Sample records for refin ery gas

  1. Worldwide refining and gas processing directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistics are presented on the following: US refining; Canada refining; Europe refining; Africa refining; Asia refining; Latin American refining; Middle East refining; catalyst manufacturers; consulting firms; engineering and construction; US gas processing; international gas processing; plant maintenance providers; process control and simulation systems; and trade associations.

  2. Petrology of the Devonian gas-bearing shale along Lake Erie helps explain gas shows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broadhead, R.F.; Potter, P.E.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive petrologic study of 136 thin sections of the Ohio Shale along Lake Erie, when combined with detailed stratigraphic study, helps explain the occurrence of its gas shows, most of which occur in the silty, greenish-gray, organic poor Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed. Both have thicker siltstone laminae and more siltstone beds than other members of the Ohio Shale and both units also contain more clayshales. The source of the gas in the Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed of the Ohio Shale is believed to be the bituminous-rich shales of the middle and lower parts of the underlying Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Eleven petrographic types were recognized and extended descriptions are provided of the major ones - claystones, clayshales, mudshales, and bituminous shales plus laminated and unlaminated siltstones and very minor marlstones and sandstones. In addition three major types of lamination were identified and studied. Thirty-two shale samples were analyzed for organic carbon, whole rock hydrogen and whole rock nitrogen with a Perkin-Elmer 240 Elemental Analyzer and provided the data base for source rock evaluation of the Ohio Shale.

  3. TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS & BOOKS PRESENTED/PUBLISHED GOMES J.S. & ALVES, F.B. (2013): "The Universe of the Oil & Gas Industry From Exploration to Refining", 780

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, John M.

    Universe of the Oil & Gas Industry ­ From Exploration to Refining", 780 pages University textbook published by PARTEX Oil & Gas, Lisbon, Portugal. ISBN 9789892037783. GOMES J.S. (2012): "New Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industry", edited by J.S. Gomes, published by INTECH open science (www

  4. OHIO STATE'S ISLAND CAMPUS ON LAKE ERIE Lake Erie Science Field Trip Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OHIO STATE'S ISLAND CAMPUS ON LAKE ERIE Lake Erie Science Field Trip Program STONE LABORATORY NATIONALOCEA NIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION U.S.D EPARTMENT OF COM M ERCE Y ! #12;Lake Erie Science Cruise to collect and observe Lake Erie fish. Laboratory Practice: Groups take their samples from the Science Cruise

  5. Wind Equipment: Creating Jobs Along the Lake Erie Shore | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wind Equipment: Creating Jobs Along the Lake Erie Shore Wind Equipment: Creating Jobs Along the Lake Erie Shore August 16, 2012 - 9:36am Addthis 1 of 3 Finished wind tower sections...

  6. Refined blowups.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Kaledin; A. Kuznetsov

    Categorical resolution of singularities has been constructed in arXiv:1212.6170. It proceeds by alternating two steps of seemingly different nature. We show how to use the formalism of filtered derived categories to combine the two steps into one. This results in a certain rather natural categorical refinement of the usual blowup of an algebraic variety in a closed subscheme.

  7. Rietveld Refinement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 Resource Program September Department ofRiehle. DorothyRefinement

  8. Refined Hopf Link Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amer Iqbal; Can Kozçaz

    2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish a relation between the refined Hopf link invariant and the S-matrix of the refined Chern-Simons theory. We show that the refined open string partition function corresponding to the Hopf link, calculated using the refined topological vertex, when expressed in the basis of Macdonald polynomials gives the S-matrix of the refined Chern-Simons theory.

  9. Erie, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6 NoSan Leandro,Law and Policy CenterTODO:Erie County is

  10. Reaping Energy Savings from Petroleum Refining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, A.; Cascone, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REAPING ENERGY SAVINGS FROM PETROLEUM REFINING Alan Deng, Project Manager, San Francisco, CA, Ron Cascone, Project Manager, White Plains, NY, Nexant, Inc. ABSTRACT The refining industry is one of the largest energy users in Pacific Gas... years’ energy conservation and demand-side management program participation. The PG&E’s refinery energy efficiency program (REEP) is designed to address key market barriers and tap into the savings potential from energy-intensive refining processes...

  11. INDICATOR: LAKE ERIE ICE COVER Winter ice cover on Lake Erie affects the amount of heat and moisture transferred

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    102 INDICATOR: LAKE ERIE ICE COVER Background Winter ice cover on Lake Erie affects the amount of heat and moisture transferred between the lake and the atmosphere. During winter, ice and snow can decrease the amount of light available below the ice surface for photosynthesis. In the absence of an ice

  12. The 1987 refining and petrochemical technology yearbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual covers the latest in refining and petrochemical technology written by the experts in the field. Opening with a foreword by Richard Corbett, Refining and Petrochemical Editior of the Oil and Gas Journal. The annual includes nearly 100 articles from the 1986 issues of the Oil and Gas Journal, comprising a collection of new technical information, methods of analysis, forecasts and trends in such subject areas as plants, fuels, gasolines, coking, processing, contents, hydrocracking, equipment, catalysts, and petrochemicals.

  13. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum...

  14. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in...

  15. Spectral-element adaptive refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Spectral-element adaptive refinement magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the island coalescence;Abstract A recently developed spectral-element adaptive refinement incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD statically refined and dynamically refined grids. The island coalescence instability is a fundamental MHD

  16. The Refined Topological Vertex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amer Iqbal; Can Kozcaz; Cumrun Vafa

    2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We define a refined topological vertex which depends in addition on a parameter, which physically corresponds to extending the self-dual graviphoton field strength to a more general configuration. Using this refined topological vertex we compute, using geometric engineering, a two-parameter (equivariant) instanton expansion of gauge theories which reproduce the results of Nekrasov. The refined vertex is also expected to be related to Khovanov knot invariants.

  17. Biocatalysis in Oil Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Ramirez-Corredores, M. M. [BP Global Fuels Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter.

  18. POPULATION SIZE AND RECOVERY CRITERIA OF THE THREATENED LAKE ERIE WATERSNAKE: INTEGRATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Richard B.

    numbers at uncensused sites were included (total 5 443 adults). Other criteria for delisting the Lake Erie

  19. sampling locationsG The Lake Erie ecosystem faces a wide and varied

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Lake Erie algal bloom. October 11, 2013. Credit: NOAA Great Lakes CoastWatch #12;Upwelling Upwellingsampling locationsG The Lake Erie ecosystem faces a wide and varied range of threats to its health Lakes, such as Green Bay, Lake Michigan; Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron; and the central basin of Lake Erie

  20. Late-summer phytoplankton in western Lake Erie (Laurentian Great Lakes): bloom distributions, toxicity,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Late-summer phytoplankton in western Lake Erie (Laurentian Great Lakes): bloom distributions to environmental parameters in western Lake Erie during late-summer (2003­2005). Spatially explicit distributions on earth and are an invaluable natural resource. Lake Erie, the shallowest and smallest of the Lakes

  1. Record-setting algal bloom in Lake Erie caused by agricultural and meteorological trends consistent with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Record-setting algal bloom in Lake Erie caused by agricultural and meteorological trends consistent) In 2011, Lake Erie experienced the largest harmful algal bloom in its recorded history, with a peak blooms in Lake Erie. extreme precipitation events | climate change | aquatic ecology | Microcystis sp

  2. NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-30 MEASUREMENTS OF ICE MOTION IN LAKE ERIE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-30 MEASUREMENTS OF ICE MOTION IN LAKE ERIE USING SATELLITE Research Laboratories #12;NOAA Data Report ERL GLERL-30 MEASUREMENTS OF ICE MOTION IN LAKE ERIE USING Appendix A: The observed and interpolated Lake Erie 1984 ice conditions.. 9 Appendix B: Buoy and wind

  3. Reconnaissance survey for lightweight and carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons in the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie: September 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapotosky, J.E.; White, W.S.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reconnaissance survey of the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie (22,240 km/sup 2/) was conducted from September 17 to 27, 1978. The survey provided baseline information on natural gas and oil losses from geologic formations, prior to any potential development of natural gas resources beneath the United States portion of the Lake. Lightweight hydrocarbons indicative of natural gas (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and n-butane) are introduced into the waters of Lake Erie by escape from geologic formations and by biological/photochemical processes. The geochemical exploration technique of hydrocarbon sniffing provided enough data to reveal significant distribution patterns, approximate concentrations, and potential sources. Twelve sites with elevated lightweight hydrocarbon concentrations had a composition similar to natural gas. In one area of natural gas input, data analysis suggested a potential negative effect of natural gas on phytoplanktonic metabolism (i.e., ethylene concentration). Samples taken for liquid hydrocarbon analysis (carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons) correlated best with biologically derived lightweight hydrocarbons.

  4. FRACTAL TILES ASSOCIATED WITH SHIFT RADIX SYSTEMS ERIE BERTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FRACTAL TILES ASSOCIATED WITH SHIFT RADIX SYSTEMS VAL â?? ERIE BERTH â?? E, ANNE SIEGEL, WOLFGANG to fractal shapes, such as the classical Rauzy fractal and the twin dragon. These fractals turned out a collection of fractal tiles with shift radix systems. We show that for certain classes of parameters r

  5. Modeling Lake Erie ice dynamics: Process studies , Haoguo Hu2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Lake Erie ice dynamics: Process studies Jia Wang1 , Haoguo Hu2 , and Xuezhi Bai2 1 NOAA of Michigan 4840 S. State Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 Abstract. A Great Lakes Ice-circulation Model (GLIM derived from meteorological measurements. After the seasonal cycles of ice concentration, thickness

  6. Renewable Energy Project Refinement Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attendees will become familiar with the three components of project refinement: project financing strategies, off-taker agreements, and vendor selection. Project refinement obstacles, particularly...

  7. Refiners get petchems help

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A.; Cornitius, T.

    1997-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S.Refining Industry is facing hard times. Slow growth, tough environmental regulations, and fierce competition - especially in retail gasoline - have squeezed margins and prompted a series of mergers and acquisitions. The trend has affected the smallest and largest players, and a series of transactions over the past two years has created a new industry lineup. Among the larger companies, Mobil and Amoco are the latest to consider a refining merger. That follows recent plans by Ashland and Marathon to merge their refining businesses, and the decision by Shell, Texaco, and Saudi Aramco to combine some U.S. operations. Many of the leading independent refiners have increased their scale by acquiring refinery capacity. With refining still in the doldrums, more independents are taking a closer look at boosting production of petrochemicals, which offer high growth and, usually, better margins. That is being helped by the shift to refinery processes that favor the increased production of light olefins for alkylation and the removal of aromatics, providing opportunity to extract these materials for the petrochemical market. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. ERI-2142 07-1001 DOE - Potential Market Impact CY2011,12,13 December...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    strategic inventories being held by nuclear power plant operating companies, and further expanding existing conversion ERI-2142.07-1001December 2010 13 Energy Resources...

  9. Refining threshold resummations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Laenen; Lorenzo Magnea

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe some recent refinements of the techniques of threshold resummation, with emphasis on the usefulness of dimensional regularization when applied to nonabelian exponentiation. Threshold resummation is now under theoretical control for DIS and electroweak annihilation cross sections all the way to the fourth tower of logarithms and up to corrections suppressed by powers of the threshold variable.

  10. Issues in adaptive mesh refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present an approach for a patch-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for multi-physics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, and management of patches. Among the special features of this patch-based AMR are symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement, special implementation offlux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. Here, higher efficiency of refinement means less unnecessarily refined cells for a given set of cells to be refined. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement are shown in both two- and three-dimensions.

  11. ROSAT Observations of the Flare Star CC Eri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. C. Pan; C. Jordan

    1994-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The flare/spotted spectroscopic binary star CC Eri was observed with the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) on the X-ray satellite ROSAT on 1990 July 9-11 and 1992 January 26-27. During the observations, the source was variable on time scales from a few minutes to several hours, with the X-ray (0.2-2 keV) luminosity in the range $\\sim 2.5-6.8\\times 10^{29} erg s^{-1}$. An X-ray flare-like event, which has a one hour characteristic rise time and a two hour decay time, was observed from CC Eri on 1990 July 10 16:14-21:34 (UT). The X-ray spectrum of the source can be described by current thermal plasma codes with two temperature components or with a continuous temperature distribution. The spectral results show that plasma at $Te\\sim 10^{7}$ K exists in the corona of CC Eri. The variations in the observed source flux and spectra can be reproduced by a flare, adopting a magnetic reconnection model. Comparisons with an unheated model, late in the flare, suggest that the area and volume of the flare are substantially larger than in a solar two ribbon flare, while the electron pressure is similar. The emission measure and temperature of the non-flaring emission, interpreted as the average corona, lead to an electron pressure similar to that in a well-developed solar active region. Rotational modulation of a spot related active region requires an unphysically large X-ray flux in a concentrated area.

  12. Erie County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6 NoSan Leandro,Law and Policy CenterTODO:Erie County is a

  13. City of Erie, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDITOhio (Utility Company) JumpDoerun, GeorgiaElectraElsmore, KansasErie City of

  14. A Theory of Program Refinement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denney, Ewen WKC

    We give a canonical program refinement calculus based on the lambda calculus and classical first-order predicate logic, and study its proof theory and semantics. The intention is to construct a metalanguage for refinement in which basic principles...

  15. Refining the Elliptic Genus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Nemeschansky; N. P. Warner

    1994-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how special forms of an $N=2$ Landau-Ginzburg potential directly imply the presence of an $N=2$ super-$W$ algebra. If the Landau-Ginzburg model has a super-$W$ algebra, we show how the elliptic genus can be refined so as to give much more complete information about the structure of the model. We study the super-$W_3$ model in some detail, and present some results and conjectures about more general models.

  16. CONTRIBUTIONS TO 'fHE BIOLOGY OF THE GREAT LAKES. THE PLANKTON ALG~ OF LAKE ERIE, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OF THE GREAT LAKES. THE PLANKTON ALGA3 OF LAKE ERIE, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE CHLOROPHYCEA3. By JULIA WCONTRIBUTIONS TO 'fHE BIOLOGY OF THE GREAT LAKES. THE PLANKTON ALG~ OF LAKE ERIE, WITH SPECIAL

  17. OutofSample Validation for Structured Expert Judgment of Asian Carp Establishment in Lake Erie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OutofSample Validation for Structured Expert Judgment of Asian Carp Establishment in Lake Erie [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model States as biocontrol agents for nuisance algae in freshwater ponds and lakes (Fuller et al. 1999). Since

  18. In situ Monitoring of Cyanobacterial HABs in Western Lake Erie using Buoy-mounted Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In situ Monitoring of Cyanobacterial HABs in Western Lake Erie using Buoy-mounted Sensors Primary for the rest of the western basin of Lake Erie. We propose to deploy environmental sensors at these sites. The first sensor is a fluorescence-based detector of phycocyanin, a pigment found predominantly

  19. Developing Great Lakes Ice Model (GLIM) using CIOM (Coupled Ice-Ocean Model) in Lake Erie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Developing Great Lakes Ice Model (GLIM) using CIOM (Coupled Ice- Ocean Model) in Lake Erie Primary of the ice-ocean models, assistance with development of project reports and scientific presentations will first start the implementation of the CIOM in Lake Erie, assemble satellite observations of ice cover

  20. LEEDCo awarded $4 million to launch offshore wind development on Lake Erie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    LEEDCo awarded $4 million to launch offshore wind development on Lake Erie By Teresa Dixon Murray in the United States, the Lake Erie Energy Development Corp. of Cleveland will launch an offshore wind, Democrat of Ohio, who has pushed for such alternative energy projects for years, said offshore wind could

  1. The Role of Zebra Mussels in Promoting Microcystis Blooms and Other Ecosystem Changes in Saginaw Bay and in Lake Erie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , or blue- green alga. Blooms of Microcystis also occurred in western Lake Erie in 1995 and 1998 Bay and in Lake Erie Primary Investigator: Henry Vanderploeg - NOAA GLERL Co-Investigators: Sara introduction into other aquatic systems. Improvement of water clarity has been seen in Lakes Erie and St. Clair

  2. Toxic Microcystis is Widespread in Lake Erie: PCR Detection of Toxin Genes and Molecular Characterization of Associated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouellette, Anthony J. A.

    Microbial Ecology Toxic Microcystis is Widespread in Lake Erie: PCR Detection of Toxin Genes reoccurred in the Laurentian Great Lakes, most commonly in the western basin of Lake Erie. Whereas the western basin is the most impacted by toxic Microcystis in Lake Erie, there has historically been little

  3. Biomagnification of organochlorines in Lake Erie white bass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, R.W.; Lazar, R.; Haffner, G.D. [Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomagnification of HCB and PCBs was measured in a natural fish population of white bass (Morone chrysops) and their prey, emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides). It was observed that biomagnification occurred only for chemicals with an octanol/water partition coefficient (log K{sub ow}) greater than 6.1. Hexachlorobenzene and PCB 52 did not biomagnify while PCBs 87, 138, and 180 showed significant biomagnification in Lake Erie white bass. Biomagnification factors increased proportionately with K{sub ow}, and it was concluded that high K{sub ow} chemicals were more important in the biomagnification process. Lipid proportions and chemical concentrations in prey fish (emerald shiner) and white bass intestinal contents were consistent with a fugacity model of chemical assimilation from food.

  4. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

  5. Improve corrosion control in refining processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, R.D.; Cayard, M.S. [CLI International, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New guidelines show how to control corrosion and environmental cracking of process equipment when processing feedstocks containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acids. To be cost competitive refiners must be able to process crudes of opportunity. These feedstocks when processed under high temperatures and pressures and alkaline conditions can cause brittle cracks and blisters in susceptible steel-fabricated equipment. Even with advances in steel metallurgy, wet H{sub 2}S cracking continues to be a problem. New research data shows that process conditions such as temperature, pH and flowrate are key factors in the corrosion process. Before selecting equipment material, operators must understand the corrosion mechanisms present within process conditions. Several case histories investigate the corrosion reactions found when refining naphthenic crudes and operating amine gas-sweetening systems. These examples show how to use process controls, inhibitors and/or metallurgy to control corrosion and environmental cracking, to improve material selection and to extend equipment service life.

  6. Refining thick subcategory theorems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunil K. Chebolu.

    We use a $K$-theory recipe of Thomason to obtain classifications of triangulated subcategories via refining some standard thick subcategory theorems. We apply this recipe to the full subcategories of finite objects in the derived categories of rings and the stable homotopy category of spectra. This gives, in the derived categories, a complete classification of the triangulated subcategories of perfect complexes over some commutative rings. In the stable homotoy category of spectra we obtain only a partial classification of the triangulated subcategories of the finite $p$-local spectra. We use this partial classification to study the lattice of triangulated subcategories. This study gives some new evidence to a conjecture of Adams that the thick subcategory $\\C_2$ can be generated by iterated cofiberings of the Smith-Toda complex. We also discuss several consequences of these classification theorems.

  7. Modern refining and petrochemical equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugach, V.V.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum refining and petroleum chemistry are characterized by a whole set of manufacturing processes and methods, whose application depends on the initial raw material and the final products. Therefore, refining and petrochemical equipment has many different operational principles, design solutions, and materials. The activities of the Russian Petroleum Industry are discussed.

  8. Examination of temporal DDT trends in Lake Erie fish communities using dynamic linear modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arhonditsis, George B.

    Examination of temporal DDT trends in Lake Erie fish communities using dynamic linear modeling 25 July 2013 Communicated by Dr. Erik Christensen Keywords: DDT Bayesian inference Dynamic linear (DDT) was initially heralded for its effectiveness against malaria and agricultural pests

  9. Nonparametric Bootstrap Recycling Val'erie Ventura, Department of Statistics, Baker Hall 132

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonparametric Bootstrap Recycling Val'erie Ventura, Department of Statistics, Baker Hall 132 adjustments. The amount of computation involved is usually considerable, and recycling provides a less computer intensive alternative. Recycling consists of using repeatedly the same samples drawn from

  10. An accuracy study of mesh refinement on mapped grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Donna

    An accuracy study of mesh refinement on mapped grids D. Calhoun and R. J. LeVeque, October, 2003 on a highly skewed portion of a mapped grid. Smooth and shock-wave solutions to the Euler equations are used interface. Key words: gas dynamics, finite-volume, finite-difference, Cartesian grid, mapped grids

  11. TOPICAL PAPER Potential Synergies and Challenges in Refining Cellulosic Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    TOPICAL PAPER Potential Synergies and Challenges in Refining Cellulosic Biomass to Fuels, Chemicals that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, enhance energy security, improve the economy, dispose of such products, and sugar costs are predicted to drop with plant size as a result of economies of scale

  12. Refinement of Inequalities among Means

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inder Jeet Taneja

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we shall consider some famous means such as arithmetic, harmonic, geometric, root-square means, etc. Some new means recently studied are also presented. Different kinds of refinement of inequalities among these means are given.

  13. Generic refinements for behavioral specifications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petria, Marius

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the properties of generic refinements of behavioral specifications. At the base of this investigation stands the view from algebraic specification that abstract data types can be modeled as ...

