensed is below a known temperature and unmating or unlatching thereof when the temperature sensed is above a given temperature. The temperature sensitive magnetic material is positioned in communication with the heated coolant flow through the outer flow passage for directly sensing the temperature thereof. Finally, the pumping means includes a jet induction pump nozzle and diffuser disposed adjacent the bottom nozzle of the control assembly and in flow communication with the inlet thereof. The pump nozzle is operable to create an upward driving flow of primary coolant through the pump diffuser and then to the absorber bundles. The upward driving flow of primary coolant, in turn, creates a suction head within the outer flow channel of the top nozzle and thereby an auxiliary downward flow of the heated coolant portion exiting from the upper end of the adjacent fuel assemblies through the outer flow channel to the pump nozzle via the outer flow passage of the latching mechanism and an annular space between the outer and inner spaced ducts of the control assembly housing. The temperature of the heated coolant exiting from the adjacent fuel assemblies can thereby be sensed directly by the temperature sensitive magnetic material in the latching mechanism.

  17. Coal: Long-term prospects remain very good

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerell, P.E. [ed.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide, it is the most economic and widespread fossil fuel available. The importance of coal will continue to grow to generate enough electricity to meet a rapidly increasing demand for energy. The first sign of a rising standard of living is access to a reliable and plentiful supply of electricity-and that means power generation from coal. The World Energy Conference in Tokyo last October called upon governments to {open_quotes}recognize that fossil fuels are likely to remain cost-competitive against alternatives over the next few decades and are set to play a greater and longer role than is widely thought.{close_quotes} Since coal, of all fossil fuels, has by far the most abundant reserves, this applies especially to coal. The International Energy Agency in Paris predicts a constant increase in the international hard-coal trade. While in 1973 (at the beginning of the first oil price crisis) only 8% of world hard coal produced was traded worldwide, this contribution increased to 11% by 1992 and may even grow to 16% between 1992 and 2010. Regarding volume, this would mean that the international hard-coal trade would more than double in the 18 years to 2010, i.e., from 403M to 852 M mt/yr. The 1995 update of the {open_quotes}Review of World Coal Trade,{close_quotes} published by the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe in Geneva, Switzerland, gives lower but still very considerable growth rate estimates: requirements from 3.508B (1990) to 3.982B mt (2010), production from 3.549B to 3994B mt, imports from 396M to 566M mt, and exports from 395M to 578M mt.

  18. Remaining-life estimation of boiler pressure parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borden, M.P.; Ellis, F.V. (ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Chattanooga, TN (USA)); Miller, D.A.; Gladwin, D. (National Power, Leatherhead (UK))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the objectives of this project was to determine the effect of prior creep damage on the remaining life of base material and HAZ material subjected to pure fatigue and creep fatigue loading. Life assessment techniques for cyclic loading conditions are required due to the need to two shifts (two shifts on, one shift off) or load-follow for conventional fossil power plant as new nuclear units become available. Described herein are the results of work undertaken at ABB Combustion Engineering Systems in the US and South Western Regional Scientific Services Department and Central Electricity Research Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board in the UK. An interrupted creep testing program was conducted on a single heat of 1Cr--1/2Mo steel to produce creep damaged or pre-crept material for the pure fatigue and creep-fatigue test programs. Metallographic examination of the pre-crept material revealed the primary creep damage mechanism was thermal softening for the base material and creep cavitation for the HAZ material. Creep rupture properties were measured for the virgin, aged, and pre-crept materials at the creep-fatigue test temperature of 535{degree}C to aid in interpretation of the effect of prior creep on creep-fatigue life. Creep-fatigue life prediction was performed using the linear life fraction rule, stress based and strain-based life fraction approaches. The remanent creep-fatigue of the HAZ material can be predicted by conducting a linear summation of creep life fraction and creep-fatigue life fraction. This approach is not applicable for base material. The life fraction method of predicting the as-received creep-fatigue endurance data based on a ductility exhaustion approach gave better prediction than a stress based approach. The implications of the current project results are discussed in terms of developing an assessment procedure for determining the creep-fatigue life of elevated temperature components. 21 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Public health assessment for US Smelter and Lead Refinery, Inc. (A/K/A USS Lead Refinery Inc. ) East Chicago, Lake County, Indiana, Region 5. Cerclis no. IND047030226. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Smelter and Lead Refinery, Inc. (USS Lead), in East Chicago, Indiana, has been operating as a primary and secondary smelting facility since 1906. Wastes which were produced during smelting operations are calcium sulfate sludge, blast furnace flue-dust, baghouse bags, rubber and plastic battery casings, and waste slag. Limited sampling information is available, and indicates that on-site soils and wastes are contaminated with lead and other metals. Additional sampling off-site surface soils indicate that the contamination has spread off-site as far as one-half mile from the site. Surface water and sediment on-site has also become contaminated with lead and other metals, as well as waste oil. Based on the completed exposure pathways to lead through soil ingestion and dust inhalation, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concludes that contamination from the USS Lead site is a public health hazard.

  20. Effective monitoring of non-chromate chemical treatment programs for refinery cooling systems using sewage water as make-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AlMajnouni, A.D.; Jaffer, A.E. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Treated sewage water as make-up to the cooling tower requires novel approaches to control potential cooling water problems common to refineries besides meeting environmental regulations. An intensive field study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of non-chromate treatment programs. On-line cleaning of the exchangers occurred prior to instituting the new chemical treatment program. Low carbon steel corrosion rates with minimal deposition was achieved. Microbiological fouling was controlled with chlorination and non-oxidizing biocide program. Field results are presented which compare the efficacy of these proprietary treatments to control corrosion and inhibit scale and fouling. Analytical results which provide a comprehensive performance evaluation of a new non-chromate chemical treatment program are presented.

  1. Results of the Independent Radiological Verification Survey of Remediation at Building 14, Former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawanda, New York (LI001V)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, S.P.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a radiological verification survey of Building 14 at the former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawanda, New York. The purpose of the survey was to verify that remedial action completed by the project management contractor had reduced contamination levels to within authorized limits. Prior to remediation, fixed and removable beta-gamma emitting material was Prevalent throughout Building 14 and in some of the process piping. Decontamination consisted of removal of surface contamination from floors, floor-wall interfaces, walls, wall-ceiling interfaces, and overhead areas; decontamination or removal of process piping; excavation and removal of subsurface soil; and vacuuming of dust. This independent radiological assessment was performed to verify that the remedial action had reduced contamination levels to within authorized limits. Building 14 at the former Linde site in Tonawanda, New York, was thoroughly investigated inside for radionuclide residues. Surface residual activity levels were generally well below applicable guidelines for protection against radiation. Similarly, removable alpha and beta-gamma activity levels were below guidelines. Gamma exposure rates within the building were at typical background levels, and no elevated indoor radon concentrations were measured. However, numerous areas exceeding U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) applicable guidelines still remain inside and underneath the building. These areas were either (1) inaccessible or (2) removal was not cost-effective or (3) removal would affect the structural integrity of the building. These above-guideline areas have been listed, described, and characterized by the remediation subcontractor (Appendix A), and dose to an exposed worker during typical exposure scenarios has been calculated. Based on the remediation subcontractor's characterization data and dose assessment calculations, these areas pose insignificant risk to building inhabitants under current use scenarios. However, future renovations, repairs, or demolition of the building must require prior evaluation and consideration of the areas. Analysis of the project management contractor's post-remedial action data and results of this independent radiological verification survey by ORNL confirm that residual contamination inside the building is either below the limits prescribed by DOE applicable guidelines for protection against radiation or areas exceeding applicable guidelines have been characterized and a risk assessment completed. Building 14 can be released for unrestricted use under current use scenarios; however, arrangements must be made to inform current and future building owners of the locations of areas exceeding DOE guidelines and any associated restrictions concerning renovations, repairs, or demolition of the building.

  2. Fast Plasma Shutdowns Obtained With Massive Hydrogenic, Noble and Mixed-Gas Injection in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesley, J; Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Van Zeeland, M; Baylor, L; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Groth, M; Humphreys, D; Hyatt, A; Izzo, V; James, A; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wu, W; Yu, J

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive gas injection (MGI) experiments with H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, He, Ne and Ar and 'mixed' (H{sub 2} + Ar and D{sub 2} + Ne) gases injected into 'ITER-similar' 1.3-MA H-mode plasmas are described. Gas species, injected quantity Q, delivery time, t{sub inj}, rate-of-rise and intrinsic and added impurities are found to affect the attributes and 'disruption mitigation' efficacies of the resulting fast plasma shutdowns. With sufficient Q and t{sub inj} < {approx}2 ms, all species provide fast (within {le} {approx}3 ms), more-or-less uniform radiative dissipation of the 0.7-MJ plasma thermal energy and fast but benign current decays with reduced vacuum vessel vertical force impulse. With pure and mixed low-Z gases, free-electron densities up to 2 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} are obtained. While these densities are high relative to normal tokamak densities, they are still an order of magnitude smaller than the densities required for unconditional mitigation of the runaway electron avalanche process. Key information relevant to the design of effective MGI systems for larger tokamaks and ITER has been obtained and the collective species and Q-variation data provides a rich basis for validation of emerging 2D + t MHD/transport/radiation models.

