Sample records for refineries industry gas

  1. Gas Separation Membrane Use in the Refinery and Petrochemical Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vari, J.

    Membranes have gained commercial acceptance as proven methods to recover valuable gases from waste gas streams. This paper explores ways in which gas separation membranes are used in the refinery and petrochemical industries to recover and purify...

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of How the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, K.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in the ENERGY STAR Commercial, Industrial and Residential Sectors. An Example of how the Refinery Industry is Capitalizing on ENERGY STAR Kelly Patrick U.S. Environmental Protection Agency kelly...

  3. Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Wireless channel characterization and modeling in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1 modeling approach is validated by experimental measurements in two oil refinery sites using industry and gas refinery sites are characterized by harsh environments where radio signals are prone to blockage

  4. Wireless Critical Process Control in oil and gas refinery plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savazzi, Stefano

    Wireless Critical Process Control in oil and gas refinery plants Stefano Savazzi1, Sergio Guardiano control in in- dustrial plants and oil/gas refineries. In contrast to wireline communication, wireless of an oil refinery is illustrated in Fig. 1: typical locations of wireless devices used for re- mote control

  5. Flare Gas Recovery in Shell Canada Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, G. D.; Wey, R. E.; Chan, H. H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the flow properties for compressor selection? What controls should be incorporated? How much operator and maintenance effort will be required for safe, efficient operation? What kind of process and hardware problems should be watched for? When...? This paper will touch on all these issues. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION A schematic of a typical refinery flare gas recovery facility is shown in Figure I. The facilities include the following pieces of equipment: - compressor suction drum - compressor set...

  6. Refinery gas waste heat energy conversion optimization in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, A.D.; Francuz, D.J.; West, E.W. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of refinery fuel gas in gas turbines poses special challenges due to the combustion characteristics of the fuel gas which contains significant concentrations of hydrogen. Proper modifications to the combustion system of the existing gas turbines are required in order to combust such fuel gas streams in gas turbines while minimizing the NO{sub x} emissions. A novel approach to the utilization of this hydrogen bearing fuel gas in gas turbines consists of humidifying the fuel gas with water vapor by direct contact with hot water in a counter-current column, the feed water to the humidifier being first circulated through the refinery to recover waste heat. The refinery waste heat produces additional motive fluid with a result that the waste heat is converted to power in the gas turbine. Furthermore, the water vapor introduced into the fuel gas reduces the NO{sub x} formation and increases the gas turbine output, while the hydrogen present in the fuel gas provides the flame stability required when combusting a fuel gas containing a large concentration of water vapor.

  7. Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

    normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

  8. Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

  9. Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries Armen Gholian, Hamed units finish their operations. Considering an oil refinery industry as an example, we not only identify Terms­Demand response, load management, manufactur- ing industries, oil refineries, optimal scheduling

  10. High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

  11. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission reduction at Engen refinery in South Durban. Paperenergy consumed in refineries and other energy conversionCement Membrane separation Refinery gas Natural gas Bio-

  12. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrating gas turbines with refinery furnaces can be a cost effective means of reducing NOx emissions while also generating electricity at an attractive heat rate. Design considerations and system costs are presented....

  13. New Concepts in Hardware and Processes to Conserve Oil and Gas in Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrey, J. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad program to identify and evaluate new types of hardware and processes to conserve oil and gas in chemical plants and petroleum refineries has been completed. During the course of this program, which was sponsored by the Office of Industrial...

  14. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. ,"U.S. Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected Petroleum Products"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected Petroleum

  16. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  17. Refinery Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Leveraging existing refining infrastructure potentially reduces costs for biofuel production but we first need to understand the impacts Petroleum Refinery Picture courtesy...

  18. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20Year Jan Feb2009 20103 5.53

  19. Evolution of gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showail, A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The beginning of the natural gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia is traced back to 1959 when Aramco embarked on a program to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) for export from low pressure gases such as stabilizer overhead, spheroid, tank farm, and refinery off-gases. The processing scheme involves compression and refrigeration to extract C3+ raw NGL, a raw NGL gathering system, and a fractionation plant to separate propane, butane, and natural gasoline. NGL extracted in Abqaiq and Ras Tanura is moved to Ras Tanura for fractionation, storage, and export. The system, built in several increments, has total design capacity of 500 MMscfd of feed gases to produce 320,000 bpd of NGL composed of 40% propane, 30% butane, and 30% natural gasoline. Phase II of the Saudi gas program envisages collection and processing of associated gas produced with Arabian medium and heavy crude oils largely in the northern onshore and offshore fields. Further domestic development may focus on more diversification in gas product utilization and on upgrading to higher value products.

  20. Deregulation in Japanese gas industries : significance and problems of gas rate deregulation for large industrial customers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inoue, Masayuki

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the circumstances surrounding Japanese City gas industries have been changing drastically. On one hand, as energy suppliers, natural gas which has become major fuel resource for city gas, as public utilities, ...

  1. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  2. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  3. Multiperiod Refinery Planning Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Multiperiod Refinery Planning Optimization with Nonlinear CDU Models Abdulrahman Alattas, Advisor #12;Refinery Planning Model Development 2 Extension to Multiperiod Planning #12;3 Multiperiod Refinery: refinery configuration Determine · What crude oil to process and in which time period? · The quantities

  4. Refinery Capacity Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April 25, 20137a.06 2.013 1.673Refinery

  5. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3292015 10:04:17 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3035NM2" "Date","New...

  6. ,"New York Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:12:03 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N3035NY2" "Date","New York...

  7. Refinery Fuel Balancing with Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passman, K. W.; Taylor, R. I.; Williams, D. E.; Emanuel, D.

    in order to tie-in during a scheduled refinery wide turnaround and to be on line during the summer 1990 operating period. The two gas turbines exhaust to two existing boilers where the oxygen in the turbine exhaust is utilized for combustion. Supplementary...

  8. An Integrated Approach to Evaluating the Technical and Commercial Options for Cogeneration Facilities in the Process Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. H.; McCue, R. H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the refinery, olefins, and other industry complexes is presented. The cycles described include hot gas and steam heat recovery, going beyond the currently popular gas-turbine/ heat-recovery-steam-generator combination....

  9. Dry scrubber reduces SO sub 2 in calciner flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.W. (Refining Consulting Services, Englewood, CO (US)); Roderick, D. (Western Slope Refining Co., Fruita, CO (US)); Nastri, A. (NATEC Resources Inc., Dallas, TX (US))

    1991-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the installation of a dry sulfur dioxide scrubber for an existing petroleum coke calciner at its Fruita, Colo., refinery. The dry scrubbing process was developed by the power industry to help cope with the acid rain problem. It is the first application of the process in an oil refinery. The process could also remove SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a fluid catalytic cracker, fluid coker, or other refinery sources.

  10. The Importance of the Oil & Gas Industry to Northern Colorado and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Crude Oil 0% Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas 3% Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum,681 Natural Gas Distribution Natural Gas Liquid Extraction Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil Pipeline Transportation of Refined... Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas Petroleum Refineries Oil and Gas Pipeline

  11. AGA encouraging industry to adopt gas option. [American Gas Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, G.H.

    1980-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Gas Association (AGA) supports a policy of increasing conventional natural gas production and sustaining the higher level for at least 40 years in addition to developing unconventional sources by coal gasification, methane, biomass, and other technologies. International efforts to shift from petroleum to gas are responding to the need for appropriate policies. With gas supplying 40% of the energy consumed by American buildings and by industry and agriculture, the country has a significant financial investment in equipment and distribution systems. Although deregulation of gas prices will not prevent a decline in conventional production for the next decade, new sources and technologies will combine to maintain supplies. Policies are needed to enhance the US coal gasification capability and to promote the use of dual-fired furnaces. The worldwide gas option is an appropriate to other oil-importing countries as it is to the US. (DCK)

  12. Fiscal Policy and Utah's Oil and Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiscal Policy and Utah's Oil and Gas Industry Michael T. Hogue, Research Analyst Introduction for oil and gas extraction firms. A recent review by the Government Accountability Office indicates features of Utah's oil and gas industry. The Oil and Gas Industry in Utah Reserves and Production Oil

  13. Monitoring and Management of Refinery Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelham, R. O.; Moriarty, R. D.; Hudgens, P. D.

    MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT OF REFINERY ENERGY CONSUMPTION Roger O. Pelham Richard D. Moriarty Patrie D. Hudgens Profimatics, Inc. Thousand Oaks, California ABSTRACT Since 1972, the u.s. refining industry has made much progress in reduci... ng energy consumption. Lately, falling energy prices have de-emphasized the need to appropriate new capital for additional energy conservation projects. One area neglected in most refineries is the need to monitor and man age the daily use...

  14. NIPSCO Custom Commercial and Industrial Gas and Electric Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NIPSCO’s Commercial and Industrial Custom Electric and Natural Gas Incentive Program offers financial incentives to qualifying large commercial, industrial, non-profit, governmental and...

  15. Philadelphia Gas Works- Commercial and Industrial Equipment Rebate Program (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Philadelphia Gas Works' (PGW) Commercial and Industrial Equipment rebates are available to all PGW commercial and industrial customers installing high efficiency boilers or eligible commercial food...

  16. Energy Efficiency Fund (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund, rebates are available for commercial, industrial or municipal customers of Connecticut Natural Gas Corporation, Southern Connecticut Gas Company, or...

  17. Optimization of Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaie, H.; Nasr, M. R. J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dominated energy crisis in the world dictates to reduce energy consumption and identify energy saving opportunities in large and complex industries especially in oil refining industry. In this paper, Tehran oil refinery is considered as a proper...

  18. The new economics of the electric power industry and some implication for the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.R. [Putnam, Hayes & Bartlett, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The current restructuring of the natural gas industry and its regulation have important implications for the natural gas industry. Some of these implications are positive, some negative. As in all situations of change and uncertainty, look before you leap, is good advice to those in the natural gas industry seeking to take advantage of the opportunities created by the startling changes that are occurring.

  19. The Gas Utility View of Industrial Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loberg, T. J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supplies and the gas industry mounted a determined engineering and development effort to stretch existing supplies until changes in the legislation could be implemented. These and similar programs are ongoing even now that the outlook for new gas supplies...

  20. The Gas Utility View of Industrial Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loberg, T. J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas industry fostered more efficient energy utilization long before the idea of energy conservation became fashionable. It became apparent in the late '60's that misguided Federal Legislation was discouraging necessary search for new gas...

  1. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"3292015 10:04:18 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New Mexico Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"...

  2. ,"New York Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:12:04 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"...

  3. Bringing information standards from FERC into the industry: Gas industry standards board`s first year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCartney, M.J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since early 1993 the natural gas industry has pursued the creation of industry-wide standards through two parallel paths. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) must be credited with getting the industry moving forward towards electronic information standardization. FERC`s Order 636 required interstate pipelines to set up electronic bulletin boards for trading released capacity. Their goal was to foster an efficient and competitive secondary market for pipeline capacity. The Natural gas Industry set up a Gas Industry Standards Board (GISB) to promote gas standards initially through improving and expanding electronic communication which would then assist the natural gas industry in improving customer service, enhancing the reliability of natural gas service, and increasing the efficiency of natural gas markets. This paper describes the goals and organizational structure of the GISB.

  4. Gas Turbines Increase the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banchik, I. N.; Bohannan, W. R.; Stork, K.; McGovern, L. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    clean fuel gas for the gas turbine is produced by gasification of coal, are presented. Waste heat from the gasifier and the gas turbine exhaust is converted to high pressure steam for steam turbines. Gas turbines may find application in other industrial...

  5. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1995 producer price, was approximately industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania. World Refinery Production, Reserves, and Reserve Base: Refinery production Reserves6 Reserve base6 1994

  6. Peoples Gas- Commercial & Industrial Prescriptive Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Chicagoland Natural Gas Savings Program is funded by customers of Peoples Gas, through a line item on the bill called the Enhanced Efficiency Program. The Program is guided by Peoples Gas, the...

  7. PETROLEUM INDUSTRY INFORMATION REPORTING ACT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    compliance. The Energy Commission uses the new refinery reports when creating the Weekly Fuels Watch Report refinery production and inventories. Monthly data of refinery inputs and outputs have a variety of regular use data by refineries to support analyses of total energy use by industry type within the state

  8. The Energy Minimization Method: A Multiobjective Fitness Evaluation Technique and Its Application to the Production Scheduling in a Petroleum Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    to the Production Scheduling in a Petroleum Refinery Mayron Rodrigues de Almeida Sílvio Hamacher Industrial applied to production scheduling of a petroleum refinery. The experimental results are presented of the method when applied to the production scheduling in a petroleum refinery. Section 5 discusses

  9. Recent Economic Trends in Colorado's Oil and Gas Industry Martin Shields, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's Oil and Gas Industry Martin Shields, Ph.D. Regional Economics Institute Trends in Colorado's Oil and Gas Industry Summary Colorado's economy lost issues affecting its prospects in Colorado. Although the oil and gas industry

  10. Refinery Energy Profiling Procedure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, R. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a four-step procedure developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy for preparing energy profiles for a refinery, for a single unit, or for an individual piece of equipment. The four steps are preparation, data...

  11. Refinery Energy Profiling Procedure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, R. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a four-step procedure developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy for preparing energy profiles for a refinery, for a single unit, or for an individual piece of equipment. The four steps are preparation, data...

  12. Steps taken at Malelane refinery to improve refined sugar quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; Pm Schorn

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refinery at Malelane has in the past produced refined sugar for the consumer market. A decision was taken by the management of Transvaal Sugar (TSB) to produce a quality of refined sugar that would also be acceptable to the industrial and the export markets. The processes that were evaluated and implemented at the Malelane refinery during the past three seasons to achieve this objective, are described.

  13. Evaluation of capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautzenhiser, Stephen

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze capacity release transactions in the natural gas industry and to state some preliminary conclusions about how the capacity release market is functioning. Given FERC's attempt to ...

  14. Outsourcing Logistics in the Oil and Gas Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Cristina 1988-

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The supply chain challenges that the Oil and Gas industry faces in material logistics have enlarged in the last few decades owing to an increased hydro-carbon demand. Many reasons justify the challenges, such as exploration activities which have...

  15. Outsourcing Logistics in the Oil and Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Cristina 1988-

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The supply chain challenges that the Oil and Gas industry faces in material logistics have enlarged in the last few decades owing to an increased hydro-carbon demand. Many reasons justify the challenges, such as exploration activities which have...

  16. Natural Gas Industry Comments on Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    undersigned members of the natural gas industry are pleased to submit for your consideration the following comments in response to the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of...

  17. Gas Turbines Increase the Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banchik, I. N.; Bohannan, W. R.; Stork, K.; McGovern, L. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a well known fact that the gas turbine in a combined cycle has a higher inherent Carnot efficiency than the steam cycle which has been more generally accepted by industry. Unlike steam turbines, gas turbines do not require large boiler feed...

  18. Investigation of greenhouse gas reduction strategies by industries : an enterprise systems architecting approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanthullu Athmaram, Kumaresh Babu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores an enterprise systems architecting approach to investigate the greenhouse gas reduction strategies followed by industries, especially for automotive industry and Information Technology industry. The ...

  19. Tenneco revamps chalmette refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heck, W.E.; Ragsdale, R.

    1985-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A major expansion and modernization project has been completed at Tenneco Oil Co.'s Chalmette, La. refinery, which is on the outskirts of New Orleans. The $559 million project, called the Chalmette heavy oil processing program, included revamps and construction of new units. These new and modified facilities have increased the crude oil capacity of the refinery by 30,000 b/d to 127,000 b/d. Gasoline and/or middle distillate output potential has also been lifted by 30,000 b/d. Numerous studies were made and economic cases worked to determine the process configuration and selection for the project. These conclusions varied depending on the raw material chosen as the feedstock (crude source). The configuration finally chosen was driven by the decision to be able to process high metals crudes from around the world.

  20. NYSEG (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NYSEG and RG&E offer rebates to non-residential customers installing energy efficiency equipment that pay a natural gas Systems Benefits Charge (SBC). Both prescriptive rebates and custom...

  1. Analysis Patterns for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Zhen; Guangzhen Shao

    We present analysis patterns to describe the structure of oil refineries. The Refinery Produc tion Unit Pattern describes the structure of units and unit groups. The Oil Storage Pattern describes the structure of tanks and tank groups. The Oil Delivery Pattern describes the structure of stations for import and export of oil. The Production Process Pattern describes the productionprocess. The audience for this paper includes analysts, designers, and programmers who are involved in developing Refinery Information Systems.

  2. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program, which helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. ©Wilolud Online Journals, 2008. THE NIGERIAN FUEL ENERGY SUPPLY CRISIS AND THE PROPOSED PRIVATE REFINERIES – PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agwom Sani Z

    Dynamism of the world economy has compelled Nigerians to accept the liberalization of its economy to encourage private sector participation and induce managerial efficiency. This has become very imperative most especially, in the downstream sub-sector of the Nigerian oil and gas industry by the establishment and management of private refineries in view of the persistent fuel energy crisis. An attempt is made here at analyzing the prospects and problems of such refineries that are expected to end the fuel energy crisis which started in the 1970s due to increased demand for petroleum products for rehabilitation and reconstruction after the civil war but later metamorphosed into a hydraheaded monster in the 1980s to date. Efforts towards arresting this crisis by the government through the establishment of more refineries, storage depots and network of distribution pipelines etc achieved a short-term solution due to the abysmal low performance of the refineries and facilities in contrast to increasing demand for petroleum products. It is deduced that the low performance resulted from bad and corrupt management by indigenous technocrats and political leaders as well as vandalization of facilities. Prospects for such investments were identified, as well as some of the problems to content with. This is in order to understand the pros and cons of such investments in view of their capital intensiveness and the need to achieve economic goals that must incorporate environmental and social objectives.

  4. ,"Vermont Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plantand Wyoming Natural

  5. Refinery Capacity Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) - HouseholdshortEIA-782A andS FRecord U.S. oilRefinery1

  6. Gas Turbine Considerations in the Pulp and Paper Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, J. S.; Kovacik, J. M.

    GAS TURBINE CONSIDERATIONS IN THlI: PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY J. Steven Anderson, Ph.D. Director-Energy International Paper Company Purchase, NY INTRODUCTION The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest users of energy... as an inte gral part of their power plant systems. The large requirements for process steam combined with process by-products and wood wastes make steam turbines a serious consideration in plant locations where suit able economic conditions are present...

  7. Natural Gas Delivered to Industrial Consumers

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBG 0 20Year Jan Feb Mar Apr

  8. The oil and gas journal databook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book provides the statistical year in review plus articles that cover significant events of the past year. It features the surveys and reports that quantify industry activity throughout the year. This book includes: Worldwide petrochemical survey; Midyear forecast and review; Worldwide gas processing report; Ethylene report; Sulfur survey; International refining survey; Nelson cost index; Smith Rig Count; and the API refinery report.

  9. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2000 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and Issues: World refinery production of germanium remained steady in 2000. The recycling of scrap continued

  10. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1999 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania@usgs.gov, fax: (703) 648-7757] #12;73 GERMANIUM Events, Trends, and Issues: World refinery production

  11. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1996 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1996 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, and chemotherapy), 5%. Salient Statistics--United States: 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996e Production, refinery 13,000 10

  12. Economic Impact PermianBasin'sOil&GasIndustry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE) parameters for evaluating Resource Plays 53 Appendix C: Detailed Play to traditional economic impacts, this report includes a petroleum engineering-based analysis that providesEconomic Impact PermianBasin'sOil&GasIndustry #12;The Economic Impact of the Permian Basin's Oil

  13. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuels used in the refinery sector were also collected fromof the emissions from the refinery sector are included incommitment of 44% and the refinery and food sectors

  14. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to individual refineries, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  15. Pipeline Access and Market Integration in the Natural Gas Industry: Evidence from Cointegration Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Vany, Arthur; Walls, W. David

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System for Natural Gas Pipelines." Study prepared underin the Natural Gas Pipeline Industry. Ph.D. dissertation,the remaining barfers to pipeline integration. REFERENCES

  16. Hulett's South African Refineries Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. P. Jennings

    The improvement in the quality of raw sugars sent to Hulett's Refinery during the three seasons, 1963164 to 1965166, was the subject of a paper presented to this association last year. (1) These

  17. Encon Motivation in European Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambera, S.; Lockett, W., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One essential element in a successful energy conservation or Encon program is effective motivation of employees and organizations to conserve energy. Encon motivation in our European refineries is a continuing effort that requires utilization...