  14. Model Refinement for Economic Assessments of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Model Refinement for Economic Assessments of Hawai`i Clean Energy Policies: Scenario Selection agency thereof. #12;Model Refinement for Economic Assessments of Hawaii Clean Energy Policies Selection

  15. NORTHEAST REGIONAL REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCT RESERVE | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NORTHEAST REGIONAL REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCT RESERVE NORTHEAST REGIONAL REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCT RESERVE The Northeast region of the U.S. is particularly vulnerable to gasoline...

  16. Refining the shifted topological vertex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drissi, L. B.; Jehjouh, H.; Saidi, E. H. [Faculte des Sciences, Laboratory/UFR-Physique des Hautes Energies, Rabat, 1014 (Morocco); Groupement National de Physique des Hautes Energies (GNPHE), Siege focal:FS, Rabat, 1014 (Morocco)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study aspects of the refining and shifting properties of the 3d MacMahon function C{sub 3}(q) used in topological string theory and BKP hierarchy. We derive the explicit expressions of the shifted topological vertex S{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q) and its refined version T{sub {lambda}}{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}(q,t). These vertices complete results in literature.

  17. DSm Vector Spaces of Refined Labels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

    2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In this book the authors introduce the notion of DSm vector spaces of refined labels. They also realize the refined labels as a plane and a n-dimensional space. Further, using these refined labels, several algebraic structures are defined. Finally DSm semivector space or refined labels is described. Authors also propose some research problems.

  18. Conformal refinement of unstructured quadrilateral meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garmella, Rao [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a multilevel adaptive refinement technique for unstructured quadrilateral meshes in which the mesh is kept conformal at all times. This means that the refined mesh, like the original, is formed of only quadrilateral elements that intersect strictly along edges or at vertices, i.e., vertices of one quadrilateral element do not lie in an edge of another quadrilateral. Elements are refined using templates based on 1:3 refinement of edges. We demonstrate that by careful design of the refinement and coarsening strategy, we can maintain high quality elements in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the method on a number of examples with dynamically changing refinement regions.

  19. Romanian refining industry assesses restructuring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanasescu, D.G. (General Consulting and Procurement, Poolgec Ltd., Bucharest (RO))

    1991-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Romanian crude oil refining industry, as all the other economic sectors, faces the problems accompanying the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. At present, all refineries have registered as joint-stock companies and all are coordinated and assisted by Rafirom S.A., from both a legal and a production point of view. Rafirom S.A. is a joint-stock company that holds shares in refineries and other stock companies with activities related to oil refining. Such activities include technological research, development, design, transportation, storage, and domestic and foreign marketing. This article outlines the market forces that are expected to: drive rationalization and restructuring of refining operations and define the targets toward which the reconfigured refineries should strive.

  20. Assembling, analyzing, refining, and cataloging molecular interaction network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mak, Huajiang Craig

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ASSEMBLING, ANALYZING, REFINING, AND CATALOGING MOLECULARASSEMBLING, ANALYZING, REFINING, AND CATALOGING MOLECULAR

  1. Executive functions in schizophrenia : defining and refining the constructs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savla, Gauri Nayak

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Schizophrenia: Defining and Refining the Constructs By Gauriin Schizophrenia: Defining and Refining the Constructs A

  2. TreeRefiner: A Tool for Refining a Multiple Alignment on a Phylogenetic Tree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    TreeRefiner: A Tool for Refining a Multiple Alignment on a Phylogenetic Tree Aswath Manohar@cs.stanford.edu, serafim@cs.stanford.edu Abstract We present TreeRefiner, a tool for refining multiple alignments of biological sequences. Given a multiple alignment, a phylogenetic tree, and scoring parameters as input, TreeRefiner

  3. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  4. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heshmatpour, Bahman (Waltham, MA); Heestand, Richard L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  5. Refining the Shifted Topological Vertex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lalla Btissam Drissi; Houda Jehjouh; El Hassan Saidi

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study aspects of the refining and shifting properties of the 3d MacMahon function $\\mathcal{C}_{3}(q) $ used in topological string theory and BKP hierarchy. We derive the explicit expressions of the shifted topological vertex $\\mathcal{S}_{\\lambda \\mu \

  6. Green Petroleum Refining - Mathematical Models for Optimizing Petroleum Refining Under Emission Constraints.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Yusuf, Yusuf

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Petroleum refining processes provide the daily requirements of energy for the global market. Each refining process produces wastes that have the capacity to harm the… (more)

  7. Biomass, Condition of Western Lake Erie Dreissenids Primary Investigator: Thomas Nalepa -NOAA GLERL (Emeritus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass, Condition of Western Lake Erie Dreissenids Primary Investigator: Thomas Nalepa - NOAA of dreissenid biomass but there are no current, accurate estimates of biomass in this portion of the lake. Biomass is calculated from abundances, size- frequencies, and length-weights. The goal of this project

  8. Surface studies of nitrogen implanted TiO2 Matthias Batzill a,*, Erie H. Morales b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    .V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Titanium dioxide; Doping; Nitrogen; Surface science 1. IntroductionSurface studies of nitrogen implanted TiO2 Matthias Batzill a,*, Erie H. Morales b , Ulrike Diebold Available online 3 August 2007 Abstract Rutile TiO2(110) single crystals have been doped by nitrogen

  9. Development of the Great Lakes Ice-circulation Model (GLIM): Application to Lake Erie in 20032004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    due to strong cooling and wind mixing. Prediction of the lake's ice extent (i.e., ice coverDevelopment of the Great Lakes Ice-circulation Model (GLIM): Application to Lake Erie in 2003: Received 4 May 2009 Accepted 30 November 2009 Communicated by Dr. Ram Yerubandi Index words: Coupled Ice

  10. Friends of the Lake Erie Center (FOLEC) Newsletter Fall 2012 Upcoming Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toledo, University of

    , is sponsored in part by the Ohio Lake Erie Commission. 2012 "Nature of Maumee Bay" Photo Contest Our 2012 photo entries to meredith.gray@utoledo.edu, along with your name,age and photo locations. For the latest news........................................................................... Carbon sensor network helps UT researchers investigate algal blooms; PhD student awarded grant for yellow

  11. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-94 LAKE ERIE WATER TEMPERATURE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    extends about 1.25 miles offshore from the Chestnut Street plant; the intake depth is 27-30' below temperature data are from Erie, Pennsylvania's Chestnut Street plant. The plant superintendent, Mr. John the peninsula that forms the bay. Water temperatures are taken in the plant six times a week (never on Sunday

  12. THE EFFECT OF LAKE ERIE WATER LEVEL VARIATIONS ON SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, Diane

    THE EFFECT OF LAKE ERIE WATER LEVEL VARIATIONS ON SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION A Thesis Presented. Shore Approved by Adviser Civil Engineering Graduate Program #12;#12;ABSTRACT A recent decline in water used to estimate the wave climate over the entire lake. Shallow water effects were approxi- mated

  13. Non-parametric Bootstrap Recycling Val erie Ventura, Department of Statistics, Baker Hall 132

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Non-parametric Bootstrap Recycling Val#19;erie Ventura, Department of Statistics, Baker Hall 132 adjustments. The amount of computation involved is usually considerable, and recycling provides a less computer intensive alternative. Recycling consists of using repeatedly the same samples drawn from

  14. Nonparametric Bootstrap Recycling Val'erie Ventura, Department of Statistics, Baker Hall 132

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonparametric Bootstrap Recycling Val'erie Ventura, Department of Statistics, Baker Hall 132. The amount of computation involved is usually considerable, and recycling provides a less computer intensive alternative. Recycling consists of using repeatedly the same samples drawn from a recycling distribution G

  15. Estuarine Microbial Food Web Patterns in a Lake Erie Coastal P.J. Lavrentyev1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochem, Frank J.

    Estuarine Microbial Food Web Patterns in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland P.J. Lavrentyev1 , M.J. Mc protists were examined relative to microbial food web dynamics (growth, grazing, and nitrogen cycling rates pattern. Large light/dark NH4 + uptake differences were observed in the hypereutrophic OWC interior

  16. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-48 LAKE ERIE REGIONAL ICE COVER ANALYSIS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-48 LAKE ERIE REGIONAL ICE COVER ANALYSIS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS R.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Observation density Average regional ice cover Percentage exceedance from average regional ice cover for discrete ice cover values Contour analysis of percentage ice cover exceedance

  17. A design flow based on modular refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dave, Nirav H.

    We propose a practical methodology based on modular refinement to design complex systems. The methodology relies on modules with latency-insensitive interfaces so that the refinements can change the timing contract of a ...

  18. Sharp Retrenchment, Modulated Refinement and Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banach, Richard

    retrenchment is introduced and briefly justified informally, as a liberalisation of refinement. In sharp as a liberalisation of the notion of refinement, whose purpose was to enable more of the informal aspects of de

  19. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  20. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  1. Refinement in cases of Twinning Lothar Esser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Refinement in cases of Twinning Lothar Esser National Cancer Institute Despite working in crystallography for a number of years, it was only recently that I was asked to refine a structure against twinned was twinned using a model of > 99% sequence identity. As the refinement did not progress as it should

  2. Arnold Schwarzenegger REFINING ESTIMATES OF WATER-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor REFINING ESTIMATES OF WATER- RELATED ENERGY USE IN CALIFORNIA Energy Technologies · Transportation Refining Estimates of WaterRelated Energy Use in California is the final report for the Refining Estimates of EnergyRelated Energy Use in California project (contract

  3. Solvent dramatically affects protein structure refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summa, Christopher M.

    Solvent dramatically affects protein structure refinement Gaurav Chopraa , Christopher M. Summab structure), also known as the protein structure refinement problem. It has been shown that improve- ment in protein structure refinement. Molecular dynamics in explicit sol- vent and energy minimization in both

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum Refining Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Manufacturing and Petroleum Refining Industries. Office of1994. Petroleum Refining: Technology and Economics, 3 rdProfile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry, Office of

  5. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of...

  6. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry...

  7. Refined matrix models from BPS counting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piotr Su?kowski

    2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a free fermion and matrix model representation of refined BPS generating functions of D2 and D0 branes bound to a single D6 brane, in a class of toric manifolds without compact four-cycles. In appropriate limit we obtain a matrix model representation of refined topological string amplitudes. We consider a few explicit examples which include a matrix model for the refined resolved conifold, or equivalently five-dimensional U(1) gauge theory, as well as a matrix representation of the refined MacMahon function. Matrix models which we construct have ordinary unitary measure, while their potentials are modified to incorporate the effect of the refinement.

  8. Petroleum Refining Energy Use in Relation to Fuel Products Made

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, J. R.; Marshall, J. F.; Shoemaker, G. L.; Smith, R. B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years crude oils available to refiners have required more energy to refine and refiners have adjusted their processes to obtain better energy efficiency. In addition, the shift to lead-free gasoline has led to refining adjustments...

  9. Doppler maps and surface differential rotation of EI Eri from the MUSICOS 1998 observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zs. K?vári; A. Washuettl; B. H. Foing; K. Vida; J. Bartus; K. Oláh; the MUSICOS 98 team

    2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present time-series Doppler images of the rapidly-rotating active binary star EI Eri from spectroscopic observations collected during the MUSICOS multi-site campaign in 1998, since the critical rotation period of 1.947 days makes it impossible to obtain time-resolved images from a single site. From the surface reconstructions a weak solar-type differential rotation, as well as a tiny poleward meridional flow are measured.

  10. Representations of finite groups The Alperin-McKay refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cossey, James P.

    Representations of finite groups The Alperin-McKay refinement The Isaacs-Navarro refinements The Mc-McKay refinement The Isaacs-Navarro refinements The basics Some history The McKay conjecture (for now) Let G groups The Alperin-McKay refinement The Isaacs-Navarro refinements The basics Some history The Mc

  11. More refined enumerations of alternating sign matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilse Fischer; Dan Romik

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a further refinement of the standard refined enumeration of alternating sign matrices (ASMs) according to their first two rows instead of just the first row, and more general "d-refined" enumerations of ASMs according to the first d rows. For the doubly-refined case of d=2, we derive a system of linear equations satisfied by the doubly-refined enumeration numbers A_{n,i,j} that enumerate such matrices. We give a conjectural explicit formula for A_{n,i,j} and formulate several other conjectures about the sufficiency of the linear equations to determine the A_{n,i,j}'s and about an extension of the linear equations to the general d-refined enumerations.

  12. Refined Black Hole Ensembles and Topological Strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mina Aganagic; Kevin Schaeffer

    2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate a refined version of the Ooguri-Strominger-Vafa (OSV) conjecture. The OSV conjecture that Z_{BH} = |Z_{top}|^2 relates the BPS black hole partition function to the topological string partition function Z_{top}. In the refined conjecture, Z_{BH} is the partition function of BPS black holes counted with spin, or more precisely the protected spin character. Z_{top} becomes the partition function of the refined topological string, which is itself an index. Both the original and the refined conjecture are examples of large N duality in the 't Hooft sense. The refined conjecture applies to non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds only, so the black holes are really BPS particles with large entropy, of order N^2. The refined OSV conjecture states that the refined BPS partition function has a large N dual which is captured by the refined topological string. We provide evidence that the conjecture holds by studying local Calabi-Yau threefolds consisting of line bundles over a genus g Riemann surface. We show that the refined topological string partition function on these geometries is computed by a two-dimensional TQFT. We also study the refined black hole partition function arising from N D4 branes on the Calabi-Yau, and argue that it reduces to a (q,t)-deformed version of two-dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills. Finally, we show that in the large N limit this theory factorizes to the square of the refined topological string in accordance with the refined OSV conjecture.

  13. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  14. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  15. Development of Integrated Microanalysis of Nanomaterials (06-ERI-001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, J P

    2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Comets--small extraterrestrial bodies of ice, dust, and small rocky particles--are considered the oldest, most primitive bodies in the solar system. They were thought to be composed of preserved interstellar particles from 4.6 billion years ago, when the Sun and the planets began to form from a primordial disk of dust and gas. The nonvolatile mineral components of comets are probably natural nanomaterials that include preserved interstellar dust as well as the first solids condensed in the solar system. Thus, comet samples may be considered as forensic 'time capsules' from the presolar molecular cloud and the earliest stages of solar system formation. Cometary material was captured in 2004, when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Stardust spacecraft flew through the coma of comet Wild as it neared the orbit of Mars. As Stardust approached the 4.5-kilometer-diameter comet, the spacecraft briefly extended a collector filled with lightweight aerogel glass foam to capture thousands of tiny particles. On January 15, 2006, the spacecraft ejected its sample return capsule onto the Utah desert southwest of Salt Lake City. Researchers at LLNL supported by this LDRD were part of a collaborative team investigating the mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions of natural cometary nanomaterials from the Stardust mission using the unique array of analytical facilities at Livermore. The studies have provided provide new insight into cosmically primitive materials that will enable a better understanding of the earliest stages of disk accretion around stars. The skills and analysis techniques developed for the characterization of these natural nanomaterials are synergistic with several Livermore programmatic needs in the emerging fields of nanomaterials, nanotechnology and forensics. The Stardust samples are also ideal training materials for a new generation of young scientists using state-of-the-art analytical instruments at the Laboratory.

  16. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  17. Exact results on ABJ theory and the refined topological string

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masazumi Honda; Kazumi Okuyama

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the partition function of the ABJ theory, which is the N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons matter theory with gauge group U(N)xU(N+M) and Chern-Simons levels (k,-k). We exactly compute the ABJ partition function on a three sphere for various k, M and N via the Fermi gas approach. By using these exact data, we show that the ABJ partition function is completely determined by the refined topological string on local P^1 x P^1, including membrane instanton effects in the M-theory dual.

  18. Effects of complex effluents on photosynthesis in Lake Erie and Lake Huron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridgham, S.D.; McNaught, D.C.; Meadows, C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phytoplankton are the base of the food chain in most large lake ecosystems; if affected by environmental pollutants, significant ecosystem changes can result with potential impact on higher trophic levels. The research determined the effects of a complex effluent discharge from the River Raisin in Monroe County, Michigan, on the Lake Erie ecosystem. The river flows through southern Michigan and has large nutrient and industrial inputs, especially in the Monroe Harbor area. The functional parameters measured were bacterial uptake rate of acetate, zooplankton feeding and reproduction rates, and primary production. The results of the effects of complex effluents on gross photosynthesis, measured as carbon-14 ((14)C) uptake, are presented in the paper.

  19. ICE MINERALOGY ACROSS AND INTO THE SURFACES OF PLUTO, TRITON, AND ERIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegler, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Grundy, W. M. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Olkin, C. B.; Young, L. A. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Romanishin, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Cornelison, D. M. [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Khodadadkouchaki, R., E-mail: Stephen.Tegler@nau.edu, E-mail: W.Grundy@lowell.edu, E-mail: colkin@boulder.swri.edu, E-mail: layoung@boulder.swri.edu, E-mail: wjr@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: DavidCornelison@MissouriState.edu [Department of Physics, California State University, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present three near-infrared spectra of Pluto taken with the Infrared Telescope Facility and SpeX, an optical spectrum of Triton taken with the MMT and the Red Channel Spectrograph, and previously published spectra of Pluto, Triton, and Eris. We combine these observations with a two-phase Hapke model and gain insight into the ice mineralogy on Pluto, Triton, and Eris. Specifically, we measure the methane-nitrogen mixing ratio across and into the surfaces of these icy dwarf planets. In addition, we present a laboratory experiment that demonstrates it is essential to model methane bands in spectra of icy dwarf planets with two methane phases-one highly diluted by nitrogen and the other rich in methane. For Pluto, we find bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundances of 9.1% {+-} 0.5%, 7.1% {+-} 0.4%, and 8.2% {+-} 0.3% for sub-Earth longitudes of 10 Degree-Sign , 125 Degree-Sign , and 257 Degree-Sign . Application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test to our measurements finds these small differences are statistically significant. For Triton, we find bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundances of 5.0% {+-} 0.1% and 5.3% {+-} 0.4% for sub-Earth longitudes of 138 Degree-Sign and 314 Degree-Sign . Application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test to our measurements finds the differences are not statistically significant. For Eris, we find a bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundance of 10% {+-} 2%. Pluto, Triton, and Eris do not exhibit a trend in methane-nitrogen mixing ratio with depth into their surfaces over the few centimeter range probed by these observations. This result is contrary to the expectation that since visible light penetrates deeper into a nitrogen-rich surface than the depths from which thermal emission emerges, net radiative heating at depth would drive preferential sublimation of nitrogen leading to an increase in the methane abundance with depth.

  20. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  1. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  2. Refining and Extending the Business Model with Information Technology: Dell Computer Corporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Kenneth L; Dedrick, Jason; Yamashiro, Sandra

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFINING ANDEXTENDING THE REFINING AND EXTENDING THE BUSINESS MODELfinal version 5-99.doc REFINING AND EXTENDING THE BUSINESS

  3. A study of velocity fields in the transition region of Epsilon Eri (K2 V)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Sim; C. Jordan

    2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of the widths and shifts of optically thin emission lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of the active dwarf Epsilon Eri (K2 V) are presented. The spectra were obtained using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. The line widths are used to find the non-thermal energy density and its variation with temperature from the chromosphere to the upper transition region. The energy fluxes that could be carried by Alfven and acoustic waves are investigated, to test their possible roles in coronal heating. Acoustic waves do not appear to be a viable means of coronal heating. There is, in principle, ample flux in Alfven waves, but detailed calculations of wave propagation are required before definite conclusions can be drawn about their viability. The high sensitivity and spectral resolution of the above instruments have allowed two-component Gaussian fits to be made to the profiles of the stronger transition region lines. The broad and narrow components which result share some similarities with those observed in the Sun, but in Epsilon Eri the broad component is redshifted relative to the narrow component and contributes more to the total line flux. The possible origins of the two components and the energy fluxes implied are discussed. On balance our results support the conclusion of Wood, Linsky & Ayres, that the narrow component is related to Alfven waves reaching to the corona, but the origin of the broad component is not clear.

  4. Ice Mineralogy Across and Into the Surfaces of Pluto, Triton, and Eris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tegler, S C; Olkin, C B; Young, L A; Romanishin, W; Cornelison, D M; Khodadadkouchaki, R

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present three near-infrared spectra of Pluto taken with the IRTF and SpeX, an optical spectrum of Triton taken with the MMT and the Red Channel Spectrograph, and previously published spectra of Pluto, Triton, and Eris. We combine these observations with a two-phase Hapke model, and gain insight into the ice mineralogy on Pluto, Triton, and Eris. Specifically, we measure the methane-nitrogen mixing ratio across and into the surfaces of these icy dwarf planets. In addition, we present a laboratory experiment that demonstrates it is essential to model methane bands in spectra of icy dwarf planets with two methane phases - one highly-diluted by nitrogen and the other rich in methane. For Pluto, we find bulk, hemisphere-averaged, methane abundances of 9.1 \\pm 0.5%, 7.1 \\pm 0.4%, and 8.2 \\pm 0.3% for sub-Earth longitudes of 10\\degree, 125\\degree, and 257\\degree. Application of the Wilcoxon rank sum test to our measurements finds these small differences are statistically significant. For Triton, we find bulk, hem...