  3. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOEs target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  4. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  5. refinery BP Oil's Alliance refinery in Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    is the focus of an environmental control program, which is also being implemented in other BP plants

  6. Refinery Yield of Liquefied Refinery Gases

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION

  7. Shutdown 2013 Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 SeptemberSettingUncertainties in the3Arie

  8. Shutdown 2013 Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 SeptemberSettingUncertainties in

  9. Shutdown Energizes CAMD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 SeptemberSettingUncertainties in“Shut-down”

  10. 2015 ALS Shutdown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, 2014 2014February 2015June 2015July

  11. Forthcoming CAMD Shutdowns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE) TargetForms & News 2008 Forthcoming

  12. Cooling/heating augmentation during turbine startup/shutdown using a seal positioned by thermal response of turbine parts and consequent relative movement thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a turbine rotor, a thermal mismatch between various component parts of the rotor occurs particularly during transient operations such as shutdown and startup. A thermal medium flows past and heats or cools one part of the turbine which may have a deleterious thermal mismatch with another part. By passively controlling the flow of cooling medium past the one part in response to relative movement of thermally responsive parts of the turbine, the flow of thermal medium along the flow path can be regulated to increase or reduce the flow, thereby to regulate the temperature of the one part to maintain the thermal mismatch within predetermined limits.

  13. acromegaly remains under-recognized: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bees 144 Voices from the Small Cinemas: Beyond the Remaining Countries University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: This introduction to a special volume dedicated to...

  14. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  15. An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng cycle-life tends to shrink significantly. The capacities of commercial lithium-ion batteries fade by 10 prediction model to estimate the remaining capacity of a Lithium-Ion battery. The proposed analytical model

  16. PREDICTION OF REMAINING LIFE OF POWER TRANSFORMERS BASED ON LEFT TRUNCATED AND RIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PREDICTION OF REMAINING LIFE OF POWER TRANSFORMERS BASED ON LEFT TRUNCATED AND RIGHT CENSORED of the remaining life of high-voltage power transform- ers is an important issue for energy companies because of the need for planning maintenance and capital expenditures. Lifetime data for such transformers

  17. Fish remains (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Cretaceous of1 the Benue Trough, Nigeria2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish remains (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii) from the Late Cretaceous of1 the Benue Trough address: romain.vullo@univ-rennes1.fr9 10 Abstract11 Selachian and ray-finned fish remains from various Cenomanian­early Turonian and25 Maastrichtian) created opportunities for the dispersal of many marine fish

  18. Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

  19. Refinery Capacity Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    by State as of January 1, 2006 PDF 5 Refiners' Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 2006 PDF 6 Operable Crude Oil and Downstream Charge...

  20. Hydrogen Generation for Refineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Single Cycle Shown for ATB SteamCarbon 3 * ATB reforming * Steamcarbon 3 * Syngas generated during reforming * 70% H 2 * 20% CO * Syngas composition agrees with...

  1. Refinery Capacity Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubic Feet) Yeara 436INCIDENCE OF AN2009

  2. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21

  3. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacity Report

  4. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacity Report5

  5. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacity

  6. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacity Operable

  7. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacity

  8. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacityof Last

  9. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21Capacityof

  10. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21CapacityofVacuum

  11. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table

  12. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION / Refiner /

  13. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION / Refiner

  14. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION / RefinerAlkylates

  15. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION / RefinerAlkylates

  16. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION /

  17. Refinery Outages: Fall 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION /Product:

  18. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Capacity Report June 2014 With Data as of January 1, 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by...

  19. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source:Additions to Capacity onThousand(Dollars2009Rail

  20. Refinery Capacity Report Historical

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source:Additions to Capacity onThousand(Dollars2009Rail

  1. Hydrogen Generation for Refineries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department ofOral Testimony ofMonitoring, Protectionof

  2. U.S. Refinery

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil and Petroleum

  3. U.S. Refinery

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,932 130,902672009Dec-14

  4. Current Size and Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This report contains information on Current Size and Remaining Market Potential of the U.S. Energy Service Company Industry, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program."

  5. Comparative analysis of remaining oil saturation in waterflood patterns based on analytical modeling and simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azimov, Anar Etibar

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In assessing the economic viability of a waterflood project, a key parameter is the remaining oil saturation (ROS) within each pattern unit. This information helps in identifying the areas with the highest ROS and thus ...

  6. Taphonomy of the faunal remains of a rural roman farmsite, San Giovanni di Ruoti, Italy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, Cristi Assad

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hunter, B. A. , California State University at Sacramento Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. D. Gentry Steele The faunal remains from a rural Roman farmsite, San Giovanni di Ruoti, Italy, were used to perform a taphonomic analysis. The goal... remains. The taphonomic analysis included examination of the pig skeletal element representation, identification of the specific agents that modify bone, identification of the butchering techniques used at the site, and documentation of possible...

  7. Analysis of the Hydrologic Response Associated With Shutdown and Restart of the 200-ZP-1 WMA T Tank Farm Pump-and-Treat System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, Frank A.

    2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines possible hydrologic effects of pump-and-treat remediation actions and provides a detailed analysis of water-level measurements for selected 200-ZP-1 T Tank Farm pump-and-treat system monitor wells during a recent shutdown (May 1, 2008) and restart activity (June 4, 2008) involving extraction well 299-W11-46. Specifically, this report 1) applies to recently developed methods for removing barometric pressure fluctuations from well water-level measurements to enhance the detection of pump-and-treat system effects at selected monitor wells, 2) analyzes the barometric-corrected well water-level responses to determine large-scale hydraulic properties, and 3) assesses characteristics and conditions that influence hydrologic responses (both laterally and vertically) associated with pump-and-treat systems. The general findings presented in this report have universal application for unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  8. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, D.W. [ed.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L. [and others

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  9. Material Aging and Degradation Detection and Remaining Life Assessment for Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Pitman, Stan G.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major factors that may impact long term operations is structural material degradation, Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined, and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided.

  10. U.S. Department of the Interior November 2013 U.S. Geological Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    period of 2012. The U.S. average daily smelter and electrolytic refinery production increased in July restart following a planned maintenance shutdown in June. Year-to-date smelter and electrolytic refinery and refinery capacity utilization was unchanged at 79%. The ICSG (International Copper Study Group, 2013) also

  11. Power Outage 1. Remain Calm; provide assistance to others if necessary.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Power Outage 1. Remain Calm; provide assistance to others if necessary. 2. Report the outage, call. Campus-wide telephone communications will continue to operate during a power outage on standard phones. If emergency assistance is required, call UC Security on Extn 6111 and state "POWEr OUTAgE" or mobile 0800 823

  12. Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men in the United States, with an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in men in the United States, with an estimated of death from cancer in men, with 33,720 estimated deaths (11% of all estimated deaths) in 2011 (REF. 1-year relative survival rate is essentially 100% based on 20012007 statistics2 . However, for patients

  13. A Bayesian Prognostic Algorithm for Assessing Remaining Useful Life of Nuclear Power Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dixit, Mukul; Henager, Charles H.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need nondestructive measurement methods that are suitable for on-line, continuous, in-plant monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is then, based on a condition assessment or degradation trend, to have the ability to estimate the remaining useful life based of components, structures and systems based on the available materials degradation information. Such measurement and modeling methods form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches. Prognostic methods that predict remaining life based on large crack growth, and phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics, have been reported by several researchers. The challenge of predicting remaining life for earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel and enhanced sensors and data integration techniques. A recent review has considered the stages of degradation and sensing methods that can potentially be employed to detect and monitor early degradation for nuclear power plant applications. An experimental assessment of selected diagnostic techniques was also reported recently. However, the estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) determined from nondestructive diagnostic measurements for early degradation is still an unsolved problem. This present paper will discuss the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms applied to the early degradation- life problem.

  14. `TVLSI-00029-2003.R1 An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    . Reference [7] studied the battery discharge efficiency under different loading conditions and approximated`TVLSI-00029-2003.R1 1 An Analytical Model for Predicting the Remaining Battery Capacity of Lithium-Ion Batteries Peng Rong, Student Member, IEEE and Massoud Pedram, Fellow, IEEE Abstract -- Predicting

  15. Grantee Performance Required to Release the Hold on Remaining 50% of Obligated Recovery Act Funds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization Assistance Program Notice 10-05 deals with performance requirements for program grantees?states and U.S. territories?to receive the remaining 50% of obligated funds under the 2009 American Reinvestment and Recovery Act.

  16. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greitzer, Frank L. (Richland, WA); Kangas, Lars J. (West Richland, WA); Terrones, Kristine M. (Los Alamos, NM); Maynard, Melody A. (Richland, WA); Pawlowski, Ronald A. (West Richland, WA), Ferryman; Thomas A. (Richland, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA); Wilson, Bary W. (Coconut Creek, FL)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  17. Validation of the integration of CFD and SAS4A/SASSYS-1: Analysis of EBR-II shutdown heat removal test 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, J. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Vilim, R.; Briggs, L. L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4842 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent analyses have demonstrated the need to model multidimensional phenomena, particularly thermal stratification in outlet plena, during safety analyses of loss-of-flow transients of certain liquid-metal cooled reactor designs. Therefore, Argonne's reactor systems safety code SAS4A/SASSYS-1 is being enhanced by integrating 3D computational fluid dynamics models of the plena. A validation exercise of the new tool is being performed by analyzing the protected loss-of-flow event demonstrated by the EBR-II Shutdown Heat Removal Test 17. In this analysis, the behavior of the coolant in the cold pool is modeled using the CFD code STAR-CCM+, while the remainder of the cooling system and the reactor core are modeled with SAS4A/SASSYS-1. This paper summarizes the code integration strategy and provides the predicted 3D temperature and velocity distributions inside the cold pool during SHRT-17. The results of the coupled analysis should be considered preliminary at this stage, as the exercise pointed to the need to improve the CFD model of the cold pool tank. (authors)

  18. Turbine fuels from tar-sands bitumen and heavy oil. Volume 2. Phase 3. Process design specifications for a turbine-fuel refinery charging San Ardo heavy crude oil. Final report, 1 June 1985-31 March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, A.F.; Swesey, J.R.; Magill, L.G.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engineering design was developed for a 50,000-BPSD grass-roots refinery to produce aviation turbine fuel grades JP-4 and JP-8 from San Ardo heavy crude oil. The design was based on the pilot-plant studies described in Phase III - Volume I of this report. The detailed plant design described in this report was used to determine estimated production costs.