  18. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    iron and steel production. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme,tempera- ture range. IEA/Caddet, Sittard, The Netherlands.industry. Cheltenham, UK, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme,

  19. Environmental Monitoring and the Gas Industry: Program Manager Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory D. Gillispie

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document has been developed for the nontechnical gas industry manager who has the responsibility for the development of waste or potentially contaminated soil and groundwater data or must make decisions based on such data for the management or remediation of these materials. It explores the pse of common analytical chemistry instrumentation and associated techniques for identification of environmentally hazardous materials. Sufficient detail is given to familiarize the nontechnical reader with the principles behind the operation of each technique. The scope and realm of the techniques and their constituent variations are portrayed through a discussion of crucial details and, where appropriate, the depiction of real-life data. It is the author's intention to provide an easily understood handbook for gas industry management. Techniques which determine the presence, composition, and quantification of gas industry wastes are discussed. Greater focus is given to traditional techniques which have been the mainstay of modem analytical benchwork. However, with the continual advancement of instrumental principles and design, several techniques have been included which are likely to receive greater attention in fiture considerations for waste-related detection. Definitions and concepts inherent to a thorough understanding of the principles common to analytical chemistry are discussed. It is also crucial that gas industry managers understand the effects of the various actions which take place before, during, and after the actual sampling step. When a series of sample collection, storage, and transport activities occur, new or inexperienced project managers may overlook or misunderstand the importance of the sequence. Each step has an impact on the final results of the measurement process; errors in judgment or decision making can be costly. Specific techniques and methodologies for the collection, storage, and transport of environmental media samples are not described or discussed in detail in thk handbook. However, the underlying philosophy regarding the importance of proper collection, storage, and transport practices, as well as pertinent references, are presented.

  20. A guide for the gas and oil industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide has been prepared to assist those in the natural gas and oil industry who may not be familiar with how the Federal government, particularly the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or Department), does business with private sector companies. Basic information is provided on what DOE is trying to do, why it wants to work with the natural gas and oil industry, how it can work with companies, who to contact, and where to inquire for further information. This last item is noteworthy because it is important for users of this guide to be able to access information about subjects that may interest them. Selected other Federal agencies and their activities related to those of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (FE or Fossil Energy) also are included in this document as Appendix A. This guide provides an address and/or phone number for every topic covered to prevent any information impasse. If a question is not adequately answered by the guide, please do not hesitate to contact the appropriate person or office. It is hoped that the information provided in this guide will lead to a better understanding of the mission, roles, and procedures of DOE and result in more and better cooperative working relationships between the natural gas and oil industry and DOE. Such relationships will provide a significant benefit to our Nation`s economic, technological, and energy security.

  1. A Multimedia Workflow-Based Collaborative Engineering Environment for Oil & Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Alberto

    A Multimedia Workflow-Based Collaborative Engineering Environment for Oil & Gas Industry Ismael H the control and execution of large and complex industrial projects in oil and gas industry. The environment governmental oil & gas company. The necessity of collaboration is especially acute in the field of computer

  2. Investigation of Swirl Flows Applied to the Oil and Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravuri Venkata Krish, Meher Surendra

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how swirl flows can be applied to processes in the oil and gas industry and how problems might hinder them, are the focus of this thesis. Three application areas were identified: wet gas metering, liquid loading in gas wells...

  3. Water in Alberta With Special Focus on the Oil and Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gieg, Lisa

    1 Water in Alberta With Special Focus on the Oil and Gas Industry (Education Paper) Seyyed Ghaderi ................................................................................................................................18 Shale Gas ................................................................................................................................................19 How much water is used in deep shale gas development

  4. Coal and Gas Industries in Australia a. Overview of Australian coal and gas industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    . Wastewater industry and research b. Site visit to Queensland Center for Advanced Technology · Biofuel a. Cellulose biomass resources and utilization b. Ethanol and biofuels c. Biodiesel from Pongemia oil seeds d. Biogas from landfills e. Site visit to Pinjarra Hills biofuel laboratory · Solar Energy a. UQ Solar Array

  5. ,"Utah Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. UndergroundStateCoalbedDryPrice

  6. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.PlantandCoalbed MethanePrice

  7. Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in RefineryCDU Models in Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in RefineryCDU Models in Refinery Planning Optimization Carnegie Mellon University EWO Meeting ­ March 2011 1 #12;I t d tiIntroduction Refinery production planning models Optimizing refinery operation C d l ti Crude selection Maximizing profit; minimizing cost

  8. NORM Management in the Oil and Gas Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat [Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

    2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  9. Retrofitting analysis of integrated bio-refineries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cormier, Benjamin R.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    the economic performance of fossil-based facilities can be enhanced by retrofitting and incorporation of bio-mass feedstocks. These systems can be regarded as bio-refineries or integrated fossilbio- refineries. This work presents a retrofitting analysis...

  10. Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Reforming Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon...

  11. A Texas Refinery Success Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kacsur, D.

    A Texas Refinery Success Story Dennis Kacsur Spirax Sarco Common knowledge rules that maintenance is the key to long-lasting machinery performance. Yet steam traps are often left to their own devices, to fail or succeed alone. And without... steam trap programs, plants are certain to experience a high failure rate. An oil refinery in Texas was continuously experiencing a high failure rate on its 4,790-steam trap system. Finally, the steam losses were judged to be too high, and plant...

  12. Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Nonlinear CDU Models in Refinery Planning Optimization Abdulrahman Alattas, Advisor #12;Refinery Planning Model Development Fixed-yieldModels SwingcutsModels LPPlanningModels Aggregate for the CDU #12;Planning Model Example Typical Refinery Configuration (Adapted from Aronofsky, 1978) Cat Ref

  13. Florida Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun JulIndustrial

  14. Georgia Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear JanPriceIndustrial Consumers (Number of

  15. International Journal of Chemistry; 2013[02] ISSN 2306-6415 Preservation Ways and Energy Consumption in Oil Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Samimi

    Abstract: Preservation increase and energy return is one of the effective tools in saving. Studies show that energy consumption for each productive crude oil barred is dependence on the refinery complicated in reconfiguration of forge. Energy recovery increase in refinery over time that is due to economic factors like consumption fuel increase, it means that return increase is consistent with fuel price. It developed use of crude oil capability, distillation products in modern refinery. Modern refinery recovery dead to 10 to 15 % saving in energy consumption, Modern refinery.can developed energy return in several ways such as: Thermal exchange increase between processes streams, effective hydro exchange in process units, use of heaters with high thermal return and use of gas turbines with preheated air and produce steam of waste thermal. This paper investigates management ways and energy consumption recovery in different parts of oil refinery.

  16. Methods applied to investigate the major VCE that occured in the TOTAL refinery's Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit at La Mede,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    95-35 Methods applied to investigate the major Ă?VCE that occured in the TOTAL refinery's Fluid.V.C.E, occured in the Gas Plant of the TOTAL refinery's Fluid Catalytic Cracking ĂĽnit at La Mede, France

  17. Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission Regulations while Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Combustion System Development for Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbines: Meeting Tight Emission and the oil & gas industries. The combustion system used in Solar's products are discussed along- bility for the introduction of new combustion systems for gas turbine products to enhance fuel

  18. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR Conference Report - September 2007 & The Oil And Gas Development Partnership #12;ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR May 16, 2007 St. John's Conference Report September

  19. Energy Efficient Refinery Process Developed with U.S. D.O.E. Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mings, W. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENERGY EFFICIENT REFINERY PROCESS DEVELOPED WITH U.S. D.O.E. SUPPORT Walter J. Mings, P.E. EG&G Idaho, Inc. Idaho Falls, Idaho Abstract The United States Department of Energy histori cally has encouraged private efforts to develop en ergy... with potential for extensive industrial energy savings. INTRODUCTION An innovative energy saving refinery process (also called the catalytic distillation process) for pro ducing MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether) was devel oped by two Houston companies...

  20. Affordability analysis of lead emission controls for a smelter-refinery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherer, T.M.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document evaluates the affordability and economic impact of additional control measures deemed necessary for a smelter-refinery to meet the lead emission standard. The emphasis in the analysis is on the impact of control costs on the smelter-refinery's profitability. The analysis was performed using control-cost data from two different lead-smelter studies in conjunction with other existing industry data.

  1. Quality assurance in the petroleum industry: Oil and gas industry Total Quality Management (TQM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penny, N.P.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development and implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC), known as Elk Hills', and one of the largest oil and gas producing and processing facilities in the nation. NPRC is jointly owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and Chevron USA Inc. (CUSA), and is managed and operated by Bechtel Petroleum Operations Inc. (BPOI). This paper describes step-by-step methods for getting started in TQM in the oil and gas industry, including the essential quality systems ingredients. The paper also illustrates how the President's Award for Quality and Productivity Improvement and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) can be used as the assessment standards and benchmarks for measuring TQM. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Nigerian refineries strive for product balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obuasi, P.A.

    1985-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the growth patterns of the Nigerian refining industry. Production and consumption are expected to follow the pattern of consumption of fuel products by the domestic market, Presently, however, production and consumption are not evenly balanced for most fuel products, and non-fuel products are domestically consumed but not produced. Some progress has been made in the effort to match production and consumption of fuel products. But the progress that would have been made to balance non-fuel products has been nullified by 50% of the Daduna refinery being idle. This is due to problems associated with importation of heavy crude oil into Nigeria and also a weak market for asphalt in Nigeria.

  3. Comparison of Gas Catalytic and Electric Infrared Performance for Industrial Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eshraghi, R. R.; Welch, D. E.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gas catalytic and electric infrared for industrial applications. The project focused on fabric drying, paper drying, metal heating, and plastic forming as target industrial applications. Tests...

  4. Comparison of Gas Catalytic and Electric Infrared Performance for Industrial Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eshraghi, R. R.; Welch, D. E.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gas catalytic and electric infrared for industrial applications. The project focused on fabric drying, paper drying, metal heating, and plastic forming as target industrial applications. Tests...

  5. Exergy Analysis of the Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery and Evaluation with New Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaei, H.; Taheri, R.; Arghandeh, R.

    oil refinery, Exergy Analysis, Steam Network, Retrofit, Optimization 1. INTRODUCTION Refinery steam network is considered as a unit that consumes energy greatly. The main objective of the network is to produce the steam, which is required...) Using heat recovery steam generating systems and gas turbines instead of old boilers and so on. Figure 1 shows the opportunities of optimization in steam networks. in this paper, we complete the lost works such as optimization and estimation...

  6. Cost-Effective Gas-Fueled Cooling Systems for Commercial/Industrial Buildings and Process Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.

    Gas Research Institute initiated a program in 1985 to develop cost-effective gas engine-driven cooling systems for commercial and industrial applications. Tecogen, Inc., has designed, fabricated, and tested a nominal 150-ton engine-driven water...

  7. Investigation of Swirl Flows Applied to the Oil and Gas Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravuri Venkata Krish, Meher Surendra

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how swirl flows can be applied to processes in the oil and gas industry and how problems might hinder them, are the focus of this thesis. Three application areas were identified: wet gas metering, liquid ...

  8. Saber's heavy oil cracking refinery project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benefield, C.S.; Glasscock, W.L.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perhaps more than any other industry, petroleum refining has been subjected to the radical swings in business and political climates of the past several decades. Because of the huge investments and long lead times to construct refining facilities, stable government policies, predictable petroleum prices, secure feedstock supplies and markets, and reliable cost estimates are necessary ingredients to effectively plan new refinery projects. However, over the past ten years the political and economic climates have provided anything but these conditions. Yet, refiners have demonstrated a willingness to undertake risks by continuing to expand and modernize their refineries. The refining business -- just as most businesses -- responds to economic incentives. These incentives, when present, result in new technology and capacity additions. In the 1940's, significant technology advances were commercialized to refine higher-octane motor gasolines. Such processes as continuous catalytic cracking (Houdry Process Corporation), fluid catalytic cracking (Standard Oil Development Company), HF alkylation (UOP and Phillips Petroleum Company), and catalytic reforming (UOP) began to supply a growing gasoline market, generated from the war effort and the ever increasing numbers of automobiles on the road. The post-war economy of the 1950's and 1960's further escalated demand for refined products, products which had to meet higher performance specifications and be produced from a wider range of raw materials. The refining industry met the challenge by introducing hydro-processing technology, such as hydrocracking developed in 1960. But, the era must be characterized by the large crude processing capacity additions, required to meet demand from the rapidly expanding U.S. economy. In 1950, refining capacity was 6.2 million BPD. By 1970, capacity had grown to 11.9 million BPD, an increase of 91%.

  9. Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program (Wyoming)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (CLFP) offers incentives to commercial and industrial gas customers who install energy efficient equipment in existing buildings. Incentives are available for boilers...

  10. U.S. Refinery

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil and Petroleum

  11. Fluidized bed controls refinery emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulally, I.F.; Kersey, B.R.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 1983, two fluidized bed, waste heat boilers entered into service at the Ashland Petroleum Company refinery site in Ashland, Kentucky. These fluidized bed units are coupled to the regeneration end of a newly developed reduced crude conversion (RCC) process and served the purpose of reducing CO, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions while recuperating waste heat from the regenerator process off gases.

  12. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1998 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1998 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania Production, refinery 10,000 10,000 18,000 20,000 22,000e Total imports 14,700 16,200 27,500 23,700 20

  13. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1997 producer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1997 producer price. The domestic industry consisted of three germanium refineries, one each in New York, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania, refinery 10,000 10,000 10,000 18,000 20,000e Total imports 15,000 15,000 16,000 27,000 17,0001 Exports NA

  14. Refinery Production Planning: Multiperiod MINLP with Nonlinear CDU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Refinery Production Planning: Multiperiod MINLP with Nonlinear CDU Model-Rivera (2011) developed a single-period, nonlinear programing refinery planning model production, distribution, sales and inventory management1,2. The refinery

  15. Industrial Gas Turbine Engine Catalytic Pilot Combustor-Prototype Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    PCI has developed and demonstrated its Rich Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL®) technology for industrial and utility gas turbines to meet DOEâ??s goals of low single digit emissions. The technology offers stable combustion with extended turndown allowing ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment and further increasing overall efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses). The objective of the work was to develop and demonstrate emission benefits of the catalytic technology to meet strict emissions regulations. Two different applications of the RCL® concept were demonstrated: RCL® catalytic pilot and Full RCL®. The RCL® catalytic pilot was designed to replace the existing pilot (a typical source of high NOx production) in the existing Dry Low NOx (DLN) injector, providing benefit of catalytic combustion while minimizing engine modification. This report discusses the development and single injector and engine testing of a set of T70 injectors equipped with RCL® pilots for natural gas applications. The overall (catalytic pilot plus main injector) program NOx target of less than 5 ppm (corrected to 15% oxygen) was achieved in the T70 engine for the complete set of conditions with engine CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Combustor acoustics were low (at or below 0.1 psi RMS) during testing. The RCL® catalytic pilot supported engine startup and shutdown process without major modification of existing engine controls. During high pressure testing, the catalytic pilot showed no incidence of flashback or autoignition while operating over a wide range of flame temperatures. In applications where lower NOx production is required (i.e. less than 3 ppm), in parallel, a Full RCL® combustor was developed that replaces the existing DLN injector providing potential for maximum emissions reduction. This concept was tested at industrial gas turbine conditions in a Solar Turbines, Incorporated high-pressure (17 atm.) combustion rig and in a modified Solar Turbines, Incorporated Saturn engine rig. High pressure single-injector rig and modified engine rig tests demonstrated NOx less than 2 ppm and CO less than 10 ppm over a wide flame temperature operating regime with low combustion noise (<0.15% peak-to-peak). Minimum NOx for the optimized engine retrofit Full RCL® designs was less than 1 ppm with CO emissions less than 10 ppm. Durability testing of the substrate and catalyst material was successfully demonstrated at pressure and temperature showing long term stable performance of the catalytic reactor element. Stable performance of the reactor element was achieved when subjected to durability tests (>5000 hours) at simulated engine conditions (P=15 atm, Tin=400C/750F.). Cyclic tests simulating engine trips was also demonstrated for catalyst reliability. In addition to catalyst tests, substrate oxidation testing was also performed for downselected substrate candidates for over 25,000 hours. At the end of the program, an RCL® catalytic pilot system has been developed and demonstrated to produce NOx emissions of less than 3 ppm (corrected to 15% O2) for 100% and 50% load operation in a production engine operating on natural gas. In addition, a Full RCL® combustor has been designed and demonstrated less than 2 ppm NOx (with potential to achieve 1 ppm) in single injector and modified engine testing. The catalyst/substrate combination has been shown to be stable up to 5500 hrs in simulated engine conditions.

  16. Competition in a Network of Markets: The Natural Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walls, W. David

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth in Unbundled Natural Gas Transportation Services:Purchasesby Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines Companies,1987.U.S. GPO, 1988. . Natural Gas Monthly. WashingtonD.C. : U.S.

  17. University of Maine Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) Technology Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This project supported research on science and technology that forms a basis for integrated forest product refinery for co-production of chemicals, fuels and materials using existing forest products industry infrastructure. Clear systems view of an Integrated Forest Product Refinery (IFPR) allowed development of a compelling business case for a small scale technology demonstration in Old Town ME for co-production of biofuels using cellulosic sugars along with pulp for the new owners of the facility resulting in an active project on Integrated Bio-Refinery (IBR) at the Old Town Fuel & Fiber. Work on production of advanced materials from woody biomass has led to active projects in bioplastics and carbon nanofibers. A lease for 40,000 sq. ft. high-bay space has been obtained to establish a Technology Research Center for IFPR technology validation on industrially relevant scale. UMaine forest bioproducts research initiative that began in April 2006 has led to establishment of a formal research institute beginning in March 2010.

  18. Peoples Gas- Commercial and Industrial Prescriptive Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Peoples Gas offers the Chicagoland Natural Gas Savings Program to help non-residential customers purchase energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available on energy efficient furnaces, boilers,...

  19. Hybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application to Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    implemented in Canada, what would be the response of the industrial sector in terms of energy consumptionHybrid modeling of industrial energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions with an application for modeling industrial energy consumption, among them a series of environmental and security externalities

  20. Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work Planning and Control is Not Chevron Richmond Refinery Pipe Rupture and Fire Animation - Work Planning and Control...

  1. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters - Fact Sheet 2014 Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters -...

  2. Operational, technological and economic drivers for convergence of the electric power and gas industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linden, H.R.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economically recoverable natural gas resource base continues to grow as a result of exploration and production technology advances, and improvements in gas storage and delivery. As a result, the convergence of the electric power and gas industries and the parallel development of distributed generation will benefit consumers and minimize environmental impacts cost-effectively.

  3. Do Private Firms Invest Dierently than Public Firms? Taking Cues from the Natural Gas Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Do Private Firms Invest Dierently than Public Firms? Taking Cues from the Natural Gas Industry Erik and public rms using a unique dataset of onshore U.S. natural gas producers. In rm-level regressions we nd that investments by private rms are 68% less responsive to changes in natural gas prices, a measure that captures

  4. Design of Bulk Railway Terminals for the Shale Oil and Gas Industry C. Tyler Dick1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Page 1 Design of Bulk Railway Terminals for the Shale Oil and Gas Industry C. Tyler Dick1 , P.E., M: Railway transportation is playing a key role in the development of many new shale oil and gas reserves in North America. In the rush to develop new shale oil and gas plays, sites for railway transload terminals

  5. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of air pollutant emissions. In Phase 3, the team retrofitted three fuel-flexible burners into a fired heater at a Shell plant and demonstrated the project’s technology over a 6-month period. The project burners performed well during this period. They remain in commercial service at the Shell plant. Through this work, an improved understanding of flame stabilization mechanisms was gained. Also, methods for accommodating a wide range of fuel compositions were developed. This knowledge facilitated the commercialization of a new generation of burners that are suitable for the fuels of the future.