  5. Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Multilevel Iteration for Flow in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trangenstein, John A.

    , including support from Mobil Exploration and Production Technical Center, Dallas. 2 Supported by NSF grant; Abstract An adaptive local mesh refinement algorithm originally developed for unsteady gas dynamics are provided. #12; 1 Introduction. The numerical treatment of field­scale simulation of enhanced oil recovery

  6. Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Relativistic MHD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Neilsen; Eric W. Hirschmann; Matthew Anderson; Steven L. Liebling

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We solve the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations using distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement. We discuss strong scaling tests of the code, and present evolutions of Michel accretion and a TOV star.

  7. Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Graeme

    Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith Software Verification Research Centre, University of Queensland, Australia smith@svrc.uq.edu.au Abstract. Two types of semantics have been given

  8. Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as...

  9. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gallons per Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1995...

  10. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gallons per Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1997...

  11. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gallons per Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1996...

  12. Improving NMR Protein Structure Quality by Rosetta Refinement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NMR Protein Structure Quality by Rosetta Refinement: A Molecular Replacement Study. Improving NMR Protein Structure Quality by Rosetta Refinement: A Molecular Replacement Study....

  13. EIS-0079: 300-kV International Submarine Transmission Line- Erie, Pennsylvania to Nanticoke, Ontario, Canada General Public Utilities Corporation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Emergency Operations developed this statement to assess the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the construction and operation of 44 miles of cable between the Erie West Substation and the Canadian border.

  14. Green Petroleum Refining -Mathematical Models for Optimizing Petroleum Refining Under Emission Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles H.

    Green Petroleum Refining - Mathematical Models for Optimizing Petroleum Refining Under Emission understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public. #12;iii Abstract Petroleum and treating options for petroleum refinery waste streams. The performance of the developed model

  15. Attached algae of the Lake Erie shoreline near Nanticoke Generating Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, M.K.; Dunford, W.E.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution, species composition, and standing crop of attached algae were surveyed in the splash zone along the shore of Lake Erie from 1971 to 1978 to determine the impact of construction and operation of the Nanticoke Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant. Station operation has had no apparent influence on the spatial distribution of attached algae in the lake stations. However, the discharge of heated condenser cooling water has resulted in an accelerated growth of attached algae in the immediate vicinity of the station early in the growing season, but the effect was not sustained after May. The species composition at sites near the generating station differed from control areas. Three years after the initial operation of the plant the generating station had a lower percent abundance of Cladophora and a higher percent abundance of weakly attached algal species such as Zygnema; this is perhaps attributable to the sheltered conditions in the discharge area of the generating station.

  16. Attached algae of the Lake Erie shoreline near Nanticoke generating station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, M.K.; Dunford, W.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution, species composition and standing crop of attached algae were surveyed in the splash zone along the shore of Lake Erie from 1971 to 1978 to determine the impact of construction and operation of the Nanticoke Generating Station, a coal-fired power plant. Station operation has had no apparent influence on the spatial distribution of attached algae in the lake stations. However, the discharge of heated condenser cooling water has resulted in an accelerated growth of attached algae in the immediate vicinity of the station early in the growing season, but the effect was not sustained after May. The species composition at sites near the generating station differed from control areas. Three years after the initial operation of the plant the generating station had a lower percent abundance of Cladophora and a higher percent abundance of weakly attached algal species such as Zygnema; this is perhaps attributable to the sheltered conditions in the discharge area of the generating station.

  17. Modelling the chromosphere and transition region of Epsilon Eri (K2 V)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Sim; C. Jordan

    2005-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of ultraviolet line fluxes from Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectra of the K2-dwarf Epsilon Eri are reported. These are used to develop new emission measure distributions and semi-empirical atmospheric models for the chromosphere and lower transition region of the star. These models are the most detailed constructed to date for a main-sequence star other than the Sun. New ionisation balance calculations, which account for the effect of finite density on dielectronic recombination rates, are presented for carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and silicon. The results of these calculations are significantly different from the standard Arnaud & Rothenflug ion balance, particularly for alkali-like ions. The new atmospheric models are used to place constraints on possible First Ionisation Potential (FIP) related abundance variations in the lower atmosphere and to discuss limitations of single-component models for the interpretation of certain optically thick line fluxes.

  18. Refined Topological Strings and Toric Calabi-Yau Threefolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amer Iqbal; Can Kozcaz

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The refined topological vertex formulation computes the refined topological string partition function for non-compact toric Calabi-Yau threefolds which engineer N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. For geometries such as the local P^2, which do not give rise to gauge theories, the refined topological vertex alone is not sufficient for directly calculating the refined amplitudes. In this paper, we extend the refined topological vertex formalism and propose a complementary new vertex which, together with the refined topological vertex, determines the refined amplitudes for all toric Calabi-Yau threefolds.

  19. Refined Topological Vertex and Instanton Counting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masato Taki

    2007-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed recently that topological A-model string amplitudes for toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds in non self-dual graviphoton background can be caluculated by a diagrammatic method that is called the ``refined topological vertex''. We compute the extended A-model amplitudes for SU(N)-geometries using the proposed vertex. If the refined topological vertex is valid, these computations should give rise to the Nekrasov's partition functions of N=2 SU(N) gauge theories via the geometric engineering. In this article, we verify the proposal by confirming the equivalence between the refined A-model amplitude and the K-theoretic version of the Nekrasov's partition function by explicit computation.

  20. Lattice Refining LQC and the Matter Hamiltonian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William Nelson; Mairi Sakellariadou

    2007-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of loop quantum cosmology, we parametrise the lattice refinement by a parameter, $A$, and the matter Hamiltonian by a parameter, $\\delta$. We then solve the Hamiltonian constraint for both a self-adjoint, and a non-self-adjoint Hamiltonian operator. Demanding that the solutions for the wave-functions obey certain physical restrictions, we impose constraints on the two-dimensional, $(A,\\delta)$, parameter space, thereby restricting the types of matter content that can be supported by a particular lattice refinement model.

  1. An independent refiners approach to RFG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czeskleba, M.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was presented by Mike Czeskleba,Senior Business Analyst for Ashland Petroleum Company in Ashland, Kentucky. Ashland is one of the largest independent refiners and a leading marketer of gasoline and other petroleum products in the U.S. The issues addressed in this report concern the use of ethanol as a gasoline extender and renewable oxygenate, and its use in Reformulated Gasolines (RFG). The impact of Clean Air Act requirements for 1995 and beyond on petroleum refiners and producers is discussed. Some of the strategies which Ashland Petroleum Company is using to meet regulation requirements is also presented.

  2. Relativistic MHD with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Anderson; Eric Hirschmann; Steven L. Liebling; David Neilsen

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a new computer code to solve the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) equations using distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The fluid equations are solved using a finite difference Convex ENO method (CENO) in 3+1 dimensions, and the AMR is Berger-Oliger. Hyperbolic divergence cleaning is used to control the $\

  3. Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  4. Refiners boost crude capacity; Petrochemical production up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, R.A.

    1988-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuing demand strength in refined products and petrochemical markets caused refiners to boost crude-charging capacity slightly again last year, and petrochemical producers to increase production worldwide. Product demand strength is, in large part, due to stable product prices resulting from a stabilization of crude oil prices. Crude prices strengthened somewhat in 1987. That, coupled with fierce product competition, unfortunately drove refining margins negative in many regions of the U.S. during the last half of 1987. But with continued strong demand for gasoline, and an increased demand for higher octane gasoline, margins could turn positive by 1989 and remain so for a few years. U.S. refiners also had to have facilities in place to meet the final requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's lead phase-down rules on Jan. 1, 1988. In petrochemicals, plastics demand dept basic petrochemical plants at good utilization levels worldwide. U.S. production of basics such as ethylene and propylene showed solid increases. Many of the derivatives of the basic petrochemical products also showed good production gains. Increased petrochemical production and high plant utilization rates didn't spur plant construction projects, however. Worldwide petrochemical plant projects declined slightly from 1986 figures.

  5. Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Toby

    Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications Alan M. Frisch1 , Brahim Hnich2 , Ian choose model transformations to reduce greatly the amount of effort that is required to solve a problem by systematic search. It is a consid- erable challenge to automate such transformations. A problem may be viewed

  6. Refining industry trends: Europe and surroundings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guariguata, U.G.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European refining industry, along with its counterparts, is struggling with low profitability due to excess primary and conversion capacity, high operating costs and impending decisions of stringent environmental regulations that will require significant investments with hard to justify returns. This region was also faced in the early 1980s with excess capacity on the order of 4 MMb/d and satisfying the {open_quotes}at that point{close_quotes} demand by operating at very low utilization rates (60%). As was the case in the US, the rebalancing of the capacity led to the closure of some 51 refineries. Since the early 1990s, the increase in demand growth has essentially balanced the capacity threshold and utilization rates are settled around the 90% range. During the last two decades, the major oil companies have reduced their presence in the European refining sector, giving some state oil companies and producing countries the opportunity to gain access to the consumer market through the purchase of refining capacity in various countries-specifically, Kuwait in Italy; Libya and Venezuela in Germany; and Norway in other areas of Scandinavia. Although the market share for this new cast of characters remains small (4%) relative to participation by the majors (35%), their involvement in the European refining business set the foundation whereby US independent refiners relinquished control over assets that could not be operated profitably as part of a previous vertically integrated structure, unless access to the crude was ensured. The passage of time still seems to render this model valid.

  7. G en eralisation de th eor emes inductifs pour la v eri cation d'architectures r eguli eres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre, Laurence

    G#19;en#19;eralisation de th#19;eor#18;emes inductifs pour la v#19;eri#12;cation d'architectures r, preuve qui n#19;e- cessite fr#19;equemment une phase de g#19;en#19;eralisation de th#19;eor#18;emes. Nous proposons une m#19;ethode de g#19;en#19;eralisation qui permet de produire le th#19;eor#18;eme g#19;en#19

  8. phenix.refine: crystallographic structure refinement in PHENIX Pavel V. Afonine, Ralf W. Grosse-Kunstleve, Peter H. Zwart, Thomas C. Terwilliger, Nigel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    phenix.refine: crystallographic structure refinement in PHENIX Pavel V. Afonine, Ralf W. Grosse of automation and robustness in structure refinement. Their implementation in phenix.refine ­ state-of-the-art refinement module of PHENIX package ­ resulted in a complete set of tools that cover most of refinement needs

  9. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  10. Hardware/Software Co-Design via Specification Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, Wesley Graham

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . The Rosetta refinement capability extends this by allowing a system's functional behavior and its implementation details to be described separately. The Rosetta Refinement Tool combines the functional behavior and the implementation details to form a system...

  11. 5.067 Crystal Structure Refinement, Fall 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Peter

    This course in crystal structure refinement examines the practical aspects of crystal structure determination from data collection strategies to data reduction and basic and advanced refinement problems of organic and ...

  12. 5.841 Crystal Structure Refinement, Fall 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Peter

    This course in crystal structure refinement examines the practical aspects of crystal structure determination from data collection strategies to data reduction and basic and advanced refinement problems of organic and ...

  13. Refined Cigar and Omega-deformed Conifold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Nakayama

    2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Antoniadis et al proposed a relation between the Omega-deformation and refined correlation functions of the topological string theory. We investigate the proposal for the deformed conifold geometry from a non-compact Gepner model approach. The topological string theory on the deformed conifold has a dual description in terms of the c=1 non-critical string theory at the self-dual radius, and the Omega-deformation yields the radius deformation. We show that the refined correlation functions computed from the twisted SL(2,R)/U(1) Kazama-Suzuki coset model at level k=1 have direct c=1 non-critical string theory interpretations. After subtracting the leading singularity to procure the 1PI effective action, we obtain the agreement with the proposal.

  14. In quantum gravity, summing is refining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Rovelli; Matteo Smerlak

    2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In perturbative QED, the approximation is improved by summing more Feynman graphs; in non-perturbative QCD, by refining the lattice. Here we observe that in quantum gravity the two procedures may well be the same. We outline the combinatorial structure of spinfoam quantum gravity, define the continuum limit, and show that under general conditions refining foams is the same as summing over them. The conditions bear on the cylindrical consistency of the spinfoam amplitudes and on the presence of appropriate combinatorial factors, related to the implementation of diffeomorphisms invariance. Intuitively, the sites of the lattice are points of space: these are themselves quanta of the gravitational field, and thus a lattice discretization is also a Feynman history of quanta.

  15. Parabolic refined invariants and Macdonald polynomials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A string theoretic derivation is given for the conjecture of Hausel, Letellier, and Rodriguez-Villegas on the cohomology of character varieties with marked points. Their formula is identified with a refined BPS expansion in the stable pair theory of a local root stack, generalizing previous work of the first two authors in collaboration with G. Pan. Haiman's geometric construction for Macdonald polynomials is shown to emerge naturally in this context via geometric engineering. In particular this yields a new conjectural relation between Macdonald polynomials and refined local orbifold curve counting invariants. The string theoretic approach also leads to a new spectral cover construction for parabolic Higgs bundles in terms of holomorphic symplectic orbifolds.

  16. Dinosaurs can fly -- High performance refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treat, J.E. [Booz-Allen and Hamilton, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance refining requires that one develop a winning strategy based on a clear understanding of one`s position in one`s company`s value chain; one`s competitive position in the products markets one serves; and the most likely drivers and direction of future market forces. The author discussed all three points, then described measuring performance of the company. To become a true high performance refiner often involves redesigning the organization as well as the business processes. The author discusses such redesigning. The paper summarizes ten rules to follow to achieve high performance: listen to the market; optimize; organize around asset or area teams; trust the operators; stay flexible; source strategically; all maintenance is not equal; energy is not free; build project discipline; and measure and reward performance. The paper then discusses the constraints to the implementation of change.

  17. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  18. Focused risk assessment: Mound Plant, Miami-Erie Canal Operable Unit 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, D.R.; Dunning, D.F.

    1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1969, an underground waste line at Mound Plant ruptured and released plutonium-238 in a dilute nitric acid solution to the surrounding soils. Most of the acid was neutralized by the native soils. The plutonium, which in a neutral solution is tightly sorbed onto clay particles, remained within the spill area. During remediation, a severe storm eroded some of the contaminated soil. Fine grained plutonium-contaminated clay particles were carried away through the natural drainage courses to the remnants of the Miami-Erie Canal adjacent to Mound Plant, and then into the Great Miami River. This focused risk assessment considers exposure pathways relevant to site conditions, including incidental ingestion of contaminated soils, ingestion of drinking water and fish, and inhalation of resuspended soils and sediments. For each potential exposure pathway, a simplified conceptual model and exposure scenarios have been used to develop conservative estimates of potential radiation dose equivalents and health risks. The conservatism of the dose and risk estimates provides a substantive margin of safety in assuring that the public health is protected.

  19. fCourse: Learn to Swim Level 5: Stroke Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmers, Oliver

    fCourse: Learn to Swim Level 5: Stroke Refinement Purpose To further learn how to coordinate and refine strokes Prerequisites Valid American Red Cross Learn-to-Swim Level 4: Fundamental Aquatic Skills, but not required) Course: Learn to Swim Level 5: Stroke Refinement #12;

  20. Parametric Rietveld Refinement Prof. John S.O. Evans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    Parametric Rietveld Refinement Prof. John S.O. Evans APD IV Gaithersburg, 2013 Durham Chemistry Outline · What is parametric Rietveld refinement? · Should you do it? · How do you do it? · What can you., 40, 2007, 87 X+N refinements Jean Francois Berar, XND #12;john.evans@durham.ac.uk www

  1. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Redistribution on Distributed Memory Computers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bystroff, Chris

    Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Redistribution on Distributed Memory Computers C. ¨ Ozturan Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12181 Abstract A procedure to support parallel refinement and redistribution the required adjacency information. Mesh refinement is done by employing links back to the geometric

  2. RDOCK: Refinement of Rigid-body Protein Docking Predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weng, Zhiping

    RDOCK: Refinement of Rigid-body Protein Docking Predictions Li Li,1 Rong Chen,1 and Zhiping Weng1 RDOCK for refining unbound predictions generated by a rigid-body docking algorithm ZDOCK, which has been, RDOCK represents the simplest approach toward refining unbound docking predictions. Despite its simplic

  3. Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Ralf

    Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows Ralf Hartmann, Joachim Held-oriented mesh refinement for single and multiple aerodynamic force coefficients as well as residual-based mesh refinement applied to various three-dimensional lam- inar and turbulent aerodynamic test cases defined

  4. Validating Process Refinement with Ontologies , Gerd Groener2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staab, Steffen

    Validating Process Refinement with Ontologies Yuan Ren1 , Gerd Groener2 , Jens Lemcke3 , Tirdad University of Koblenz-Landau, 3 SAP AG Abstract. A crucial task in process management is the validation of process refinements. A process refinement is a process description in a more fine-grained representation

  5. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement in the United States Petroleum Refining Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry, prepared byBandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes, prepared byKaiser, M.J. , Petroleum Refining Technology & Economics,

  6. The Oil and Gas Journal databook, 1986 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual contains the following: Foreword by Gene Kinney; OGJ 400; Crude Oil Assays; Worldwide Petrochemical Survey; Midyear Forecast and Review; Worldwide Gas Processing Report; Ethylene Report; Sulfur Survey; International Refining; Catalyst Compilation; Pipeline Economics Report; Worldwide Production and Refining Report; Annual Refining Survey; Morgan Pipeline Cost Index, Oil and Gas; Nelson Cost Index; Hughes Rig Count; Smith Rig Count; OGJ Production Report and the API Refinery Reports. Also featured is the Oil and Gas Journal Index, which lists every article published in the Journal in 1985, referenced by article title or subject.

  7. Changes in the deep-water benthos of eastern Lake Erie between 1979 and 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dermott, R.; Kerec, D. [Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to examine changes of the benthic community and benthic biomass as a result of mussel colonization, a survey of the deep-water benthic fauna in eastern Lake Erie was repeated in 1993 using the same sites and methods as in a 1979 survey. During 1979, the community beyond 30 m was dominated by oligochaete worms and the burrowing amphipod Diporeia, which represented 50 and 40% of the total benthic biomass respectively. By 1993, quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) formed over 90% of the benthic biomass. Mussels were present at all 13 sites. Densities of individuals >2 mm in length averaged 3,241 mussels m{sup -2}. Of these mussels, 97% were quagga mussels. Total density of all sizes retained on a 180 {mu}m sieve averaged 34,800 mussels m{sup -2} but total biomass decreased from 1.58 to 0.98 g m{sup -2}. The density of the amphipod Diporeia was reduced from 1,844 in 1979 to 218 m{sup -2} in 1993. While present at all sites during 1979, Diporeia remained common only at two sites and were absent at 8 of the 13 sites in 1993. The native fingernail clams, Pisidium spp., were reduced from 327 to 82 m{sup -2}. No significant reduction occurred in the worm and chironomid populations, however the dry biomass of the chironomids was reduced from 0.07 to 0.0008 g m{sup -2}. These reductions may be due to competition with the mussels for freshly settling algae. The meiofauna, which included small nematodes, ostracods, and harpacticoids retained on a 180 {mu}m sieve, all increased in density. Perhaps they benefited from an increase in the detritus deposited as pseudofeces around the mussels.

  8. Estimation and projection of the demand for refined petroleum products in Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kianian, S.A.; Amin, M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this study is to construct an econometric model for estimation and projection of oil-refined products in Iran based on the situation of the Iranian energy market. Part 1 reviews the existing literature and contains the salient socio-economic futures of OPEC countries in general and of Iran in particular. Explanation of the structure of Iran's domestic energy market (demand, supply, and price) is the main purpose of this part. In Part 2, the demand function for each refined petroleum product is analyzed, formulated, and estimated. The price and income elasticities of the demands for gasoline, kerosene, gas oil and fuel oil are analyzed and compared with those of other countries. In Part 3, after analyzing and estimating the demand functions for total refined products, first, the full model, including all the estimated demand functions is dynamically simulated over the sample periods (1955-1978) in order to evaluate the performance power of the model, then the amount of consumption of each refined product for the next decade (1979-1988), under three scenarios of the rate of growth of real GNP, 9%, 7% and 5% is projected.