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forester, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  20. Globular clusters with the extended horizontal-branch as remaining cores of galaxy building blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young-Wook Lee; Hansung B. Gim; Chul Chung

    2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The relics of building blocks that made stellar halo and bulge are yet to be discovered unless they were completely disrupted throughout the history of the Galaxy. Here we suggest that about 25% of the Milky Way globular clusters have characteristics of the remaining cores of these early building blocks rather than genuine star clusters. They are clearly distinct from other normal globular clusters in the presence of extended horizontal-branch and multiple stellar populations, in mass (brightness), and most importantly in orbital kinematics. Based on this result, a three-stage formation picture of the Milky Way is suggested, which includes early mergers, collapse, and later accretion.

  1. Crack closure effects on fatigue crack growth thresholds and remaining life in an HSLA steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, J.A.; Mostovoy, S. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering; Chen, L. [Texas Instruments, Attleboro, MA (United States); Yankov, E.Y. [A. Finkl and Sons, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of crack closure on the near-threshold corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior of Mil S-24645 HSLA steel and its weld metal have been investigated in air, ASTM seawater at the free corrosion potential, and ASTM seawater at {minus}0.8V and {minus}1.0V (SCE) using frequencies of 10, 2, and 0.2 Hz, and a stress ratio, R = 0.1. Remaining life, in the presence and absence of crack closure, has been estimated as a function of applied stress range for a structure containing a 3-mm-deep surface semi-elliptical flaw.

  2. A little rain doesn't fix it: Farmers and ranchers remain cautious as drought continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A little rain doesn?t fix it Farmers and ranchers remain cautious as drought continues Summer 2012 tx H2O 11 ] Story by Danielle Kalisek Rains in the Brazos Valley early in 2012 helped this grass green up, but more rains are needed now... to help warm-season grasses. Photo by Danielle Kalisek. This might sound like a broken record, but it still rings true: Last year?s drought was historic the worst one-year drought in Texas? history. #31;ough recent rains in some parts of the state...

  3. MCA 22-3-801 - Human Skeletal Remains and Burial Site Protection Act | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: EnergyMAREC Jump to: navigation,Remains |

  4. appearance of the remaining chapters. This Flash transmits the first installment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong,Women @JoinEnergyappearance of the remaining

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report.

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices E (Sections E.1--E.8). Volume 2, Part 3A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. The authors recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful.

  7. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gin, Stephane [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoda (Japan)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps.

  8. Lubrication Oil Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prediction with Particle Filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junda Zhu; Jae M. Yoon; David He; Yongzhi Qu; Eric Bechhoefer

    In order to reduce the costs of wind energy, it is necessary to improve the wind turbine availability and reduce the operational and maintenance costs. The reliability and availability of a functioning wind turbine depend largely on the protective properties of the lubrication oil for its drive train subassemblies such as the gearbox and means for lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection. The wind industry currently uses lubrication oil analysis for detecting gearbox and bearing wear but cannot detect the functional failures of the lubrication oils. The main purpose of lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection is to determine whether the oils have deteriorated to such a degree that they no longer fulfill their functions. This paper describes a research on developing online lubrication oil condition monitoring and remaining useful life prediction using particle filtering technique and commercially available online sensors. It first introduces the lubrication oil condition monitoring and degradation detection for wind turbines. Viscosity and dielectric constant are selected as the performance parameters to model the degradation of lubricants. In particular, the lubricant performance evaluation and remaining useful life prediction of degraded lubrication oil with viscosity and dielectric constant data using particle filtering are presented. A simulation study based on lab verified models is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed technique. 1.

  9. (Data in metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No indium was recovered from ores in the United States in 1997. Domestically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --United States: 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997e Production, refinery -- -- -- -- -- Imports for consumption 73.4 70 for the indium market remains promising. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery

  10. Why does Low-Luminosity AGN Fueling Remain an Unsolved Problem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Martini

    2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite many years of effort, observational studies have not found a strong correlation between the presence of any proposed fueling mechanism and low-luminosity AGN. After a discussion of the mass requirements for fueling, I summarize this observational work and provide a number of hypotheses for why the nature of AGN fueling has remained unresolved. In particular, I stress the potential importance of the increasing number of candidate fueling mechanisms with decreasing mass accretion rate, the relevant spatial scales for different fueling mechanisms, and the lifetime of an individual episode of nuclear accretion. The episodic AGN lifetime is a particularly relevant complication if it is comparable to or shorter than the time that the responsible fueling mechanisms are observationally detectable. I conclude with a number of relatively accessible areas for future investigation.

  11. A SCOPING STUDY: Development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Models for Reactivity Insertion Accidents During Shutdown In U.S. Commercial Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Khericha

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the scoping study of developing generic simplified fuel damage risk models for quantitative analysis from inadvertent reactivity insertion events during shutdown (SD) in light water pressurized and boiling water reactors. In the past, nuclear fuel reactivity accidents have been analyzed both mainly deterministically and probabilistically for at-power and SD operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Since then, many NPPs had power up-rates and longer refueling intervals, which resulted in fuel configurations that may potentially respond differently (in an undesirable way) to reactivity accidents. Also, as shown in a recent event, several inadvertent operator actions caused potential nuclear fuel reactivity insertion accident during SD operations. The set inadvertent operator actions are likely to be plant- and operation-state specific and could lead to accident sequences. This study is an outcome of the concern which arose after the inadvertent withdrawal of control rods at Dresden Unit 3 in 2008 due to operator actions in the plant inadvertently three control rods were withdrawn from the reactor without knowledge of the main control room operator. The purpose of this Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Model development project is to develop simplified SPAR Models that can be used by staff analysts to perform risk analyses of operating events and/or conditions occurring during SD operation. These types of accident scenarios are dominated by the operator actions, (e.g., misalignment of valves, failure to follow procedures and errors of commissions). Human error probabilities specific to this model were assessed using the methodology developed for SPAR model human error evaluations. The event trees, fault trees, basic event data and data sources for the model are provided in the report. The end state is defined as the reactor becomes critical. The scoping study includes a brief literature search/review of historical events, developments of a small set of comprehensive event trees and fault trees and recommendation for future work.

  12. An Assessment of Uncertainty in Remaining Life Estimation for Nuclear Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Fricke, Jacob M.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, several operating US light-water nuclear power reactors (LWRs) have moved to extended-life operations (from 40 years to 60 years), and there is interest in the feasibility of extending plant life to 80 years. Operating experience suggests that material degradation of structural components in LWRs (such as the reactor pressure vessel) is expected to be the limiting factor for safe operation during extended life. Therefore, a need exists for assessing the condition of LWR structural components and determining its remaining useful life (RUL). The ability to estimate RUL of degraded structural components provides a basis for determining safety margins (i.e., whether safe operation over some pre-determined time horizon is possible), and scheduling degradation management activities (such as potentially modifying operating conditions to limit further degradation growth). A key issue in RUL estimation is calculation of uncertainty bounds, which are dependent on current material state, as well as past and future stressor levels (such as time-at-temperature, pressure, and irradiation). This paper presents a preliminary empirical investigation into the uncertainty of RUL estimates for nuclear structural materials.

  13. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. PRELIMINARY Run Shutdown BL Commissioning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPO Website Directory PPPO Website

  15. Fermilab | Tevatron | 2011 Shutdown Event

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New Mexico Feb. 13, 2013Focusreceives .1GridInquiringTheTake

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budnitz, R.J. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, P.R. [PRD Consulting (United States); Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf), and the other at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1). Both the Sandia and Brookhaven projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults---so-called ``internal initiators.`` This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling outage conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Grand Gulf. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human effort rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Grand Gulf have been adopted here, so that the results of the study can be as comparable as possible. Both the Sandia study and this study examine only one shutdown plant operating state (POS) at Grand Gulf, namely POS 5 representing cold shutdown during a refueling outage. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POS 5. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency for earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 5 is found to be quite low in absolute terms, less than 10{sup {minus}7}/year.

  17. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events during mid-loop operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budnitz, R.J. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, P.R. [PRD Consulting (United States); Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1) and the other at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf). Both the Brookhaven and Sandia projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults--so-called ``internal initiators.`` This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling shutdown conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Surry Unit 1. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human error rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Surry have been adopted here, so that the results of the two studies can be as comparable as possible. Both the Brookhaven study and this study examine only two shutdown plant operating states (POSs) during refueling outages at Surry, called POS 6 and POS 10, which represent mid-loop operation before and after refueling, respectively. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POSs 6 and 10. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency of earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 6 and POS 10 is found to be low in absolute terms, less than 10{sup {minus}6}/year.

  18. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants Interim Study FY13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early warning of aging and degradation. Examples of such key indicators include changes in chemical structure, mechanical modulus, and dielectric permittivity. While some of these indicators are the basis of currently used technologies, there is a need to increase the volume of cable that may be inspected with a single measurement, and if possible, to develop techniques for in-situ inspection (i.e., while the cable is in operation). This is the focus of the present report.