  6. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  7. Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using Industrial Sources and Innovative Concept for Beneficial CO2 Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Mike; Ghosh, Rajat

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    field testing of a biomimetic in-duct scrubbing system for the capture of gaseous CO2 coupled with sequestration of captured carbon by carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes. The Phase 2 project, reported on here, combined efforts in enzyme development, scrubber optimization, and sequestrant evaluations to perform an economic feasibility study of technology deployment. The optimization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme reactivity and stability are critical steps in deployment of this technology. A variety of CA enzyme variants were evaluated for reactivity and stability in both bench scale and in laboratory pilot scale testing to determine current limits in enzyme performance. Optimization of scrubber design allowed for improved process economics while maintaining desired capture efficiencies. A range of configurations, materials, and operating conditions were examined at the Alcoa Technical Center on a pilot scale scrubber. This work indicated that a cross current flow utilizing a specialized gas-liquid contactor offered the lowest system operating energy. Various industrial waste materials were evaluated as sources of alkalinity for the scrubber feed solution and as sources of calcium for precipitation of carbonate. Solids were mixed with a simulated sodium bicarbonate scrubber blowdown to comparatively examine reactivity. Supernatant solutions and post-test solids were analyzed to quantify and model the sequestration reactions. The best performing solids were found to sequester between 2.3 and 2.9 moles of CO2 per kg of dry solid in 1-4 hours of reaction time. These best performing solids were cement kiln dust, circulating dry scrubber ash, and spray dryer absorber ash. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the commercial viability of the proposed carbon capture and sequestration process in full-scale at an aluminum smelter and a refinery location. For both cases the in-duct scrubber technology was compared to traditional amine- based capture. Incorporation of the laboratory results showed that for the application at the aluminum smelter, the in-duct scrubber system is more economical than traditional methods. However, the reverse is true for the refinery case, where the bauxite residue is not effective enough as a sequestrant, combined with challenges related to contaminants in the bauxite residue accumulating in and fouling the scrubber absorbent. Sensitivity analyses showed that the critical variables by which process economics could be improved are enzyme concentration, efficiency, and half-life. At the end of the first part of the Phase 2 project, a gate review (DOE Decision Zero Gate Point) was conducted to decide on the next stages of the project. The original plan was to follow the pre-testing phase with a detailed design for the field testing. Unfavorable process economics, however, resulted in a decision to conclude the project before moving to field testing. It is noted that CO2 Solutions proposed an initial solution to reduce process costs through more advanced enzyme management, however, DOE program requirements restricting any technology development extending beyond 2014 as commercial deployment timeline did not allow this solution to be undertaken.

  8. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. North Shore Gas- Commercial & Industrial Prescriptive Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    North Shore Gas offers the Chicagoland Natural Gas Savings Program to help non-residential customers purchase energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available on energy efficient furnaces, boilers...

  10. North Shore Gas- Commercial and Industrial Prescriptive Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''Contact North Shore Gas for information on bonus equipment rebates which are only available until April 30, 2013.'''

  11. The MTBE solution: Octanes, technology, and refinery profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lander, E.P.; Hubbard, J.N.; Smith, L.A.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been developed to provide refiners with business decision insight regarding the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from refinery - (FCC) produced isobutylene. The driving forces making MTBE an attractive investment are examined with regard to the increasing demand for higher octane unleaded gasolines. The decision to proceed with MTBE production depends on the profitability of such an investment and the refiner's ability to meet market demands using available processing equipment, refinery produced streams and external feedstocks. The factors affecting this decision are analyzed in this paper and include: industry ability to meet rising octane demand; profit potential realized by diverting isobutylene to MTBE; availability of technology for producing MTBE; and investment and operating costs required to produce MTBE. Chemical Research and Licensing and NEOCHEM have developed a simple, low cost process to produce MTBE, reducing the excessive equipment and high operating costs that were associated with conventional MTBE designs. The economics and process benefits of installing a CRandL/NEOCHEM MTBE process are examined within the framework of a generalized medium-sized refinery configuration.

  12. Laclede Gas Company- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial and Industrial customers can receive rebates for various energy efficiency measures. Customers implementing specified efficiency measures can receive prescriptive rebates. All other...

  13. Recent trends in refinery hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitani, A.M.; Siddiqui, M.A.B. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Refiners are experiencing a rise in hydrogen requirements to improve product quality and process heavy sour crudes. Fuel reformulation has disrupted refinery hydrogen balance in two ways: more hydrogen is needed for hydroprocessing and less hydrogen is coproduced from catalytic naphtha reforming. The purpose of this paper is to review trends in maximizing refinery hydrogen production by modifications and alternatives to the conventional steam methane reforming, recovery from refinery off gases and {open_quote}across-the-fence{close_quote} hydrogen supply. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. PROCESS PARAMETERS AND ENERGY USE OF GAS AND ELECTRIC OVENS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    . BACKGROUND This paper will evaluate current practices of clients in the New England/New York whichPROCESS PARAMETERS AND ENERGY USE OF GAS AND ELECTRIC OVENS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Dr for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering University

  15. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Nelson

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processesa in several common industrial areas: ? Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle ? Producing hydrogen ? Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer ? Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal ? Producing substitute natural gas from coal, and ? Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

  16. Role of gas cooling in tomorrow`s energy services industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, P.J.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the marketing approach and opportunities for suppliers and manufacturers of gas cooling equipment to partner with energy service companies (ESCOs). The author`s viewpoint is that in educating and partnering with ESCOs the gas cooling industry enables their technology to reach its potential in the projects that the ESCOs develop.

  17. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  18. Upgrade Your Refinery for Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnnie, D. H., Jr.; Klooster, H. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Upgrading existing refineries for efficient energy utilization imposes strict restraints upon design engineers. Present and future production requirements must be defined. Reliable operating data must be obtained from historical records and test...

  19. Making Refinery Wastewater Clean | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Refinery Wastewater Clean Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on...

  20. Retrofitting analysis of integrated bio-refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cormier, Benjamin R.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    to integrated bio-refineries. Focus is given to the problem of process modification to an existing plant by considering capacity expansion and material substitution with biomass feedstocks. Process integration studies were conducted to determine cost...

  1. Application of Pinch Technology in Refinery Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, W. R.; Siegell, J. H.; Sideropoulos, T.; Robertson, J. L.; Papoulias, S. A.

    APPLICATION OF PINCH TECHNOLOGY IN REFINERY RETROFITS W. R. L. Thomas, J. H. Siegell, T. Sideropoulos, J. L. Robertson, S. A. Papoulias Exxon Research and Engineering Company Florham Park, New Jersey ABSTRACT This paper reviews... the application of pinch technology in the identification of the most attractive retrofit prospects in typical refineries. In the first part of the paper, methodology is described to identify attractive inter-unit heat integration opportunities as well...

  2. Refinery siting workbook: appendices A and B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this effort is to develop and provide basic refinery-related information for use by state and local government officials as a basis for establishing responsible refinery siting requirements and policies consistent with the federal clean air and water standards and socio-economic concerns. The report will be organized into two volumes. The main text comprises the basic topics of physical concerns, regulatory requirements, and permitting activities, while the second volume includes the detailed appendix materials such as the applicable laws, and the necessary permits, as available and a glossary of pertinent terms. As a means to this objective, three refinery sizes, 200,000, 100,000 and 30,000 barrels per day crude charge will be discussed in technical terms. Process unit configuration will be presented which will maximize either gasoline or heating oil production with either sweet or sour crude oil feedstocks. The major issues affecting the socio-economic impact of siting the refinery in a given locale will be presented. These data will review the factors affecting the human environment and the issues that must be addressed to assess the impact that a refinery will have on a community. The key federal registrations which impact upon a refinery siting decision shall be reviewed. Summaries of these regulations and a simplified decision diagram for the air and water acts shall be presented to assist both government and refinery officials in understanding the scope of regulatory impact. All pertinent procedures required for refinery permitting shall be reviewed under the generalized headings of air, water, health and safety, land use, and miscellaneous permits. This categorization at the federal, state and local levels of government shall be used as a basis for establishing degrees of emphasis.

  3. Energy Guideline Factors Provide a Better Measure of Refinery Energy Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libbers, D. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exxon Company, U.S.A. refineries reduced energy consumption by 25% between 1972 and 1978 compared with an 18% reduction for the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry over the same period. The Exxon approach to conserving energy in petroleum refining...

  4. ConEd (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Con Edison offers New York Commercial natural gas customers a rebate program for energy efficient equipment in buildings inside the eligible service area. All equipment must be installed by a...

  5. RG&E (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NYSEG and RG&E offer rebates to non-residential customers installing energy efficiency equipment that pay a natural gas Systems Benefits Charge (SBC). Both prescriptive rebates and custom...

  6. Greenhouse Gas Programs, Energy Efficiency, and the Industrial Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, A.; Tutterow, V.; Harris, J.

    The United States has made significant progress in reducing total energy use through energy efficiency improvements over the past decade, yet the United States still ranks as the highest absolute greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter in the world with 23...

  7. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  8. Soot and SO[subscript 2] contribution to the supersites in the MILAGRO campaign from elevated flares in the Tula Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molina, Luisa Tan

    This work presents a simulation of the plume trajectory emitted by flaring activities of the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery in Mexico. The flame of a representative sour gas flare is modeled with a CFD combustion code in order ...

  9. Industrial structures : an analysis and transformation of their formal characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strub, Damon

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial structures such as blast furnaces, oil refineries, gravel crushers etc. are often beautiful and fascinating. Furthermore, they exemplify certain formal and organizational characteristics which could be incorporated ...

  10. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996)McGuire"Feet)Feet)Elements) Industrial

  11. FIRST OPERATING RESULTS OF A DYNAMIC GAS BEARING TURBINE IN AN INDUSTRIAL HYDROGEN LIQUEFIER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bischoff, S.; Decker, L. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Pfungen, CH-8042 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen has been brought into focus of industry and public since fossil fuels are depleting and costs are increasing dramatically. Beside these issues new high-tech processes in the industry are in need for hydrogen at ultra pure quality. To achieve these requirements and for efficient transportation, hydrogen is liquefied in industrial plants. Linde Gas has commissioned a new 5.5 TPD Hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany, which has been engineered and supplied by Linde Kryotechnik. One of the four expansion turbines installed in the liquefaction process is equipped with dynamic gas bearings. Several design features and operational characteristics of this application will be discussed. The presentation will include results of efficiency and operational reliability that have been determined from performance tests. The advantages of the Linde dynamic gas bearing turbine for future use in hydrogen liquefaction plants will be shown.

  12. Wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry: Assessment, conclusions, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Sundell, R.C.; Bailey, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wetland mitigation banks are already in existence in the United States, and the number is increasing. To date, most of these banks have been created and operated for mitigation of impacts arising from highway or commercial development and have not been associated with the oil and gas industry. Argonne National Laboratory evaluated the positive and negative aspects of wetland mitigation banking for the oil and gas industry by examining banks already created for other uses by federal, state, and private entities. Specific issues addressed in this study include (1) the economic, ecological, and technical effectiveness of existing banks; (2) the changing nature of local, state, and federal jurisdiction; and (3) the unique regulatory and jurisdictional problems affecting bank developments associated with the oil and gas industry.

  13. Kyrgyzstan starts up its first refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLeod, G. [Petrofac LLC, Tyler, TX (United States)

    1997-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan started up its first oil refinery in October 1996. The 10,000 b/d plant is designed to produce gasoline, diesel, and mazut (heavy fuel oil) from local Kyrgyz crude. Before construction of the Jalalabad refinery, all finished petroleum products were imported from neighboring countries. Kyrgyzstan`s demand for finished products is about 40,000 b/d. The new refinery was designed and constructed by Petrofac of Tyler, Texas, on behalf of Kyrgoil Corp., Calgary. Kyrgoil is a partner with the Kyrgyz state oil company, Kyrgyzsneft, in a venture called Kyrzgyz Petroleum Co. (KPC). KPC has undertaken restoration and continued development of the oil fields in Kyrgyzstan`s Fergana basin, in addition to the refinery project. The company also has marketing rights for finished products within Kyrgyzstan. The refinery comprises: a hydroskimming (atmospheric distillation) section, diesel steam stripping, gasoline blending, and utilities and off-sites, including steam generation, power generation, tank farm, truck and rail tank-car loading and unloading facilities, crude inlet pipeline, high-voltage power line, substation, air compression, laboratory, and maintenance facilities.

  14. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial Gas the simulation of an experimental natural gas­fired furnace are shown. \\Lambda This work was performed under

  15. Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) Kenai,Feet) Year JanIndustrial

  16. Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 0 0 1569 0 0YearIndustrial Consumers

  17. Missouri Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million CubicCubic Feet)Same 2011Feet)Industrial

  18. Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousandCubic Feet)4. U.S.Decade Year-0FuelIndustrial

  19. Alaska Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels forA 6 J 9 U B uYear JanSalesYearIndustrial

  20. Arizona Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14Decade Year-0Industrial Consumers

  1. Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14Sales (Billion CubicFeet)Industrial

  2. Delaware Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469Decade Year-0 Year-1Feet)Industrial Consumers

  3. Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58(MillionYear Jan 201151Industrial

  4. United States Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year69,023USWNC

  5. United States Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year69,023USWNCFeet) Year Jan

  6. Ohio Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul9 2010 2011Industrial Consumers

  7. Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunFeet) DecadeDecadeandIndustrial

  8. Steam System Management Program Yields Fuel Savings for Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, L. D.; Hagan, K. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Phillips refinery at Borger, Texas, determined the need to develop a utility monitoring system. Shortly after this commitment was made, the refinery was introduced to a flowsheet modeling program that could be used to model and optimize steam...

  9. Economic principles and applications to natural gas pipelines and other industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolbe, L.; Tye, W.; Myers, S.C.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This book combines and expands several of the authors` papers on regulatory risk and a report on risk in the interstate natural gas pipeline industry which the authors prepared for the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America. The first four chapters present the authors` theory of risk in regulated industries. The remaining five chapters provide a detailed analysis of risk under historic and pending regulation of the interstate natural gas pipeline industry. An appendix provides an excellent, detailed and highly annotated regulatory history of interstate natural gas pipeline regulation from roughly the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 to 1990. In some 350 pages this book appears to make two primary points. First, rate base regulation is a camel, where the definition of a camel is a horse designed by a committee, or in the case of utility regulation, a horse designed by congress, state legislatures, and the courts. The second point is that realized rates of return in regulated utilities are subject to a reverse Lake Wobegone effect. In the regulatory world of the authors, all utility returns are below average. This book contains some interesting new ideas and some excellent insights into some old issues in rate base regulation. It is worth the somewhat tedious read just for the wealth of institutional information on the pipeline industry and its regulation.

  10. Florida Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep

  11. Florida Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug

  12. Georgia Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear JanPrice Data59.2Year JanDecade Year-0

  13. Georgia Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear JanPrice Data59.2Year JanDecade

  14. Hawaii Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOW TO OBTAIN EIACubicDecade227Decade

  15. Hawaii Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOW TO OBTAIN

  16. Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOW TO OBTAINCommercial

  17. Idaho Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOWYear-MonthExports to AllDecade

  18. Idaho Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOWYear-MonthExports to

  19. Idaho Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearperHOWYear-MonthExportsLease

  20. Washington Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197Cubic Feet) Gas, WetCubicYear Jan Feb

  1. Washington Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content4,367,470 4,364,790 4,363,909 4,363,143 4,363,967 4,363,549 1973-2015 Alaska 14,197 14,197Cubic Feet) Gas, WetCubicYear Jan

  2. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearAdditions (MillionElements) Gas

  3. Software communications integrated into refinery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodpaster, R.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1989-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashland Oil Co. is integrating software communications, using real-time data, into the computerized information system at its Catlettsburg, Ky., refinery. The Ashland real-time information system (Artis) was designed to improve timeliness and accuracy of yield accounting to the refinery, and to standardize software communications between applications. With the system, real-time data are collected in a central data server and used to feed normal data reconciliation software for validation. This part of the system has been successfully implemented. Standardization of software communications is still under design, but most of the communication paths have been defined because a highly evolved information system already exists at the refinery. And efforts are under way to integrate information from the process to optimization.

  4. Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Global Optimization for Scheduling Refinery Crude Oil Operations Ramkumar Karuppiaha , Kevin C at the front-end of a petroleum refinery. The model relies on a continuous time representation making use-412-268-7139. Email address: grossmann@cmu.edu (I.E. Grossmann) #12;2 Keywords: Refinery scheduling; Nonconvex MINLP

  5. Allocation of Energy Use LCA Case Studies LCA Case Studies Allocation of Energy Use in Petroleum Refineries to Petroleum Products Implications for Life-Cycle Energy Use and Emission Inventory of Petroleum Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Wang; Hanjie Lee; John Molburg

    Aim, Scope, and Background. Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differences associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products

  6. Fuel Effects on a Low-Swirl Injector for Lean Premixed Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlejohn, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    equivalent to those from landfill gas to liquified petroleumlandfill and biomass fuels, H 2 -enriched CH 4 to simulate refinery gas

  7. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Nelson

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of analyses performed by the NGNP project to determine whether it is technically and economically feasible to integrate high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) technology into industrial processes. To avoid an overly optimistic environmental and economic baseline for comparing nuclear integrated and conventional processes, a conservative approach was used for the assumptions and calculations.

  8. Electric & Gas Conservation Programs Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund Programs for Commercial & Industrial Customers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sermakekian, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Electric & Gas Conservation Programs Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund Programs for Commercial & Industrial Customers Presented by: CL&P?s Conservation and Load Management Department 2 ? Connecticut Energy Efficiency... Fund (CEEF) was created in 1998 by CT State Legislature ? Energy efficiency is a valuable resource for Connecticut, it: ? Reduces air pollutants and greenhouse gases ? Creates monetary savings for customers ? Reduces need for more energy...

  9. Nickel-Based Superalloy Welding Practices for Industrial Gas Turbine Applications M.B. Henderson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    1 Nickel-Based Superalloy Welding Practices for Industrial Gas Turbine Applications M.B. Henderson capability materials, such as nickel based superalloys. To satisfy the requirements of the component design alloyed materials and reviews a number of welding processes used in the manufacture and repair of nickel

  10. DOE to Launch Collaborative Effort with Industry to Improve Natural Gas Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE will launch a collaborative effort with industry to evaluate and scope high-impact manufacturing R&D to improve natural gas systems efficiency and leak reduction. The goal of this effort is to establish an advanced manufacturing initiative. AMO will lead this effort.

  11. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  12. Brownfield sites: A briefing for the gas industry. Topical report, January-July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vierima, T.L.; Tikalsky, S.M.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the gas industry with a timely and comprehensive overview of the rapidly evolving issues surroundings brownfields redevelopment. Brownfield is the term applied to unused or underutilized sites where past commercial or industrial activity has resulted in known or suspected environmental contamination. New initiatives at the federal, state and local levels are making it easier to clean up and redevelop these properties. Gas companies may have opportunities to reduce liabilities associated with currently owned properties, to achieve cost savings in siting new facilities, to create customer growth in stagnant territories, and to explore new business opportunities. This report provides gas companies with an introduction to the issue, and guidance toward the information they need if they choose to pursue these opportunities.

  13. Determinants of HR Effectiveness and Refinery Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaine Mccormick; Gary C. Mcmahan; W. Scott Sherman; Patrick M. Wright; Patrick M. Wright; Gary C. Mcmahan; Blaine Mccormick; W. Scott Sherman

    This paper has not undergone formal review or approval of the faculty of the ILR School. It is intended to make results of Center research available to others interested in preliminary form to encourage discussion and suggestions. Page 1SHRM and Refinery Performance WP 97-16 Strategy, Core Competence and HR Involvement as

  14. Refinery siting workbook: appendices C to O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applicable laws and permits available for the selection and building of petroleum refineries are enclosed. A glossary of pertinent terms is also included. References related to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substance Control Act, and Wetlands and Coastal Zone are included. Permit information is also presented. (DC)

  15. The Economic Impact of the Natural Gas Industry and the Marcellus Shale Development in West Virginia in 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    The Economic Impact of the Natural Gas Industry and the Marcellus Shale Development in West for this research was provided by the West Virginia Oil and Natural Gas Association (WVONGA). The opinions herein Natural gas is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless fuel that is used by households, manufacturers

  16. Recent Advances in Mapping Deep Permafrost and Gas Hydrate Occurrences Using Industry Seismic Data, Richards Island Area, Northwest Territories, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    101 Recent Advances in Mapping Deep Permafrost and Gas Hydrate Occurrences Using Industry Seismic the extent of gas hydrate occurrences beneath it. Seismic amplitude anomalies associated with lakes, primarily related to thermal variations within the permafrost. Keywords: gas hydrates; Mallik; Richards

  17. Refinery Outages: First Half 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April 25, 20137a.06 2.013

  18. U.S. Refinery Yield

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude OilNov-14

  19. ,"U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant StocksPetroleum

  20. Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B.; Keon, E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FLUE GAS CONDITIONING TO REDUCE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN INDUSTRIAL COAL-FIRED BOILERS Barry Miller and Ed Keon Apollo Technologies, Inc. Whippany, New Jersey ABSTRACT Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many... inspection of the ESP, careful observation of ESP controls to determine spark rate and voltage drop during sparking, in-situ resistivity mea surements, rapper on-off observations, and a re view of records to investigate the relationship of boiler...