  9. MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-Temperature CombustionGlass MECS 2006 - GlassPetroleum Refining

  10. Norwegian Silicon Refining AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's HeatMexico:CommunityNorthwest Basin and RangeNorvento USA LLC JumpRefining

  11. Valero Refining Company - NJ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,Save Energy NowNew HampshireValero Refining Company - NJ Jump to:

  12. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Refining the Message Initiating a National Dialogue and Educational Agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggert, Anthony; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Dan; Winston, Emily

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating aHydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating a

  13. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal mining, petroleum extraction and refining, coking, andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking and

  14. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene expression and diversity of Lake Erie planktonic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, H.H.; Tabita, F.R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide fixation is carried out primarily through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle, in which rubulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is the key enzyme. The primary structure of the large subunit of form I RubisCO is well conserved; however, four distinct types, A, B, C, and D, may be distinguished. To better understand the environmental regulation of RubisCO in Lake Erie phytoplanktonic microorganisms, we have isolated total RNA and DNA from four Lake Erie sampling sites. Probes prepared from RubisCO large-subunit genes (rbcL) of the freshwater cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC6301 (representative of type IB) and the diatom Cylindrotheca sp. strain N1 (representative of type ID) was determined. It appeared that type ID (diatom) rbcL gene expression per gene dose decreased as the sampling sites shifted toward open water. By contrast, a similar trend was not observed for cyanobacterial (type IB) rbcL gene expression per gene dose. Thus far, a total of 21 clones of rbcL genes derived from mRNA have been obtained and completely sequenced from the Ballast Island site. For surface water samples, deduced amino acid sequences of five of six clones appeared to be representative of green algae. In contrast, six of nine sequenced rbcL clones from 10-m-deep samples were a chromophytic and rhodophytic lineages. At 5 m deep, the active CO{sub 2}-fixing planktonic organisms represented a diverse group, including organisms related to Chlorella ellipsoidea, Cylindrotheca sp. strain N1, and Olisthodiscus luteus. Although many more samplings at diverse sites must be accomplished, the discovery of distinctly different sequences of rbcL mRNA at different water depths suggests that there is a stratification of active CO{sub 2}-fixing organisms in western Lake Erie. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Oil and gas journal databook, 1987 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book is an annual compendium of surveys and special reports reviewed by experts. The 1987 edition opens with a forward by Gene Kinney, co-publisher of the Oil and Gas Journal and includes the OGJ 400 Report, Crude Oil Assays, Worldwide Petrochemical Survey, the Midyear Forecast and Reviews, the Worldwide Gas Processing Report, the Ethylene Report, Sulfur Survey, the International Refining, Catalyst Compilation, Annual Refining Survey, Worldwide Construction Report, Pipeline Economics Report, Worldwide Production and Refining Report, the Morgan Pipeline Cost Index for Oil and Gas, the Nelson Cost Index, the Hughes Rig Count, the Smith Rig Count, the OGJ Production Report, the API Refinery Report, API Crude and Product Stocks, APU Imports of Crude and Products, and the complete Oil and Gas Journal 1986 Index of articles.

  16. A CSP Account of Event-B Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Steve; Wehrheim, Heike; 10.4204/EPTCS.55.9

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Event-B provides a flexible framework for stepwise system development via refinement. The framework supports steps for (a) refining events (one-by-one), (b) splitting events (one-by-many), and (c) introducing new events. In each of the steps events can moreover possibly be anticipated or convergent. All such steps are accompanied with precise proof obligations. Still, it remains unclear what the exact relationship - in terms of a behaviour-oriented semantics - between an Event-B machine and its refinement is. In this paper, we give a CSP account of Event-B refinement, with a treatment for the first time of splitting events and of anticipated events. To this end, we define a CSP semantics for Event-B and show how the different forms of Event-B refinement can be captured as CSP refinement.

  17. Mirror of the refined topological vertex from a matrix model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Eynard; C. Kozcaz

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We find an explicit matrix model computing the refined topological vertex, starting from its representation in terms of plane partitions. We then find the spectral curve of that matrix model, and thus the mirror symmetry of the refined vertex. With the same method we also find a matrix model for the strip geometry, and we find its mirror curve. The fact that there is a matrix model shows that the refined topological string amplitudes also satisfy the remodeling the B-model construction.

  18. Electron beam skull melting and refining of secondary copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bychkov, Y.; Ladokhin, S. [Donetskvtortsvetmet, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Melting is the most efficient technology for metals and alloys refining. For secondary metals processing the Electron Beam Skull Melting (EBSM) with the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of melt in the crucible was shown to be the most appropriate. The copper produced by EBSM with EMS possesses higher density and electric conductivity in comparison with other refining methods. The details for high power electrical machines were cast of the copper waste refined by EBSM technology.

  19. Refined Chern-Simons Theory and Topological String

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mina Aganagic; Shamil Shakirov

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that refined Chern-Simons theory and large N duality can be used to study the refined topological string with and without branes. We derive the refined topological vertex of hep-th/0701156 and hep-th/0502061 from a link invariant of the refined SU(N) Chern-Simons theory on S^3, at infinite N. Quiver-like Chern-Simons theories, arising from Calabi-Yau manifolds with branes wrapped on several minimal S^3's, give a dual description of a large class of toric Calabi-Yau. We use this to derive the refined topological string amplitudes on a toric Calabi-Yau containing a shrinking P^2 surface. The result is suggestive of the refined topological vertex formalism for arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau manifolds in terms of a pair of vertices and a choice of a Morse flow on the toric graph, determining the vertex decomposition. The dependence on the flow is reminiscent of the approach to the refined topological string in upcoming work of Nekrasov and Okounkov. As a byproduct, we show that large N duality of the refined topological string explains the ``mirror symmetry`` of the refined colored HOMFLY invariants of knots.

  20. Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices," source for backcast estimates prior to January 1983. 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices 36 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996...

  1. Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices," source for backcast estimates prior to January 1983. 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices 36 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997...

  2. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  3. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

  4. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  5. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  6. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  7. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  8. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  9. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  10. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  11. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  12. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

  13. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

  14. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  15. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  16. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  17. On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models Emil M. Constantinescu and Adrian res- olution system for modeling regional air pollution based on the chemical transport model STEM. Keywords: Air Pollution Modeling, Adaptive Mesh Refinement. 1 Introduction Inadequate grid resolution can

  18. 11 California Petroleum Supply, Transportation, Refining and Marketing Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    11 California Petroleum Supply, Transportation, Refining and Marketing Trends Chapter 2 CALIFORNIA PETROLEUM SUPPLY, TRANSPORTATION, REFINING AND MARKETING TRENDS INTRODUCTION California is an integral part of the world oil market as a world-scale petroleum consumer. Historically, about 50 percent of this petroleum

  19. Refining Landscape Change Models through Outlier Analysis in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Robert T.

    Refining Landscape Change Models through Outlier Analysis in the Muskegon Watershed of Michigan significantly to the state economy, accounting for nearly 20% of its economic output (Michigan Land Use, 1965; Lee, 1973; Wegener, 1994), and model refinement/advancement, in large part due to advances

  20. Refined BPS state counting from Nekrasov's formula and Macdonald functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidetoshi Awata; Hiroaki Kanno

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been argued that the Nekrasov's partition function gives the generating function of refined BPS state counting in the compactification of M theory on local Calabi-Yau spaces. We show that a refined version of the topological vertex we proposed before (hep-th/0502061) is a building block of the Nekrasov's partition function with two equivariant parameters. Compared with another refined topological vertex by Iqbal-Kozcaz-Vafa (hep-th/0701156), our refined vertex is expressed entirely in terms of the specialization of the Macdonald symmetric functions which is related to the equivariant character of the Hilbert scheme of points on C^2. We provide diagrammatic rules for computing the partition function from the web diagrams appearing in geometric engineering of Yang-Mills theory with eight supercharges. Our refined vertex has a simple transformation law under the flop operation of the diagram, which suggests that homological invariants of the Hopf link are related to the Macdonald functions.

  1. The conquest of the nano-cosmos is occurring simultaneously in almost ev-ery field with a strong interdisciplinary and an increasing transdisciplinary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grundmann, Marius

    Preface The conquest of the nano-cosmos is occurring simultaneously in almost ev- ery field, optical, magnetic, and (bio)chemical properties of materials are beginning to be mastered on a nano-scale. This enables the fabrication of devices that rely on effects on the nano-scale. For the creation

  2. The oil and gas journal databook, 1991 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book provides the statistical year in review plus selected articles that cover significant events of the past year. In addition, the Data Book features the popular surveys and special reports that quantify industry activity throughout the year. This book contains information on Midyear forecast and review; Worldwide gas processing report; Ethylene report; Sulfur survey; International refining survey; Nelson cost index; Smith rig count; API refinery report; API imports of crude and products; The catalyst compilation; Annual refining survey; Worldwide construction report; Pipeline economics report; Worldwide production and refining report; Morgan pipeline cost index for oil and gas; Hughes rig count; OBJ production report.

  3. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"BruneiReserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (MillionNatural GasRefiner

  4. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  5. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  6. GRChombo : Numerical Relativity with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katy Clough; Pau Figueras; Hal Finkel; Markus Kunesch; Eugene A. Lim; Saran Tunyasuvunakool

    2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical relativity has undergone a revolution in the past decade. With a well-understood mathematical formalism, and full control over the gauge modes, it is now entering an era in which the science can be properly explored. In this work, we introduce GRChombo, a new numerical relativity code written to take full advantage of modern parallel computing techniques. GRChombo's features include full adaptive mesh refinement with block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation which supports non-trivial "many-boxes-in-many-boxes" meshing hierarchies, and massive parallelism through the Message Passing Interface (MPI). GRChombo evolves the Einstein equation with the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. We show that GRChombo passes all the standard "Apples-to-Apples" code comparison tests. We also show that it can stably and accurately evolve vacuum black hole spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers, and non-vacuum spacetimes such as scalar collapses into black holes. As an illustration of its AMR capability, we demonstrate the evolution of triple black hole merger, which can be set up trivially in GRChombo.

  7. GRChombo : Numerical Relativity with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clough, Katy; Finkel, Hal; Kunesch, Markus; Lim, Eugene A; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical relativity has undergone a revolution in the past decade. With a well-understood mathematical formalism, and full control over the gauge modes, it is now entering an era in which the science can be properly explored. In this work, we introduce GRChombo, a new numerical relativity code written to take full advantage of modern parallel computing techniques. GRChombo's features include full adaptive mesh refinement with block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation which supports non-trivial "many-boxes-in-many-boxes" meshing hierarchies, and massive parallelism through the Message Passing Interface (MPI). GRChombo evolves the Einstein equation with the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. We show that GRChombo passes all the standard "Apples-to-Apples" code comparison tests. We also show that it can stably and accurately evolve vacuum black hole spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers, and non-vacuum spacetimes such as scalar collapses into b...

  8. Electron beam cold hearth refining in Vallejo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, J.H.C. [Axel Johnson Metals, Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refining Furnace (EBCHR) in Vallejo, California is alive, well, and girding itself for developing new markets. A brief review of the twelve years experience with EBCHR in Vallejo. Acquisition of the Vallejo facility by Axel Johnson Metals, Inc. paves the way for the development of new products and markets. A discussion of some of the new opportunities for the advancement of EBCHR technology. Discussed are advantages to the EBCHR process which include: extended surface area of molten metal exposed to higher vacuum; liberation of insoluble oxide particles to the surface of the melt; higher temperatures that allowed coarse solid particles like carbides and carbonitrides to be suspended in the fluid metal as fine micro-segregates, and enhanced removal of volatile trace impurities like lead, bismuth and cadmium. Future work for the company includes the continued recycling of alloys and also fabricating stainless steel for the piping of chip assembly plants. This is to prevent `killer defects` that ruin a memory chip.

  9. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Cook, Glenn M. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  10. Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B Steve Schneider refinement in the context of CSP B. Our motivation to include this notion of refinement within the CSP B to change the events of a CSP process and the B machines when refining a system. Notions of refinement based

  11. On the filling factor of emitting material in the upper atmosphere of Epsilon Eri (K2 V)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Sim; C. Jordan

    2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission measure distribution in the upper transition region and corona of Epsilon Eri is derived from observed emission line fluxes. Theoretical emission measure distributions are calculated assuming that the radiation losses are balanced by the net conductive flux. We discuss how the area factor of the emitting regions as a function of temperature can be derived from a comparison between these emission measure distributions. It is found that the filling factor varies from ~0.2 in the mid transition region to ~1.0 in the inner corona. The sensitivity of these results to the adopted ion fractions, the iron abundance and other parameters is discussed. The area factors found are qualitatively similar to the observed structure of the solar atmosphere, and can be used to constrain two-component models of the chromosphere. Given further observations, the method could be applied to investigate the trends in filling factors with indicators of stellar activity.

  12. Flop Invariance of Refined Topological Vertex and Link Homologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masato Taki

    2008-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed recently that the topological A-model string theory on local toric Calabi-Yau manifolds has a two parameter extension. Amplitudes of the two parameter topological strings can be computed using a diagrammatic method called the refined topological vertex. In this paper we study properties of the refined amplitudes under the flop transition of toric Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also discuss that the slicing invariance and the flop transition imply a simple formula for the homological sl(N) invariants of the Hopf link. The new expression for the invariants gives a simple refinement of the Hopf link invariant of Chern-Simons theory.

  13. Multigrid elliptic equation solver with adaptive mesh refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. David Brown; Lisa L. Lowe

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we describe in detail the computational algorithm used by our parallel multigrid elliptic equation solver with adaptive mesh refinement. Our code uses truncation error estimates to adaptively refine the grid as part of the solution process. The presentation includes a discussion of the orders of accuracy that we use for prolongation and restriction operators to ensure second order accurate results and to minimize computational work. Code tests are presented that confirm the overall second order accuracy and demonstrate the savings in computational resources provided by adaptive mesh refinement.

  14. Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

  15. Refined Analytic Torsion as an Element of the Determinant Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Braverman; Thomas Kappeler

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a canonical element, called the refined analytic torsion, of the determinant line of the cohomology of a closed oriented odd-dimensional manifold M with coefficients in a flat complex vector bundle E. We compute the Ray-Singer norm of the refined analytic torsion. In particular, if there exists a flat Hermitian metric on E, we show that this norm is equal to 1. We prove a duality theorem, establishing a relationship between the refined analytic torsions corresponding to a flat connection and its dual.

  16. Refining Social Justice Through Collaborative Inquiry: Key Rewards and Challenges for Teacher Educators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Camille Wilson

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researcher, 25 (5), 5-15. Cooper—Refining Social Justice—35social justice. Cooper—Refining Social Justice—27 REFERENCESCollege Press. Cooper—Refining Social Justice—28 Cochran-

  17. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil - Composite

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998throughThousand CubicWashington Natural Gas Exports2.References

  18. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  19. Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Ralf

    Error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement for aerodynamic flows Ralf Hartmann1 and Paul Houston2 1 Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology DLR (German Aerospace Center) Lilienthalplatz 7

  20. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    S O N D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Retail < or 1% Wholesale < or 1% Retail > 1% Wholesale > 1% 7. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices and...

  1. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  2. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  3. Japan`s refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan`s downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country`s refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry.

  4. Polygons in Buildings and their Refined Side Lengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapovich, Michael; Leeb, Bernhard; Millson, John J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1999. [Bro] K. Brown, Buildings, Springer, 1989. [BuBI] D.AMS, 2001. [D] M. Davis, Buildings are CAT(0), in “Geometryat Springerlink.com POLYGONS IN BUILDINGS AND THEIR REFINED

  5. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    133.6 - 276.4 See footnotes at end of table. 220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

  6. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    201.3 - 453.3 See footnotes at end of table. 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type,...

  7. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Refining the Message Initiating a National Dialogue and Educational Agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggert, Anthony; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Dan; Winston, Emily

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    April 1, 2005 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the MessageHydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating athe communication problem. Hydrogen and fuel cells have now

  8. Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, T. C.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and densitytool for iterative model- building, structure refinement andusing RESOLVE or TEXTAL model- building, RESOLVE statistical

  9. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Refining the Message Initiating a National Dialogue and Educational Agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggert, Anthony; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Dan; Winston, Emily

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating aApril 1, 2005 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Messagethe communication problem. Hydrogen and fuel cells have now

  10. Steps taken at Malelane refinery to improve refined sugar quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; Pm Schorn

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refinery at Malelane has in the past produced refined sugar for the consumer market. A decision was taken by the management of Transvaal Sugar (TSB) to produce a quality of refined sugar that would also be acceptable to the industrial and the export markets. The processes that were evaluated and implemented at the Malelane refinery during the past three seasons to achieve this objective, are described.

  11. Ultrasonic Sensor to Characterize Wood Pulp During Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Panetta, Paul D.; Bond, Leonard J.; McCaw, M. W.

    2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel sensor concept has been developed for measuring the consistency, the degree of refining, the water retention value (WRV), and the consistency of wood pulp during the refining process. The measurement time is less than 5 minutes and the sensor can operate in a slip-stream of the process line or as an at-line instrument. The consistency is obtained from a calibration, in which the attenuation of ultrasound through the pulp suspension is measured as a function of the solids weight percentage. The degree of refining and the WRV are determined from settling measurements. The settling of a pulp suspension (consistency less than 0.5 Wt%) is observed, after the mixer that keeps the pulp uniformly distributed is turned off. The attenuation of ultrasound as a function of time is recorded and these data show a peak, after a certain delay, defined as the “peak time.” The degree of refining increases with the peak time, as demonstrated by measuring pulp samples with different degrees of refining. The WRV can be determined using the relative peak time, defined as the ratio T2/T1, where T1 is an initial value of the peak time and T2 is the value after additional refining. This method offers an additional WRV test for the industry, because the freeness test is not specific for the WRV.

  12. 8232 Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 35 / Tuesday, February 24, 2009 / Notices March 18, 6:30 p.m ....................... Rogers City, MI ............................. Presque Isle District Library, 181 East Erie Street, Rogers City, MI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .m ....................... Rogers City, MI ............................. Presque Isle District Library, 181 East Erie Street, Rogers City, MI 49779. March 19, 6:30 p.m ....................... Harrisville, MI ............................... Harrisville Courthouse, 106 North 5th Street, Harrisville, MI 48740. March 20, 2 p

  13. Direct Refinement against ProtonProton Dipolar Couplings in NMR Structure Determination of Macromolecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clore, G. Marius

    Direct Refinement against Proton­Proton Dipolar Couplings in NMR Structure Determination in macromolecular structure refinement are pre- sented. Potentials are described for direct refinement against 1 H­1 dipolar coupling refinement is illustrated using the small protein ubiquitin. It is shown that direct 1 H

  14. Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.

  15. Detection of magnetic dipole lines of Fe XII in the ultraviolet spectrum of the dwarf star Epsilon Eri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Jordan; A. D. McMurry; S. A. Sim; M. Arulvel

    2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report observations of the dwarf star Epsilon Eri (K2 V) made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The high sensitivity of the STIS instrument has allowed us to detect the magnetic dipole transitions of Fe XII at 1242.00A and 1349.38A for the first time in a star other than the Sun. The width of the stronger line at 1242.00A has also been measured; such measurements are not possible for the permitted lines of Fe XII in the extreme ultraviolet. To within the accurcy of the measurements, the N V and the Fe XII lines occur at their rest wavelengths. Electron densities and line widths have been measured from other transition region lines. Together, these can be used to investigate the non-thermal energy flux in the lower and upper transition region, which is useful in constraining possible heating processes. The Fe XII lines are also present in archival STIS spectra of other G/K-type dwarfs.

  16. US refiners choose variety of routes to MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1992-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that refiners and merchant manufacturers in the U.S. are gearing up to produce the large volumes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) needed to comply with oxygenated gasoline requirements. The 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments specify that, as of the first of this coming November, gasoline containing a minimum of 2.7 wt % oxygen must be sold in 39 CO-nonattainment cities. Refiners and others are scurrying to bring MTBE capacity on line in time to meet this requirement. Many U.S. refiners already have some operating MTBE capacity, but this will not be nearly enough to meet the looming increase in demand. As a result, additional capacity is being constructed worldwide.

  17. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  18. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  19. ,"Weekly Refiner Net Production"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner GasolineAllRefiner Net Production"

  20. Hydrodynamical adaptive mesh refinement simulations of turbulent flows - II. Cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Iapichino; J. C. Niemeyer

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of turbulent gas flows in the intra-cluster medium and in the core of a galaxy cluster is studied by means of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) cosmological simulations. A series of six runs was performed, employing identical simulation parameters but different criteria for triggering the mesh refinement. In particular, two different AMR strategies were followed, based on the regional variability of control variables of the flow and on the overdensity of subclumps, respectively. We show that both approaches, albeit with different results, are useful to get an improved resolution of the turbulent flow in the ICM. The vorticity is used as a diagnostic for turbulence, showing that the turbulent flow is not highly volume-filling but has a large area-covering factor, in agreement with previous theoretical expectations. The measured turbulent velocity in the cluster core is larger than 200 km/s, and the level of turbulent pressure contribution to the cluster hydrostatic equilibrium is increased by using the improved AMR criteria.