  19. Results of the Independent Radiological Verification Survey of Remediation at Building 31, Former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawanda, New York (LI001V)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, S.P.; Uziel, M.S.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Progmq a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a radiological veriihtion survey of Building 31 at the former Linde Uranium Refinery, Tonawau& New York. The purpose of the survey was to ver@ that remedial action completed by the project management contractor had reduced contamination levels to within authorized limits. Prior to remediatioq tied radioactive material was prevalent throughout the building and in some of the ductwork Decontaminadon consisted of removing surfhce contamination from floors, baseboards, and overhead areas; removing some air ducts; and vacuuming dust. Building 31 at the former Linde site in TonawandA New Yorlq was thoroughly investigated inside and outside for radionuclide residues. The verification team discovered previously undetected contaminadon beneath the concrete pad on the first floor and underneath floor tiles on the second floor. All suspect floor tiles were removed and any contamination beneath them cleaned to below guideline levels. The verification team also discovered elevated radiation levels associated with overhead air lines that led to the eventual removal of the entire air lige and a complete investigation of the history of all process piping in the building. Final verification surveys showed that residual surface beta-gamma activity levels were slightly elevated in some places but below U.S. Department of Energy applicable guidelines for protection against radiation (Table 1). Similarly, removable radioactive contamination was also below applicable guidelines. Exposure rates within the building were at typical background levels, and no consistently elevated indoor radon concentrations were measured. However, radionuclide analysis of subsurface soil from beneath the concrete floor on the ground level showed concentrations of `*U and'% that exceeded applicable guidelines. At the time of this survey, there was no measured exposure pathway for this subslab contamination under current use scenarios, and there was low risk associated with this contaminadon if the conaete slab is not cracked or penetrated. However, any penetration of the concrete slab caused by renovations, repairs, demolitio% or a naturally-occurring craclq would require further investigation and evaluation. Analysis of the project management contractor's post-remedial action data and results of this independent radiological vaification survey by ORNL confirm that all radiological measurements inside the building, on the exterior walls, and on the roof are below the limits prescribed by applicable guidelines for protection against radiation.

  20. Do bark beetle remains in lake sediments correspond to severe outbreaks? A review of published and ongoing research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, R. Scott

    Watt e , Kelly Derr a , Michael F.J. Pisaric f , R. Scott Anderson g , Andrea R. Brunelle d outbreak episodes. Our synthesis suggests that the remains of pri- mary attack beetles are rarely preserved

  1. An analysis of the lithic remains from several ring middens in Crockett County, Texas: A study in site function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Bill

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE LITHIC REMAINS FROM SEVERAL RING MIDDENS IN CROCKETT COUNTY, TEXAS: A STUDY IN SITE FUNCTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AKIM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 1980 Major Subject: Anthropology AN ANALYSIS OF THE LITHIC REMAINS FROM SEVERAL RING MIDDENS IN CROCKETT COUNTY, TEXAS: A STUDY IN SITE FUNCTION A Thesis by WILLIAM EDWARD MOORE Approved as to style...

  2. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J. III.

    1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for recycling of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a relatively high oil content sludge and a relatively high water content sludge; introducing the high oil content sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  3. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J.

    1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for disposing of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a first sludge and a second sludge, the first sludge being of high oil content relative to the second sludge and the second sludge being of high water content relative to the first sludge; dewatering the first, high oil content sludge; introducing the dewatered sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed coking conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the second, high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  4. A Louisiana Refinery Success Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kacsur, D.

    recommended replacing the inverted bucket steam traps with 1-1/2-in. strainers and 1-1/2-in. flanged float & thermostatic steam traps. They also suggested that the existing trap discharge piping should be removed and re-piped with globe-style bypass valves...

  5. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Pre-extractionkraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called near neutral pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the near-neutral green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

  6. Refinery Outages: First Half 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION /Product:First

  7. Total Number of Operable Refineries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May(MillionFeet)JulyEndData

  8. U.S. Refinery Stocks

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and InstitutionalArea: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1)

  9. Refinery Outages: First Half 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April 25, 20137a.06 2.013

  10. U.S. Refinery Yield

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude OilNov-14

  11. Motiva Refinery | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement of the NationalPennsylvania |February 2013

  12. U.S. Refinery Yield

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010 2011 2012 2013

  13. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0622Product:Refiners Switch

  14. Apparatus for determining past-service conditions and remaining life of thermal barrier coatings and components having such coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Alok Mani (Niskayuna, NY); Setlur, Anant Achyut (Niskayuna, NY); Comanzo, Holly Ann (Niskayuna, NY); Devitt, John William (Clifton Park, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Brewer, Luke Nathaniel (Rexford, NY)

    2004-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for determining past-service conditions and/or remaining useful life of a component of a combustion engine and/or a thermal barrier coating ("TBC") of the component comprises a radiation source that provides the exciting radiation to the TBC to excite a photoluminescent ("PL") material contained therein, a radiation detector for detecting radiation emitted by the PL material, and means for relating a characteristic of an emission spectrum of the PL material to the amount of a crystalline phase in the TBC, thereby inferring the past-service conditions or the remaining useful life of the component or the TBC.

  15. Proceedings: EPRI Workshop on Condition and Remaining Life Assessment of Hot Gas Path Components of Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The severity of modern combustion turbine operation is a reflection of industry competition to achieve higher thermal efficiency. This competitive stance has resulted in new turbine designs and material systems that have at times outpaced condition and remaining life assessment (CARLA) technology. These proceedings summarize a two-day workshop on CARLA technology for hot section components of large combustion turbines.

  16. Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal-lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawfis, Roger

    Abstract Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal- lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro- pose a framework, using concepts from Image-Based Rendering (IBR), that decreases the required framerate for the volume ren- derer significantly. All the volume renderer needs

  17. Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal-lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Klaus

    1 Abstract Volume rendering at interactive frame rates remains a chal- lenge, especially with today's increasingly large datasets. We pro- pose a framework, using concepts from Image-Based Rendering (IBR), that decreases the required framerate for the volume ren- derer significantly. All the volume renderer needs

  18. of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal needed to make fuel cells efficient. Fuel cells work by combining hydrogen gas with oxygen from the air for hydrogen-powered cars in mass production facilities," says SFU chemistry professor Steve Holdcroft, who

  19. eleCTriCAl AnD CoMPUTer engineering 31 foundation needed to remain effective,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    eleCTriCAl AnD CoMPUTer engineering 31 foundation needed to remain effective, take on new fundamental areas of mathematics, science, and electrical engineering that are required to support specialized-the-art specialty areas in electrical engineering. This is implemented through our senior electives. Students

  20. A Joint Programme of: "Water will remain a strategic resource for countries worldwide, and the quest for water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    the distinction between water as a resource and water as a service and thus lack the necessary institutionalA Joint Programme of: "Water will remain a strategic resource for countries worldwide, and the quest for water sustainability will become increasingly intricate and delicate. A keen understanding

  1. Job Postings The question was raised about the minimum time a position should remain posted before it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Tony R.

    Job Postings 121610 The question was raised about the minimum time a position should remain: EXTERNAL JOB POSTINGS1, 2 Staff one week minimum Administrative two weeks minimum Faculty two weeks minimum 1 The recruitment process for EXTERNAL job postings may be opened to: all

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis.

  3. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP&S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP&S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP&S configuration are given.

  4. Investigations of late archaic coprolites: pollen and macrofossil remains from Hinds Cave (41VV456), Val Verde County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Sherrian Kay

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KAY EDWARDS Approved as to style and content by: aughn M. Bryant, J (+air of Comm' te r &) Merrill H. Sweet (Member) p' Vaughn M. Br ant, J (Head of Department) May 1990 ABSTRACT Investigations of Late Archaic Coprolites: Pollen... and Macrofossil Remains from Hinds Cave (41VV456), Val Verde County, Texas. (May 1990) Sherrian Ray Edwards, B. A. , University of Texas Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Vaughn M. Bryant, Jr. The analysis of desiccated human fecal material (coprolites) left...

  5. Old Socorro Mission: an osteobiological analysis of the skeletal remains from the 1982-1985 field excavations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raisor, Michelle Jeanette

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 119 Skull 38 exhibiting "saddle nose". 122 FIGURE Page 19 20 Cranial deformation of Burial 18. Bifid sacral hiatus of Burial 36. 126 129 21 Asymmetry of mandibular condyles (Burial 20). 132 22 Congenital absence of the left transverse process... River, it remained in constant use until A. D. 1829 when the church was severely damaged by flood waters and abandoned (Figure 1). Originally the small mission was built to administer to the Spanish families and the Piro Indians that accompanied...

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-DR-1, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-035

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiological characterization, decommissioning and demolition of the 132-DR-1 site, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1987. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  7. COPPER--2002 22.1 By Daniel L. Edelstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    place in world smelter and third place in refinery production. The principal mining States were smelters, 4 electrolytic and 3 fire refineries, and 13 solvent-extraction electrowinning (SX-EW) facilities the permanent closure of Chemetco, while refinery capacity remained unchanged at 2.3 Mt. Smelter and refinery

  8. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  9. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 2, Part 1C: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for plant operational State 5 during a refueling outage, Main report (Sections 11--14)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Darby, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yakle, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as it operates in the Low Power and Shutdown Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. The report documents the methodology used during the analysis, describes the results from the application of the methodology, and compares the results with the results from two full power analyses performed on Grand Gulf.

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risk during mid-loop operations. Main report. Volume 6. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1 which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis including internal fire and flood was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6.