  1. The oil and gas journal databook, 1991 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book provides the statistical year in review plus selected articles that cover significant events of the past year. In addition, the Data Book features the popular surveys and special reports that quantify industry activity throughout the year. This book contains information on Midyear forecast and review; Worldwide gas processing report; Ethylene report; Sulfur survey; International refining survey; Nelson cost index; Smith rig count; API refinery report; API imports of crude and products; The catalyst compilation; Annual refining survey; Worldwide construction report; Pipeline economics report; Worldwide production and refining report; Morgan pipeline cost index for oil and gas; Hughes rig count; OBJ production report.

  2. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  3. How is Order 636 affecting the gas marketing industry; Part 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With virtually all interstate pipe lines now operating under restructuring plans mandated by Order 636 and approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), what does the new US gas industry look like Seeking a variety of perspectives on the shape that is emerging, Pipe Line Industry is interviewing representatives from production, transmission, distribution, storage and marketing firms to learn what they see as near and long-term effects on their industry segments resulting from the interstate pipe line restructuring order. Their views are being presented in a six-part series. This part discusses how Tenneco Energy Resources adjusted to Order 636 and subsequent clarifications, and what functional and philosophical changes have been made.

  4. Field testing of a probe to measure fouling in an industrial flue gas stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohal, M.S.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology sponsors work in the area of measuring and mitigating fouling in heat exchangers. This report describes the design and fabrication of a gas-side fouling measuring device, and its testing in an industrial environment. The report gives details of the probe fabrication, material used, controllers, other instrumentation required for various measurements, and computer system needed for recording the data. The calibration constants for measuring the heat flux with the heat fluxmeter were determined. The report also describes the field test location, the tests performed, the data collected, and the data analysis. The conclusions of the tests performed were summarized. Although fouling deposits on the probe were minimal, the tests proved that the probe is capable of measuring the fouling in a harsh industrial environment. 17 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, R. J.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

  6. Projection and Reaction for Decision Support in Refineries: Combining Multiple Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krebsbach, Kurt D.

    Projection and Reaction for Decision Support in Refineries: Combining Multiple Theories Kurt D system to provide decision support for refinery operations personnel (Krebsbach & Musliner 1997; Musliner to provide sufficiently flexible decision support in complex environments. Background: Refinery Control

  7. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  8. International standardization -- Changing the future of the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, A.J.; Weightman, R.T.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Suppliers to the Oil and Gas Industry have become accustomed to compliance to mandatory and voluntary programs such as quality system requirements, international standards developed by ISO, industry training programs, Occupation, Safety and Hazard Association (OSHA) requirements, and environmental requirements. However, the real impact to the industry will come through international standardization and certification methods, also known as the International Conformity Assessment Movement. This impact will make domestic efforts appear pale by comparison and will be an eye opening experience if US suppliers do not seriously monitor or become involved in what is happening internationally. The International Conformity Assessment Movement is a series of movements which will virtually affect all suppliers of oilfield and gas equipment and services in one way or another. The impact will be felt through one or more of the following ways: (1) ISO 9000 series quality system registration; (2) oilfield product certification as outlined in ISO/TC 67 WG2 documents; (3) design methodologies for oilfield equipment as outlined in ISO/TC 67; (4) European directive compliance; (5) replacement of Domestic Standards with International Standards. The conditions for which compliance is mandatory will vary from company to company and may depend upon the geographical area in which the supplier operates or supplies product. The paper discusses all five systems of standards and lists sources for further information.

  9. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery Using Heat Pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruch, M. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -expanding variety of industrial processes. One notable application in recent years has been for combustion airs preheat of fired heaters in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. Another recent development has been a waste heat recovery boiler using heat...

  10. ,"Washington Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and NaturalWellhead Price (DollarsPrice (Dollars

  11. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and

  12. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, andPrice (DollarsSummary"Coalbed

  13. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SHIP - Solar heat for industrial processes. Internationalsolar power could be used to provide process heat for

  14. 6th International Conference on CFD in Oil & Gas, Metallurgical and Process Industries SINTEF/NTNU, Trondheim NORWAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bothe, Dieter

    INTRODUCTION The efficiency of gas-liquid rectors like bubble columns, air-lift or agitated stirred reactors. Especially in case of fast reactions the effi- ciency of chemical reactors significantly depends on the mass6th International Conference on CFD in Oil & Gas, Metallurgical and Process Industries SINTEF

  15. U.S. Refinery Net Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.0949,797.6(MillionRefinery3,028,561- - -

  16. Toward a new, integrated interactive electric power and natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The movement toward a new, integrated interactive electric power and natural gas industry is discussed. This movement envisions more competition and fewer competitors. The key capabilities of the new market are described. It is concluded that what will make an energy business succeed is the ability to aggregate supply and markets, to optimize routing, to improve load factors, and to provide added levels of reliability through diversity. The strong organization that is able to deal in all forms of energy is a necessary part of this new paradigm of the integrated energy market.

  17. New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number ofIndustrial

  18. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

  19. Reformulated gasoline: Costs and refinery impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of reformulated gasoline (RFG) costs and refinery impacts have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model (ORNL-RYM), a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy emissions constraints defined by preliminary complex emissions models. Policy makers may use the reformulation cost knee (the point at which costs start to rise sharply for incremental emissions control) to set emissions reduction targets, giving due consideration to the differences between model representations and actual refining operations. ORNL-RYM estimates that the reformulation cost knee for the US East Coast (PADD I) is about 15.2 cents per gallon with a 30 percent reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The estimated cost knee for the US Gulf Coast (PADD III) is about 5.5 cents per gallon with a VOC reduction of 35 percent. Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduction is the dominant VOC reduction mechanism. Even with anti-dumping constraints, conventional gasoline appears to be an important sink which permits RFG to be blended with lower aromatics and sulfur contents in PADD III. In addition to the potentially large sensitivity of RFG production to different emissions models, RFG production is sensitive to the non-exhaust VOC share assumption for a particular VOC model. ORNL-RYM has also been used to estimate the sensitivity of RFG production to the cost of capital; to the RVP requirements for conventional gasoline; and to the percentage of RFG produced in a refining region.

  20. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  1. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil, starch and corn refining, since these can be a source of fuel products. The sugar cane industry

  2. TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS & BOOKS PRESENTED/PUBLISHED GOMES J.S. & ALVES, F.B. (2013): "The Universe of the Oil & Gas Industry From Exploration to Refining", 780

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, John M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Universe of the Oil & Gas Industry ­ From Exploration to Refining", 780 pages University textbook published by PARTEX Oil & Gas, Lisbon, Portugal. ISBN 9789892037783. GOMES J.S. (2012): "New Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industry", edited by J.S. Gomes, published by INTECH open science (www

  3. An MBendi Profile: World: Oil And Gas Industry -Peak Oil: an Outlook on Crude Oil Depletion -C.J.Campbell -Revised February 2002 Search for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An MBendi Profile: World: Oil And Gas Industry - Peak Oil: an Outlook on Crude Oil Depletion - C - Contact Us - Newsletter Register subscribe to our FREE newsletter World: Oil And Gas Industry - Peak Oil the subsequent decline. q Gas, which is less depleted than oil, will likely peak around 2020. q Capacity limits

  4. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composites for Shrouds and Combustor Liners of Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra; Jill Jonkowski; Joseph Mavec; Paul Bakke; Debbie Haught; Merrill Smith

    2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers work performed under the Advanced Materials for Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines (AMAIGT) program by GE Global Research and its collaborators from 2000 through 2010. A first stage shroud for a 7FA-class gas turbine engine utilizing HiPerComp{reg_sign}* ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material was developed. The design, fabrication, rig testing and engine testing of this shroud system are described. Through two field engine tests, the latter of which is still in progress at a Jacksonville Electric Authority generating station, the robustness of the CMC material and the shroud system in general were demonstrated, with shrouds having accumulated nearly 7,000 hours of field engine testing at the conclusion of the program. During the latter test the engine performance benefits from utilizing CMC shrouds were verified. Similar development of a CMC combustor liner design for a 7FA-class engine is also described. The feasibility of using the HiPerComp{reg_sign} CMC material for combustor liner applications was demonstrated in a Solar Turbines Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) engine test where the liner performed without incident for 12,822 hours. The deposition processes for applying environmental barrier coatings to the CMC components were also developed, and the performance of the coatings in the rig and engine tests is described.

  5. Optimum Reactor Outlet Temperatures for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Integrated with Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee O. Nelson

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a temperature sensitivity study conducted to identify the optimum reactor operating temperatures for producing the heat and hydrogen required for industrial processes associated with the proposed new high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This study assumed that primary steam outputs of the reactor were delivered at 17 MPa and 540°C and the helium coolant was delivered at 7 MPa at 625–925°C. The secondary outputs of were electricity and hydrogen. For the power generation analysis, it was assumed that the power cycle efficiency was 66% of the maximum theoretical efficiency of the Carnot thermodynamic cycle. Hydrogen was generated via the hightemperature steam electrolysis or the steam methane reforming process. The study indicates that optimum or a range of reactor outlet temperatures could be identified to further refine the process evaluations that were developed for high temperature gas-cooled reactor-integrated production of synthetic transportation fuels, ammonia, and ammonia derivatives, oil from unconventional sources, and substitute natural gas from coal.

  6. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  7. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, andPrice (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

  8. ,"Wisconsin Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, andPrice (Dollars perPlantWellheadShalef.d.Price

  9. Environmental quality indexing of large industrial development alternatives using AHP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solnes, Julius

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two industrial development alternatives have been proposed for the East Coast of Iceland in order to strengthen its socio-economic basis. The favoured option is to build a large aluminium smelter, which requires massive hydropower development in the nearby highlands. Another viable option is the construction of a 6-million-ton oil refinery, following the planned exploitation of the Timan Pechora oil reserves in the Russian Arctic. A third 'fictitious' alternative could be general development of existing regional industry and new knowledge-based industries, development of ecotourism, establishment of national parks, accompanied by infrastructure improvement (roads, tunnels, communications, schools, etc.). The three alternatives will have different environmental consequences. The controversial hydropower plant for the smelter requires a large water reservoir as well as considerable land disturbance in this unique mountain territory, considered to be the largest uninhabited wilderness in Western Europe. The aluminium smelter and the oil refinery will give rise to substantial increase of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the country (about 20%). Then there is potential environmental risk associated with the refinery regarding oil spills at sea, which could have disastrous impact on the fisheries industry. However, the oil refinery does not require any hydropower development, which is a positive factor. Finally, the third alternative could be defined as a ''green'' solution whereby the detrimental environmental consequences of the two industrial solutions are mostly avoided. In order to compare the three alternatives in an orderly manner, the analytic hierarchy process methodology of Saaty was applied to calculate the environmental quality index of each alternative, which is defined as a weighted sum of selected environmental and socio-economic factors. These factors are evaluated on a comparison basis, applying the AHP methodology, and the weights in the quality index summation are estimated in the same manner. Six persons with different backgrounds were asked to fill in the comparison matrices in order to reduce bias in the evaluation. The final results show that the two industrial alternatives come out poorly, i.e. with low quality indices, whereas the third pseudo-alternative, i.e. general development, with a considerably higher quality index, is certainly worth a further study.

  10. RCC complex now cornerstone of Ashland refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.; Krock, R.P.

    1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance of the first grassroots RCC process unit during its initial 1 1/2 years of operation at Ashland's principal refinery at Catlettsburg, Ky., has confirmed the commercial viability and process advantages of this new technology for heavy oil conversion. The unit has successfully processed untreated atmospheric residuum having Ramsbottom carbon content as high as 7.1 wt%, and metals contamination up to 70 ppm nickel plus vanadium into high yields of transportation and distillate fuels and other light products. The startup of this 40,000 b/d facility in March 1983 brought to fruition nearly 8 years of diligent process development and a 3-year accelerated engineering and construction program. The commercial unit was expressly designed and built to exploit process, hardware, and catalyst innovations flowing from the development effort and demonstrated to be especially applicable to converting long resids. The unit has generally met and exceeded technical expectations.

  11. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of its electricity requirements in the USA (US DOE, 2002)USA, where motor-driven systems account for 63% of industrial electricity

  12. Dynamics of the UK Natural Gas Industry: System Dynamics Modelling and Long-Term Energy Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, K C; Reiner, David; Nuttall, William J

    www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R N O N -T E C H N IC A L S U M M A R Y DYNAMICS OF THE UK NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY: SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODELLING AND LONG-TERM ENERGY POLICY ANALYSIS EPRG Working Paper 0913... Cambridge Working Paper in Economics 0922 Kong Chyong Chi , David M. Reiner and William J. Nuttall The UK offshore natural gas and oil industry has a long and successful history and has been said to represent the pride of UK...

  13. Applicability issues and compliance strategies for the proposed oil and gas industry hazardous air pollutant standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tandon, N.; Winborn, K.A.; Grygar, W.W. II

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has targeted oil and natural gas transmission and storage facilities located across the United States for regulation under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) program (proposed in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63 [40 CFR 63], Subparts HH and HHH). The proposed NESHAP were published in the February 6, 1998 Federal Register and are expected to be promulgated in May 1999. These rules are intended to reduce Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emitted from oil and gas facilities. It is expected that these rules will require more than 400 major sources and more than 500 non-major sources (also referred to as area sources) to meet maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards defined in the NESHAP. The rules would regulate HAP emission from glycol dehydration units, storage vessels and various fugitive leak sources. This technical paper addresses the applicability issues and compliance strategies related to the proposed NESHAP. The applicability criteria for both rules differ from those promulgated for other source categories under 40 CFR 63. For example, individual unit throughput and/or HAP emission thresholds may exempt specific units from the MACT standards in the NESHAP. The proposed Subpart HH would apply not only to major sources, but also to triethylene glycol (TEC) dehydration units at area sources located in urban areas. For both proposed NESHAP all 199 HAP must be considered for the major source determinations, but only 15 specific HAP are targeted for control under the proposed standards. An overview of the HAP control requirements, exemption criteria, as well as initial and continued compliance determination strategies are presented. Several industry examples are included to assist industry develop compliance strategies.

  14. Test plan: the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, D.J.; Lombard, K.H.; Hazen, T.C.

    1997-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The remediation strategies that will be applied at the Czechowice Oil Refinery waste lagoon in Czechowice, Poland are designed, managed, and implemented under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). WSRC will be assisted in the demonstration by The Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU). This collaboration between IETU and DOE will provide the basis for international technology transfer of new and innovative remediation technologies that can be applied in Poland and the Eastern European Region as well.

  15. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  16. Overcoming Fuel Gas Containment Limitations to Energy Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil refineries convert crude oil into high value products such as gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and petrochemical feedstocks. After squeezing as much saleable product from the crude oil as possible, there remains a light gas...

  17. Integrating NABC bio-oil intermediates into the petroleum refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2–D: Working Together: Conventional Refineries and Bio-Oil R&D Technologies Thomas Foust, Director, National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  18. Implementing an Energy Management Strategy for a Houston Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, S. C.; Agrawal, R. K.; Canon, D.

    and maintained energy management program translates to PROFIT added directly to the BOTTOM LINE. Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) recently implemented and energy management program at the Lyondell-Citgo Refinery in Houston, Texas. The basis of the program...

  19. Refinery Energy Conservation Experience with Enhanced Surface Reboilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragi, E. G.; O'Neill, P. S.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examples of refinery services where existing reboilers were retubed or replaced with enhanced High Flux tubing to better utilize or conserve energy are reported. (1) Retubing an existing toluene column reboiler permitted the use of low cost 115...

  20. Petroleum Refinery Catalytic Reforming -- Cutting High Energy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is essential that the operation and maintenance of these furnaces be optimized to minimize production costs. This paper describes the performance testing and evaluation of a set of ten refinery furnaces used to thermally drive several reforming reactors...

  1. Obstacles and Opportunity: Turbine Motorization in Refineries Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Hua; Liu, Jinghing; Liu, Xiang; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Deng, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines have been widely used in oil refineries for driving pumps, compressors and other rotary machines. However, in recent years, the authors of this paper have seen substantial turbine motorization projects completed or being planned...

  2. Obstacles and Opportunity: Turbine Motorization in Refineries Today 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Hua; Liu, Jinghing; Liu, Xiang; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Deng, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam turbines have been widely used in oil refineries for driving pumps, compressors and other rotary machines. However, in recent years, the authors of this paper have seen substantial turbine motorization projects completed or being planned...

  3. ,"U.S. Working Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. Underground NaturalWorking

  4. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of historical data and projections for supply, demand, and prices of these liquids, co-products, and competing products. To reduce confusion in terminology and improve its presentation of data, EIA has worked with industry and federal and state governments to clarify gas liquid terminology and has developed the term Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids, or HGL.

  5. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process residual like bagasse are now available (Cornland etsugar in- dustry uses bagasse and the edible oils industrySection 7.4.7. ). The use of bagasse for energy is likely to

  6. A NEW LED-LED PORTABLE CO2 GAS SENSOR BASED ON AN INTERCHANGEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyowon

    to oxygen scavenging [5]. High CO2 levels (10- 80 %) are desirable for foods such as meat and poultryA NEW LED-LED PORTABLE CO2 GAS SENSOR BASED ON AN INTERCHANGEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Abstract A new system for CO2 measurement (0-100%) by based on a paired emitter-detector diode

  7. An Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial GasFired Furnace \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the convective, viscous, and radiative heat transport terms in the mixed cells, while a finite element [20] which accounts for species diffusion, convective and radiative heat transfer, viscous transportAn Embedded Boundary Method for the Modeling of Unsteady Combustion in an Industrial Gas

  8. Innovation in mature industries : recent impacts of the oil & gas and automobile technological trends on the steel industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tivelli, Marco M. (Marco Mario), 1964-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to survive, the steel industry has undergone traumatic changes in the last years. A thirty years old overcapacity combined with a slow growing market led to a steadily eroding profitability of steel companies, ...

  9. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Arkansas Oklahoma Gas Company (AOG)- Commerial and Industrial Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The AOG programs are available to all commercial and industrial AOG customers in Arkansas. The Commercial and Industrial Prescriptive program offers rebates for the installation of energy efficie...

  11. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: CHP Market Potential in the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2% of the CHP capacity is made up of Alaskan Village power systems. Pulp & Paper 34% Refinery 11% Wood Products 8% Food 36% Village Power 2% Commercial 6% Other Industrial 3%...