  1. Environmental-control considerations in the production and use of solvent-refined coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.S.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an environmental-control study of the solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. The report complements a previous Argonne report: Assessment of Status of Technology for Solvent Refining of Coal (ANL/ECT-3, Appendix B). The current review separates discussion of environmental control into two broad sections: production of SRC fuels, both solid and liquid, and their utilization. Control technologies are briefly reviewed for the gas, liquid, and solid wastes generated by the production of SRC. For an SRC-I plant, producing solid product, potential waste streams are then identified and discussed in terms of applicable control technologies and promulgated EPA standards. The SRC-production section concludes with a discussion of the biological activity of certain products of an SRC-II plant, producing liquid fuel. The author summarizes recent experimental findings and recommends accelerated research at SRC plants to quantify the effects of biological activity and develop measures needed to reduce those effects. No unusual environmental-control problems have been detected in the combustion of SRC fuels. It is recommended, however, that more SRC combustion studies be made and that the solid and liquid fuels used in them be derived from a variety of parent coals. Such studies will establish the broad data base needed to demonstrate that SRC fuels burn efficiently within environmentally safe limits.

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  3. Mutually refining DPCM system with applications in frame erasure channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutharsan, Thirunathan

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the design of a mutually refining DPCM (MR-DPCM) system and its applications to frame erasure channels. MR-DPCM is a system that uses diversity to overcome channel impairments. In this thesis the design for a two channel system...

  4. A Refined Difference Field Theory for Symbolic Summation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carsten Schneider

    2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we present a refined summation theory based on Karr's difference field approach. The resulting algorithms find sum representations with optimal nested depth. For instance, the algorithms have been applied successively to evaluate Feynman integrals from Perturbative Quantum Field Theory.

  5. Note on refined topological vertex, Jack polynomials and instanton counting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianfeng Wu

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we calculated the refined topological vertex for the one parameter case using the Jack symmetric functions. Also, we obtain the partition function for elliptic N=2 models, the results coincide with those of Nekrasov instanton counting partition functions for the $N=2^{\\ast}$ theories.

  6. Refined Chern-Simons Theory and Knot Homology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mina Aganagic; Shamil Shakirov

    2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The refined Chern-Simons theory is a one-parameter deformation of the ordinary Chern-Simons theory on Seifert manifolds. It is defined via an index of the theory on N M5 branes, where the corresponding one-parameter deformation is a natural deformation of the geometric background. Analogously with the unrefined case, the solution of refined Chern-Simons theory is given in terms of S and T matrices, which are the proper Macdonald deformations of the usual ones. This provides a direct way to compute refined Chern-Simons invariants of a wide class of three-manifolds and knots. The knot invariants of refined Chern-Simons theory are conjectured to coincide with the knot superpolynomials -- Poincare polynomials of the triply graded knot homology theory. This conjecture is checked for a large number of torus knots in S^3, colored by the fundamental representation. This is a short, expository version of arXiv:1105.5117, with some new results included.

  7. Refined functional relations for the elliptic SOS model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Galleas

    2012-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we refine the method of [1] and obtain a novel kind of functional equation determining the partition function of the elliptic SOS model with domain wall boundaries. This functional relation is originated from the dynamical Yang-Baxter algebra and its solution is given in terms of multiple contour integrals.

  8. #PRL --A Proof Refinement Calculus for Classical Reasoning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreitz, Christoph

    #µPRL -- A Proof Refinement Calculus for Classical Reasoning in Computational Type Theory Nuria, 14482 Potsdam, Germany {brede,kreitz}@cs.uni­potsdam.de Abstract. We present a hybrid proof calculus #µPRL to con­ structive proofs and show that the restriction of #µPRL to µ­safe proof terms is sound

  9. PRL A Proof Refinement Calculus for Classical Reasoning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreitz, Christoph

    µPRL ­ A Proof Refinement Calculus for Classical Reasoning in Computational Type Theory Nuria Brede, Germany {brede,kreitz}@cs.uni-potsdam.de Abstract. We present a hybrid proof calculus µPRL that combines and show that the restriction of µPRL to µ-safe proof terms is sound and complete for intuitionistic

  10. Kenney: The USSOCOM Trinity The USSOCOM Trinity: Refining Special Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was that the American military would plan, train, and equip to conduct major combat operations on opposite sidesKenney: The USSOCOM Trinity 1 The USSOCOM Trinity: Refining Special Operations Commitment to 21st on the United States Special Operations Command and recommends means and methods to capitalize on current

  11. Electron beam melting and refining state of the art 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakish, R. [ed.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the proceedings of the Electron Beam Melting and Refining - State of the Art 1995 Conference. It contains 23 of the 30 scheduled papers. Papers cover an array of electron beam melting applications, from industrial plating of metal strip, through government work on manufacturing and processing fissile alloys. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this proceedings.

  12. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  13. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  14. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  15. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  16. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  17. Time Critical Isosurface Refinement And Smoothing V. Pascucci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    the global geometry of the embedding (no self- intersections) of any approximated level of detail: (i) a progressive al- gorithm that builds a multi-resolution surface by successive refine- ments so of the U.S. Depart- ment of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  18. Department of Computing Stepwise Refinement in Event-B||CSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    in Event-B||CSP Part 1: Safety Steve Schneider, Helen Treharne and Heike Wehrheim March 12th 2011 #12;Stepwise Refinement in Event-B CSP Part 1: Safety Steve Schneider1 Helen Treharne1 Heike Wehrheim2 1, 2011 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 CSP 3 2.1 Notation

  19. Decommissioning samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA, solvent refined coal pilot plant: chemical analysis and biological testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, W.C.; Wright, C.W.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results from chemical analyses and limited biological assays of three sets of samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant. The samples were collected during the process of decommissioning this facility. Chemical composition was determined for chemical class fractions of the samples by using high-resolution gas chromatography (GC), high-resolution GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and high-resolution MS. Biological activity was measuring using both the histidine reversion microbial mutagenicity assay with Salmonella typhimurium, TA98 and an initiation/promotion mouse-skin tumorigenicity assay. 19 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Demand growth to continue for oil, resume for gas this year in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.J.

    1998-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand for petroleum products and natural gas in the US will move up again this year, stimulated by economic growth and falling prices. Economic growth, although slower than it was last year, will nevertheless remain strong. Worldwide petroleum supply will rise, suppressing oil prices. Natural gas prices are also expected to fall in response to the decline in oil prices and competitive pressure from other fuels. The paper discusses the economy, total energy consumption, energy sources, oil supply (including imports, stocks, refining, refining margins and prices), oil demand (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel oil, and other petroleum products), natural gas demand, and natural gas supply.

  1. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with the second 3-months of the project and encompasses the period December 31, 2003, through March 31, 2003. During this 3-month, the dialogue of individuals representing the storage industry, universities and the Department of energy was continued and resulted in a constitution for the operation of the consortium and a draft of the initial Request for Proposals (RFP).

  2. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period April 1, 2004, through June 30, 2004. During this 3-month period, a Request for Proposals (RFP) was made. A total of 17 proposals were submitted to the GSTC. A proposal selection meeting was held June 9-10, 2004 in Morgantown, West Virginia. Of the 17 proposals, 6 were selected for funding.

  3. Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chau, Chi-Fai

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved...

  4. ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE Final Report AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE 5. Report Date June 2007 Final Report 6

  5. WELDABILITY OF GRAIN-REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris Jr., J.W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Cryogenic Nickel Steels, WRC Bull, 205, May, 1975.REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS D.E.REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS D.

  6. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Coupled Elliptic-Hyperbolic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frans Pretorius; Matthew W. Choptuik

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a modification to the Berger and Oliger adaptive mesh refinement algorithm designed to solve systems of coupled, non-linear, hyperbolic and elliptic partial differential equations. Such systems typically arise during constrained evolution of the field equations of general relativity. The novel aspect of this algorithm is a technique of "extrapolation and delayed solution" used to deal with the non-local nature of the solution of the elliptic equations, driven by dynamical sources, within the usual Berger and Oliger time-stepping framework. We show empirical results demonstrating the effectiveness of this technique in axisymmetric gravitational collapse simulations. We also describe several other details of the code, including truncation error estimation using a self-shadow hierarchy, and the refinement-boundary interpolation operators that are used to help suppress spurious high-frequency solution components ("noise").

  7. A refined position catalog of the Swift XRT afterglows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Moretti; M. Perri; M. Capalbi; L. Angelini; J. E. Hill; S. Campana; D. N. Burrows; J. P. Osborne; G. Tagliaferri; G. Cusumano; P. Giommi; P. Romano; T. Mineo; J. Kennea; D. Morris; J. Nousek; C. Pagani; J. Racusin; A. F. Abbey; A. P. Beardmore; O. Godet; M. R. Goad; K. L. Page; A. A. Wells; G. Chincarini

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a catalogue of refined positions of 68 gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglows observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) from the launch up to 2005 Oct 16. This is a result of the refinement of the XRT boresight calibration. We tested this correction by means of a systematic study of a large sample of X-ray sources observed by XRT with well established optical counterparts. We found that we can reduce the systematic error radius of the measurements by a factor of two, from 6.5" to 3.2" (90% of confidence). We corrected all the positions of the afterglows observed by XRT in the first 11 months of the Swift mission. This is particularly important for the 37 X-ray afterglows without optical counterpart. Optical follow-up of dark GRBs, in fact, will be more efficient with the use of the more accurate XRT positions.

  8. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing negotiations of the four sub-awards working toward signed contracts with the various organizations involved. Second, an Executive Council meeting was held at Penn State September 9, 2004. And third, the GSTC participated in the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting in Charleston, West Virginia, on September 16th and 17th. We hosted a display booth with the Stripper Well Consortium.

  9. p-Adic refinable functions and MRA-based wavelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Yu. Khrennikov; V. M. Shelkovich; M. Skopina

    2007-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We described a wide class of $p$-adic refinable equations generating $p$-adic multiresolution analysis. A method for the construction of $p$-adic orthogonal wavelet bases within the framework of the MRA theory is suggested. A realization of this method is illustrated by an example, which gives a new 3-adic wavelet basis. Another realization leads to the $p$-adic Haar bases which were known before.

  10. Refined topological amplitudes in N=1 flux compactification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Nakayama

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the implication of refined topological string amplitudes in the supersymmetric N=1 flux compactification. They generate higher derivative couplings among the vector multiplets and graviphoton with generically non-holomorphic moduli dependence. For a particular term, we can compute them by assuming the geometric engineering. We claim that the Dijkgraaf-Vafa large N matrix model with the beta-ensemble measure directly computes the higher derivative corrections to the supersymmetric effective action of the supersymmetric N=1$ gauge theory.

  11. China`s refining/petrochemical industry continues expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    China`s downstream petroleum industry decreased refinery throughput and increased petrochemical production in 1994, compared to 1993 data. A report titled ``China Petroleum Industry `94,`` issued by China Petroleum Newsletter, a publication of China Petroleum Information Institute, summarized China`s refined products and petrochemical production figures for 1994. The report also listed important construction projects at China`s downstream plants. This paper presents data from this report.

  12. Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment,Institutes and Launches theResidentialRecoveryWaste and SaveRefining

  13. Protein extraction in the refinement of Coastal Bermudagrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De La Rosa Perez, Luis Bernardo

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , phosphoric acid, gaseous hydrochloric acid, anhydrous ammonia and ethylendiamine (Chang et aL, 1981; Wylie and Steen, 1988). Also the use of organic solvents such as hexane or cadoxen ([Cd(ethylendiamine)3](OH)2, cadmium ethylendiamine) (Ladisch et al... and lignin. Integrated conversion of the entire "barrel of biomass" (also referred to as biomass refining), is essential to obtain good system economics. This study evaluated the use of the Ammonia Fiber Explosion (AFEX) process in an integrated conversion...

  14. Lattice refining loop quantum cosmology, anisotropic models and stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Bojowald; Daniel Cartin; Gaurav Khanna

    2007-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A general class of loop quantizations for anisotropic models is introduced and discussed, which enhances loop quantum cosmology by relevant features seen in inhomogeneous situations. The main new effect is an underlying lattice which is being refined during dynamical changes of the volume. In general, this leads to a new feature of dynamical difference equations which may not have constant step-size, posing new mathematical problems. It is discussed how such models can be evaluated and what lattice refinements imply for semiclassical behavior. Two detailed examples illustrate that stability conditions can put strong constraints on suitable refinement models, even in the absence of a fundamental Hamiltonian which defines changes of the underlying lattice. Thus, a large class of consistency tests of loop quantum gravity becomes available. In this context, it will also be seen that quantum corrections due to inverse powers of metric components in a constraint are much larger than they appeared recently in more special treatments of isotropic, free scalar models where they were artificially suppressed.

  15. Refinements of the Weyl tensor classification in five dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan Coley; Sigbjorn Hervik; Marcello Ortaggio; Lode Wylleman

    2012-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We refine the null alignment classification of the Weyl tensor of a five-dimensional spacetime. The paper focusses on the algebraically special alignment types {\\bf {N}}, {\\bf {III}}, {\\bf {II}} and {\\bf {D}}, while types {\\bf {I}} and {\\bf {G}} are briefly discussed. A first refinement is provided by the notion of spin type of the components of highest boost weight. Second, we analyze the Segre types of the Weyl operator acting on bivector space and examine the intersection with the spin type classification. We present a full treatment for types {\\bf {N}} and {\\bf {III}}, and illustrate the classification from different viewpoints (Segre type, rank, spin type) for types {\\bf {II}} and {\\bf {D}}, paying particular attention to possible nilpotence, which is a new feature of higher dimensions. We also point out other essential differences with the four-dimensional case. In passing, we exemplify the refined classification by mentioning the special subtypes associated to certain important spacetimes, such as Myers-Perry black holes, black strings, Robinson-Trautman spacetimes, and purely electric/magnetic type {\\bf {D}} spacetimes.

  16. Refined similarity hypotheses in shell models of turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emily S. C. Ching; H. Guo; T. S. Lo

    2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A major challenge in turbulence research is to understand from first principles the origin of anomalous scaling of the velocity fluctuations in high-Reynolds-number turbulent flows. One important idea was proposed by Kolmogorov [J. Fluid Mech. {\\bf 13}, 82 (1962)], which attributes the anomaly to the variations of the locally averaged energy dissipation rate. Kraichnan later pointed out [J. Fluid Mech. {\\bf 62}, 305 (1973)] that the locally averaged energy dissipation rate is not an inertial-range quantity and a proper inertial-range quantity would be the local energy transfer rate. As a result, Kraichnan's idea attributes the anomaly to the variations of the local energy transfer rate. These ideas, generally known as refined similarity hypotheses, can also be extended to study the anomalous scaling of fluctuations of an active scalar, like the temperature in turbulent convection. In this paper, we examine the validity of these refined similarity hypotheses and their extensions to an active scalar in shell models of turbulence. We find that Kraichnan's refined similarity hypothesis and its extension are valid.

  17. U. S. refiners move into another challenging technical era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, J.R. (Ashland Oil Inc., Ashland, KY (US))

    1991-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    With the transition to unleaded gasoline scarcely behind us, another new era is dawning for the U.S. refiner. No one yet knows the exact configuration of the refinery of the future and no two refineries are likely to adapt in exactly the same way. What is certain, however, is that by the year 2000, refineries will be more technologically advanced, their products will be more environmentally acceptable, and their operators will be more highly trained. The typical U.S. refinery in the year 2000 will be located at an existing refinery site because economic and environmental considerations will make it impossible to build new grassroots capacity. As a result of the Clean Air act, the refinery of tomorrow will produce cleaner fuels The entire U.S. gasoline pool will likely be reformulated. Most of the diesel fuel pool will consist of ultralow-sulfur product. And jet fuel-which is experiencing rapid demand growth-will be an increasingly important product. Many existing refining process will remain in use, but they will be more efficient and more technologically advanced. Energy efficiency will be a primary concern, as refiners seek to combat ever-increasing crude oil costs and refinery operating expenses. The refinery of the future also will be much more environmentally acceptable. The article is a closer look at the refinery of the future.

  18. Evolutions in 3D numerical relativity using fixed mesh refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik Schnetter; Scott H. Hawley; Ian Hawke

    2004-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of 3D numerical simulations using a finite difference code featuring fixed mesh refinement (FMR), in which a subset of the computational domain is refined in space and time. We apply this code to a series of test cases including a robust stability test, a nonlinear gauge wave and an excised Schwarzschild black hole in an evolving gauge. We find that the mesh refinement results are comparable in accuracy, stability and convergence to unigrid simulations with the same effective resolution. At the same time, the use of FMR reduces the computational resources needed to obtain a given accuracy. Particular care must be taken at the interfaces between coarse and fine grids to avoid a loss of convergence at higher resolutions, and we introduce the use of "buffer zones" as one resolution of this issue. We also introduce a new method for initial data generation, which enables higher-order interpolation in time even from the initial time slice. This FMR system, "Carpet", is a driver module in the freely available Cactus computational infrastructure, and is able to endow generic existing Cactus simulation modules ("thorns") with FMR with little or no extra effort.

  19. Protein NMR Structures Refined with Rosetta Have Higher Accuracy Relative to Corresponding Xray Crystal Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    Protein NMR Structures Refined with Rosetta Have Higher Accuracy Relative to Corresponding Xray Information ABSTRACT: We have found that refinement of protein NMR structures using Rosetta with experimental in the PDB using standard refinement protocols. Using 40 pairs of NMR and X-ray crystal structures determined

  20. proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS A combination of rescoring and refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weng, Zhiping

    proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS A combination of rescoring and refinement in protein docking allow for atomic-scale protein complex predictions,3 yet work needs to be done to refine,10,11 reranking,12 and structural refinement13 of the initial set of predictions. Structural

  1. Refinement of the differential gravimetry approach for future inter-satellite observations Matthias Weigelt, Wolfgang Keller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuttgart, Universität

    Refinement of the differential gravimetry approach for future inter-satellite observations Matthias Applicability to GRACE ­ Follow On Refinement of the approach Conclusions: Loss of accuracy of several order. For the GRACE Follow-On mission this approach is not working anymore and thus a refinement of the solution

  2. A comparison of spectral element and finite difference methods using statically refined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    A comparison of spectral element and finite difference methods using statically refined elements on a refined grid, using spectral method (polynomials of order p). · Accuracy convergence rate refinement dynamically or statically. Why considering spectral element? #12;Motivation · Since the main

  3. Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models with Lagrangian Coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models blocks and splits a block as refinements occur. The current functionality provides automatic generation the use of a longer time step. We have developed an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) dynamical core

  4. ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL- TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE (OTREC PHASE I) Final Report #12;#12;ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE ASSESSMENT AND REFINEMENT OF REAL-TIME TRAVEL TIME ALGORITHMS FOR USE IN PRACTICE (OTREC PHASE 1) 5. Report

  5. A Multi-Tiered Genetic Algorithm for Data Mining and Hypothesis Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The second stage of testing was on the ability to take results from a previous algorithm and perform refinement on the data model. Initially, Arcanum was used to refine its own data models. Of the six data models used for hypothesis refinement, Arcanum...

  6. Refining GAL4-Driven Transgene Expression in Drosophila With a GAL80 Enhancer-Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolowski, Marla

    LETTER Refining GAL4-Driven Transgene Expression in Drosophila With a GAL80 Enhancer-trap element, P{GAL80}, that encodes the yeast GAL80 repressor to refine expression of transgenes driven neurons. This line was used to refine GFP expression from a set of over 200 neurons to a subset of 20

  7. Decorrelation of neural activity during fixational instability: Possible implications for the refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rucci, Michele

    for the refinement of V1 receptive fields MICHELE RUCCI1 and ANTONINO CASILE2 1 Department of Cognitive and Neural June 10, 2004) Abstract Early in life, visual experience appears to influence the refinement in the experience-dependent refinement of cell response characteristics. To investigate the possible influences

  8. Comment on "Data for Refinement and Deposition/Publication" Mariusz Jaskolski (July 13, 2014)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comment on "Data for Refinement and Deposition/Publication" Mariusz Jaskolski (July 13, 2014) 1. My and should be included in the refinement. Therefore, I do not truncate my data only because the high used in the refinement. 3. My leniency toward completeness at high-resolution does not extend

  9. Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part I --Vertical wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-VerdĂ­n, Carlos

    Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part a new linear iterative refinement method to simulate nuclear borehole measurements accurately included in the in- tegral form of Boltzmann's equation. The linear iterative refine- ment method accounts

  10. Refinement and verification of concurrent systems specified in ObjectZ and CSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Graeme

    Refinement and verification of concurrent systems specified in Object­Z and CSP Graeme Smith­Z and CSP. A common semantic basis for the two languages enables a unified method of refinement to be used, based upon CSP refinement. To enable state­based techniques to be used for the Object­Z components

  11. Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part 2 --High-angle and horizontal wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-VerdĂ­n, Carlos

    Linear iterative refinement method for the rapid simulation of borehole nuclear measurements: Part refinement method to rapidly simulate borehole nuclear measurements acquired in vertical wells neutron and density measurements. Based on new research, we implemented the linear iterative refinement

  12. The effect on recovery of the injection of alternating slugs of gas and water at pressures above the bubble point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Givens, James Wilson

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . CONCLUSIONS, 24 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. 7. APPE NDIX. 8. REFERENCES. 25 32 337530 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURES 1. Core Saturating and Flooding Apparatus Page 2. Physical Characteristics of Refined Oil and East Texas Crude Oil at 77'F. 3. Refined... Oil Recovery vs Pore Volumes of Injected Fluid for an Initial Gas Slug. 13 4, Refined Oil Recovery vs Pore Volumes of Injected Fluid for an Initial Water Slug. 14 5. The Effect of Slug Length on Recovery of Refined Oil. 15 6. Recovery of East...