  11. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  12. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendices F-H, Volume 2, Part 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  13. Session 35 - Panel: Remaining US Disposition Issues for Orphan or Small Volume Low Level and Low Level Mixed Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blauvelt, Richard [Navarro Engineering Research Inc. (United States); Small, Ken [Doe Nevada (United States); Gelles, Christine [DOE EM HQ (United States); McKenney, Dale [Fluor Hanford (United States); Franz, Bill [LATA Portsmouth (United States); Loveland, Kaylin [Energy Solutions Inc. (United States); Lauer, Mike [Waste Control Specialists (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Faced with closure schedules as a driving force, significant progress has been made during the last 2 years on the disposition of DOE mixed waste streams thought previously to be problematic. Generators, the Department of Energy and commercial vendors have combined to develop unique disposition paths for former orphan streams. Recent successes and remaining issues will be discussed. The session will also provide an opportunity for Federal agencies to share lessons learned on low- level and mixed low-level waste challenges and identify opportunities for future collaboration. This panel discussion was organized by PAC member Dick Blauvelt, Navarro Research and Engineering Inc who served as co-chair along with Dave Eaton from INL. In addition, George Antonucci, Duratek Barnwell and Rich Conley, AFSC were invited members of the audience, prepared to contribute the Barnwell and DOD perspective to the issues as needed. Mr. Small provide information regarding the five year 20K M3 window of opportunity at the Nevada Test Site for DOE contractors to dispose of mixed waste that cannot be received at the Energy Solutions (Envirocare) site in Utah because of activity levels. He provided a summary of the waste acceptance criteria and the process sites must follow to be certified to ship. When the volume limit or time limit is met, the site will undergo a RCRA closure. Ms. Gelles summarized the status of the orphan issues, commercial options and the impact of the EM reorganization on her program. She also announced that there would be a follow-on meeting in 2006 to the very successful St. Louis meeting of last year. It will probably take place in Chicago in July. Details to be announced. Mr. McKenney discussed progress made at the Hanford Reservation regarding disposal of their mixed waste inventory. The news is good for the Hanford site but not good for the rest of the DOE complex since shipment for out of state of both low level and low level mixed waste will continue to be prohibited until the completion of a new NEPA study. This is anticipated to take several years. Bill Franz from Portsmouth and Dave Eaton representing the INL provided the audience with information regarding some of the problematic mixed waste streams at their respective sites. Portsmouth has some unique radiological issues with isotopes such as Tc-99 while the INL is trying to deal with mixed waste in the 10-100 nCi/g range. Kaylin Loveland spoke of the new,Energy Solutions organization and provided information on mixed waste treatment capabilities at the Clive site. Mike Lauer described the licensing activities at the WCS site in Texas where they are trying to eventually have disposal capabilities for Class A, B and C mixed waste from both DOE and the commercial sector. The audience included about 75 WM'06 attendees who asked some excellent questions and provided an active and informative exchange of information on the topic. (authors)

  14. ECONOMIC EMERGENCY PROGRAM International Falls Plant Shutdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Falls. An additional 35 jobs within the corporate structure will also be affected. As the community The manufacturing industry employs 1,100 of those workers, or approximately 17 percent of all jobs, thus making is classified as a manufacturing business. Of the 1,100 manufacturing jobs in Koochiching County, 900

  15. Run Spear Down Low-alpha Shutdown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection TechnicalResonantNovember 15Rotary Firing inRotaryRui LiuSpear Down

  16. What is a "Shutdown"?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is a “Shut-down” in the Synchrotron Industry?

  17. 2009 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , declined nominally in 2009 owing to a global tight supply of concentrates and scrap. Global refinery production and remained fourth in refinery output behind China, Chile, and Japan. According to data compiled

  18. 2010 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , which had declined nominally in 2009, rose by about 4% in 2010, as did downstream refinery production in world smelter production and remained fourth in refinery output behind China, Chile, and Japan

  19. Greenwood, Foster, and Romani: Archaeological Study of CA-VEN-110, California; and Roeder: Archaeological Study of CA-VEN-110, Ventura, California: Fish Remains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, John R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    procedures had been followed by Ventura County, the Corps ofStudy of CA-VEN-110, Ventura, California: Fish Remains. MarkLemos, and Jamie Karl V, Ventura County, et al,. Central

  20. Vertebrate remains from the Wilson-Leonard site (41WM235), Williamson County, Texas: Holocene animal exploitation in central Texas prehistory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Barry Wayne

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VERTEBRATE REMAINS FROM THE WILSON-LEONARD SITE (41WM235L WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TEXAS: HOLOCENE ANIMAL EXPLOITATION IN CENTRAL TEXAS PREHISTORY A Thesis by BARRY WAYNE BAKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 1994 Major Subject: Anthropology VERTEBRATE REMAINS FROM THE WILSON-LEONARD SITE (41WM235), WILLIAMSON COUNTY, TEXAS: HOLOCENE ANIMAL EXPLOITATION IN CENTRAL TEXAS...

  1. The Lyons Creek boat remains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neyland, Robert Stephen

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transportation. Only a few other American colonial-era small craft have as yet been studied, some of which are the Brown's P*y 1 'S*thC1', thEm'Lk Champlain, the Hart's Cove wzeck in New Hampshire, the J R' b t 1 V' g' ', d tl* ~Sk Massachusetts (Albright..., beginning at its mouth, is 9ust over a mile, while the drainage system extends for several miles east of Maryland Route 4. Near the mouth of Lyons Creek, the northern shore is a wetland that is reduced to a grassy mudflat at ebb tide. Only a slender...

  2. Diesel prices remain fairly stable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavidDiesel prices continueU.S.DieselDiesel

  3. DEWEK Wind Energy Conference 2012 Category: 4. Simulation models BACKWARD EXTRAPOLATION OF SHORT-TIME MEASUREMENT DATA FOR A REMAINING SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION OF WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universitt

    DEWEK Wind Energy Conference 2012 Category: 4. Simulation models 1 BACKWARD EXTRAPOLATION OF SHORT-TIME MEASUREMENT DATA FOR A REMAINING SERVICE LIFE ESTIMATION OF WIND TURBINES Dipl.-Ing. Ren Kamieth, Prof. Dr, Germany, Tel.: +49-(0)30-314-23603, Fax: +49-(0)30-314-26131 Summary Wind turbines built in the last

  4. Remaining FY13 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory (COMP) hours may not be carried over from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Remaining FY13 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory week that Fiscal Year 2013 COMP hours can be used via ITAMS. Approved timesheets for the June 9-15th University policy, hours may not be recorded in units of less than one-quarter hour. ITAMS only allows work

  5. Remaining FY14 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory (COMP) hours may not be carried over from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    Remaining FY14 Compensatory (COMP) Bank Balances in ITAMS This is to remind you that compensatory week that Fiscal Year 2014 COMP hours can be used via ITAMS. Approved timesheets for the June 8-14th that per University policy, hours may not be recorded in units of less than one-quarter hour. ITAMS only

  6. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE | VOL 3 | FEBRUARY 2013 | www.nature.com/natureclimatechange 105 ossil fuels are expected to remain the dominant source of energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    fuels are expected to remain the dominant source of energy for decades to come1 (Fig. 1). Capturing, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Blue Map scenario2 envis- ages a 19% CO2 reductions contribution from CCS (ref. 4.) The IEA World Energy Outlook 20111 forecasts that existing energy facilities will account

  7. http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/search/detail/Bird_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Nadir

    , warmer than average temperatures in the Atlantic and Mediterranean ­ all pumping heat into the atmosphere_flu_ban_remains_despite_migration_shift.html?siteSect=881& sid=7420407&cKey=1168586962000 Monday 05.03.2007 Climate warning resonates in Switzerland weather heralded a bumper year for bugs and ticks. He said a cold snap in February or March would still

  8. ,"U.S. Refinery Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    mbblpda.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavpetpetpnprefp2dcnusmbblpda.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help,...

  9. U.S. Fuel Consumed at Refineries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSSCoal Production andOrigin219:131,097 152,084Fuel

  10. U.S. Refineries Competitive Positions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year Jan

  11. U.S. Refinery Net Input

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil andNov-14Nov-14

  12. U.S. Refinery Net Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil

  13. U.S. Refinery Utilization and Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude OilNov-14 Dec-14

  14. U.S. Refinery Net Input

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,932 130,902672009Dec-1420092009

  15. U.S. Refinery Net Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,932 130,902672009Dec-14200920092009

  16. U.S. Refinery Utilization and Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

  17. Virginia Biodiesel Refinery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmweltVillage ofInformationVineyard EnergyVireol

  18. Myriant Succinic Acid BioRefinery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico |

  19. COPPER--2001 22.1 By Daniel L. Edelstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a shift from 2000 when the United States was a net exporter of copper in concentrate. Primary refinery of Phelps Dodge Corp.'s Morenci, AZ, mine to an all-leach operation. Total refinery production remained largest refiner and third largest smelter, the U.S. share of world smelter and refinery production fell

  20. 2006 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the year, and refinery production was essentially unchanged. Equipment, labor shortages, and production smelter and refinery production rose by about 4% and 5%, respectively, owing to increased secondary smelter production and remained fourth in refinery output behind China, Chile, and Japan. According

  1. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 118-C-3:3, 105-C French Drains, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The 118-C-3:3 french drains received condensate from the steam heating system in the 105-C Reactor Building. The 118-C-3:3 french drain meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  2. Phased Construction Completion Report for Bldg. K-1401 of the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phased Construction Completion Report documents the demolition of Bldg. K-1401, Maintenance Building, addressed in the Action Memorandum for the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2003a) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 non-time-critical removal action. The objectives of the removal action (DOE 2003a) - to eliminate the source of potential contamination, to eliminate the threat of potential future releases, and/or to eliminate the threats to the general public and the environment - were met. The end state of this action is for the slab to remain with all penetrations sealed and grouted or backfilled. The basement and pits remain open. There is residual radiological and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination on the slab and basement. A fixative was applied to the area on the pad contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Interim land-use controls will be maintained until final remediation decisions are made under the Zone 2 Record of Decision (DOE 2005a).

  3. Phased Construction Completion Report for Building K-1401 of the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at the East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garland S.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Phased Construction Completion Report documents the demolition of Bldg. K-1401, Maintenance Building, addressed in the Action Memorandum for the Remaining Facilities Demolition Project at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2003a) as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 non-time-critical removal action. The objectives of the removal action (DOE 2003a) - to eliminate the source of potential contamination, to eliminate the threat of potential future releases, and/or to eliminate the threats to the general public and the environment - were met. The end state of this action is for the slab to remain with all penetrations sealed and grouted or backfilled. The basement and pits remain open. There is residual radiological and polychlorinated biphenyl contamination on the slab and basement. A fixative was applied to the area on the pad contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. Interim land-use controls will be maintained until final remediation decisions are made under the Zone 2 Record of Decision (DOE 2005a).