  12. Industrial Compositional Streamline Simulation for Efficient and Accurate Prediction of Gas Injection and WAG Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margot Gerritsen

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-injection processes are widely and increasingly used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In the United States, for example, EOR production by gas injection accounts for approximately 45% of total EOR production and has tripled since 1986. The understanding of the multiphase, multicomponent flow taking place in any displacement process is essential for successful design of gas-injection projects. Due to complex reservoir geometry, reservoir fluid properties and phase behavior, the design of accurate and efficient numerical simulations for the multiphase, multicomponent flow governing these processes is nontrivial. In this work, we developed, implemented and tested a streamline based solver for gas injection processes that is computationally very attractive: as compared to traditional Eulerian solvers in use by industry it computes solutions with a computational speed orders of magnitude higher and a comparable accuracy provided that cross-flow effects do not dominate. We contributed to the development of compositional streamline solvers in three significant ways: improvement of the overall framework allowing improved streamline coverage and partial streamline tracing, amongst others; parallelization of the streamline code, which significantly improves wall clock time; and development of new compositional solvers that can be implemented along streamlines as well as in existing Eulerian codes used by industry. We designed several novel ideas in the streamline framework. First, we developed an adaptive streamline coverage algorithm. Adding streamlines locally can reduce computational costs by concentrating computational efforts where needed, and reduce mapping errors. Adapting streamline coverage effectively controls mass balance errors that mostly result from the mapping from streamlines to pressure grid. We also introduced the concept of partial streamlines: streamlines that do not necessarily start and/or end at wells. This allows more efficient coverage and avoids the redundant work generally done in the near-well regions. We improved the accuracy of the streamline simulator with a higher order mapping from pressure grid to streamlines that significantly reduces smoothing errors, and a Kriging algorithm is used to map from the streamlines to the background grid. The higher accuracy of the Kriging mapping means that it is not essential for grid blocks to be crossed by one or more streamlines. The higher accuracy comes at the price of increased computational costs, but allows coarser coverage and so does not generally increase the overall costs of the computations. To reduce errors associated with fixing the pressure field between pressure updates, we developed a higher order global time-stepping method that allows the use of larger global time steps. Third-order ENO schemes are suggested to propagate components along streamlines. Both in the two-phase and three-phase experiments these ENO schemes outperform other (higher order) upwind schemes. Application of the third order ENO scheme leads to overall computational savings because the computational grid used can be coarsened. Grid adaptivity along streamlines is implemented to allow sharp but efficient resolution of solution fronts at reduced computational costs when displacement fronts are sufficiently separated. A correction for Volume Change On Mixing (VCOM) is implemented that is very effective at handling this effect. Finally, a specialized gravity operator splitting method is proposed for use in compositional streamline methods that gives an effective correction of gravity segregation. A significant part of our effort went into the development of a parallelization strategy for streamline solvers on the next generation shared memory machines. We found in this work that the built-in dynamic scheduling strategies of OpenMP lead to parallel efficiencies that are comparable to optimal schedules obtained with customized explicit load balancing strategies as long as the ratio of number of streamlines to number of threads is sufficiently high, which is the case in real-fie

  13. INTERNAL REPAIR OF GAS PIPLINES SURVEY OF OPERATOR EXPERIENCE AND INDUSTRY NEEDS REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian D. Harris

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A repair method that can be applied from the inside of a gas transmission pipeline (i.e., a trenchless repair) is an attractive alternative to conventional repair methods since the need to excavate the pipeline is precluded. This is particularly true for pipelines in environmentally sensitive and highly populated areas. The objectives of the project are to evaluate, develop, demonstrate, and validate internal repair methods for pipelines; develop a functional specification for an internal pipeline repair system; and prepare a recommended practice for internal repair of pipelines. The purpose of this survey is to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. A total of fifty-six surveys were sent to pipeline operators. A total of twenty completed surveys were returned, representing a 36% response rate, which is considered very good given the fact that tailored surveys are known in the marketing industry to seldom attract more than a 10% response rate. The twenty survey responses produced the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water (e.g., lakes and swamps) in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. All these areas tend to be very difficult and very costly if, and where, conventional excavated repairs may be currently used. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem in a water/river crossing. (3) The typical travel distances required can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). In concept, these groups require pig-based systems; despooled umbilical systems could be considered for the first two groups. For the last group a self-propelled system with an onboard self-contained power and welding system is required. (4) Pipe size range requirements range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.) in diameter. The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.) diameter, with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe.

  14. Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use asFeet)Second QuarterTheStocks

  15. Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarkets EnergyConsumption5ValuesJune 2010 1

  16. The University of Aberdeen is a charity registered in Scotland, No SC013683 Oil and gas industry resources in Special Collections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    guide The University of Aberdeen is a charity registered in Scotland, No SC013683 Oil and gas.abdn.ac.uk/library/about/special/ Introduction Special Collections have established an Oil and Gas Archive to hold collections relating to the oil and gas industry, spanning 40 years. All areas are represented in holdings, including major

  17. Design of Bulk Railway Terminals for the Shale Oil and Gas Industry C. Tyler Dick, P.E., M.ASCE and Lynn E. Brown2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Page 1 Design of Bulk Railway Terminals for the Shale Oil and Gas Industry C. Tyler Dick, P.E., M: Railway transportation is playing a key role in the development of many new shale oil and gas reserves in North America. In the rush to develop new shale oil and gas plays, sites for railway transload terminals

  18. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  19. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  20. Methods in Industrial Biotechnology for Chemical Engineers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

    2008-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In keeping with the definition that biotechnology is really no more than a name given to a set of techniques and processes, the authors apply some set of fuzzy techniques to chemical industry problems such as finding the proper proportion of raw mix to control pollution, to study flow rates, to find out the better quality of products. We use fuzzy control theory, fuzzy neural networks, fuzzy relational equations, genetic algorithms to these problems for solutions. When the solution to the problem can have certain concepts or attributes as indeterminate, the only model that can tackle such a situation is the neutrosophic model. The authors have also used these models in this book to study the use of biotechnology in chemical industries. This book has six chapters. First chapter gives a brief description of biotechnology. Second chapter deals will proper proportion of mix of raw materials in cement industries to minimize pollution using fuzzy control theory. Chapter three gives the method of determination of temperature set point for crude oil in oil refineries. Chapter four studies the flow rates in chemical industries using fuzzy neutral networks. Chapter five gives the method of minimization of waste gas flow in chemical industries using fuzzy linear programming. The final chapter suggests when in these studies indeterminancy is an attribute or concept involved, the notion of neutrosophic methods can be adopted.

  1. VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VarPetrRef 1 VARIETY AND THE EVOLUTION OF REFINERY PROCESSING Phuong NGUYEN*, Pier-Paolo SAVIOTTI, refinery processes, variety, niche theory, Weitzman measure. JEL classification : L15 -L93 -O3 1

  2. STAMP-Based Analysis of a Refinery Overflow Accident Nancy Leveson, Margaret Stringfellow, and John Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveson, Nancy

    1 STAMP-Based Analysis of a Refinery Overflow Accident Nancy Leveson, Margaret Stringfellow, and John Thomas As an example of STAMP, we have taken an accident report produced for a real refinery

  3. Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Opportunities for Biomass-Based Fuels and Products in a Refinery Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session...

  4. Gross Error Detection in Chemical Plants and Refineries for On-Line Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Ralph W.

    Gross Error Detection in Chemical Plants and Refineries for On-Line Optimization Xueyu Chen, Derya) British Petroleum Applications mainly crude units in refineries and ethylene plants #12;Companies

  5. Mixed reality training application for an oil refinery: user requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjaana Träskbäck

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing mixed reality (MR) into safety-critical environment like oil refinery is difficult, since the environment and organization lays demanding restrictions for the application. In order to develop usable and safe MR application, we need to study the context of use and derive user requirements from it. This paper describes the user requirements for an MR based oil refinery training tool. The application is aimed to train employees of a specific process unit in the refinery. Training is currently done mainly in a classroom and on-site only when the process is closed down. On-site training is necessary, but expensive and rarely possible. The use of mixed reality offers a way to train employees on-site while the process is running. Users can virtually see “inside ” the columns and can modify virtually the process..

  6. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials science has become a useful tool to help reduce the number of iterations necessary to perform laboratory experiments or alloy development. However, we clearly are not able to rely solely on computational techniques in the development of high temperature materials for IGT applications. A significant amount of experimentation will continue to be required.

  7. Overview of the effect of Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Child, C.J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The regulation of hazardous air pollutants by Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has a potential wide-ranging impact for the natural gas industry. Title III includes a list of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) which are targeted for reduction. Under Title III, HAP emissions from major sources will be reduced by the implementation of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. If the source is defined as a major source, it must also comply with Title V (operating permit) and Title VII (enhanced monitoring) requirements. This presentation will review Title III`s effect on the natural gas industry by discussing the regulatory requirements and schedules associated with MACT as well as the control technology options available for affected sources.

  8. Firing microfine coal with a low NOx, RSFC burner in an industrial boiler designed for oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornhock, D.E.; Patel, R.; Borio, R.W. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories (ABB-PPL) working under a US Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) contract has carried out tests with the Radially Stratified Flame Core (RSFC) burner which was licensed from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who developed and patented the RSFC burner. Tests were carried out in a small industrial boiler, designed for oil and natural gas, located at the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University who was working as a subcontractor to ABB-PPL. The paper presents results from the long-term testing task in the DOE-PETC program with particular attention being paid to the challenges faced in maintaining high combustion efficiencies while achieving low NOx in a small industrial boiler designed for firing oil or natural gas. The paper will also address the issue of ash management when firing coal in a boiler designed for fuels having essentially no ash.

  9. Potentials for Fuel Cells in Refineries and Chlor-Alkali Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altseimer, J. H.; Roach, F.

    POTENTIALS FOR FUEL CELLS IN REFINERIES AND CHLOR-ALKALI PLANTS John H. Altseimer and Fred Roach Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico ABSTRACT The market potentials for fuel cell cogenera tion systems in petroleum refineries... in the production process are favorable to the use of fuel cells. The energy use in refineries is steam intensive with the required steam pressures ranging from approximately 15 to 650 psig. The near-term use of fuel cell cogeneration in refineries...

  10. Ashland outlines $261 million in refinery unit construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Ashland Petroleum Co. has spelled out $261 million in projects completed, under way, or planned to produce cleaner fuel and further reduce emissions at two U.S. refineries. The company: Started up at $13 million pollution control system at its 213,400 b/cd Catlettsburg, Ky., plant. Started construction on six projects at its 67,100 b/cd St. Paul Park, Minn., refinery that will cost about $114 million and enable the plant to produce cleaner burning diesel fuel and further reduce emissions.

  11. The Importance of Natural Gas in the Industrial Sector With a Focus on Energy-Intensive Industries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipalNumberAugust7,Biofuels:

  12. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning (Performance Analysis. Grossmann #12;2 Motivation · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies HF REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL

  13. The effects of soil type and chemical treatment on nickel speciation in refinery enriched soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The effects of soil type and chemical treatment on nickel speciation in refinery enriched soils Aerial deposition of Ni from a refinery in Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada has resulted in the enrichment in vegetable crops grown in the vicinity of the refinery. Conversely, dolomitic lime- stone additions resulted

  14. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial, University Park, PA 16802, USA h i g h l i g h t s Refinery wastewaters were tested as fuels in MECs effective for treatment or pre-treatment of some refinery wastewaters. The best way to start up MECs

  15. Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Integration of Refinery Planning and Crude-Oil Scheduling using Lagrangian Decomposition Sylvain: refinery planning and crude-oil operations scheduling. The proposed approach consists of using Lagrangian-study and a larger refinery problem show that the Lagrangian decomposition algorithm is more robust than the other

  16. Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced electrode configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treating refinery wastewaters in microbial fuel cells using separator electrode assembly or spaced 2013 Available online 5 November 2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cells Refinery wastewater Biodegradability Separator electrode assembly a b s t r a c t The effectiveness of refinery wastewater (RW

  17. JANUARY 2007 THE BP U.S. REFINERIES INDEPENDENT SAFETY REVIEW PANEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveson, Nancy

    OF JANUARY 2007 THE REPORT THE BP U.S. REFINERIES INDEPENDENT SAFETY REVIEW PANEL #12;From left;PANEL STATEMENT The B.P. U.S. Refineries Independent Safety Review Panel i Process safety accidents can be prevented. On March 23, 2005, the BP Texas City refinery experienced a catastrophic process accident

  18. Perception of an emergency Situation by operators in an oil refinery L.Pioche&J.RPineau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Perception of an emergency Situation by operators in an oil refinery L.Pioche&J.RPineau Institut de the operators' behaviour during an emergency Situation m an oil refinery. The aim ofthis stage the general objective is to analyse the operators' behaviour during an emergency Situation in an oil refinery

  19. Upstream Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis focuses on financial and operating trends of the oil and natural gas production business segment, often referred to as upstream operations, of 42 global oil and natural gas producing companies

  20. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  1. Strategic Planning, Design and Development of the Shale Gas Supply Chain Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    and fluids from the pure gas (methane) to produce what is known as "pipeline quality" dry natural gas.[2 in wells, providing raw materials for oil refineries or petrochemical plants, and as sources of energy.[3

  2. EIS-0071: Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuels Gas Demonstration Plant, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a 3,155-ton-per-day capacity facility, which will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the Memphis Division of Light, Gas and Water coal gasification plant at Memphis, Tennessee.

  3. Austin Utilities (Gas and Electric)- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Austin Utilities offers incentives to its commercial and industrial customers for the installation of energy-efficient equipment in eligible facilities. Rebates are available for lighting equipment...

  4. Gasification of refinery sludge in an updraft reactor for syngas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Reem; Eldmerdash, Usama [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Sinnathambi, Chandra M., E-mail: chandro@petronas.com.my [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The study probes into the investigation on gasification of dry refinery sludge. The details of the study includes; influence of operation time, oxidation temperature and equivalence ratios on carbon gas conversion rate, gasification efficiency, heating value and fuel gas yield are presented. The results show that, the oxidation temperature increased sharply up to 858°C as the operating time increased up to 36 min then bridging occurred at 39 min which cause drop in reaction temperature up to 819 °C. This bridging was found to affect also the syngas compositions, meanwhile as the temperature decreased the CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} compositions are also found to be decreases. Higher temperature catalyzed the reduction reaction (CO{sub 2}+C?=?450?2CO), and accelerated the carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies, resulted in more solid fuel is converted to a high heating value gas fuel. The equivalence ratio of 0.195 was found to be the optimum value for carbon conversion and cold gas efficiencies, high heating value of gas, and fuel gas yield to reach their maximum values of 96.1 % and 53.7 %, 5.42 MJ Nm{sup ?3} of, and 2.5 Nm{sup 3} kg{sup ?1} respectively.

  5. Industrial Energy Systems Laboratory (LENI) Gnie mcanique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggavi, Suhas

    ) Heat recovery steam generation By recovering the heat of the gas turbines, the requirements steam consumption Steam turbine power streams The implementation of a heat recovery system increases electricity and steam production). As the refinery is not connected to the grid, the gas turbines' load

  6. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 3. Engineering development. Annual report, April 1, 1995--May 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C; Gaddy, J.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refineries discharge large volumes of H2, CO, and CO 2 from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This R&D program seeks to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol for blending with gasoline. A 200,000 BPD refinery could produce up to 38 million gallons ethanol per year. The program is being conducted in 3 phases: II, technology development; III, engineering development; and IV, demonstration. Phase I, exploratory development, has been completed. The research effort has yielded two strains (Isolates O-52 and C-01) which are to be used in the pilot studies to produce ethanol from CO, CO2, and H2 in petroleum waste gas. Results from single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) laboratory tests have shown that 20-25 g/L ethanol can be produced with < 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Laboratory studies with two CSTRs in series have yielded ethanol concentrations of 30-35 g/L with 2-4 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Water recycle from distillation back to the fermenter shows that filtration of the water before distillation eliminates the recycle of toxic materials back to the fermenter. Product recovery in the process will use direct distillation to the azeotrope, followed by adsorption to produce neat ethanol. This is less energy intensive than e.g. solvent extraction, azeotropic distillation, or pervaporation. Economic projections are quite attractive; the economics are refinery stream dependent and thus vary depending on refinery location and operation.

  7. Process Parameters and Energy Use of Gas and Electric Ovens in Industrial Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosanovic, D.; Ambs, L.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was conducted to evaluate the energy use of natural gas and electric ovens in the production of polymer bearings and components. Tests were conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of natural gas and electric ovens in the process...

  8. Process Parameters and Energy Use of Gas and Electric Ovens in Industrial Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosanovic, D.; Ambs, L.

    The study was conducted to evaluate the energy use of natural gas and electric ovens in the production of polymer bearings and components. Tests were conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of natural gas and electric ovens in the process...

  9. Recovering Flare Gas Energy - A Different Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, W.

    depend on a compressor to pull suction on the pressurized flare line and pump the gas into a plant-wide fuer gas system. Because SunOlin shares its flare system with an adjacent oil refinery, any change to the flare system operation could have far... design and operating scheme incorporating the results of the HAZOP study. The major features of our flare gas recovery system, then, are as follows: A 30" main flare gas header originating in the adjacent oil refinery is routed through the Sun...

  10. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  11. Minnesota Energy Resources (Gas)- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     MER also provides rebates to commercial and industrial customers for an energy audit which provides a walk-through of the premise and a report on energy saving opportunities, and estimated costs...

  12. MTBE will be a boon to U. S. gas processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto, K.W. (Purvin and Gertz, Inc. Dallas, TX (United States))

    1993-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that the advent of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the primary oxygenate blending component for oxygenated and reformulated motor fuels promises significant benefits for the U.S. gas-processing industry. Increased demand for isobutane as MTBE-plant feedstock will buoy both normal butane and isobutane pricing in U.S. gulf Coast during the 1990s. Elimination of the need to crack normal butane in U.S. olefin plants will also strengthen competitive feedstocks somewhat, including ethane and propane. And increased use of normal butane as isomerization feedstock will result in wider recognition of the premium quality of gas plant normal butane production compared to most refinery C[sub 4] production.

  13. Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B.; Keon, E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many of the operational and emissions problems that result from burning coal. This paper describes the use of blended chemical flue gas conditioners to significantly reduce particulate...

  14. Effect of asphaltene deposition on the internal corrosion in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palacios T, C.A. [CORPOVEN S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela). Gerencia de Ingenieria de Petroleo; Morales, J.L.; Viloria, A. [INTEVEP, S.A., Los Teques (Venezuela). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Materiales

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil from Norte de Monagas field, in Venezuela, contains large amounts of asphaltenes. Some of them are very unstable with a tendency to precipitate. Because liquid is carried over from the separation process in the flow stations, asphaltenes are also present in the gas gathering and transmission lines, precipitating on the inner wall of pipelines. The gas gathering and transmission lines contain gas with high partial pressures of CO{sub 2}, some H{sub 2}S and are water saturated; therefore, inhibitors are used to control internal corrosion. There is uncertainty on how inhibitors perform in the presence of asphaltene deposition. The purpose of this paper is to describe the causes that enhance asphaltene deposition in gas pipelines and present some results from an ongoing research project carried out by the Venezuelan Oil Companies.

  15. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb MarDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

  16. U.S. Refineries Competitive Positions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year Jan

  17. U.S. Refinery Net Input

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil andNov-14Nov-14

  18. U.S. Refinery Net Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil

  19. U.S. Refinery Utilization and Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude OilNov-14 Dec-14

  20. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  1. Controlling Silver Dust and Fumes at Mine Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Haney; M. P. Valoski

    ABSTRACT: As part of the refining of gold and silver molten metal, silver dust and fumes are released into the atmosphere. The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) enforces an 8-hour, equivalent Time Weighted Average concentration limit for silver dust and fumes of 10 µg/m 3. MSHA initiated a program to assess the controls that were being used to control silver dust and fume exposure. Refineries were visited at six mines. The layout of each refinery and the controls used varied at each refinery. At each operation, personal and area silver fume and dust samples were collected to assess worker exposures and to determine sources of fume. Primary source of silver dust and fume exposure was the pouring of molten metal from the furnace. Secondary sources of exposure included: precipitate mixing, bar cooling, and housekeeping. Guidelines were developed addressing housekeeping, exhaust ventilation, general ventilation, administrative controls, and system monitoring. In most cases, housekeeping and general ventilation were adequate; however, the exhaust ventilation systems needed to be improved. 1 INRODUCTION Silver dust and fumes become airborne during the refining step of producing gold and silver. The dust

  2. THE VIABILITY OF DEREGULATION IN THE RUSSIAN GAS INDUSTRY1 C. Locatelli, IEPE, January 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    again on the agenda the oft-repeated and oft-avoided question of reforms in this industry. The latest company's monopoly on sales and production. The aim of this reform is to favour the development the deregulation reforms are compatible with the institutional environment in which they are being applied

  3. Simultaneous Production and Distribution of Industrial Gas Supply-Chains Pablo A. Marchetti1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    -chains. In this industry, cryogenic air separation processes are used to produce oxygen, nitrogen, and argon both as gaseous and liquid products. Air separation units consume large amounts of electricity, mainly due American Air Liquide Inc., Delaware Research and Technology Center, Newark, DE 19702 3 Air Liquide, Paris

  4. Advanced industrial gas turbine technology readiness demonstration program. Phase II. Final report: compressor rig fabrication assembly and test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweitzer, J. K.; Smith, J. D.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a component technology demonstration program to fabricate, assemble and test an advanced axial/centrifugal compressor are presented. This work was conducted to demonstrate the utilization of advanced aircraft gas turbine cooling and high pressure compressor technology to improve the performance and reliability of future industrial gas turbines. Specific objectives of the compressor component testing were to demonstrate 18:1 pressure ratio on a single spool at 90% polytropic efficiency with 80% fewer airfoils as compared to current industrial gas turbine compressors. The compressor design configuration utilizes low aspect ratio/highly-loaded axial compressor blading combined with a centrifugal backend stage to achieve the 18:1 design pressure ratio in only 7 stages and 281 axial compressor airfoils. Initial testing of the compressor test rig was conducted with a vaneless centrifugal stage diffuser to allow documentation of the axial compressor performance. Peak design speed axial compressor performance demonstrated was 91.8% polytropic efficiency at 6.5:1 pressure ratio. Subsequent documentation of the combined axial/centrifugal performance with a centrifugal stage pipe diffuser resulted in the demonstration of 91.5% polytropic efficiency and 14% stall margin at the 18:1 overall compressor design pressure ratio. The demonstrated performance not only exceeded the contract performance goals, but also represents the highest known demonstrated compressor performance in this pressure ratio and flow class. The performance demonstrated is particularly significant in that it was accomplished at airfoil loading levels approximately 15% higher than that of current production engine compressor designs. The test results provide conclusive verification of the advanced low aspect ratio axial compressor and centrifugal stage technologies utilized.