  13. Market Risks and Oilfield Ownership - Refining SEC Oil and Gas Disclosures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kretzschmar, Gavin Lee; Hatherly, David; Misund, Bard

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ownership, concession and production sharing contracts (PSCs). SEC present value disclosures for both forms of ownership are shown to be significantly more responsive to oil prices than stock return sensitivities noted by Rajgopal (1999). Importantly, we...

  14. Evolving a puncture black hole with fixed mesh refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breno Imbiriba; John Baker; Dae-Il Choi; Joan Centrella; David R. Fiske; J. David Brown; James R. van Meter; Kevin Olson

    2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an algorithm for treating mesh refinement interfaces in numerical relativity. We detail the behavior of the solution near such interfaces located in the strong field regions of dynamical black hole spacetimes, with particular attention to the convergence properties of the simulations. In our applications of this technique to the evolution of puncture initial data with vanishing shift, we demonstrate that it is possible to simultaneously maintain second order convergence near the puncture and extend the outer boundary beyond 100M, thereby approaching the asymptotically flat region in which boundary condition problems are less difficult and wave extraction is meaningful.

  15. Bethe roots and refined enumeration of alternating-sign matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Razumov; Yu. G. Stroganov

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of the most probable ground state candidate for the XXZ spin chain with the anisotropy parameter equal to -1/2 and an odd number of sites is considered. Some linear combinations of the components of the considered state, divided by the maximal component, coincide with the elementary symmetric polynomials in the corresponding Bethe roots. It is proved that those polynomials are equal to the numbers providing the refined enumeration of the alternating-sign matrices of order M+1 divided by the total number of the alternating-sign matrices of order M, for the chain of length 2M+1.

  16. Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

  17. Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  18. The refined transfer, bundle structures and algebraic K-theory.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John R. Klein; Bruce Williams

    We give new homotopy theoretic criteria for deciding when a fibration with homotopy finite fibers admits a reduction to a fiber bundle with compact topological manifold fibers. The criteria lead to a new and unexpected result about homeomorphism groups of manifolds. A tool used in the proof is a surjective splitting of the assembly map for Waldhausen's functor A(X). We also give concrete examples of fibrations having a reduction to a fiber bundle with compact topological manifold fibers but which fail to admit a compact fiber smoothing. The examples are detected by algebraic K-theory invariants. We consider a refinement of the Becker-Gottlieb transfer. We show that a version of the axioms described by Becker and Schultz uniquely determines the refined transfer for the class of fibrations admitting a reduction to a fiber bundle with compact topological manifold fibers. In an appendix, we sketch a theory of characteristic classes for fibrations. The classes are primary obstructions to finding a compact fiber smoothing.

  19. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Supersonic Molecular Cloud Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexei G. Kritsuk; Michael L. Norman; Paolo Padoan

    2005-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a series of three-dimensional numerical simulations of supersonic homogeneous Euler turbulence with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) and effective grid resolution up to 1024^3 zones. Our experiments describe non-magnetized driven supersonic turbulent flows with an isothermal equation of state. Mesh refinement on shocks and shear is implemented to cover dynamically important structures with the highest resolution subgrids and calibrated to match the turbulence statistics obtained from the equivalent uniform grid simulations. We found that at a level of resolution slightly below 512^3, when a sufficient integral/dissipation scale separation is first achieved, the fraction of the box volume covered by the AMR subgrids first becomes smaller than unity. At the higher AMR levels subgrids start covering smaller and smaller fractions of the whole volume, which scale with the Reynolds number as Re^{-1/4}. We demonstrate the consistency of this scaling with a hypothesis that the most dynamically important structures in intermittent supersonic turbulence are strong shocks with a fractal dimension of two. We show that turbulence statistics derived from AMR simulations and simulations performed on uniform grids agree surprisingly well, even though only a fraction of the volume is covered by AMR subgrids. Based on these results, we discuss the signature of dissipative structures in the statistical properties of supersonic turbulence and their role in overall flow dynamics.

  20. A refined model for characterizing x-ray multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oren, A.L.; Henke, B.L.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to quickly and accurately characterize arbitrary multilayers is very valuable for not only can we use the characterizations to predict the reflectivity of a multilayer for any soft x-ray wavelength, we also can generalize the results to apply to other multilayers of the same type. In addition, we can use the characterizations as a means of evaluating various sputtering environments and refining sputtering techniques to obtain better multilayers. In this report we have obtained improved characterizations for sample molybdenum-silicon and vanadium-silicon multilayers. However, we only examined five crystals overall, so the conclusions that we could draw about the structure of general multilayers is limited. Research involving many multilayers manufactured under the same sputtering conditions is clearly in order. In order to best understand multilayer structures it may be necessary to further refine our model, e.g., adopting a Gaussian form for the interface regions. With such improvements we can expect even better agreement with experimental values and continued concurrence with other characterization techniques. 18 refs., 30 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. California refiners move smoothly into next phase of RFG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaffer, S. [ed.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California RFG program (CARB RFG) began at the refinery level in March, the terminal level in April and will begin being enforced at the retail level June 1. By all accounts, early implementation is proceeding smoothly, with prices for both gasoline and oxygenates remaining fairly steady. Analysts labeled the introduction of the world`s cleanest gasoline {open_quotes}a non-event{close_quotes}. By April 1, more than half of the retail gasoline stations in California had fully complying CARB RFG. With cumulative investments of more than $3 billion, California`s refiners will be looking to recapture as much of the cost in the marketplace as possible. The incremental cost of CARB RFG production over federal RFG is estimated by refiners to be about 10{cents}/gal, mainly due to the capital investments needed for hydrotreating to reduce sulfur levels. Early batches of fuel on the spot market sold for about 8{cents}/gal over conventional prices, about 4.5{cents}/gal above federal RFG, according to the Oil Price Information Service (OPIS).

  2. Zeeman tomography of magnetic white dwarfs IV. The complex field structure of the polars EF Eri, BL Hyi, and CP Tuc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Beuermann; F. Euchner; K. Reinsch; S. Jordan; B. T. Gaensicke

    2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic fields of the accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs) determine the accretion geometries, the emission properties, and the secular evolution of these objects. We determine the structure of the surface magnetic fields of the WDs primaries in magnetic CVs using Zeeman tomography. Our study is based on orbital-phase resolved optical flux and circular polarization spectra of the polars EF Eri, BL Hyi, and CP Tuc obtained with FORS1 at the ESO VLT. An evolutionary algorithm is used to synthesize best fits to these spectra from an extensive database of pre-computed Zeeman spectra. The general approach has been described in previous papers of this series. The results achieved with simple geometries as centered or offset dipoles are not satisfactory. Significantly improved fits are obtained for multipole expansions that are truncated at degree l(max)=3 or 5 and include all tesseral and sectoral components with 0<=m<=l. The most frequent field strengths of 13, 18, and 10MG for EF Eri, BL Hyi, CP Tuc and the ranges of field strength covered are similar for the dipole and multipole models, but only the latter provide access to accreting matter at the right locations on the WD. The results suggest that the field geometries of the WDs in short-period mCVs are quite complex with strong contributions from multipoles higher than the dipole in spite of a typical age of the WDs in CVs in excess of 1 Gyr. It is feasible to derive the surface field structure of an accreting WD from phase-resolved low-state circular spectropolarimetry of sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. The fact that independent information is available on the strength and direction of the field in the accretion spot from high-state observations helps in unraveling the global field structure.

  3. Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

  4. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

  5. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil.

  6. Simulating hydromagnetic processes in star formation: introducing ambipolar diffusion into an adaptive mesh refinement code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. F. Duffin; R. E. Pudritz

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the importance of simulating hydromagnetic processes that impact star formation, we have earlier developed a 3D adaptive mesh approach that allows us to include hydromagnetic processes during the formation and evolution of cores, discs, and stars in observed regions of star formation. In this paper, we take the next step in this program - namely - to develop a modified version of the 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code FLASH in which the ambipolar diffusion of the magnetic field in poorly ionized molecular gas is implemented. We approach the problem using a single-fluid approximation to simplify numerical calculations. In this paper, we present a series of test cases including oblique isothermal and non--isothermal C-shocks. We also present a study of the quasi-static collapse of an initial uniform, self-gravitating, magnetized sphere that is initially supported by its magnetic field against collapse (i.e. magnetically subcritical). Applications to the collapse of a pre-stellar Bonnor-Ebert sphere are presented in a companion paper.

  7. The uses of the refined matrix model recursion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Brini; Marcos Marino; Sebastien Stevan

    2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study matrix models in the beta ensemble by building on the refined recursion relation proposed by Chekhov and Eynard. We present explicit results for the first beta-deformed corrections in the one-cut and the two-cut cases, as well as two applications to supersymmetric gauge theories: the calculation of superpotentials in N=1 gauge theories, and the calculation of vevs of surface operators in superconformal N=2 theories and their Liouville duals. Finally, we study the beta deformation of the Chern-Simons matrix model. Our results indicate that this model does not provide an appropriate description of the Omega-deformed topological string on the resolved conifold, and therefore that the beta-deformation might provide a different generalization of topological string theory in toric Calabi-Yau backgrounds.

  8. Refinements in Effective Potential Calculations in the MSSM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Argyrou; A. Katsikatsou; I. Malamos

    2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The one-loop effective potential is a powerful tool in studying the electroweak symmetry breaking of supersymmetric theories, whose precise calculation may have important phenomenological consequences. In this work, we are correctly treating the contribution of the Higgs sector to the effective potential and refine the radiative corrections to the Higgs mixing parameter $\\mu$, which is known to affect greatly the supersymmetric spectrum. Working at the average stop scale to minimize the effect of the stop sector, we find additional corrections which can play a dominant role in the Focus Point region of the parameter space of the MSSM. The comparison of our results with those of the literature is discussed. We also discuss the gauge dependence of the effective potential and its effect on the $\\mu$ parameter in analyses where this is determined from the 1-loop minimization conditions of the effective potential.

  9. Refinements in electroweak contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Czarnecki; William J. Marciano; Arkady Vainshtein

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of strong interactions on the two loop electroweak radiative corrections to the muon anomalous magnetic moment, $a_\\mu=(g_\\mu-2)/2$, are examined. Short-distance logs are shown to be unaffected. Computation of long-distance contributions is improved by use of an effective field theory approach that preserves the chiral properties of QCD and accounts for constraints from the operator product expansion. Small, previously neglected, two loop contributions, suppressed by a $1-4\\sin^2\\theta_W$ factor, are computed and the complete three loop leading short-distance logs are reevaluated. These refinements lead to a reduction in uncertainties and a slight shift in the total electroweak contribution to $a_\\mu^{\\rm EW} = 154(1)(2)\\times 10^{-11}$ where the first error corresponds to hadronic uncertainties and the second is primarily due to the allowed Higgs mass range.

  10. Global refining beyond the year 2000 - A European perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.G. [ed.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new French publication from Editions Technip contains a broad-based discussion on the economic and processing parameters that will shape the refinery of the future. Process experts from Institut Francais Du Petrole (IFP) have constructed a {open_quotes}road map{close_quotes} for refining and petrochemical flow schemes that should interest industry planners and decision makers throughout the world. The importance attributed to the characterization of crude oils and petroleum products is stressed. On a directional basis, the industry will see more emphasis on methodologies to improve existing conversion and separation processes. Buzzwords such as biorefining, refinery integrated information systems, petrochemical/refinery integration and many others will find a forum in future publications.

  11. Quantitative Methods for Strategic and Investment Planning in the Oil-Refining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    by one refinery Refinery Opera*onal Planning - Simulate the Refining Scenarios Supply Chain Investments Planning - Test the refinery best scenarios

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - administered refined olive Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    refined olive Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 EUROMED SUSTAINABLE CONNECTIONS ANNA LINDH FOUNDATION Summary: most common to the Mediterranean region - the production of Olive Oil. The...

  13. Refining and Extending the Business Model with Information Technology: Dell Computer Corporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Kenneth L; Dedrick, Jason; Yamashiro, Sandra

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Dell’s Direct Business Model Fuels Fifteenth ConsecutiveAND EXTENDING THE REFINING AND EXTENDING THE BUSINESS MODELBUSINESS MODEL CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

  14. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  15. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 337 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  16. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  17. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 441 Table A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  18. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  19. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  20. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  1. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  2. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Year Month...

  3. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  4. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  5. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - alloys grain refinement Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in iron substitutional alloys (Grain size effects on iron... ;14 Objective Grain Size Varistors Hall- Petch Creep Grain refinement A crucial engineering consequence... of the...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - alloy grain refined Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in iron substitutional alloys (Grain size effects on iron... ;14 Objective Grain Size Varistors Hall- Petch Creep Grain refinement A crucial engineering consequence... of the...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - amerya petroleum refining Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11 DOEBCW-31-109-Eng-38-1 (DE96001296) Summary: and Solutions in Exploration, Production and Refining, proceedings of the Second International Petroleum... , Production and...

  9. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  10. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  11. More evidence for a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action based on an effective potential approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Vandersickel; D. Dudal; S. P. Sorella

    2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this proceeding is twofold. Firstly, we shall make the refining of the Gribov-Zwanziger action more complete by taking into account more condensates than considered so far. Secondly, we shall provide more evidence for the refined Gribov-Zwanziger action based on an effective potential approach.

  12. Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

  13. Effects of wastewater from an oil-sand-refining operation on survival, hematology, gill histology,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    Effects of wastewater from an oil-sand-refining operation on survival, hematology, gill histology the effects of various types of wastewater produced in oil-sand-refining on the survival, hematology, gill. In con- trast, all fish did not survive a 28-day period in any of the wastewaters tested and, in some

  14. To appear in EPTCS. A CSP account of Event-B refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    To appear in EPTCS. A CSP account of Event-B refinement Steve Schneider Department of Computing a CSP account of Event-B refinement, with a treatment for the first time of splitting events and of anticipated events. To this end, we define a CSP seman- tics for Event-B and show how the different forms

  15. FDR3 --A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    FDR3 -- A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong, Alexandre.roscoe}@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract. FDR3 is a complete rewrite of the CSP refinement checker FDR2, incorporating a significant number describe the new algorithm that FDR3 uses to construct its in- ternal representation of CSP processes

  16. FDR3 --A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    FDR3 -- A Modern Refinement Checker for CSP Thomas Gibson-Robinson, Philip Armstrong, Alexandre.roscoe}@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract. FDR3 is a complete rewrite of the CSP refinement checker FDR2, incorporating a significant number describe the new algorithm that FDR3 uses to construct its internal representation of CSP processes

  17. Refined Properties of the HD 130322 Planetary System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinkel, Natalie R; Henry, Gregory W; Feng, Y Katherina; Boyajian, Tabetha; Wright, Jason; Fischer, Debra A; Howard, Andrew W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exoplanetary systems closest to the Sun, with the brightest host stars, provide the most favorable opportunities for characterization studies of the host star and their planet(s). The Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey uses both new radial velocity measurements and photometry in order to greatly improve planetary orbit uncertainties and the fundamental properties of the star, in this case HD 130322. The only companion, HD 130322b, orbits in a relatively circular orbit, e = 0.029 every ~10.7 days. Radial velocity measurements from multiple sources, including 12 unpublished from the Keck I telescope, over the course of ~14 years have reduced the uncertainty in the transit midpoint to ~2 hours. The transit probability for the b-companion is 4.7%, where M_p sin i = 1.15 M_J and a = 0.0925 AU. In this paper, we compile photometric data from the T11 0.8m Automated Photoelectric Telescope at Fairborn Observatory taken over ~14 years, including the constrained transit window, which results in a dispos...

  18. Cosmos++: Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics on Unstructured Grids with Local Adaptive Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Anninos; P. Chris Fragile; Jay D. Salmonson

    2005-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new code and methodology are introduced for solving the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations in fixed background spacetimes using time-explicit, finite-volume discretization. The code has options for solving the GRMHD equations using traditional artificial-viscosity (AV) or non-oscillatory central difference (NOCD) methods, or a new extended AV (eAV) scheme using artificial-viscosity together with a dual energy-flux-conserving formulation. The dual energy approach allows for accurate modeling of highly relativistic flows at boost factors well beyond what has been achieved to date by standard artificial viscosity methods. It provides the benefit of Godunov methods in capturing high Lorentz boosted flows but without complicated Riemann solvers, and the advantages of traditional artificial viscosity methods in their speed and flexibility. Additionally, the GRMHD equations are solved on an unstructured grid that supports local adaptive mesh refinement using a fully threaded oct-tree (in three dimensions) network to traverse the grid hierarchy across levels and immediate neighbors. A number of tests are presented to demonstrate robustness of the numerical algorithms and adaptive mesh framework over a wide spectrum of problems, boosts, and astrophysical applications, including relativistic shock tubes, shock collisions, magnetosonic shocks, Alfven wave propagation, blast waves, magnetized Bondi flow, and the magneto-rotational instability in Kerr black hole spacetimes.

  19. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

  20. Model Refinement Needs A model developed by Peters and Marmorek (2003) will be used to generate predictions for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    449 Model Refinement Needs A model developed by Peters and Marmorek (2003) will be used to generate and will enable us in a future project to develop a refined model to evaluate reintroduction of sockeye

  1. Slovakian refiner operating new hybrid hydrogen-production process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babik, A. (Chemko s.p., Strazske (Slovakia)); Kurt, J. (Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany))

    1994-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemko s.p. has implemented Uhde GmbH's new combined autothermal reforming (CAR) process into an existing hydrogen plant at its refinery in Strazske, Slovakia. The new technology uses a combination of steam reforming and partial oxidation processes to produce synthesis gas or hydrogen for use in refinery or petrochemical processes. The paper describes the CAR process, process development, the reactor, convective reformer, partial oxidation, and the demonstration unit.

  2. Refining the fundamental plane of accreting black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmar Koerding; Heino Falcke; Sephane Corbel

    2006-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of a unified description of supermassive and stellar black holes has been supported by the extension of the empirical radio/X-ray correlation from X-ray binaries to active galactic nuclei through the inclusion of a mass term. This has lead to the so-called fundamental plane of black hole activity in the black hole mass, radio and X-ray luminosity space. Two incarnations of this fundamental plane have so far been suggested using different underlying models and using two different samples of accreting black holes. We present revised samples for both studies together with a refined statistical analysis using measured errors of the observables. This method is used to compare the two samples, discuss selection effects, and infer parameters for the fundamental plane in a homogeneous way. We show that strongly sub-Eddington objects in a state equivalent to the low/hard state of X-ray binaries follow the fundamental plane very tightly; the scatter is comparable to the measurement errors. However, we find that the estimated parameters depend strongly on the assumptions made on the sources of scatter and the relative weight of the different AGN classes in the sample. Using only hard state objects, the fundamental plane is in agreement with the prediction of a simple uncooled synchrotron/jet model for the emitted radiation. Inclusion of high-state objects increases the scatter and moves the correlation closer to a disk/jet model. This is qualitatively consistent with a picture where low-state objects are largely dominated by jet emission while high-state objects have a strong contribution from an accretion disk.

  3. RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei-Qun; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

  4. State of heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B. [BDM-Oklahoma, Inc., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    California is unique in the United States because it has the largest heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees}API gravity) resource, estimated to be in excess of 40 billion barrels. Of the current 941,543 barrels/day of oil produced in California (14% of the U.S. total), 70% or 625,312 barrels/day is heavy oil. Heavy oil constituted only 20% of California`s oil production in the early 1940s, but development of thermal oil production technology in the 1960s allowed the heavy industry to grow and prosper to the point where by the mid-1980s, heavy oil constituted 70% of the state`s oil production. Similar to the rest of the United States, light oil production in the Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Region, and San Joaquin Valley peaked and then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Unlike other states, California developed a heavy oil industry that replaced declining light oil production and increased the states total oil production, despite low heavy oil prices, stringent environmental regulations and long and costly delays in developing known oil resources. California`s deep conversion refineries process the nation`s highest sulfur, lowest API gravity crude to make the cleanest transportation fuels available. More efficient vehicles burning cleaner reformulated fuels have significantly reduced the level of ozone precursors (the main contributor to California`s air pollution) and have improved air quality over the last 20 years. In a state where major oil companies dominate, the infrastructure is highly dependent on the 60% of ANS production being refined in California, and California`s own oil production. When this oil is combined with the small volume of imported crude, a local surplus of marketed oil exists that inhibits exploitation of California`s heavy oil resources. As ANS production declines, or if the export restrictions on ANS sales are lifted, a window of opportunity develops for increased heavy oil production.