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-233 Waste Site, Vertical Pipe Near 100-B Electrical Laydown Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-041

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The 600-233 waste site consisted of three small-diameter pipelines within the 600-232 waste site, including previously unknown diesel fuel supply lines discovered during site remediation. The 600-233 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatic Biology Fish Ponds, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-021

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-F-33, 146-F Aquatice Biology Fish Ponds waste site was an area with six small rectangular ponds and one large circular pond used to conduct tests on fish using various mixtures of river and reactor effluent water. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification and applicable confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F7, 141-M Building Septic Tank, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-040

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1607-F7, 141-M Building Septic Tank waste site was a septic tank and drain field that received sanitary sewage from the former 141-M Building. Remedial action was performed in August and November 2005. The results of verification sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. These results also show that residual concentrations support unrestricted future use of shallow zone soil and that contaminant levels remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

  8. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, K.L.; Ramuhali, P.; Brenchley, D.L.; Coble, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Konnick, R.; Ray, S.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary [partial] The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. A workshop was held to gather subject matter experts to develop the NDE R&D Roadmap for Cables. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, and NDE instrumentation development from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), universities, commercial NDE service vendors and cable manufacturers, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-C-9:1 Main Process Sewer Collection Line, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-C-9:1 main process sewer pipeline, also known as the twin box culvert, was a dual reinforced process sewer that collected process effluent from the 183-C and 190-C water treatment facilities, discharging at the 132-C-2 Outfall. For remedial action purposes, the 100-C-9:1 waste site was subdivided into northern and southern sections. The 100-C-9:1 subsite has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-44:2, Discovery Pipeline Near 108-F Building, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-F-44:2 waste site is a steel pipeline that was discovered in a junction box during confirmatory sampling of the 100-F-26:4 pipeline from December 2004 through January 2005. The 100-F-44:2 pipeline feeds into the 100-F-26:4 subsite vitrified clay pipe (VCP) process sewer pipeline from the 108-F Biology Laboratory at the junction box. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B2 Septic System and 100-B-14:2 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-055

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1607-B2 waste site is a former septic system associated with various 100-B facilities, including the 105-B, 108-B, 115-B/C, and 185/190-B buildings. The site was evaluated based on confirmatory results for feeder lines within the 100-B-14:2 subsite and determined to require remediation. The 1607-B2 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  14. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  15. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Oklahoma: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Oklahoma. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Oklahoma`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Oklahoma oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  16. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, domestic oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the nation as a whole.

  17. Outlook for Refinery Outages and Available Refinery Capacity in the First Half of 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21Year Jan Feb

  18. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). TORIS is a tested and verified system maintained and operated by the Department of Energy`s Bartlesville Project Office. The TORTS system was used to evaluate over 2,300 major reservoirs in a consistent manner and on an individual basis, the results of which have been aggregated to arrive at the national total.

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The summary statistics section show 16 years of data depicting the balance between supply, disposition and ending stocks for various commodities including crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, jet fuel propane/propylene, and liquefied petroleum gases. The detailed statistics section provide 1996 detailed statistics on supply and disposition, refinery operations, imports and exports, stocks, and transportation of crude oil and petroleum products. The refinery capacity contain listings of refineries and associated crude oil distillation and downstream capacities by State, as of January 1, 1997, as well as summaries of corporate refinery capacities and refinery storage capacities. In addition, refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation for 1996 are provided. Also included are fuels consumed at refineries, and lists of shutdowns, sales, reactivations, and mergers during 1995 and 1996. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  20. COPPER--2003 21.1 By Daniel L. Edelstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in relatively small quantities at several of the primary smelters. The last remaining U.S. secondary smelter closed in October 2001. Smelter capacity remained unchanged at about 900,000 t, while refinery capacity and the permanent closure of Equatorial Mining Co.'s Tonopah NV, electorwinning facility. Smelter and refinery

  1. Scheduling-shutdown-2014-MEC v4 web.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 2 Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon...

  2. Master Pump Shutdown MPS Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The MPSS Software Quality Assurance (SQAP) describes the tools and strategy used in the development of the MPSS software. The document also describes the methodology for controlling and managing changes to the software.

  3. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  4. Decision Support and Optimization in Shutdown and Turnaround Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    heuristic produces. 1 Introduction In chemical manufacturing and petroleum refining, large-scale maintenance with solutions of a time-consuming mixed integer program prove the high quality of the solutions that our fast

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for photos of barge transport; Elena A. Kalinina for TSL-CALVIN simulations; Larisa Smith for coordinating logistics; and Cornelia Brim and Susan Tackett for editing and...

  6. Inherent shutdown capabilities in accelerator-driven systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annals of Nuclear Energy 29 (2002) 16891706 www.elsevier.com/locate/anucene 0306-4549/02/$ - see front Institute of Technology, Stockholm Center for Physics, Astronomy and Biotechnology, Department of Nuclear, based on the analysis of unprotected accidents, to accomplish such means. Pre-concepted designs for self

  7. annual cern shutdown: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bal, F; Bard, J P; Barraca, D; Bee, C P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bennet, J; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Bonnet, M; Bula, C; Calzas, A; Carlson, P J;...

  8. Interim safety basis for fuel supply shutdown facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brehm, J.R.; Deobald, T.L.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This ISB in conjunction with the new TSRs, will provide the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the Facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements. It is concluded that the risk associated with the current operational mode of the Facility, uranium closure, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within Risk Acceptance Guidelines. The Facility is classified as a Moderate Hazard Facility because of the potential for an unmitigated fire associated with the uranium storage buildings.

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Shutdown Sites |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T enAmountCammie Croft Senior Advisor,ofDepartment ofin

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHA Administrativeof Excellence BuildingDepartment ofSolutions

  11. Scheduling-shutdown-2014-MEC v4 web.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch Briefs TheSanketPlease contact the beamlineAug 14 1 2

  12. Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yannan

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

  13. Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yannan

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

  14. Animal representations and animal remains at atalhyk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Nerissa; Meece, Stephanie

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (Level VII). Volcano above town plan, leopard skin above geometric design, or other representations? Level VI paintings lack fully convinc ing animal depictions. A patch of painting on the east wall of building VIA.66 includes a number of geomet ric... the centrepieces of the north walls of two rather similar buildings. In a sense they parallel the situation in the faunal assemblage, where cattle are not terribly common, but figure prominently in cer emonial consumption (see Russell & Martin, Volume 4...

  15. TIPS TO REMAIN SLIM * Set realistic goals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    a week. * Aerobic exercise like jogging, swimming, cycling, running accelerates weight loss. Consult in the morning. * Go for skimmed milk. * As far as possible avoid weight loss supplements. * When you have a physician before starting any weight loss program. Aerobic exercise combined with healthy eating

  16. Geothermal developers remain optimistic | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: CongestionDevelopment of a downhole wireline tool toEnergyWhile

  17. Los Alamos supercomputer remains fastest in world

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is YourAwardspublicexceedsScientists monitorNano 50

  18. [The Journal of Geology, 2004, volume 112, p. 91110] No copyright is claimed for this article. It remains in the public domain. Geochemical Discrimination of Five Pleistocene Lava-Dam Outburst-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poreda, Robert J.

    . It remains in the public domain. 91 Geochemical Discrimination of Five Pleistocene Lava-Dam Outburst- Flood@usgs.gov) A B S T R A C T Pleistocene basaltic lava dams and outburst-flood deposits in the western Grand Canyon outburst-flood deposit came from a common source, a lava dam. With these data, it is possible

  19. By Daniel L. Edelstein Mine production of recoverable copper in the United States United States retained its position as both the largest producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in During the year, 8 primary and 4 secondary smelters, 8 1995, after having fallen by more than 300, copper availability remained tight and average annual smelter and an electrolytic refinery in Michigan in 1995, because capacity expansion at smelter/refinery, but contr

  20. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technologies, National Energy Technologies Laboratory, U.S.Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC, June

  1. Optimization of Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaie, H.; Nasr, M. R. J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    case study and its steam network is analyzed. At the first step, using STAR software, the steam network is simulated and then optimized, which determines the optimum conditions. In this regard, energy saving potential was identified and total operating...

  2. Soil cleaning at Czechowice Refinery A. Worsztynowicz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    . Kossutha 6, Poland 2. Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 USA 3. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, 94720 USA Abstract. As a part of the US DOE - IETU

  3. Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at temperatures of 850-950oF. Hydrogen - rich off - gases are fired in combinations of process furnaces. Heat is transferred to hydrocarbon fluids by radiation, principally. Feed or return stream temperatures determine the need for convection sections...

  4. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unit in 1990, using two gas turbines and two heat recovery steamunit, FCC power recovery, and optimum load allocation of boilers, as well as selection of steam

  5. A global optimization approach to pooling problems in refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Viet

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    .........................................29 9 Attainable region for four sources. ..................................................................33 10 Piecewise linearization vs. regular linearization of RLT.................................35 11 Comparison of optima for the two.... If none of the optima is found, the iteration starts over with a new chosen set of base points. If an optimum ?Xij, ?Yjk is found, the iteration repeats with an updated set of base points where X?ij = Xij + ?Xij and Y?jk = Yjk + ?Yjk. The calculation...

  6. Supply and demand planning for crude oil procurement in refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nnadili, Beatrice N. (Beatrice Nne)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The upstream petroleum supply chain is inefficient and uneconomical because of the independence of the four complex and fragmented functions which comprise it. Crude oil exploration, trading, transportation, and refining ...