  5. GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 GDP Formulation of a segmented CDU Swing Cut Model for Refinery Planning Department of Chemical · Refinery planning is an active area in process systems that strongly relies on the accuracy of the CDU REFINERY FUEL RG LPG LN HN KN GO1 GO2 VGO VR1 VR2 C1 LPG LIGHT NAPHTHA PMS 98 MOGAS 95 JET FUEL AGO HGO HFO

  6. Updated estimation of energy efficiencies of U.S. petroleum refineries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palou-Rivera, I.; Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems)

    2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of life-cycle (or well-to-wheels, WTW) energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems requires energy use (or energy efficiencies) of energy processing or conversion activities. In most such studies, petroleum fuels are included. Thus, determination of energy efficiencies of petroleum refineries becomes a necessary step for life-cycle analyses of vehicle/fuel systems. Petroleum refinery energy efficiencies can then be used to determine the total amount of process energy use for refinery operation. Furthermore, since refineries produce multiple products, allocation of energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products is needed for WTW analysis of individual fuels such as gasoline and diesel. In particular, GREET, the life-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory with DOE sponsorship, compares energy use and emissions of various transportation fuels including gasoline and diesel. Energy use in petroleum refineries is key components of well-to-pump (WTP) energy use and emissions of gasoline and diesel. In GREET, petroleum refinery overall energy efficiencies are used to determine petroleum product specific energy efficiencies. Argonne has developed petroleum refining efficiencies from LP simulations of petroleum refineries and EIA survey data of petroleum refineries up to 2006 (see Wang, 2008). This memo documents Argonne's most recent update of petroleum refining efficiencies.

  7. Beneficial reuse of oilfield waste outside of the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinello, S.A.; Herbert, B.F.; Lillo, H. [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    If a beneficial reuse of an oilfield waste can be found, that specific byproduct is no longer a waste, but a product. With such downstream use, the environmental liabilities of the former waste are, except for any packaging or transportation requirements, potentially eliminated. There is a problem, however, with the lack of an active infrastructure to implement the process. Some states have limited programs, but participation is a problem. It is apparent that a {open_quotes}Waste Clearinghouse{close_quotes} addressing oilfield waste in conjunction with major industrial waste and feed streams is needed, but implementation remains in the future. An active network of participating suppliers and users would be the goal of such action. The benefits for industry would be a reduction in waste disposal and associated liabilities and {open_quotes}virgin{close_quotes} feedstock requirements. From the operators viewpoint, this scenario would require a compilation of the different waste/byproduct streams and their characteristics and a prioritizing of those wastes by characteristics that might affect their reuse potential. These might include: (1) the greatest likelihood of finding a market; (2) the highest potential waste volume reduction; (3) the highest cost of disposal and (4) the greatest associated hazards. For the industry as a whole, an inventorying of these byproducts and characteristics would be tied to the identification of consumers/outlets for specific byproducts. This might be accomplished through the funding of consultants/contractors specializing in clearinghouse activities and/or research into potential applications and uses. The industry needs to change it`s view of waste/byproduct streams in order to be more aware of potential downstream uses. Existing examples of reuse can be used as models for further efforts.

  8. New York Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthrough 1996) inThousandWithdrawals (Million Cubic Feet) NewIndustrial

  9. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2004 producer refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery

  10. The Use of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Recovery from Industrial Off-Gas Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Guerrero, P. S.; Goodell, P. D.

    that for hydrogen produced from steam reforming of natural gas, are at best marginal relative to the competing technologies such as cryogenic, membrane and pressure s~ing adsorption systems. INTRODUCTION Hydrogen is one of the most important chemical species... commercial technologies for hydrogen recovery ar cryogenic separation, pressure swin adsorption CPSA) and membrane separ ation. The two former processes purify the stream by adsorbing 0 freezing out the non-hydrogen com ponents. Cryogenic systems have...

  11. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, ExpectedLNGCoalbed Methane ProvedNetGas,

  12. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ Lease Condensate ProvedGas,Canada (DollarsConsumption

  13. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ Lease Condensate ProvedGas,Canada

  14. ,"South Carolina Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ Lease Condensate ProvedGas,CanadaLNGDeliveries

  15. ,"South Carolina Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids,+ Lease Condensate ProvedGas,CanadaLNGDeliveriesPrice

  16. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;Net WithdrawalsWellheadNaturalDryCoalbedNetGas,tofrom

  17. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPriceNonassociated Natural Gas, Wet AfterCrude Oil

  18. The value of underground storage in today`s natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report consists of three chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 provides basic information on the role of storage in today`s marketplace where natural gas is treated as a commodity. Chapter 2 provides statistical analyses of the relationship between storage and spot prices on both a monthly and daily basis. For the daily analysis, temperature data were used a proxy for storage withdrawals, providing a new means of examining the short-term relationship between storage and spot prices. Chapter 3 analyzes recent trends in storage management and use, as well as plans for additions to storage capacity. It also reviews the status of the new uses of storage resulting from Order 636, that is, market-based rates and capacity release. Appendix A serves as a stand-along primer on storage operations, and Appendix B provides further data on plans for the expansion of storage capacity. Appendix C explains recent revisions made to working gas and base gas capacity on the part of several storage operators in 1991 through 1993. The revisions were significant, and this appendix provides a consistent historical data series that reflects these changes. Finally, Appendix D presents more information on the regression analysis presented in Chapter 2. 19 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Gloucester County, New Jersey Industry City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusu, Adrian

    Gloucester County, New Jersey Industry City Number of Employees IT Service Provider Paulsboro 600 Oil Refinery Westville 479 Durable Medical Equipment Sewell 500 Flowers and Florist Wholesale Supply Sewell 550 Petroleum Refining Paulsboro 550 Warehousing Pitman 800 Packaged Frozen Food Merchant

  20. U.S. Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYear Jan Feb(Million Barrels) NewNaturalIndustrial

  1. U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Industrial Delivered for the Account of Others

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr(Percent) Industrial Delivered for the

  2. U.S. Natural Gas Delivered to Industrial Consumers for the Account of

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr(Percent) Industrial DeliveredYear

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBGOperablePERCENTthe Pricethe

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14 Jan-15LiquidBGOperablePERCENTthe Pricethethe

  5. Upstream Financial Review of the Global Oil and Natural Gas Industry 2013 -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:Deployment Activities Printable80This WeekEnergy Information

  6. ,"California Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;Net WithdrawalsWellheadNatural Gas,Crude Oil +CrudeTotalPrice

  7. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, Expected Future ProductionNetPriceGas, WetThrough+

  8. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, ExpectedLNG Storage NetPrice Sold toNetGas,

  9. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, ExpectedLNG Storage NetPrice Sold toNetGas,Price (Dollars

  10. The California greenhouse gas initiative and its implications to the automotive industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B. C.; Miller, R. T.; Center for Automotive Research

    2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    CAR undertook this investigation to better understand the costs and challenges of a local (state) regulation necessitating the implementation of alternative or advanced powertrain technology. CAR will attempt to add insight into the challenges that local regulations present to the automotive industry, and to contribute further to the discussion of how advanced powertrain technology may be used to meet such regulation. Any local law that (directly or indirectly) affects light duty motor vehicle fuel economy creates what in effect is a specialty market for powertrain technology. As such these small markets present significant challenges for automotive manufacturers. First, a small market with unique standards presents significant challenges to an industry that has sustained growth by relying on large volumes to achieve scale economies and deliver products at a cost acceptable to the consumer. Further, the challenges of the additional technology make it likely that any powertrain capable of meeting the stringent emissions standards will include costly additional components, and thus will be more costly to manufacture. It is likely that manufacturers would consider the following actions as steps to deliver products to meet the pending California regulatory requirements anticipated as a result of prior California legislation: (1) Substituting more fuel efficient vehicles: Bring in more efficient vehicles from global operations, while likely dropping existing domestic products. (2) Substituting powertrains: Add existing downsized engines (i.e. turbocharged versions, etc.) into California market-bound vehicles. (3) Powertrain enhancements: Add technology to current engine and transmission offerings to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. (4) Incorporating alternative powertrains into existing vehicle platforms: Develop a hybrid or other type of powertrain for an existing vehicle. (5) New powertrains and new platforms: Develop vehicles specifically intended to incorporate new powertrain technologies, materials and/or design (e.g. the General Motors EV1 or the Toyota Prius). These five actions represent the gamut from the least complicated solution to the most complex. They also generally represent the least expensive response to the most expensive. It is possible that the least expensive responses may be least likely to meet market demands while achieving required GHG emission limits. At the same time, the most expensive option may produce a vehicle that satisfies the GHG reduction requirements and meets some consumer requirements, but is far too costly to manufacture and sell profitably. The response of a manufacturer would certainly have to take market size, consumer acceptance, technology implication and cost, as well as internal capacities and constraints, into consideration. It is important to understand that individual companies may respond differently in the short term. However, it is probable that there would be a more consistent industry-wide response in the longer term. Options 1 and 2 present the simplest responses. A company may reach into its global portfolio to deliver vehicles that are more fuel-efficient. These vehicles are usually much smaller and significantly less powerful than current U.S. offerings. Industry respondents indicated that such a strategy may be possible but would likely be met with less than positive reaction from the buying public. A general estimate for the cost to homologize a vehicle--that is, to prepare an existing vehicle for entry into the United States provided all business conditions were met (reasonable product, capacity availability, etc.), would be approximately $50 million. Assuming an estimated cost for homologation to meet U.S. standards of $50 million and a 20,000 vehicle per year sales volume in California, the company would then incur a $2,500 per-vehicle cost to bring them into the market. A manufacturer may also choose to incorporate a more efficient powertrain into a vehicle already sold in the market. The costs associated with such a strategy would include reengineering

  11. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  12. The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: Recent updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    With continuing improvements in both standoff- and point-sensing techniques, there is an ongoing need for high-quality infrared spectral databases. The Northwest Infrared Database (NWIR) contains quantitative, gas-phase infrared spectra of nearly 500 pure chemical species that can be used for a variety of applications such as atmospheric monitoring, biomass burning studies, etc. The data, recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, are pressure broadened to one atmosphere (N2) in order to mimic atmospheric conditions. Each spectrum is a composite composed of multiple individual measurements. Recent updates to the database include over 60 molecules that are known or suspected biomass-burning effluents. Examples from this set of measurements will be presented and experimental details will be discussed in the context of the utility of NWIR for environmental applications.

  13. Common business objects: Demonstrating interoperability in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLellan, S.G.; Abusalbi, N.; Brown, J.; Quinlivan, W.F. [Schlumberger, Austin, TX (United States). Product Center

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PetroTechnical Open Software Corp. (POSC) was organized in 1990 to define technical methods to make it easier to design interoperable data solutions for oil and gas companies. When POSC rolls out seed implementations, oilfield service members must validate them, correct any errors or ambiguities, and champion these corrections into the original specifications before full integration into POSC-compliant, commercial products. Organizations like POSC are assuming a new role of promoting formation of projects where E and P companies and vendors jointly test their pieces of the migration puzzle on small subsets of the whole problem. The authors describe three such joint projects. While confirming the value of such open cross-company cooperation, these cases also help to redefine interoperability in terms of business objects that will be common across oilfield companies, their applications, access software, data, or data stores.

  14. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  15. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.

  16. Survey and assessment of the effects of nonconventional gases on gas distribution equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasionowski, W.J.; Scott, M.I.; Gracey, W.C.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature search and a survey of the gas industry were conducted to assess potential problems in the distribution of nonconventional gases. Available literature did not uncover data that would describe potential problems or substantiate the presence of harmful trace elements in final gas compositions produced from various SNG processes. Information from the survey indicates that some companies have encountered problems with nonconventional gases and extraneous additives such as landfill gas, refinery off-gases, oil gas, carbureted water gas, coke-oven gas, propane-air, and compressor lubricant oils. These nonconventional gases and compressor oils may 1) cause pipeline corrosion, 2) degrade some elastomeric materials and greases and affect the integrity of seals, gaskets, O-rings, and meter and regulator diaphragms, and 3) cause operational and safety problems. The survey indicated that 62% of the responding companies plan to use supplemental gas, with most planning on more than one type. Distribution companies intend to significantly increase their use of polyethylene piping from 11.6% in 1980 to 22.4% in 2000 for gas mains and from 33.4% to 50.3% in 2000 for gas service lines.

  17. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    71 Figure 25. Refinery Throughput, Exports and77 Figure 27. Indian Refinery78 Figure 28. Conservation Supply Curve for Refinery

  18. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the cost-effective energy savings potential in case B increases to 22%.

  19. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the cost-effective energy savings potential in case B increases to 22%.

  20. Elevated Temperature Materials for Power Generation and Propulsion The energy industry is designing higher-efficiency land-based turbines for natural gas-fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Elevated Temperature Materials for Power Generation and Propulsion The energy industry is designing higher-efficiency land-based turbines for natural gas-fired power generation systems. The high inlet materials for these aggressive environments. For example, Ni-base superalloys are used to fabricate blades

  1. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  2. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

  3. Fracking: An Industry Under Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melville, Jo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is able to squeeze out of oil and gas wells, it is a hugehugely to the local oil and gas industries, household incomeMore importantly, the oil and gas industry -- mostly through

  4. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two

  5. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  6. CO2 Reduction through Optimization of Steam Network in Petroleum Refineries: Evaluation of New Scenario 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manesh, M. H. K; Khodaie, H.; Amidpour, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam network of petroleum refinery is energy intensive, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions. A simple model for the estimation of CO2 emissions associated with operation of steam network as encountered...

  7. SELECTED TOPICS in APPLIED COMPUTER SCIENCE Data Mining and Data Gathering in a Refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoud Reza Saybani A; Teh Ying Wah B

    This article handles one of critical steps of data mining, which is data collection. It will show how the researcher could get access to the valuable data of a refinery. And it explains the procedures of refining criteria for data collection. It also briefly explains the oil refining procedures to make the concept of data gathering at the refinery easier to understand. Each manufacturing company has its own specifications and rules that are needed to be considered when collecting data. As such the result of data gathering is almost always different for different manufacturing companies. Key-Words: Data gathering, data collection, data mining, oil refinery Data mining algorithms play an important and successful role in many manufacturing companies including oil refineries. Profit management, quality and process control in

  8. CO2 Reduction through Optimization of Steam Network in Petroleum Refineries: Evaluation of New Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manesh, M. H. K; Khodaie, H.; Amidpour, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam network of petroleum refinery is energy intensive, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions. A simple model for the estimation of CO2 emissions associated with operation of steam network as encountered...

  9. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of(Millionthrough 1996)2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

  10. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of(Millionthrough 1996)2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

  11. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office of(Millionthrough 1996)2009 2010 2011 2012

  12. Assuring Mechanical Integrity of Refinery Equipment Through Global ON-Stream Inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John W. Berthold

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of global on-stream inspection technology will have a dramatic effect on how refinery operations are managed in the U.S. in the future. Global on-stream inspection will provide assurance of the mechanical integrity of critical plant equipment and will allow refineries to operate more efficiently with less impact on our environment and with an increased margin of safety.

  13. Technologies for the separation and recovery of hydrogen from refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcher, F.P.; Miller, G.Q.; Mitariten, M.J. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective use and recovery of hydrogen from the major hydrogen-containing streams in the refinery is an important strategy to meet the refining demands of the 1990`s. Hydrogen upgrading in refinery applications can be achieved by pressure swing adsorption (PSA), selective permeation using polymer membranes, and cryogenic separation. Each of these processes has different characteristics which are of advantage in different situations. Process selection and specific application examples are discussed.

  14. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  15. Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

  16. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemicals, light industry (iron foundries, cold storage andindustry ? Use of CHP ? Debottlenecking ? Increased production capacity ? Better use of production capacity ? Energy management Cold storage

  17. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industry (iron foundries, cold storage and refrigeration,Energy management Cold storage and refrigeration ? Newelectric power; heat/cold storage; heat pumps using ambient

  18. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy monitoring system Paper and Paperboard industry ? Integrated energy management system ?monitoring was handled by “accredited organizations that certify the energy management systems” (

  19. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concluded that the business energy and CO 2 taxes created aIncentives for Business Investments in Energy Conservationia/business/industry/ES_Petroleum_Energy_Guide.pdf Galitsky,

  20. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atlas, 1996b (? ). “Black Liquor gasification –IntroductionBerglin, N. July, 1998. Black Liquor Gasifier/Gas TurbinePreliminary Economics of Black Liquor Gasification Combined

  1. Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. REFEREED PAPER PRE-TREATMENT OF REFINERY FINAL RUN-OFF FOR CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh I; Stolz Hnp; Ndhlala T

    In the case of a back-end refinery, the final run-off or return syrup of 92-95 % purity and 75 ° brix is generally returned to the raw mill to be combined with raw syrup and boiled in the A-pans. Approximately 8 % of the input raw sugar brix into a refinery is returned, consequently locking up A-pan capacity and, in the case of a factory with marginal pan capacity, cane throughput is restricted. In addition, energy consumption is increased and sugar losses in final molasses are elevated. A number of processes have been considered to eliminate recycling refinery run-off, most of which require pre-treatment and/or high capital investment with a high degree of commercial risk. Test work was undertaken at the Tsb Malalane cane sugar refinery to determine the optimal pre-treatment option for decolorising and softening refinery return syrup. The pre-treatment results indicate that chemical softening, followed by the addition of a cationic colour precipitant and pH adjustment with sulphur dioxide, yields appreciable calcium reduction and modest decolourisation. The overall benefit indicates that the treated final run-off is of suitable quality to apply another crystallisation step and/or alternatively consider for further purification by chromatographic separation and/or resin decolourisation.

  3. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR A PETROLEUM REFINERY FOR THE JICARILLA APACHE TRIBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Jones

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feasibility study for a proposed petroleum refinery for the Jicarilla Apache Indian Reservation was performed. The available crude oil production was identified and characterized. There is 6,000 barrels per day of crude oil production available for processing in the proposed refinery. The proposed refinery will utilize a lower temperature, smaller crude fractionation unit. It will have a Naphtha Hydrodesulfurizer and Reformer to produce high octane gasoline. The surplus hydrogen from the reformer will be used in a specialized hydrocracker to convert the heavier crude oil fractions to ultra low sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel products. The proposed refinery will produce gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a minimal amount of lube oil. The refinery will require about $86,700,000 to construct. It will have net annual pre-tax profit of about $17,000,000. The estimated return on investment is 20%. The feasibility is positive subject to confirmation of long term crude supply. The study also identified procedures for evaluating processing options as a means for American Indian Tribes and Native American Corporations to maximize the value of their crude oil production.

  4. Conversion of high carbon refinery by-products. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katta, S.; Henningsen, G.; Lin, Y.Y.; O`Donnell, J.

    1996-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the project is to demonstrate that a partial oxidation system, which utilizes a transport reactor, is a viable means of converting refinery wastes, byproducts, and other low value materials into valuable products. The primary product would be a high quality fuel gas, which could also be used as a source of hydrogen. The concept involves subjecting the hydrocarbon feed to pyrolysis and steam gasification in a circulating bed of solids. Carbon residue formed during pyrolysis, as well as metals in the feed, are captured by the circulating solids which are returned to the bottom of the transport reactor. Air or oxygen is introduced in this lower zone and sufficient carbon is burned, sub-stoichiometrically, to provide the necessary heat for the endothermic pyrolysis and gasification reactions. The hot solids and gases leaving this zone pass upward to contact the feed material and continue the gasification process. The Transport Reactor Test Unit (TRTU) was commissioned to conduct studies on pyrolysis of Rose Bottoms using spent FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) catalyst as the circulating medium and gasification of this carbon over a temperature range of 1,600 to 1,700 F. The Rose Bottoms (Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction) was produced in the Rose unit. Studies were done in the Bench Scale Reactor Unit (BRU) to develop suitable catalyst formulations and to study the steam reforming of methane and propane in support of the experiments to be conducted in the TRTU. Studies were also conducted on gasification of coke breeze, petroleum cokes and carbon deposited on FCC catalyst. The catalytic effect of potassium on gasification of these solids was studied. Studies were conducted in the CFS (cold flow simulator) to investigate flow problems experienced in the TRTU. Results from these studies are presented in this report.