  5. On Some Computations of Higher Rank Refined Donaldson-Thomas Invariants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu-yen Chuang; Chien-Hsun Wang

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present some computations of higher rank refined Donaldson-Thomas invariants on local curve geometries, corresponding to local D6-D2-D0 or D4-D2-D0 configurations. A refined wall-crossing formula for invariants with higher D6 or D4 ranks is derived and verified to agree with the existing formulas under the unrefined limit. Using the formula, refined invariants on the $(-1,-1)$ and $(-2,0)$ local rational curve with higher D6 or D4 ranks are computed.

  6. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, N. Kishore [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE SACCHAROFLEX 2000 REFLECTANCE MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR REFINED SUGAR COLOUR ESTIMATION AT HULETTS REFINERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; N K Padayachee; V Govender

    Due to the successful use of the Saccharoflex 2000 reflectance measurement instrument on the estimation of refined sugar colour elsewhere in the world, it was decided by Tongaat-Hulett Sugar to evaluate the instrument at the refinery in Durban. Tests were carried out on first, second, third and fourth refined sugars, the results of which showed a good correlation between the ICUMSA colour measurement and the reflectance reading obtained from the Saccharoflex 2000. The instrument offers a number of advantages, the main one being that a refined sugar colour value can be obtained in less than a minute. The refinery has therefore purchased one for process control.

  8. Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template Voronoi, Delaunay and Block Structured Mesh Refinement for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weller, Hilary Spencer

    Structured Mesh Refinement for Solution of the Shallow Water Equations on the Sphere HILARY WELLER NCAS meshes of the sphere and adaptive mesh refinement could be immensely beneficial for weather and climate forecasts but it is not clear how mesh refinement should be achieved. A finite-volume model which solves

  9. 2009 US-Japan Workshop on Advanced Simulation Methods in Plasma Physics Plasma Particle Simulation with Adaptive Mesh Refinement Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Atsushi

    with Adaptive Mesh Refinement Technique for Multi-scale Phenomena Masanori Nunami1,5 , Hideyuki Usui2,5 , Toseo electromagnetic plasma particle code by using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. AMR technique, which dynamically according to certain refinement criteria, monitoring all cells where high-resolution is needed

  10. Acta Cryst. (1978). A34, 931-935 Refinement of Large Structures by Simultaneous Minimization of Energy and R Factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levitt, Michael

    Acta Cryst. (1978). A34, 931-935 Refinement of Large Structures by Simultaneous Minimization method of crystallographic structure refinement, especially suitabte for large molecules, is described residual. The method has already proved its worth in the final stages of refinement of two structures

  11. Modeling LGN Responses during Free-Viewing: A Possible Role of Microscopic Eye Movements in the Refinement of Cortical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rucci, Michele

    in the Refinement of Cortical Orientation Selectivity Michele Rucci,1 Gerald M. Edelman,2 and Jonathan Wray2 1 affect the refinement of orientation tuning in the presence of a Hebbian scheme of synaptic plasticity an important role for the eye movements occurring during fixation in the refinement of orientation selectivity

  12. Mechanisms Underlying Developmental Changes in the Firing Patterns of ON and OFF Retinal Ganglion Cells during Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myhr, Karen

    Cells during Refinement of their Central Projections Karen L. Myhr,1 Peter D. Lukasiewicz,1,2 and Rachel School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 Patterned neuronal activity is implicated in the refinement patterns of spontaneous activity as their axonal projections undergo refinement. OFF RGCs be- come

  13. Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384FuelYear125 137

  14. Prices of Refiner No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998throughThousand CubicWashington Natural Gas Exports (Dollars per1.840

  15. Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998throughThousand CubicWashington Natural GasResidential

  16. Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 4623 42

  17. ,"U.S. Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"Brunei (DollarsLiquids LeaseAnnual",2014Gas, Wet

  18. U.S. Oxygenated Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198 18Biomass Gas (MillionElements) Decade- - -

  19. U.S. Oxygenated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198 18Biomass Gas (MillionElements) Decade- -

  20. Improving transport fuel quality in China: Implications for the refining sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Nancy; Fridley, David; Xiaoming, Ke

    2002-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The study reviews the state of the Chinese refining system and examines the relative costs of 10 scenarios to increase petroleum product quality to Euro III, IV, and V levels.

  1. Adaptive mesh refinement for a finite difference scheme using a quadtree decomposition approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auviur Srinivasa, Nandagopalan

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Some numerical simulations of multi-scale physical phenomena consume a significant amount of computational resources, since their domains are discretized on high resolution meshes. An enormous wastage of these resources occurs in refinement...

  2. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  3. Economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme : evidence from the refining sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacombe, Romain H

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I study the economic impact of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the refining industry in Europe. I contrast previous ex-ante studies with the lessons from a series of interviews I conducted with ...

  4. Adjustable Speed Drives in the U.S. Petroleum Refining, Petrochemical, and Chemical Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A.

    This paper describes applications and incentives for the use of variable frequency drivers (VFD) in the petroleum refining, petrochemical, and chemical industries. VFDs are a particular type of adjustable speed driver (ASD) found prevalently...

  5. An Assessment of carbon reduction technology opportunities in the petroleum refining industry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrick, M.

    1998-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The refining industry is a major source of CO{sub 2} emissions in the industrial sector and therefore in the future can expect to face increasing pressures to reduce emission levels. The energy used in refining is impacted by market dictates, crude quality, and environmental regulations. While the industry is technologically advanced and relatively efficient opportunities nevertheless exist to reduce energy usage and CO{sub 2} emissions. The opportunities will vary from refinery to refinery and will necessarily have to be economically viable and compatible with each refiner's strategic plans. Recognizing the many factors involved, a target of 15-20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions from the refining sector does not appear to be unreasonable, assuming a favorable investment climate.

  6. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    132.9 1,418.3 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  7. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  8. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  9. Using a conformation-dependent stereochemical library improves crystallographic refinement of proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tronrud, Dale E.; Berkholz, Donald S.; Karplus, P. Andrew (Oregon State U.)

    2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The major macromolecular crystallographic refinement packages restrain models to ideal geometry targets defined as single values that are independent of molecular conformation. However, ultrahigh-resolution X-ray models of proteins are not consistent with this concept of ideality and have been used to develop a library of ideal main-chain bond lengths and angles that are parameterized by the {phi}/{psi} angle of the residue [Berkholz et al. (2009), Structure, 17, 1316-1325]. Here, it is first shown that the new conformation-dependent library does not suffer from poor agreement with ultrahigh-resolution structures, whereas current libraries have this problem. Using the TNT refinement package, it is then shown that protein structure refinement using this conformation-dependent library results in models that have much better agreement with library values of bond angles with little change in the R values. These tests support the value of revising refinement software to account for this new paradigm.

  10. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

  11. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    98.0 98.0 86.6 75.0 - 80.1 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  12. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  13. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    87.4 86.9 78.3 68.5 W 70.8 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  15. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  16. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    88.4 87.8 80.1 70.0 NA 72.6 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  17. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    94.0 93.9 83.2 73.8 - 79.3 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  18. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  19. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.7 5.9 3.9 12.7 W 16.6 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

  20. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains...

  1. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  2. Parcel Per Parcel Toward A More Refined Carbon Emissions Estimation For Livermore, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Živanovi?, Ana

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A More Refined Carbon Emissions Estimation For Livermore, CAof lifestyle on carbon emissions in the residential sector [an all-time low in carbon emissions, though most use overall

  3. A comparison of the performance of waterfloods using similar refined and crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Daylon Lynn

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF WATERFI, GODS USING SIMILAR REFINED AND CRUDE OILS A Thesis By DAYLON L. WALTON Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1960 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING A COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF WATERFLOODS USING SIMILAR REFINED AND CRUDE OILS A Thesis By DAYLON L. WALTON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman f...

  4. Refine your search Select options from the menu on the left hand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    ://psu.summon.serialssolutions.comhttp://psu.summon.serialssolutions.com F I N A L LY : RESEARCH AS EASYAS 1-2-3 #12;1 Enter search term into search box. 2 Refine results relevant articles were published in that year. Include or Exclude subject terms from your searchRefine your search Select options from the menu on the left hand side of the results screen

  5. The spectral problem of the ABJ Fermi gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Kallen

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The partition function on the three-sphere of ABJ theory can be rewritten into a partition function of a non-interacting Fermi gas, with an accompanying one-particle Hamiltonian. We study the spectral problem defined by this Hamiltonian. We determine the exact WKB quantization condition, which involves quantities from refined topological string theory, and test it successfully against numerical calculations of the spectrum.

  6. Thickness-based adaptive mesh refinement methods for multi-phase flow simulations with thin regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiaodong [The State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Vigor, E-mail: vigor.yang@aerospace.gatech.edu [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In numerical simulations of multi-scale, multi-phase flows, grid refinement is required to resolve regions with small scales. A notable example is liquid-jet atomization and subsequent droplet dynamics. It is essential to characterize the detailed flow physics with variable length scales with high fidelity, in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, two thickness-based mesh refinement schemes are developed based on distance- and topology-oriented criteria for thin regions with confining wall/plane of symmetry and in any situation, respectively. Both techniques are implemented in a general framework with a volume-of-fluid formulation and an adaptive-mesh-refinement capability. The distance-oriented technique compares against a critical value, the ratio of an interfacial cell size to the distance between the mass center of the cell and a reference plane. The topology-oriented technique is developed from digital topology theories to handle more general conditions. The requirement for interfacial mesh refinement can be detected swiftly, without the need of thickness information, equation solving, variable averaging or mesh repairing. The mesh refinement level increases smoothly on demand in thin regions. The schemes have been verified and validated against several benchmark cases to demonstrate their effectiveness and robustness. These include the dynamics of colliding droplets, droplet motions in a microchannel, and atomization of liquid impinging jets. Overall, the thickness-based refinement technique provides highly adaptive meshes for problems with thin regions in an efficient and fully automatic manner.

  7. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  8. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  9. Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

  10. Fast and Effective Query Refinement Bienvenido V'elez 1 , Ron Weiss 1 , Mark A. Sheldon 2 , David K. Gifford 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gifford, David K.

    Fast and Effective Query Refinement Bienvenido V'elez 1 , Ron Weiss 1 , Mark A. Sheldon 2 , David K Corporation Abstract Query Refinement is an essential information retrieval tool that interactively recommends­ cal query refinement algorithm that refines multiple term queries by dynamically combining precomputed

  11. The third, use of quantum mechanics to evaluate the molecular energy and forces, holds promise for future refinements when applied wholesale,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sali, Andrej

    for future refinements when applied wholesale, but is already capable of producing valuable insight when

  12. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M.S.S. (Bahrain National Oil Co., Awali (Bahrain))

    1994-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

  13. Empirical examination of allegations of ''below-cost'' retail selling of gasoline by refiners: Research study No. 038

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogarty, T.F.; Lindstrom, P.M.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is alleged by some dealers that (major) refiners consistently sell their gasoline through directly operated stations at retail prices below the prices charged to resellers. The results of this examination, involving more than 2000 price comparisons, failed to reveal a single instance where the average monthly retail price at refiner operated stations was below the price charged resellers by refiners. This result obtained not only for all gasoline sales by major refiners, but also for specific grades of gasoline sold by all refiners. Moreover, a large majority of the average monthly price differentials were greater than 6 cents per gallon, and exceeded 10 cents per gallon in a significant number of instances. Thus, the data do not support the allegation of widespread ''below-cost'' selling by refiners through outlets which they own and operate. Therefore, the rationale offered for legislation mandating retail divorcement, or prohibiting ''below-cost'' is not supported by the evidence. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Refined Topological Vertex, Cylindric Partitions and the U(1) Adjoint Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amer Iqbal; Can Kozcaz; Khurram Shabbir

    2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the partition function of the compactified 5D U(1) gauge theory (in the Omega-background) with a single adjoint hypermultiplet, calculated using the refined topological vertex. We show that this partition function is an example a periodic Schur process and is a refinement of the generating function of cylindric plane partitions. The size of the cylinder is given by the mass of adjoint hypermultiplet and the parameters of the Omega-background. We also show that this partition function can be written as a trace of operators which are generalizations of vertex operators studied by Carlsson and Okounkov. In the last part of the paper we describe a way to obtain (q,t) identities using the refined topological vertex.

  15. Refined Glauber model versus Faddeev calculations and experimental data for pd spin observables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platonova, M. N.; Kukulin, V. I. [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow RU-119991 (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spin-dependent observables in intermediate-energy pd elastic scattering within the framework of the refined Glauber model are considered. The improvements include an account of all ten pp and pn helicity amplitudes at respective energies constructed on the basis of modern phase-shift analysis, accurate deuteron wave functions taken from the modern NN force model and account of charge-exchange effects. Predictions of the refined diffraction model for differential cross section and analyzing powers are compared with exact three-body Faddeev calculations and the recent experimental data. An amazingly good agreement between the results of both theoretical approaches as well as between the refined Glauber model and experiment in a wide angular range not only for differential cross section but also for vector and tensor analyzing powers has been found for the first time. Possible reasons for this agreement are discussed.

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction as the means of refining cottonseed oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Manubhai Chunibhai

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A 4 AI CvLLEGE OF TEXAS LIOVID-LIQUID EXTRACTION AS THE MEANS OI REFINING CCTTONSEFZ OIL A Thesis By 1'RVUBHAI CHIINIBHAI PATEL a 0 U z A R 0 Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Auuust 1996 Major Subject Chemical ineeri LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION AS THE MEANS OF REFINING COTTONSEED OIL A Thesis By MANUBHAI CHUNIBHAI PATEL Approved as to style...

  17. Circuit QED: Implementation of the three-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi-Ping Su; Chui-Ping Yang

    2014-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a protocol to construct the 35 $f$-controlled phase gates of a three-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa (DJ) algorithm, by using single-qubit $\\sigma_z$ gates, two-qubit controlled phase gates, and two-target-qubit controlled phase gates. Using this protocol, we discuss how to implement the three-qubit refined DJ algorithm with superconducting transmon qutrits resonantly coupled to a single cavity. Our numerical calculation shows that implementation of this quantum algorithm is feasible within the present circuit QED technique. The experimental realization of this algorithm would be an important step toward more complex quantum computation in circuit QED.

  18. Comparison of the refined analytic and the Burghelea-Haller torsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxim Braverman; Thomas Kappeler

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The refined analytic torsion associated to a flat vector bundle over a closed odd-dimensional manifold canonically defines a quadratic form $\\tau$ on the determinant line of the cohomology. Both $\\tau$ and the Burghelea-Haller torsion are refinements of the Ray-Singer torsion. We show that whenever the Burghelea-Haller torsion is defined it is equal to $\\pm\\tau$. As an application we obtain new results about the Burghelea-Haller torsion. In particular, we prove a weak version of the Burghelea-Haller conjecture relating their torsion with the square of the Farber-Turaev combinatorial torsion.

  19. Design refinements and support systems for Texas A&M Automatic Marine Corer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Herman Olen

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DESIGN REFINEMENTS AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE TEXAS AQf AUTOMATIC MARINE CORER A Thesis by HERMAN GLEN HENDERSON, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OP SCIENCE May 1971 Major Sub]ect: Mechanical Engineering DESIGN REFINEMENTS AND SUPPORT SYSTEMS FOR THE TEXAS AAM AUTOMATIC MARINE CORER R m 8 CC m a m A Thesis by HERMAN OLEN HENDERSON, JR. Approved as to style and content by...

  20. Cavity QED implementation of the multi-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan Li Yang; Chang Yong Chen; Zhen Yu Xu; Mang Feng

    2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically study the realization of a multi-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa (DJ) algorithm using resonant interaction of many Rydberg atoms with a single-mode microwave cavity, in which the multi-qubit controlled phase gates could be accomplished efficiently. We show how to achieve a multi-qubit refined DJ algorithm in high fidelity, even in the case of a weak cavity decay and some imperfection. We argue that the required operations in our scheme are almost within the present experimental possibilities.

  1. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  2. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  3. Influence of adaptive mesh refinement and the hydro solver on shear-induced mass stripping in a minor-merger scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, W; Iapichino, L; Vazza, F; Almgren, A S

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare two different codes for simulations of cosmological structure formation to investigate the sensitivity of hydrodynamical instabilities to numerics, in particular, the hydro solver and the application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). As a simple test problem, we consider an initially spherical gas cloud in a wind, which is an idealized model for the merger of a subcluster or galaxy with a big cluster. Based on an entropy criterion, we calculate the mass stripping from the subcluster as a function of time. Moreover, the turbulent velocity field is analyzed with a multi-scale filtering technique. We find remarkable differences between the commonly used PPM solver with directional splitting in the Enzo code and an unsplit variant of PPM in the Nyx code, which demonstrates that different codes can converge to systematically different solutions even when using uniform grids. For the test case of an unbound cloud, AMR simulations reproduce uniform-grid results for the mass stripping quite well, although...

  4. Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    1 Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future Penn State Natural Gas Utilization Workshop Bradley Hall sales to commercial and industrial customers ­ Natural gas, power, oil · Power generation ­ FossilMMBtuEquivalent Wellhead Gas Price, $/MMBtu Monthly US Spot Oil Price, $/MMBtu* U.S. Crude Oil vs. Natural Gas Prices, 2005

  5. Refined Error Estimates for the Riccati Equation with Applications to the Angular Teukolsky Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Finster; Joel Smoller

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive refined rigorous error estimates for approximate solutions of Sturm-Liouville and Riccati equations with real or complex potentials. The approximate solutions include WKB approximations, Airy and parabolic cylinder functions, and certain Bessel functions. Our estimates are applied to solutions of the angular Teukolsky equation with a complex aspherical parameter in a rotating black hole Kerr geometry.

  6. NWS Product Definition Document (PDD) for: Refinement of SPC Experimental Enhanced Resolution Thunderstorm Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NWS Product Definition Document (PDD) for: Refinement of SPC Experimental Enhanced Resolution replaces an existing PDD, whose evaluation period expired on 15 February 2008, and revises the current SPC will also evaluate changes in the distribution of SPC forecaster workload and the ability to maintain

  7. Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Robert K. D.

    Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species Philip B and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, PO Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120, USA Summary 1. Biofuel. However, concerns have been raised on the invasiveness of biofuel feedstocks. Estimating invasion

  8. Error estimation and anisotropic mesh refinement for 3d laminar aerodynamic flow simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Ralf

    Error estimation and anisotropic mesh refinement for 3d laminar aerodynamic flow simulations Tobias Leichta,b , Ralf Hartmann,a,b aInstitute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, DLR (German Aerospace Center-dimensional laminar aerodynamic flow simulations. The optimal order symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin

  9. proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Refinement of protein termini in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jooyoung

    by template- based methods is particularly important.1 For example, in recent CASP (Critical Assessments of techniques for protein Structure Prediction) experiments refinement methods have been evaluated both by consider- ing the extent of model quality improvement over the best available templates for template

  10. Grain refinement and texture development of cast bi90sb10 alloy via severe plastic deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Jae-taek

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work was to study learn about grain refinement mechanisms and texture development in cast n-type Bi90Sb10 alloy caused by severe plastic deformation. The practical objective is to produce a fine grained and textured...

  11. Proceedings of the conference on electron beam melting and refining - state of the art 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakish, R. [ed.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference proceedings summarizes state-of-the-art work in the field of electron-beam melting and refining, as presented at the 1996 conference. Papers are grouped as follows: invited papers; tutorial papers; electron beam melting related fundamentals; electron beam evaporation papers; and miscellaneous papers. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the energy database for some contributions to this proceedings.

  12. REFINING AND MAINTAINING THE OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE CEBAF SRF SYSTEMS *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REFINING AND MAINTAINING THE OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE CEBAF SRF SYSTEMS * C. Reece, J. Benesch CEBAF at Jefferson Lab is striving to achieve its maximum reliability at the maximum deliverable energy beam time when CEBAF is run near its maximum energy. Operation at increased rf power levels has

  13. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  14. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  15. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    71.6 92.3 78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

  16. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  17. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - 4.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 - 0.7 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  18. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  19. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  20. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 5.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 - 0.9 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  1. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  2. Refined Asymptotics for the subcritical Keller-Segel system and Related Functional Inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Refined Asymptotics for the subcritical Keller-Segel system and Related Functional Inequalities self-similarity for the subcritical Keller- Segel system in the radially symmetric two-dimensional case that the one-dimensional equation is a contraction with respect to Fourier distance in the subcritical case. 1

  3. A Characteristic Domain Decomposition and SpaceTime Local Refinement Method for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharpley, Robert

    partial differential equations model the reactive transport of solutes in groundwater and surface water with other domain decomposition and local refinement schemes. 1 Introduction First­order linear hyperbolic interfaces that introduce extra difficulties. Physical interfaces arise, for example, in the modeling

  4. A Characteristic Domain Decomposition and SpaceTime Local Refinement Method for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Carolina, University of

    model the reactive transport of solutes in groundwater and surface water, the movement of aerosols and local refinement schemes. 1 Introduction First­order linear hyperbolic partial differential equations that introduce extra difficulties. Physical interfaces arise, for example, in the modeling of transport processes

  5. A Characteristic Domain Decomposition and Space Time Local Refinement Method for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharpley, Robert

    cause severe numerical difficulties [1­5]. Conventional finite difference or finite element methods­Lagrangian methods; linear hyperbolic problems; local refinement techniques I. INTRODUCTION First-order linear hyperbolic partial differential equations model the reactive transport of solutes in groundwater and surface

  6. Refinement and validation of a multi-level assessment method for Mid-Atlantic tidal wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Refinement and validation of a multi-level assessment method for Mid-Atlantic tidal wetlands (EPA of wetland resources across the Mid-Atlantic physiographic region, efforts are currently underway in a number of states, most notably Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia, to develop and implement wetland

  7. High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Projected Markets and Scoping Economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Demick

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NGNP Project has the objective of developing the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology to supply high temperature process heat to industrial processes as a substitute for burning of fossil fuels, such as natural gas. Applications of the HTGR technology that have been evaluated by the NGNP Project for supply of process heat include supply of electricity, steam and high-temperature gas to a wide range of industrial processes, and production of hydrogen and oxygen for use in petrochemical, refining, coal to liquid fuels, chemical, and fertilizer plants.