  7. Refinery Energy Conservation Experience with Enhanced Surface Reboilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragi, E. G.; O'Neill, P. S.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    savings was $719, 000 with less than one month payback. (3) A large existing propane-propylene splitter underwent a major conversion to reduce energy consumption. By replacing the existing reboilers with High Flux and converting the system to a vapor...

  8. Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 1.1;"21 andNov-14Input

  9. Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site.1 Relative Standard Errors for TableCORPORATION /Product: Total

  10. Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions,

  11. U.S. Downstream Charge Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Zandofpoint motional%^602SWPACharge Capacity

  12. Low Temperature Waste Energy Recovery at Chemical Plants and Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferland, K.; papar, R.; Quinn, J.; Kumar, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    candidates of waste heat recovery technologies that might have an application in these industries. Four technologies that met the criteria of the Advisory Committee included: organic rankine cycle (ORC), absorption refrigeration and chilling, Kalina cycle...

  13. ,"U.S. Refinery Net Input"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlantAnnual",2014,"6/30/1985"

  14. ,"U.S. Refinery Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources

  15. Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use asFeet)Second QuarterTheStocks

  16. Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015ParentsMiddle School (6-8)Need for a Second RepositoryLNG

  17. U.S. Number and Capacity of Petroleum Refineries

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and Institutional UsersDecadeYear JanMonthYear Jan

  18. U.S. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and Institutional UsersDecadeYearThousandW W W WDay,

  19. U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and InstitutionalArea: U.S.Feet) WorkingArea: U.S.

  20. U.S. Working Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and InstitutionalArea: U.S.Feet)Weekly ProductArea:

  1. GreenHunter Biodiesel Refinery Grand Opening | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12 OPAMGeneral GuidanceEnergy Launching Pad Taps

  2. Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarkets EnergyConsumption5ValuesJune 2010 1

  3. U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb MarDecade Year-0 Year-1(Billion- - - - - --17,882

  4. Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April 25, 20137a.06 2.013 1.673

  5. U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil and

  6. U.S. Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil andNov-14

  7. Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company (SAMREF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistma AG Jump638324°, -122.0230146° Show

  8. Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"YearProductionShaleInput Product:Input Product: Total

  9. PNNL-22432 Initial Assessment of U.S. Refineries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Foundenhancer activity than histone

  10. U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,932 130,902672009Dec-142009 2010

  11. U.S. Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,932 130,902672009Dec-142009

  12. U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New120,814 136,9322009 2010 2011 2012

  13. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a evie _ =_ In7, 20116,650.0622Product: TotalProduct:

  14. Motiva Enterprises Refinery Expansion Groundbreaking | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005 attheMohammed Khan - Technology Project OfficerTheas Prepared for

  15. U.S. Refinery and Blender Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heatingintensity Energy2009 2010Nov-14Nov-14

  16. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Rare Metals Refinery Inc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTable ofArizonaBuffalo -ElkGuterlHookerInstitute- NY 38

  17. ,"U.S. Refinery Net Input"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales to EndAdditions

  18. ,"U.S. Refinery Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales to EndAdditionsMonthly","4/2015","1/15/1993"

  19. Refinery & Blender Net Production of Finished Motor Gasoline

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProvedFeet)Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan2009698Nov-142009 2010

  20. Motiva Enterprises Refinery Expansion Groundbreaking | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProductsUptake and Release: ADepartmentMotiva

  1. Grupo Maris Capital ethanol refinery | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/ExplorationGoods |Grundy Electric Coop, IncGrupoGrupoJema

  2. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember(DecemberDepartmentin

  3. EVALUATION OF ACTIVATION PRODUCTS IN REMAINING IN REMAINING K-, L- AND C-REACTOR STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.; Webb, R.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytic model and calculational methodology was previously developed for P-reactor and R-reactor to quantify the radioisotopes present in Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor tanks and the surrounding structural materials as a result of neutron activation of the materials during reactor operation. That methodology has been extended to K-reactor, L-reactor, and C-reactor. The analysis was performed to provide a best-estimate source term input to the Performance Assessment for an in-situ disposition strategy by Site Decommissioning and Demolition (SDD). The reactor structure model developed earlier for the P-reactor and R-reactor analyses was also used for the K-reactor and L-reactor. The model was suitably modified to handle the larger Creactor tank and associated structures. For all reactors, the structure model consisted of 3 annular zones, homogenized by the amount of structural materials in the zone, and 5 horizontal layers. The curie content on an individual radioisotope basis and total basis for each of the regions was determined. A summary of these results are provided herein. The efficacy of this methodology to accurately predict the radioisotopic content of the reactor systems in question has been demonstrated and is documented in Reference 1. As noted in that report, results for one reactor facility cannot be directly extrapolated to other SRS reactors.

  4. U. S. refiners move into another challenging technical era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, J.R. (Ashland Oil Inc., Ashland, KY (US))

    1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    With the transition to unleaded gasoline scarcely behind us, another new era is dawning for the U.S. refiner. No one yet knows the exact configuration of the refinery of the future and no two refineries are likely to adapt in exactly the same way. What is certain, however, is that by the year 2000, refineries will be more technologically advanced, their products will be more environmentally acceptable, and their operators will be more highly trained. The typical U.S. refinery in the year 2000 will be located at an existing refinery site because economic and environmental considerations will make it impossible to build new grassroots capacity. As a result of the Clean Air act, the refinery of tomorrow will produce cleaner fuels The entire U.S. gasoline pool will likely be reformulated. Most of the diesel fuel pool will consist of ultralow-sulfur product. And jet fuel-which is experiencing rapid demand growth-will be an increasingly important product. Many existing refining process will remain in use, but they will be more efficient and more technologically advanced. Energy efficiency will be a primary concern, as refiners seek to combat ever-increasing crude oil costs and refinery operating expenses. The refinery of the future also will be much more environmentally acceptable. The article is a closer look at the refinery of the future.

  5. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  6. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-111, P-11 Critical Mass Laboratory Crib, and UPR-600-16, Fire and Contamination Spread Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-045

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The UPR-600-16, Fire and Contamination Spread waste site is an unplanned release that occurred on December 4, 1951, when plutonium contamination was spread by a fire that ignited inside the 120 Experimental Building. The 120 Experimental Building was a laboratory building that was constructed in 1949 and used for plutonium criticality studies as part of the P-11 Project. In November 1951, a criticality occurred in the 120 Experimental Building that resulted in extensive plutonium contamination inside the building. The confirmatory evaluation supports a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of the extensive radiological survey of the surface soil and the confirmatory and verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  7. Overcoming Fuel Gas Containment Limitations to Energy Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil refineries convert crude oil into high value products such as gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and petrochemical feedstocks. After squeezing as much saleable product from the crude oil as possible, there remains a light gas...

  8. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    crude oil produced; does not include refinery consumption.use of crude oil falling. Kerosene consumption has remained1. Consumption in Physical Units Year I960 t H Crude Oil* (

  9. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    71 Figure 25. Refinery Throughput, Exports and77 Figure 27. Indian Refinery78 Figure 28. Conservation Supply Curve for Refinery

  10. Analysis of Effects on Port Operations from March 22 Incident in Houston Ship Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................................ 6 Effect on Refineries and Petrochemical Plants

  11. AN AGGREGATED VECTORIAL MODEL OF PETROLEUM FLOW IN THE UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, V. V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    only; i.e. , individual refineries owned by the same companyting ~ for example. refinery production. ) (3) Supplies on21. Capacity of Petroleum Refineries U K REFINERY INPUTS 11.

  12. National Socialist Plundering of Precious Metals, 1933-1945: The Role of Degussa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banken, Ralf

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Degussa; Platinium: Heraeus) Refineries Industrial Consumers largest precious metal refinery. Fig. 2: The Position ofSilver Coins Smelting and Refinery Smelting and Refinery of

  13. Feasibility study for use of the natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) for VHTR water-cooled RCCS shutdown.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Farmer, M.T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In summary, a scaling analysis of a water-cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) system was performed based on generic information on the RCCS design of PBMR. The analysis demonstrates that the water-cooled RCCS can be simulated at the ANL NSTF facility at a prototypic scale in the lateral direction and about half scale in the vertical direction. Because, by necessity, the scaling is based on a number of approximations, and because no analytical information is available on the performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS, the scaling analysis presented here needs to be 'validated' by analysis of the steady state and transient performance of a reference water-cooled RCCS design. The analysis of the RCCS performance by CFD and system codes presents a number of challenges including: strong 3-D effects in the cavity and the RCCS tubes; simulation of turbulence in flows characterized by natural circulation, high Rayleigh numbers and low Reynolds numbers; validity of heat transfer correlations for system codes for heat transfer in the cavity and the annulus of the RCCS tubes; the potential of nucleate boiling in the tubes; water flashing in the upper section of the RCCS return line (during limiting transient); and two-phase flow phenomena in the water tanks. The limited simulation of heat transfer in cavities presented in Section 4.0, strongly underscores the need of experimental work to validate CFD codes, and heat transfer correlations for system codes, and to support the analysis and design of the RCCS. Based on the conclusions of the scaling analysis, a schematic that illustrates key attributes of the experiment system is shown in Fig. 4. This system contains the same physical elements as the PBMR RCCS, plus additional equipment to facilitate data gathering to support code validation. In particular, the prototype consists of a series of oval standpipes surrounding the reactor vessel to provide cooling of the reactor cavity during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. The standpipes are headered (in groups of four in the prototype) to water supply (header) tanks that are situated well above the reactor vessel to facilitate natural convection cooling during a loss of forced flow event. During normal operations, the water is pumped from a heat sink located outside the containment to the headered inlets to the standpipes. The water is then delivered to each standpipe through a centrally located downcomer that passes the coolant to the bottom of each pipe. The water then turns 180{sup o} and rises up through the annular gap while extracting heat from the reactor cavity due to a combination of natural convection and radiation across the gap between the reactor vessel and standpipes. The water exits the standpipes at the top where it is headered (again in groups of four) into a return line that passes the coolant to the top of the header tank. Coolant is drawn from each tank through a fitting located near the top of the tank where it flows to the heat rejection system located outside the containment. This completes the flow circuit for normal operations. During off-normal conditions, forced convection water cooling in the RCCS is presumed to be lost, as well as the ultimate heat sink outside the containment. In this case, water is passively drawn from an open line located at the bottom of the header tank. This line is orificed so that flow bypass during normal operations is small, yet the line is large enough to provide adequate flow during passive operations to remove decay heat while maintaining acceptable fuel temperatures. In the passive operating mode, water flows by natural convection from the bottom of the supply tank to the standpipes, and returns through the normal pathway to the top of the tanks. After the water reaches saturation and boiling commences, steam will pass through the top of the tanks and be vented to atmosphere. In the experiment system shown in Fig. 4, a steam condensation and collection system is included to quantify the boiling rate, thereby providing additional validation data. This sys