  5. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    20april%202006.pdf ETSU, 1999. Industrial Sector CarbonSee discussion of this report in ETSU, AEA Technology, 2001.a report prepared by ETSU (now AEA Energy & Environment) on

  6. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to provide training and energy audits and to help industrial1997 to end of March - Energy audits have allow to avoidagrees to undertake an energy audit, develop a management

  7. Detailed Modeling of Industrial Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Integrated Assessment Model of Long-term Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, P.; Wise, M.; Smith, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the manufacturing sector, about 26% is electricity, 58% is natural gas, 10% is coal (excluding coal coke and breeze) and the remainder is from liquid fuels. 1 AdaptedfromTableE6.4. EndUsesofFuelConsumption,1998(URL: ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/consumption/industry/d98...FuelConsumptionbyEnd-UseforallMECSIndustries,1998,trillionBTU Electricity Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal (excluding Coal Cokeand Breeze) Total BoilerFuel 29 308 2,538 770 3,645 ProcessHeating 363 185 3,187 331 4,066 ProcessCoolingand Refrigeration 209 2 22 233 MachineDrive 1,881 25 99 7 2...

  8. TSNo s02-roberts104537-O Microscopic and Spectroscopic Speciation of Ni in Soils in the Vicinity of a Ni Refinery.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    in the Vicinity of a Ni Refinery. abstract Accurately predicting the fate and bioavailability of metals in smelter REFINERY ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings - October 21 - 25, 2001 - Charlotte, NC #12;

  9. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for petroleum refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unit in 1990, using two gas turbines and two heat recovery steamunit, FCC power recovery, and optimum load allocation of boilers, as well as selection of steam

  10. Potentials for fuel cells in refineries and chlor-alkali plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Roach, F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market potentials for fuel cell cogeneration systems in petroleum refineries and chlor-alkali plants were evaluated. the most promising application appears to be in chlor-alkali plants where the production process is electricity intensive. Future anticipated changes in the production process are favorable to the use of fuel cells. The energy use in refineries is steam intensive with the required steam pressures ranging from approximately 15 to 650 psig. The near-term use of fuel cell cogeneration in refineries is not as attractive as in chlor-alkali plants. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is the most developed and the most competitive, but its use is limited by its being able to produce only low-pressure steam. Over the longer term, the molten carbonate and the solid oxide fuel cell both of which operate at significantly higher temperatures, are technically very attractive. However, they do not appear to be cost competitive with conventional systems.

  11. EVALUATION OF THE SACCHAROFLEX 2000 REFLECTANCE MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR REFINED SUGAR COLOUR ESTIMATION AT HULETTS REFINERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; N K Padayachee; V Govender

    Due to the successful use of the Saccharoflex 2000 reflectance measurement instrument on the estimation of refined sugar colour elsewhere in the world, it was decided by Tongaat-Hulett Sugar to evaluate the instrument at the refinery in Durban. Tests were carried out on first, second, third and fourth refined sugars, the results of which showed a good correlation between the ICUMSA colour measurement and the reflectance reading obtained from the Saccharoflex 2000. The instrument offers a number of advantages, the main one being that a refined sugar colour value can be obtained in less than a minute. The refinery has therefore purchased one for process control.

  12. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2003 producer. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production of fiber optics, infrared

  13. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2002 producer price-bearing materials generated from the processing of zinc ores. The germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. The refinery in Oklahoma doubled its production

  14. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon the 2001 producer price-bearing materials generated from the processing of zinc ores. The germanium refineries in New York and Oklahoma and set up in New York. The refinery in Oklahoma expanded, and a new secondary facility was built in North

  15. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2008 producer of 2008. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production of fiber optics

  16. Problem 65 in Section 4.1 (Page 274) Constructing a pipeline Supertankers off-load oil at a docking facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, Anne

    facility 4 mi offshore. The nearest refinery is 9 mi east of the shore point nearest the docking facility. A pipeline must be constructed connecting the docking facility with the refinery. The pipeline costs $300.42 miles away from the refinery, or equivalently 3.58 miles away from Point A (as the back of the book has

  17. 2:00-2:30 Beverages, 2:30-4 PM Seminar Chevron operates two refineries on the west coast of California. Large parcels of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    4/18/2014 2:00-2:30 Beverages, 2:30-4 PM Seminar Abstract Chevron operates two refineries fuel must be moved between the refineries by ship to balance production. The El Segundo Marine Terminal these vapors are returned to the refinery for processing via a vapor return pipeline. El Segundo's terminal

  18. (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based upon an estimated 2007 producer in the fourth quarter of 2007. A germanium refinery in Utica, NY, produced germanium tetrachloride for optical fiber production. Another refinery in Oklahoma produced refined germanium compounds for the production

  19. Gas Companies Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Companies program is a set of rules that encourage the development of the natural gas industry in Tennessee. They empower gas companies to lay piped and extend conductors through the...

  20. Low Temperature Waste Energy Recovery at Chemical Plants and Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferland, K.; papar, R.; Quinn, J.; Kumar, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    candidates of waste heat recovery technologies that might have an application in these industries. Four technologies that met the criteria of the Advisory Committee included: organic rankine cycle (ORC), absorption refrigeration and chilling, Kalina cycle...

  1. DOE to Launch Collaborative Effort with Industry to Improve Natural...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE to Launch Collaborative Effort with Industry to Improve Natural Gas Systems DOE to Launch Collaborative Effort with Industry to Improve Natural Gas Systems July 30, 2014 -...

  2. Standard practice for evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in high-pressure, high-temperature refinery hydrogen service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the evaluation of disbonding of bimetallic stainless alloy/steel plate for use in refinery high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) gaseous hydrogen service. It includes procedures to (1) produce suitable laboratory test specimens, (2) obtain hydrogen charging conditions in the laboratory that are similar to those found in refinery HP/HT hydrogen gas service for evaluation of bimetallic specimens exposed to these environments, and (3) perform analysis of the test data. The purpose of this practice is to allow for comparison of data among test laboratories on the resistance of bimetallic stainless alloy/steels to hydrogen-induced disbonding (HID). 1.2 This practice applies primarily to bimetallic products fabricated by weld overlay of stainless alloy onto a steel substrate. Most of the information developed using this practice has been obtained for such materials. The procedures described herein, may also be appropriate for evaluation of hot roll bonded, explosive bonded...

  3. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  4. THE NEW GASIFICATION PROJECT AT ENI SANNAZZARO REFINERY AND ITS INTEGRATION WITH A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mwe Power Plant; Guido Collodi; Dario Camozzi; Snamprogetti Italy

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the new regulation introduced in Europe in the last years, defining more stringent limits for the emissions to the atmosphere, the necessity to find an alternative use for the fuel oil has created a new challenge for the refineries. At the same time the need to improve the Italian power production has pushed Eni, the Italian energy company, to enter the electricity market.

  5. Getting it right at Catlettsburg: How Ashland Petroleum`s flagship refinery transformed itself

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitt, R.E.; Kennison, R.H.M.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Life has its surprises. In the midst of the pain and excitement of a massive organizational overhaul, Ashland Petroleum`s Catlettsburg refinery--a 220,000-b/d facility in Ashland, Ky.,--experienced an unplanned cracker shutdown, a few production mishaps, a two-week employee walk-out, and belt-tightening necessitated by competitive pressures. Yet, despite these adverse circumstances, the Catlettsburg Refinery Initiative (CRI), a 20-month effort that shifted from planning to implementation in October 1995, yielded remarkable results. By 1996, the refinery began achieving record levels of through-put with lower maintenance costs, increasing company profitability by about 15% in the first half of 1996, over the same period in 1995. In a post-initiative survey, refinery employees expressed enthusiam for the changes and their new work-roles. A number of factors converged to give the initiative drive and direction: a pervasive discomfort with the status quo, a determination by top management to make fundamental changes, a commitment to rapid implementation and effective use of an outside consultant. But above all, success at Catlettsburg was a result of a grassroots approach to the process of change.

  6. Application and Operation of a 2-MW Organic Rankine Cycle System on a Refinery FCC Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drake, R. L.

    The nation's largest organic Rankine cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system was started up in July 1984 at a West Coast oil refinery. The system includes two hermetically sealed turbine-generator units, each rated at 1070 kW. Each turbine...

  7. Restoration of Refinery Heaters Using the Technique of Prefabricated Ceramic Fiber Lined Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sento, H. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery heater fuel requirements often represent 50% of a units operating cost. A one percent change in the efficiency of a heater firing 100 MBtu/hr amounts to more than $25,000 per year. Heater efficiency is influenced by casing hot spots, air...

  8. Land Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production (crude refineryLand Use Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Conventional Oil Production and Oil Sands S O N I A Y E H and Alberta as examples for conventional oil production as well as oil sands production in Alberta

  9. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  10. Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Worsztynowicz, A.; Ulfig, K. [Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

    1997-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH`s, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass.

  11. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  12. The occurrence of heavy metals in the vicinity of industrial complexes in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ndiokwere, C.L.; Ezihe, C.A. (Univ. of Benin, Benin City (Nigeria))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils, crops, and plants as a result of industrial activities has been examined at various locations in the vicinities of steel and refinery complexes. High concentrations of the metals were recorded in all the samples from the sites close to the emission sources and the levels decreased with distance away from the sources. Considerable amounts of the metals found in the crops and plants were mainly due to aerial deposition. Soil and crop contamination by the metals was generally higher in the steel complex than the refinery. Cadmium and lead levels were particularly high in all the samples from both complexes.

  13. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  14. Effectiveness of in site biodegradation for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a contaminated oil refinery, Port Arthur, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffit, Alfred Edward

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of bioremediation for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sediments contaminated with highly weathered petroleum was evaluated at a contaminated oil refinery. The sediments were chronically contaminated...

  15. Refinery Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP) Recovers LPG's and Gasoline, Saves Energy, and Reduces Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    A first-of-its-kind Waste Heat Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Plant (WHAARP™) was installed by Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc. in partnership with Energy Concepts Co. at Ultramar Diamond Shamrock's 30,000 barrel per day refinery in Denver...

  16. Refinery Furnaces Retrofit with Gas Turbines Achieve Both Energy Savings and Emission Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacobbe, F.; Iaquaniello, G.; Minet, R. G.; Pietrogrande, P.

    25 273 950 4 38 34 328 780 TABLE 5: Turbine Cost (F.O.B. USA) $/kW k~J Efficiency, % Garret 1M831 483 518 21 Allison 501KB5 404 3700 29 N.P. 1002 281 4500 25 GE LM2500-20 469 12,800 34 GE LM2500-33* 326 21,500 36 * same Frame... Plant Emissions; paper presented at the' EPA/EPRI Joint Symposium Stationery Combustion:NO Control, Denver Colorado, October 6-9, 1980. I x 12. William F. Kenney. Combustion Air preheat Saves Energy in Olefins Production at Ethylene: Plants; Oil...

  17. U.S. Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks of Selected

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and InstitutionalArea: U.S. East Coast (PADDPetroleum

  18. Distillate Fuel Oil Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy : b ra&le.com

  19. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes"for Selected

  20. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPrice (Dollars per ThousandLiquids

  1. Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14Table 4.April 25, 20137a.06 2.013 1.673

  2. U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil and

  3. U.S. Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14TotalThe Outlook269,023Year JanCrude Oil andNov-14

  4. Natural gas monthly, July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents information pertaining to the natural gas industry. Data are included on production, consumption, distribution, and pipeline activities.

  5. Refinery fuel oxygenates in view of the complex model for reformulated gasline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.D.; Haelsig, C.P. [Fluor Daniel, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The final version of the Complex Model for reformulated gasoline (RFG) has now been issued with some surprising features that will significantly affect refinery fuel oxygenates planning. These include the following: (1) The only oxygenates included in the model are MTBE, ETBE, TAME, and Ethanol. (2) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME are significantly more effective for reduction of air toxics emissions than Ethanol and ETBE. (3) The Complex Model calculates that MTBE and TAME typically produce about equal reduction in air toxics emissions at the same RFG oxygen content. Although gasoline certification by the Complex Model is optional prior to 1998, after 1998 it will be mandatory for both reformulated and conventional gasolines. This paper considers refinery oxygenates production in view of these features of the Complex Model for RFG, basing the discussion on 2.0 weight percent oxygen content for RFG.

  6. Review of petroleum transport network models and their applicability to a national refinery model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, J. N.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines four petroleum transport network models to determine whether parts of them can be incorporated into the transportation component of a national refinery model. Two questions in particular are addressed. (a) How do the models under examination represent the oil transport network, estimate link capacities, and calculate transport costs. (b) Are any of these network representations, capacity estimates, or cost functions suitable for inclusion in a linear programming model of oil refinery and primary distribution in the US. Only pipeline and waterway transport is discussed. The models examined are the Department of Energy's OILNET model, the Department of Transportation's Freight Energy Model, the Federal Energy Administration Petroleum Transportation Network Model, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory oil pipeline energy model. Link capacity and cost functions are recommended for each transport mode. The coefficients of the recommended pipeline cost functions remain to be estimated.

  7. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  8. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  9. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  10. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  11. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses. Methods to reduce metal content are being evaluated.

  12. Process studies for a new method of removing H/sub 2/S from industrial gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumann, D.W.; Lynn, S.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal-derived gas streams has been developed. The basis for the process is the absorption of H/sub 2/S into a polar organic solvent where it is reacted with dissolved sulfur dioxide to form elemental sulfur. After sulfur is crystallized from solution, the solvent is stripped to remove dissolved gases and water formed by the reaction. The SO/sub 2/ is generated by burning a portion of the sulfur in a furnace where the heat of combustion is used to generate high pressure steam. The SO/sub 2/ is absorbed into part of the lean solvent to form the solution necessary for the first step. The kinetics of the reaction between H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ dissolved in mixtures of N,N-Dimethylaniline (DMA)/ Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether and DMA/Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether was studied by following the temperature rise in an adiabatic calorimeter. This irreversible reaction was found to be first-order in both H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/, with an approximates heat of reaction of 28 kcal/mole of SO/sub 2/. The sole products of the reaction appear to be elemental sulfur and water. The presence of DMA increases the value of the second-order rate constant by an order of magnitude over that obtained in the glycol ethers alone. Addition of other tertiary aromatic amines enhances the observed kinetics; heterocyclic amines (e.g., pyridine derivatives) have been found to be 10 to 100 times more effective as catalysts when compared to DMA.

  13. Nigeria: after crude, the gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Misinterpretation of the laws of the marketplace have already brought Nigeria to the brink of a catastrophe in 1978, when the government had built up heavy stocks expecting a substantial increase in price. When it did not materialize and the production had to be dropped to 50% of the previous rate, in a country where crude constitutes 90% of the export revenues, the system was changed. The new plan is intended to reduce the dependence of Nigeria on oil exports. The production rate is set at between 2.2 and 2.5 million bpd. Due to a significant increase in domestic demand, the 2 existing refineries cannot fill the gap; 2 more refineries are planned. There also are substantial gas reserves; the associated gas, now flared, is to be recovered. A gas liquefaction plant also is in operation, with one-half of the output going to Europe and one-half to the US. Some of the oil and gas is earmarked for local petrochemical plants.

  14. Climate VISION: PrivateSector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    processing, transportation, and distribution. All of these segments are elements of the natural gas industry and the oil industry but are different for oil than for natural gas....

  15. Seaway conversion moves Oklahoma gas to Texas plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazin, G.L. II; Ince, R.L.

    1986-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Purchase and conversion to natural gas transmission of the Seaway crude oil pipeline was an effort to capitalize on the line's location to gather raw gas in Oklahoma and Texas for use as fuel at Phillips Petroleum Co.'s Sweeny, Tex., refinery. The Seaway pipeline was planned during the early 1970s as a major midwest oil artery. The purpose of the 30-in., 500-mile pipeline, extending from Jones Creek, Tex., to Cushing, Okla., was to feed inland midcontinent refineries with lower-cost imported oil. Owned by a consortium of seven companies, the pipeline began operation in mid-1976 and continued almost uninterrupted until 1982, at which time excess U.S. refining capacity, coupled with reduced oil imports, resulted in the closing of several large inland refineries. These refinery closings, along with reduced crude oil import demands, caused the Seaway pipeline to become inactive for several long periods of time. Since the forecast use of the pipeline was not favorable, the pipeline and its terminals were put up for sale.

  16. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries Gas Works Gas Works -Gas Petroleum Other Products Refinery Production by ProductGas Petroleum Other Products Refinery Gas Consumption Total

  17. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report, May 10, 1994--December 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (i) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (ii) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. Since this work was for fundamental research in a number of related areas to the use of LNG as a transportation fuel for long haul trucking, many of those results have appeared in numerous refereed journal and conference papers, and significant graduate training experiences (including at least one M.S. thesis and one Ph.D. dissertation) in the first year of this project. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

  18. Development of a low swirl injector concept for gas turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, R.K.; Fable, S.A.; Schmidt, D.; Arellano, L.; Smith, K.O.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injector Concept for Gas Turbines Robert K. Cheng * , Scottconcept for ultra- low NO x gas turbines. Low-swirl flamevirtually every industrial gas turbine manufacturer to meet

  19. Morbidity And Sulfur Dioxide: Evidence From French Strikes At Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Neidell; Emmanuelle Lavaine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the impact of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in France on health outcomes at a census track level. To do so, we use recent strikes affecting oil refineries in France, in October 2010, as a natural experiment. Our work offers several contributions. We first show that a temporal shut down in the refining process leads to a reduction in sulfur dioxide concentration. We then use this narrow time frame exogenous shock to assess the impact of a change in air pollution concentration on respiratory outcomes. Our estimates suggest that daily variation in SO2 air pollution has economically significant health effects at levels below the current standard. 0

  20. Standard practice for evaluating and qualifying oil field and refinery corrosion inhibitors using rotating cage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers a generally accepted procedure to use the rotating cage (RC) for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oil field and refinery applications. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Industrial Natural Gas Combustion (Unspecified) COlb/MMcf Commercial Natural Gas Combustion - WaterHeating Commercial Natural Gas Combustion - Space Heating NO

  2. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Industrial Natural Gas Combustion (Unspecified) CO lb/MMcf Commercial Natural Gas Combustion - Water HeatingCommercial Natural Gas Combustion - Space Heating NO X CO

  3. Long-term contracts and asset specificity revisited : an empirical analysis of producer-importer relations in the natural gas industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumann, Anne

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we analyze structural changes in long-term contracts in the international trade of natural gas. Using a unique data set of 262 long-term contracts between natural gas producers and importers, we estimate the ...

  4. National Socialist Plundering of Precious Metals, 1933-1945: The Role of Degussa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banken, Ralf

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Degussa; Platinium: Heraeus) Refineries Industrial Consumers largest precious metal refinery. Fig. 2: The Position ofSilver Coins Smelting and Refinery Smelting and Refinery of

  5. Benchmarks for industrial energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amarnath, K.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kumana, J.D. [Linnhoff March, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shah, J.V. [Electric Power Research Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemicals and Petroleum Center

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    What are the standards for improving energy efficiency for industries such as petroleum refining, chemicals, and glass manufacture? How can different industries in emerging markets and developing accelerate the pace of improvements? This paper discusses several case studies and experiences relating to this subject emphasizing the use of energy efficiency benchmarks. Two important benchmarks are discussed. The first is based on a track record of outstanding performers in the related industry segment; the second benchmark is based on site specific factors. Using energy use reduction targets or benchmarks, projects have been implemented in Mexico, Poland, India, Venezuela, Brazil, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Republic of South Africa and Russia. Improvements identified through these projects include a variety of recommendations. The use of oxy-fuel and electric furnaces in the glass industry in Poland; reconfiguration of process heat recovery systems for refineries in China, Malaysia, and Russia; recycling and reuse of process wastewater in Republic of South Africa; cogeneration plant in Venezuela. The paper will discuss three case studies of efforts undertaken in emerging market countries to improve energy efficiency.

  6. NIPSCO Prescriptive Electric and Natural Gas Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NIPSCO’s Commercial and Industrial Prescriptive Natural Gas & Electric Program offers rebates to NIPSCO's large commercial, industrial, non-profit, governmental and institutional customers, who...

  7. The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry. Final report, Task 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80`s when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries.