  14. Environmental policy at all levels of government remains fragmented and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    shortages around the world are exacerbated in many places by biofuels production. 2010­2020: GREEN MARk this time frame. Rather, they are plausible combinations of real-world forces that allow us to evaluate major constant will be that water supply issues will worsen. Finally, national population growth rates

  15. THE SUPPLY OF ENERGY TO fuel economic development remains a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Catlica de Chile)

    processes, the energy supply also has a high potential as a polluter of the environ- ment, with catastrophes consumption). Local air pollu- tion, discharges to the soil and water, acid rain, and the risk of climate

  16. angiography remains controversial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    published in "Digital library as a controversy: Gallica vs Google, Dubrovnik : Croatia (2009)" 12;Digital library as a controversy Abstract Paris-Sud XI, Universit de...

  17. arthritis remains constant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We show that the only value of n for which the late-time matter energy density to dark energy density ratio (rmrhomrhoLambda) is constant (which could...

  18. A study investigating copper smelting remains from San Bartolo, Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alunni, Antonella I

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: Research on the metallurgy of archaeological artifacts has focused primarily on the examination of objects to reveal their design, their composition, the properties of the material people selected to achieve ...

  19. Miguel Angel Perez Angon: what is that really remains?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contreras, J. G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada CINVESTAV-IPN, Unidad Merida, A. P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Laudatio in honor of Dr. Miguel Angel Perez Angon, co-recipient of the 2008 Medal of the Division of Particles and Fields of the Mexican Physical Society.

  20. United States, International Partners Remove Last Remaining Weapons-Usable

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3E AmbassadorsUS-EU-Japan-JapanHighly Enriched Uranium from

  1. INTRODUCTION Large uncertainties remain on the extent and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inglfsson, lafur

    to isoclinal and recumbent to gently inclined folds. Parallel and harmonic-like folds are present, but most deforming thrusts out of the southern Kara Sea. The lowermost facies of the Kara diamicton is a stratified, recumbent folds, small-scale boudinage structures,

  2. United States, International Partners Remove Last Remaining Weapons...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    removed HEU under this effort are Austria, Chile, Czech Republic, Libya, Mexico, Romania, Serbia, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. To date, the Department has removed or...

  3. FAL 2006-04, Financial Assistance Letters Remaining in Effect

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Department of Energy 088:Energy FACT SHEET: Department2 FAIR

  4. Recommendation 215: Recommendation on Remaining Legacy Materials on the Oak

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - TProcuringDepartment ofRecentDepartment of4:DepartmentRidge

  5. U.S. gasoline prices remain steady (long version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices continueshort version) The U.S.

  6. U.S. gasoline prices remain steady (short version)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices continueshort version) The U.S.gasoline

  7. ORISE: Study finds foreign doctorate recipients' stay rates remain high

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire3627Homeland SecurityJonathan Mbah and Kiara MoorerStudy

  8. Questions remain on funding for cleanup of Oak Ridge Reservation |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergy Small Team Oversight ActivitiesNOTEnergySeason?Reportingbelow

  9. RCW - 68.50 Human Remains | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethodInformationeNevada < RAPID‎ |EnergyControl

  10. UC 9-8-309 - Human Remains | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, IndianaTurtle Airships JumpType B:7-15:Web Site:07304 -- Human

  11. 9/25/10 12:27 PMLEED certification efforts remain strong -Dallas Business Journal Page 1 of 2http://www.bizjournals.com/dallas/stories/2010/08/02/story3.html?s=industry&b=1280721600%5E3731231&t=printable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    want LEED-certified buildings to save money on energy costs and to attract the nation's top talent9/25/10 12:27 PMLEED certification efforts remain strong - Dallas Business Journal Page 1 of 2http Larger Dallas Business Journal - August 2, 2010 /dallas/stories/2010/08/02/story3.html

  12. Development of the integrated environmental control model: Cost models of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) NO{sub x} control systems. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1994-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a process for the post-combustion removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gas of fossil-fuel-fired power plants. SCR is capable of NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of up to 80 or 90 percent. SCR technology has been applied for treatment of flue gases from a variety of emission sources, including natural gas- and oil-fired gas turbines, process steam boilers in refineries, and coal-fired power plants. SCR applications to coal-fired power plants have occurred in Japan and Germany. Full-scale SCR systems have not been applied to coal-fired power plants in the U.S., although there have been small-scale demonstration projects. Increasingly strict NO{sub x} control requirements are being imposed by various state and local regulatory agencies in the U.S. These requirements may lead to U.S. SCR applications, particularly for plants burning low sulfur coals (Robie et al.). Furthermore, implicit in Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment is a national NO{sub x} emission reduction of 2 million tons per year. Thus, there may be other incentives to adapt SCR technology more generally to U.S. coal-fired power plants with varying coal sulfur contents. However, concern remains over the applicability of SCR technology to U.S. plants burning high sulfur coals or coals with significantly different fly ash characteristics than those burned in Germany and Japan. There is also concern regarding the application of SCR to peaking units due to potential startup and shutdown problems (Lowe et al.). In this report, new capital cost models of two SCR systems are developed. These are {open_quotes}hot-side high-dust{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}tail-end low-dust{close_quotes} options. In a previous quarterly report, performance models for these two systems were developed.

  13. Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istre, R. I.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the boilers down in an orderly manner that would not upset the refinery operations. Cylinders of compressed air were connected to the new plant air dryer system to allow normal opera tion of the ignition interlock system and boiler control valves during... the emergency shutdown of the boi 1ers. The ignition interlock system has been used many times other than for Douer fa il ures. SVlitches \\~ere installed in the control room to allow the boiler control operator to shut dOl'in 42" YJaste gas dampers on each...

  14. Advancing Cellulosic Ethanol for Large Scale Sustainable Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyman, C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    number = just monomers . Refinery for Cellulosic Biomass tofrom biomass through cellulosic refinery concept that could

  15. Radiation asymmetry and MHD activity in rapid shutdowns on Alcator C-Mod

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olynyk, Geoffrey Michael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disruptions, the sudden termination of tokamak fusion plasmas by instabilities, have the potential to cause severe material wall damage to large tokamaks like ITER.e mitigation of disruption damage is an essential part of ...

  16. School of Health and Related Research Daily Shut-down Checklist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakley, Jeremy

    in shared areas (including coffee room(s), corridors, lift areas, stairwells) Ensure that all meeting room (designated to Library receptionist) #12; Check and if necessary turn off photocopiers, TV screen, PC: Lights in public areas such as stair wells and the lift lobby mustNOT be switched off. 5. Christmas

  17. Water heat pipe frozen startup and shutdown transients with internal temperature, pressure and visual observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinarts, Thomas Raymond

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Internal Temperature, Pressure and Visual Observations. IDecember 1989) Thomas Raymond Reinarts, B. S. , Texas A8M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Frederick Best In a set of transient heat pipe experiments vapor space and wick... LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Outer Aluminum Wall Temperatures Observed and Predicted 79 Table 2. Summary of Measured Dryout, Rewet and Melting Front 126 Velocities LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Typical Heat Pipe Diagram Figure 2. Curvature of Vapor...

  18. Start-Up of Air Conditioning Systems After Periods of Shutdown (Humidity Considerations)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, T. R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    after the system is restarted. Moe t simply, condensation takes place when moist air flows past surfaces which have been cooled below its dewpoint. In air conditioning this occurs when the cold supply air being deli- vered into the space induces...

  19. Shutdown of turbulent convection as a new criterion for the onset of spring phytoplankton blooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    population growth rate at the ocean surface, hl is the e-folding depth of light penetration, and m growth in many parts of the ocean is dominated by a dramatic population increase known as the spring material, contribute significantly to the carbon flux to the deep ocean (Smetacek et al. 1978; Townsend et

  20. Effect of the ASARCO smelter shutdown on the acidity of rainfall in the Puget sound area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laulainen, N.S.; Larson, T.V.; Vong, R.J.; Zoller, W.H.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of the sulfur dioxide emissions from a large copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington, USA, was studied by measuring the chemical composition of rainwater collected upwind and downwind of the source, before and after permanent closure of the smelter in 1985. Data analysis was based on a statistical model that accounted for variability associated with location of 25 sampling sites within three geographic regions, smelter operation, ten individual rain events observed over 2 years, and measurement uncertainty. After smelter closure, the upwind-downwind differences in mean hydrogen ion and excess sulfate ion concentrations within a 600 km/sup 2/ region extending to 25 km downwind of the source had decreased significantly compared to the pre-closure value. No significant decreases in mean ion concentrations were observed farther downwind in the Seattle, urban area. During five events sampled prior to smelter closure, we estimate that an average of 1.7% (range 0.3 to 3.0%) of the sulfur dioxide emitted by the smelter was wet deposited as sulfate ion within a 3600 km/sup 2/ area extending 60 km downwind of the source.