  8. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel Oil Fuel Oil LPG Refinery Gas Other PetroleumPipelines. All still gas/refinery gas in China is reportedlubricants petroleum coke refinery feedstock still gas/

  9. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Oil and Gas Company Oil and Gas Company Address Place Zip Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dhahran Saudi Arabia http www saudiaramco com en home html Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company SAMREF Saudi Aramco Mobile Refinery Company SAMREF P O Box Yanbu S audi...

  11. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( ES)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  12. RESULTS FROM THE (1) DATA COLLECTION WORKSHOP, (2) MODELING WORKSHOP AND (3) DRILLING AND CORING METHODS WORKSHOP AS PART OF THE JOINT INDUSTRY PARTICIPATION (JIP) PROJECT TO CHARACTERIZE NATURAL GAS HYDRATES IN THE DEEPWATER GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen A. Holditch; Emrys Jones

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2000, Chevron began a project to learn how to characterize the natural gas hydrate deposits in the deepwater portions of the Gulf of Mexico. A Joint Industry Participation (JIP) group was formed in 2001, and a project partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began in October 2001. The primary objective of this project is to develop technology and data to assist in the characterization of naturally occurring gas hydrates in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. These naturally occurring gas hydrates can cause problems relating to drilling and production of oil and gas, as well as building and operating pipelines. Other objectives of this project are to better understand how natural gas hydrates can affect seafloor stability, to gather data that can be used to study climate change, and to determine how the results of this project can be used to assess if and how gas hydrates act as a trapping mechanism for shallow oil or gas reservoirs. As part of the project, three workshops were held. The first was a data collection workshop, held in Houston during March 14-15, 2002. The purpose of this workshop was to find out what data exist on gas hydrates and to begin making that data available to the JIP. The second and third workshop, on Geoscience and Reservoir Modeling, and Drilling and Coring Methods, respectively, were held simultaneously in Houston during May 9-10, 2002. The Modeling Workshop was conducted to find out what data the various engineers, scientists and geoscientists want the JIP to collect in both the field and the laboratory. The Drilling and Coring workshop was to begin making plans on how we can collect the data required by the project's principal investigators.

  13. Industrial Permit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection Obeying Environmental Laws Industrial Permit Industrial Permit The Industrial Permit authorizes the Laboratory to discharge point-source effluents under the...

  14. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M; Farrell, Alexander E; Plevin, Richard J; Jones, Andrew D; Nemet, Gregory F; Delucchi, Mark A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extraction (e.g. crude oil production and shipment),production arises in petroleum refineries. A refinery turns crude oil

  15. Detailed Modeling of Industrial Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Integrated Assessment Model of Long-term Global Change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, P.; Wise, M.; Smith, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population (May 2005),Submitted to Oak RidgeNational Laboratory, http://www.eea-inc.com/natgas_reports/BoilersFinal.pdf Edmonds J, Clarke K, Dooley J, Kim S.H, Smith SJ. (2004) “Stabilization of CO2 in a B2...-003 Xenergy,Inc.United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment, (December 2002), Prepared for US Department of Energy’s THE U.S. Department Of Energy’s Office Of Industrial Technologies And Oak RidgeNational Laboratory. http://eereweb.ee.doe.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/mtrmkt.pdf ...

  16. ,"Utah Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plant Liquids,

  17. ,"Vermont Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.Plantand Wyoming

  18. Refinery Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida4 U.S. Manufacturing Energy UseMary

  19. Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Natural Resources Canada, Environment Canada, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, Canadian Foundry Association, Canadian Gas Association, Canadian Petroleum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on energy in the industrial sector or publications by NRCan that reflect energy consumption in various des ressources naturelles, Québec. Ministry of Energy Mines and Petroleum Resource, BC. CIEEDAC An Inventory of Industrial Energy and Emissions Databases in Canada, 2007 Prepared for Natural Resources Canada

  20. ,"U.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. Underground Natural Gas

  1. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

  2. Standard guide for evaluating and qualifying oilfield and refinery corrosion inhibitors in the laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide covers some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for evaluating corrosion inhibitors for oilfield and refinery applications in well defined flow conditions. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather covers a range of approaches which have found application in inhibitor evaluation. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in inhibitor evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for evaluating corrosion inhibitors. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

  3. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules (Released in the STEO January 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On August 27, 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an individual refinery baseline is not available to domestic refiners.) If a foreign refiner did not establish and use an individual baseline, the gasoline they export to the United States would be regulated through the importer, and subject to the importer's baseline (most likely the statutory baseline). Specific regulatory provisions are implemented to ensure that the option to use an individual baseline would not lead to adverse environmental impacts. This involves monitoring the average quality of imported gasoline, and if a specified benchmark is exceeded, remedial action would be taken by adjusting the requirements applicable to imported gasoline.

  4. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kerosene Petroleum Other Products Refinery Gas Diesel OilGasoline Liquid Petroleum Gas Refinery Production by ProductPetroleum Other Products Refinery Gas Diesel Oil Gasoline

  5. An international comparison of Scotland and Newfoundland's offshore marine industries: exploring the connections among commercial fisheries and offshore oil and gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowitt, Kerrie

    The development of the offshore oil industry in the past fifty years has created heightened interactions at sea, where traditionally fishing activities dominated. This study explores the nature of liaison bodies that have formed between...

  6. Partnering with Industry to Develop Advanced Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session IA—Conversion Technologies I: Industrial Perspectives on Pathways to Advanced Biofuels Partnering with Industry to Develop Advanced Biofuels David C. Carroll, President and Chief Executive Officer, Gas Technology Institute

  7. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A DOE/PETC funded study was conducted to examine the use of a liquid phase mixed alcohol synthesis (LPMAS) plant to produce gasoline blending ethers. The LPMAS plant was integrated into three utilization scenarios: a coal fed IGCC power plant, a petroleum refinery using coke as a gasification feedstock, and a standalone natural gas fed partial oxidation plant. The objective of the study was to establish targets for the development of catalysts for the LPMAS reaction. In the IGCC scenario, syngas conversions need only be moderate because unconverted syngas is utilized by the combined cycle system. A once through LPMAS plant achieving syngas conversions in the range of 38--49% was found to be suitable. At a gas hourly space velocity of 5,000 sL/Kg-hr and a methanol:isobutanol selectivity ratio of 1.03, the target catalyst productivity ranges from 370 to 460 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the petroleum refinery scenario, high conversions ({approximately}95%) are required to avoid overloading the refinery fuel system with low Btu content unconverted syngas. To achieve these high conversions with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas, a recycle system was required (because of the limit imposed by methanol equilibrium), steam was injected into the LPMAS reactor, and CO{sub 2} was removed from the recycle loop. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 265 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the standalone LPMAS scenario, essentially complete conversions are required to achieve a fuel balanced plant. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 285 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. The economics of this scenario are highly dependent on the cost of the natural gas feedstock and the location of the plant. For all three case scenarios, the economics of a LPMAS plant is marginal at current ether market prices. Large improvements over demonstrated catalyst productivity and alcohol selectivity are required.

  8. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Natural gas monthly, December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents information of interest to organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data are presented on natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  10. The Gas/Electric Partnership 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeal, W. R.; Royall, D.; Wrenn, K. F. Jr.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as this occurs. Through an Electric Power Research Institute initiative, an inter-industry organization, the Gas/Electric Partnership, has formed between the electric utilities and gas pipelines. The initial focus of this partnership is to explore issues...

  11. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  12. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  13. The local innovation system of the oil and gas industry in the North Sea : the application of patent data in the study of innovation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Wei, Ph. D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The North Sea oil province, one of the world's major centers of petroleum and natural gas production, has been in play for four decades. Production rates have approached their peaks in recent years and are expected to ...

  14. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    iron and steel production. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme,industry. Cheltenham, UK, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme,WBCSD), Geneva, Switzerland. IEA (1997) Voluntary actions

  15. Industrial Engineering Industrial Advisory Board

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    Industrial Engineering Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) #12;PURPOSE: The Texas Tech University - Industrial Engineering Industrial Ad- visory Board (IAB) is an association of professionals with a com- mon goal - promoting and developing the Texas Tech Department of Industrial Engineering and its students

  16. Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Compressed Air Management Program: A Performance Assessment Approach to Improving Industrial Compressed Air System Operation and Maintenance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qualmann, R. L.; Zeller, W.; Baker, M.

    equipment: ? AEC MicroDataLogger. Four channel data recorder. ? Veris Hawkeye self-contained split-core kW transducer. Samples voltage and current in a three-phase circuit to produce a 4-20mA output proportional to true RMS power with 1% full scale... Commission 1997 Utility Sales Data. 3. US Bureau of the Census - 1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). 4. US DOE Motor Chal1enge Market Assessment Inventory (MAl). 5. US DOE Office of Industrial Technology Industrial Assessment...

  17. Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Prot Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PROPRIETARY INFORMATION? 2011 KBC Advanced Technologies plc. All Rights Reserved. Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Port Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility May... Improvements ? Cost-savings initiatives ? Increasing environmental awareness ? Increasing throughput by debottlenecking processes ? Increasing government mandates 2May 2013 Energy Costs for a 200kBPD Complex refinery Typically, energy efficiency programs...

  18. 11 2011 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. 1:1120 (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg3 Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/ghg3.001 On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up, such as oil produc- tion. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO2 storage projects is presented. Also dis- cussed

  19. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  20. Assistance to state underground injection control programs and the oil and gas industry with class 2 injection well data management and technology transfer. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paque, M.J.

    1995-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Underground Injection Practices Research Foundation (UIPRF) administered a grant project funded by the US Department of Energy relating to Class 2 injection well operations in various primacy and direct implementation states throughout the country. This effort provided substantial benefits to state regulatory agencies and oil and gas producing companies. It enhanced the protection of the environment through the protection of ground water resources and improved oil and gas production operations within affected states. This project involved the following accomplishment: (1) Completed the design and installation of the only comprehensive, fully relational PC-Based Oil and Gas regulatory data management system (the Risk Based Data Management System) in the country. Additionally, training and data conversion was conduced and the RBDMS User`s Guide and the RBDMS Administrator`s Guide were completed. (2) State wide Area-Of-Review (AOR) workshop were held in California and Oklahoma and a national three-day workshop was held in Kansas City, Missouri where 24 state oil and gas agencies were represented.

  1. Natural Gas Discovery and Development Impacts on Rio Vista and Its Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gbedema, Tometi Koku

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of several localities’ economy (Natural Gas Bulletin, 2004).the natural gas discovery operations and the economy of thein our economy, that certain aspects of natural gas industry

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for powering a gas turbine or to supply industrial processin conjunetion with a gas turbine system providing severalincluding heating a gas to operate a turbine (4), providing

  3. Do Americans Consume Too Little Natural Gas? An Empirical Test of Marginal Cost Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Lucas; Muehlegger, Erich

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential Market for Natural Gas,” 2008, working paper. [of Electricity and Natural Gas,” Journal of IndustrialPrices: Evidence from Natural Gas Distribution Utilities,”

  4. Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers for Corrosive Waste Gas Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laws, W. R.; Reed, G. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    developed for low temperature corrosive gas situations and have been applied to the pottery industry and are being developed for coal fired air heaters for the food industry....

  5. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Industry Associations American Petroleum Institute The oil and natural gas industry provides the fuel for American life, warming our homes, powering our businesses and giving us...

  6. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

  7. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  8. Technical and operational overview of the C[sub 4] Oleflex process at Valero refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohnholt, J.F.; Payne, D. (Valero Refining Co., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)); Gregor, J.; Smith, E. (UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in gasoline composition stemming from the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments prompted Valero Energy Corporation to evaluate options for producing reformulated gasoline. The evaluation culminated in a project to upgrade butanes into methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). Technology selection focused on the dehydrogenation of isobutane, and the UOP Oleflex process was selected. The MTBE project was implemented in 34 months and was $3 million under budget. The guaranteed MTBE production of 12,500 BPSD was achieved within one month of mechanical completion and has since reached 15,000 BPSD. Even at the low MTBE prices prevailing in late 1993, the butane upgrading project contributed significantly to Valero Refinery's overall profitability. Worldwide demand is expected to increase MTBE prices in 1996, thereby further increasing profits. The paper describes the project evaluation activities which led to the selection of the Oleflex process, engineering and construction, the MTBE complex start-up and operation, the Valero MTBE complex performance, and future plans. The paper also discusses feedstock utilization efficiency and MTBE market analysis.

  9. Summary of the proceedings of the workshop on the refinery of the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report on the Workshop on the Refinery of the Future has been prepared for participants to provide them with a succinct summary of the presentations, deliberations, and discussions. In preparing the summary, we have striven to capture the key findings (conclusions) and highlight the issues and concerns raised during the plenary and breakout sessions. The presentation of the summary of the proceedings follows the final workshop agenda, which is given in Section I; each section is tabbed to facilitate access to specific workshop topics. The material presented relies heavily on the outline summaries prepared and presented by the Plenary Session Chairman and the Facilitators for each breakout group. These summaries are included essentially as presented. In addition, individuals were assigned to take notes during each session; these notes were used to reconstruct critical issues that were discussed in more detail. The key comments made by the participants, which tended to represent the range of views expressed relative to the issues, are presented immediately following the facilitator`s summary outline in order to convey the flavor of the discussions. The comments are not attributed to individuals, since in many instances they represent a composite of several similar views expressed during the discussion. The facilitators were asked to review the writeups describing the outcomes of their sessions for accuracy and content; their suggested changes were incorporated. Every effort has thus been made to reconstruct the views expressed as accurately as possible; however, errors and/or misinterpretations undoubtedly have occurred.

  10. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasHeating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasRefueling in China Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries

  11. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cities, December 1994 6. Ex-Refinery Oil Products Prices,and residential sectors. Includes refinery gas, LPG, variousOil Field Petroleum Refinery Output Natural Gas Production

  12. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    , oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics Products 23. Sloan dolomite quarry 24. Weiser gypsum quarry Oil Fields 1. Blackburn field 2. North WillowMetals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada

  13. analysis gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Defect Analysis of Vehicle Compressed Natural Gas Composite Cylinder A China Paper on Type 4;Industrial Computed Tomography (CT)...

  14. Experiment Hazard Class 5.4 - Compressed Gas Cylinders

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compressed flammable gas and pyrophoric gases. Consultation with EQO Industrial Hygiene when planning experiments that involve toxic gas, oxygen deficiency hazards or other...

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Toward a Consistent Methodology for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Industry Operations (PDF 378 KB) Download Acrobat Reader Addressing climate...

  16. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  17. Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 6(27), pp. 5685-5695, 16 November, 2011 DOI: 10.5897/SRE11.333

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammerton, James

    . Because of abundance of digital data, oil and gas industry, and in particular refineries can benefit from in the oil industry. The past decades have seen an increased use of data mining techniques across all companies, refineries use many sensors to monitor and control the process of refining, therefore it is very

  18. Microsoft Word - appa.docx

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    industrial sectors used primarily for own-use generation, but which may also sell some power to the grid. 8 Includes refinery gas and still gas. 9 Includes conventional...

  19. L:\\main\\pkc\\aeotabs\\aeo2012\\appa.wpd

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    industrial sectors used primarily for own-use generation, but which may also sell some power to the grid. 8 Includes refinery gas and still gas. 9 Includes conventional...

  20. Annual Energy Outlook 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    industrial sectors used primarily for own-use generation, but which may also sell some power to the grid. 8 Includes refinery gas and still gas. 9 Includes conventional...

  1. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Outlook 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    industrial sectors used primarily for own-use generation, but which may also sell some power to the grid. 8 Includes refinery gas and still gas. 9 Includes conventiona l...

  2. Report: An Updated Annual Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Case...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    industrial sectors used primarily for own-use generation, but which may also sell some power to the grid." " 8 Includes refinery gas and still gas." " 9 Includes conventional...

  3. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Runner-Up Presents Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is always moving ahead and there are new ways and cheaper ways of detecting gas. The refinery capacity has always been a premium and down time in the oil and gas industry is...

  4. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  5. Gas production response to price signals: Implications for electric power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, M.L.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas production response to price signals is outlined. The following topics are discussed: Structural changes in the U.S. gas exploration and production industry, industry outlook, industry response to price signals, and implications for electric power generators.

  6. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  7. ,"U.S. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks ofReservesNatural

  8. ,"U.S. U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant

  9. ,"U.S. U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas

  10. ,"U.S. Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. Underground Natural

  11. ,"US--Federal Offshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S. Underground

  12. ,"Utah Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.

  13. ,"Virginia Dry Natural Gas Expected Future Production (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy SourcesRefinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural GasU.S.PlantandCoalbed Methane

  14. Natural gas repowering experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bautista, P.J.; Fay, J.M. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Gerber, F.B. [BENTEK Energy Research, DeSoto, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Research Institute has led a variety of projects in the past two years with respect to repowering with natural gas. These activities, including workshops, technology evaluations, and market assessments, have indicated that a significant opportunity for repowering exists. It is obvious that the electric power industry`s restructuring and the actual implementation of environmental regulations from the Clean Air Act Amendments will have significant impact on repowering with respect to timing and ultimate size of the market. This paper summarizes the results and implications of these activities in repowering with natural gas. It first addresses the size of the potential market and discusses some of the significant issues with respect to this market potential. It then provides a perspective on technical options for repowering which are likely to be competitive in the current environment. Finally, it addresses possible actions by the gas industry and GRI to facilitate development of the repowering market.

  15. How One Utility is Building Industrial Consumer Relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, D. E.

    HOW ONE UT1~ITY IS BUILDING INDUSTRIAL CONSUMER RELATIONSHIPS DONALD E. HAMILTON Manager-Industrial Services and Cogeneration Gulf States Utilities Company Beaumont, Texas COMPETITION AND THE UTILITY INDUSTRY The refining and petrochemical... in the eighties: depletion of old low cost oil and gas fields within the United States, the formation of OPEC, a run-up in oil and gas prices, leveling of demand in the petrochemical industry, the transfer of substantial wealth from industrial to oil...

  16. A 39 year follow-up of the UK oil refinery and distribution centre studies: results for kidney cancer and leukaemia. Environ Health Perspect Suppl 101(Suppl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesley Rushton

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents briefly some of the principal results of a mortality analysis of a cohort of workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1975 at eight oil refineries and approximately 750 distribution centers in the U.K, together with detailed results for kidney cancer and leukemia. Over 99 % of the workers were successfully traced. Their mortality was compared with that of all males in the national population. The mortality from all causes of death is lower than that of the comparison population in both studies, and reduced mortality is also found for many of the major nonmalignant causes of death. In the refinery study, some increased mortality patterns are found for diseases of the arteries, and no healthy worker effect is found in the distribution center study for ischemic heart disease. Mortality from all neoplasms is lower than expected overall in both studies, largely due to a deficit of deaths from malignant neoplasm of the lung. Mortality from malignant neoplasm of the kidney is increased overall in the distribution center study, and in drivers in particular. The mortality from this disease increases with increased time since first exposure. The observed deaths from leukemia are slightly less than expected in the refinery study and slightly more than expected in the distribution center study. One refinery shows increased mortality due to in myeloid leukemia, and mortality is increased among refinery operators. Mortality is also raised in distribution center drivers, particularly for myeloid leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia.

  17. WASTE INCINERATION wr090203 Activity 090203 SNAP CODE: 090203 SOURCE ACTIVITY TITLE: WASTE INCINERATION Flaring in Oil Refinery NOSE CODE: 109.03.11 NFR CODE:

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    So Nox; Nmvoc Ch; Co Co; No Nh

    Flares are commonly used during petroleum refining for the safe disposal of waste gases during process upsets (e.g., start-up, shut-down, system blow-down) and emergencies to combust the organic content of waste emission streams without recovering/using the associated energy. 2 CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL EMISSIONS Although flaring emission estimates are approximate, total hydrocarbon emissions from flaring at Canadian petroleum refineries during 1988 represented about 0.1 % of the refinery sector process and fugitive emissions that also included petroleum marketing emissions (CPPE, 1990). Thus the flaring operation at refineries is estimated to contribute a very small fraction of the total HC emissions in Canada. Emissions from flaring activities may also include: particulate, SOx, NOx, CO and other NMVOC. The CO2 contribution of both miscellaneous vent and flare emission sources represented approximately 9 % of the total petroleum refinery SO2 emission in Canada during 1988. Emissions estimates from flaring in petroleum refineries as reported in the CORINAIR90 inventory are summarised in Table 1. Table 1: Contribution to total emissions of the CORINAIR90 inventory (28 countries) Source-activity SNAP-code Contribution to total emissions [%

  18. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  19. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.