  8. Gas Storage Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any corporation which is engaged in or desires to engage in, the distribution, transportation or storage of natural gas or manufactured gas, which gas, in whole or in part, is intended for ultimate...

  9. Gas Utilities (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...

  10. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  11. Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rules regarding the production, sale, and transfer of manufactured gas will also apply to natural gas. This section regulates natural gas utilities that serve ten or more customers, more than one...

  12. The Use of Re-Refined Oil in Vehicle Fleets Copyright 1996 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timothy T. Maxwell; Glen Hagler; Jesse C. Jones; Raghu Narayan; Atila Ertas

    A literature search to identify deleterious effects of using re-refined oil did not disclose any validated occurrences. Significant engine testing using re-refined lubricating oil is reported and no cases were discovered in which engine operation was affected negatively by the use of re-refined oil. The American Petroleum Institute (AFT) allows the use of re-refined base stock oils in the blending of end use lubricants. Based on oil sample testing performed in this research as well as other authoritative sources, it was determined that no significant chemical or physical differences exist between rerefined and virgin oils. Differences noted in this research were related to higher levels of polynuclear aromatics (PNA’s) in the re-refined oil. PNA’s

  13. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO[sub 2] and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs).

  14. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the demonstrated range of validity of soundproof models, showing that they are more broadly applicable than some had previously thought. Substantial testing of EULAG included application and extension of the Jablonowski-Williamson baroclinic wave test - an archetype of planetary weather - and further analysis of multi-scale interactions arising from collapse of temperature fronts in both the baroclinic wave test and simulations of the Held-Suarez idealized climate. These analyses revealed properties of atmospheric gravity waves not seen in previous work and further demonstrated the ability of EULAG to simulate realistic behavior over several orders of magnitude of length scales. Additional collaborative work enhanced capability for modeling atmospheric flows with adaptive moving meshes and demonstrated the ability of EULAG to move into petascale computing. 3b. CAM-EULAG Advances We have developed CAM-EULAG in collaboration with former project postdoc, now University of Cape Town Assistant Professor, Babatunde Abiodun. Initial study documented good model performance in aqua-planet simulations. In particular, we showed that the grid adaptivity (stretching) implemented in CAM-EULAG allows higher resolution in selected regions without causing anomalous behavior such as spurious wave reflection. We then used the stretched-grid version to analyze simulated extreme precipitation events in West Africa, comparing the precipitation and event environment with observed behavior. The model simulates fairly well the spatial scale and the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the extreme events, although its extreme precipitation intensity is weaker than observed. In addition, both observations and the simulations show possible forcing of extreme events by African easterly waves. 3c. Other Contributions Through our collaborations, we have made contributions to a wide range of outcomes. For research focused on terrestrial behavior, these have included (1) upwind schemes for gas dynamics, (2) a nonlinear perspective on the dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, (3) numerical realism of thermal co

  15. Gas Production Tax (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tax of 7.5 percent of the market value of natural gas produced in the state of Texas is imposed on every producer of gas.

  16. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  17. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  18. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  19. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  20. RIETVELD REFINEMENT OF REAL STRUCTURE PARAMETERS OF DISORDERED CLAY MINERALS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    -conventional hydrocarbons in Germany) Germany's potential for shale oil and shale gas NIKO seal gas-rich shale shale: sedimentary rock which contains quartz, carbonates and clay minerals #12;clay minerals in shales quartz

  1. Parallel High-Order Anisotropic Block-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Finite-Volume Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    in propulsion systems (e.g., gas turbine engines and solid propellant rocket motors); (ii) compressible flows

  2. A refined threshold theorem for (1+2)-dimensional wave maps into surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Lawrie; Sung-Jin Oh

    2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently established threshold theorem for energy critical wave maps states that wave maps with energy less than that of the ground state (i.e., a minimal energy nontrivial harmonic map) are globally regular and scatter on (1+2)-dimensional Minkowski space. In this note we give a refinement of this theorem when the target is a closed orientable surface by taking into account an additional invariant of the problem, namely the topological degree. We show that the sharp energy threshold for global regularity and scattering is in fact twice the energy of the ground state for wave maps with degree zero, whereas wave maps with nonzero degree necessarily have at least the energy of the ground state. We also give a discussion on the formulation of a refined threshold conjecture for the energy critical $SU(2)$ Yang-Mills equation on (1+4)-dimensional Minkowski space.

  3. A one-parameter refinement of the Razumov-Stroganov correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luigi Cantini; Andrea Sportiello

    2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and prove a one-parameter refinement of the Razumov-Stroganov correspondence. This is achieved for fully-packed loop configurations (FPL) on domains which generalize the square domain, and which are endowed with the gyration operation. We consider one given side of the domain, and FPLs such that the only straight-line tile on this side is black. We show that the enumeration vector associated to such FPLs, weighted according to the position of the straight line and refined according to the link pattern for the black boundary points, is the ground state of the scattering matrix, an integrable one-parameter deformation of the O(1) Dense Loop Model Hamiltonian. We show how the original Razumov-Stroganov correspondence, and a conjecture formulated by Di Francesco in 2004, follow from our results.

  4. Refined Topological Vertex and Duality of Gauge Theories in Generic Omega Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kei Ito

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The partition functions of refined topological strings(A-models) are computed, which give rise to the circle-compactified five-dimensional supersymmetric linear quiver gauge theories in generic (not necessarily self-dual) Omega backgrounds. Based on the slicing independence conjecture of refined topological string partition functions, it is demonstrated explicitly that the duality exists between $SU(N)^{M-1}$ and $SU(M)^{N-1}$ supersymmetric linear quiver gauge theories, even in generic Omega backgrounds. It is found that the relations between string moduli and gauge moduli are deformed from the self-dual case. However if the duality map which preserves the ratio of the Omega background parameters q and t, is considered, duality maps of the gauge moduli are not changed from the self-dual case.

  5. Refined Partition Functions for Open Superstrings with 4, 8 and 16 Supercharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dieter Lust; Noppadol Mekareeya; Oliver Schlotterer; Andrew Thomson

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse the perturbative massive open string spectrum of even dimensional superstring compactifications with four, eight and sixteen supercharges. In each of such cases, we focus on universal states that exist independently on the internal geometry and other compatification details. We analytically compute refined partition functions that count these states at each mass level. Such refined partition functions are written in a super-Poincare covariant form, providing information on how supermultiplets transform under the little group and the R symmetry. Various asymptotic limits of the partition functions and their associated quantities, such as the leading and subleading Regge trajectories, are studied empirically and analytically. In the phenomenologically relevant case of four supercharges, the partition function can be cast into the most compact form and the asymptotic formula in the large spin limit is derived explicitly.

  6. Analysis of cadmium in undissolved anode materials of Mark-IV electro-refiner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Tae-Sic; Fredrickson, G.L.; Vaden, D.; Westphal, B. [Separation Department, Materials and Fuels Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mark-IV electro-refiner (Mk-IV ER) is a unit process in the FCF (Fuel Conditioning Facility), which is primarily assigned to treating the used driver fuels. Mk-IV ER contains an electrolyte/molten cadmium system for refining uranium electrochemically. Typically, the anode of the Mk-IV ER consists of the chopped sodium-bonded metallic driver fuels, which have been primarily U-10Zr binary fuels. Chemical analysis of the residual anode materials after electrorefining indicates that a small amount of cadmium is removed from the Mk-IV ER along with the undissolved anode materials. Investigation of chemical analysis data indicates that the amount of cadmium in the undissolved anode materials is strongly correlated with the anode rotation speeds and the residence time of the anode in the Mk-IV ER. Discussions are given to explain the prescribed correlation. (authors)

  7. Re-refining of Waste Oil Solvent Is Used in Treatment/Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. A combination solvent treatment/distillation process has been designed for re-refining industrial waste oil (such as equipment lubricants, metal-working oil, and process oil) and used automotive lubricants (engine oil, hydraulic oil, and gear oil) for reuse. WASTE ENERGY RECOVERY. Recycling of waste oil in the United States has the potential to save the energy equivalent of 7-12 million bbl of crude oil annually.1 WASTE OIL RECOVERY. Prior to 1960, a significant portion of the demand for automotive lubricating oil was met by re-relined used oil. At the time, 150 re-refineries produced 300 million gal of motor oil annually. Since 1960, however, the production of re-refined oil has steadily declined. In 1981, for example, out of about 1.2 billion gal of automobile lubricating oil and 1.6 billion gal of industrial lubricating oils purchased, 25 U.S. rerefineries

  8. A consistent approach to large eddy simulation using adaptive mesh refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, A.W.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The large eddy simulation of turbulent flows is discussed with particular attention paid to the issue of commutation of differentiation and filtering. Multi-level adaptive mesh refinement is proposed as a means of mostly avoiding commutation errors where increased grid resolution is required to capture key flow features. The strategy is to employ multiple uniform grids in a nested hierarchy using a constant-width filter for each grid. It is shown that commutivity of fine and coarse grid filters must be enforced in order to consistently relate variables at different refinement levels. Methods for treating fine grid boundaries and walls are also discussed. It is shown that errors associated with boundary treatments are small and localized.

  9. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  10. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  11. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  12. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels (eg diesel, compressed natural gas). Electricity (infossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied

  13. A refined Bloch group and the third homology of SL_2 of a field.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Hutchinson

    We use the properties of the refined Bloch group of a field to prove that H_3 of SL_2 of a global field is never finitely generated, and to calculate - up to some 2-torsion - H_3 of SL_2 of local fields with finite residue field of odd characteristic. We also give lower bounds for the 3-torsion in the H_3 of SL_2 of rings of S-integers.

  14. Grain refinement of cast niobium via equal channel angular extrusion/annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryant, Don O.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    . Production of 11 km Long Nb3Al Strand by Jelly Roll??????????.......... 10 7. Cryogen-Free 23 T Hybrid Magnet???????????????????? 11 C. Niobium Based Variable Capacitors???????????????????.......... 11 D. Niobium Based Electrolyte Capacitors...????????????????????????. 17 3. Goforth?s Strain Model????????????????????????... 18 H. Grain Refinement of Tantalum via ECAE/Annealing??????????????... 18 I. Previous Work on Cold-Rolled Niobium Bicrystal???????????????... 19 J. Previous Work of the Effects...

  15. Vacuum-induction melting, refining, and casting of uranium and its alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.J.

    1989-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The vacuum-induction melting (VIM), refining, and casting of uranium and its alloys are discussed. Emphasis is placed on historical development, VIM equipment, crucible and mold design, furnace atmospheres, melting parameters, impurity pickup, ingot quality, and economics. The VIM procedures used to produce high-purity, high-quality sound ingots at the US Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant are discussed in detail.

  16. Characterization of U-6Nb ingots produced via the electron beam cold hearth refining process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1997-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to characterize uranium, 6% niobium ingots produced via electron beam melting, hearth refining and continuous casting and to compare this material with conventional VIM/skull melt/VAR material. Samples of both the ingot and feed material were analyzed for niobium and trace metallic elements, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. This material was also inspected metallographically and via microprobe analysis.

  17. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"Sales Volumes

  18. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"SalesSales

  19. Using high-order methods on adaptively refined block-structured meshes - discretizations, interpolations, and filters.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Najm, Habib N.; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Block-structured adaptively refined meshes (SAMR) strive for efficient resolution of partial differential equations (PDEs) solved on large computational domains by clustering mesh points only where required by large gradients. Previous work has indicated that fourth-order convergence can be achieved on such meshes by using a suitable combination of high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters and can deliver significant computational savings over conventional second-order methods at engineering error tolerances. In this paper, we explore the interactions between the errors introduced by discretizations, interpolations and filters. We develop general expressions for high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters, in multiple dimensions, using a Fourier approach, facilitating the high-order SAMR implementation. We derive a formulation for the necessary interpolation order for given discretization and derivative orders. We also illustrate this order relationship empirically using one and two-dimensional model problems on refined meshes. We study the observed increase in accuracy with increasing interpolation order. We also examine the empirically observed order of convergence, as the effective resolution of the mesh is increased by successively adding levels of refinement, with different orders of discretization, interpolation, or filtering.

  20. Constrained-Transport Magnetohydrodynamics with Adaptive-Mesh-Refinement in CHARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miniatii, Francesco; Martin, Daniel

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the implementation of a three-dimensional, second order accurate Godunov-type algorithm for magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD), in the adaptivemesh-refinement (AMR) cosmological code CHARM. The algorithm is based on the full 12-solve spatially unsplit Corner-Transport-Upwind (CTU) scheme. Thefluid quantities are cell-centered and are updated using the Piecewise-Parabolic- Method (PPM), while the magnetic field variables are face-centered and areevolved through application of the Stokes theorem on cell edges via a Constrained- Transport (CT) method. The so-called ?multidimensional MHD source terms?required in the predictor step for high-order accuracy are applied in a simplified form which reduces their complexity in three dimensions without loss of accuracyor robustness. The algorithm is implemented on an AMR framework which requires specific synchronization steps across refinement levels. These includeface-centered restriction and prolongation operations and a reflux-curl operation, which maintains a solenoidal magnetic field across refinement boundaries. Thecode is tested against a large suite of test problems, including convergence tests in smooth flows, shock-tube tests, classical two- and three-dimensional MHD tests,a three-dimensional shock-cloud interaction problem and the formation of a cluster of galaxies in a fully cosmological context. The magnetic field divergence isshown to remain negligible throughout. Subject headings: cosmology: theory - methods: numerical

  1. On-line RVP analysis improves gas blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, P.T. [BP Oil Alliance Refinery, Belle Chasse, LA (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New government regulations on gasoline quality are making gasoline blending an increasingly important aspect of refining. The Environmental Protection Agency volatility regulations that establish maximum summertime commercial gasoline volatility levels provide that gasoline Reid Vapor Pressor starting in 1989 may not exceed 10.5, or 9.0 psi. Additionally, beginning in 1992, it may not exceed either 9.0 or 7.8 psi, depending on the area of the country and the month. This article discusses the on-line analysis of gas blending to minimize the volatile organic compounds released to the air.

  2. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Acta Cryst. (1992). B48, 42-59 Refinement of Rubredoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris at 1.0 ~ with and without

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    42 Acta Cryst. (1992). B48, 42-59 Refinement of Rubredoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris at 1- ing R(I) factor between symmetry-related reflections was 5.8%. The model was refined by least parameters and isotropic temperature factors for non-H atoms were used in the refinement. There were 18532

  4. MODIS Cloud-Top Property Refinements for Collection 6 BRYAN A. BAUM, W. PAUL MENZEL, RICHARD A. FREY, DAVID C. TOBIN, ROBERT E. HOLZ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    MODIS Cloud-Top Property Refinements for Collection 6 BRYAN A. BAUM, W. PAUL MENZEL, RICHARD A the Collection-6 refinements in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational cloud Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) instantaneous cloud products throughout the course of algorithm refinement

  5. Acta Cryst. (1990). B46, 833-841 Refinement of Glucose Isomerase from Streptomyces albus at 1-65/~ with Data from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    833 Acta Cryst. (1990). B46, 833-841 Refinement of Glucose Isomerase from Streptomyces albus at 1 has been analysed and refined at 1-65 A. The space group is/222, with cell dimensions a = 93.9 (1), b data took less than 2 days. The coordinates of the Arthrobacterglucose isomerase refined

  6. Adaptive Mesh Refinement Solution Techniques for the Multigroup SN Transport Equation Using a Higher-Order Discontinuous Finite Element Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yaqi

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, we develop Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) techniques for the steady-state multigroup SN neutron transport equation using a higher-order Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method (DGFEM). We propose two error estimations, a...

  7. On the Doubly Refined Enumeration of Alternating Sign Matrices and Totally Symmetric Self-Complementary Plane Partitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Fonseca; P. Zinn-Justin

    2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove the equality of doubly refined enumerations of Alternating Sign Matrices and of Totally Symmetric Self-Complementary Plane Partitions using integral formulae originating from certain solutions of the quantum Knizhnik--Zamolodchikov equation.

  8. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  9. Refined understanding of sulfur amino acid nutrition in hybrid striped bass, Morone chrysops (male symbol) x M. saxatilis (female symbol)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Mark Christopher

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    to methionine supported the lowest responses. Inclusion of MHA or AlimetTM did not affect TAN excretion of HSB. These findings will aid in refining diet formulations for HSB to ensure adequate sulfur amino acid nutrition....

  10. Grain refinement using equal channel angular extrusion in bulk sections of copper 101 and aluminum alloys 3003 and 6061

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrasse, Stephane

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRAIN REFINEMENT USING EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR EXTRUSION IN BULK SECTIONS OF COPPER 101 AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS 3003 AND 6061 A Thesis by STEPHANE FERRASSE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1995 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering GRAIN REFINEMENT USING EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR EXTRUSION IN BULK SECTIONS OF COPPER 101 AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS 3003 AND 6061 A Thesis by STEPHANE FERRASSE...

  11. Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule, applicable to gas utilities, establishes rules for calculation of gas cost adjustments, procedures to be followed in establishing gas cost adjustments and refunds, and describes reports...

  12. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  13. Natural Gas & Local Governments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    -trailers New business ventures Frac services Water hauling Brine water remediation Pipeline Group #12;2. Sublette County, Wyoming Largest gas-producing county in Wyoming (44% of states gas

  14. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  15. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  16. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  17. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  18. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

  19. Gas and Oil (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

  20. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  1. Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules are implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority). Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA) Rules are intended to permit the company/LDC (local gas...

  2. COMPUTATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF GAS COMPRESSOR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 26, 2015 ... When considering cost-optimal operation of gas transport net- works ..... The four most frequently used drive types are gas turbines, gas driven.

  3. Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M. [Chemical Vapour Metal Refining - CVMR (United States)] [Chemical Vapour Metal Refining - CVMR (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CVMR{sup R} presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR{sup R} applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR{sup R} will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR{sup R} and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR{sup R} produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR{sup R} process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

  4. A modeling approach for the purification of group III metals (Ga and In) by zone refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, K.; Dhar, S. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92 A. P. C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Mani, V. N. [Ultra-pure Materials Division, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), IDA Phase-III, Cherlapally, HCL (Post), Hyderabad 500051 (India)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An 'experimental friendly' model for zone refining process is proposed which predicts effective zone length in each refining passes that would lead to maximal solute removal, thereby leading to ultrapurification of the material for use in high-end electronic applications. The effectiveness of the model is experimentally tested and validated by purifying gallium from 4N (99.99%) to 6N5 (99.99995%) purity level at 30% yield and {approx}6 N at 70% yield with respect to targeted metallic impurities such as, Zn, Cu, Al, Ca, Bi, Si, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Fe, as analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. The distribution coefficient (k) of all the targeted impurities, detected in the purified gallium, was found to be less than 1. By comparing the experimentally obtained axial concentration profiles with the theoretical calculations, the k values of some detected impurities, such as Ca and Al, are determined to be {approx}0.8, Pb and Bi to be 0.7, Cu to be 0.65, and Fe to be 0.68, which prove the efficiency of the proposed model in reducing the concentration of these vulnerable impurities significantly. Following the model and as evidenced from the theoretical predictions, degradation of material purification containing a mixture of impurities having k less than as well as greater than 1 was elucidated experimentally by zone refining of 4N6 indium. Only a 40% yield of 5N6 indium was obtained, thereby highlighting the intricacies and problem areas in ultrapurification of these types of material.

  5. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  6. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  7. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  8. Anomalous Scaling and Refined Similarity of an Active Scalar in a Model of Homogeneous Turbulent Convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emily S. C. Ching; W. C. Cheng

    2007-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalous scaling in the statistics of an active scalar in homogeneous turbulent convection is studied using a dynamical shell model. We extend refined similarity ideas for homogeneous and isotropic turbulence to homogeneous turbulent convection and attribute the origin of the anomalous scaling to variations of the entropy transfer rate. We verify the consequences and thus the validity of our hypothesis by showing that the conditional statistics of the active scalar and the velocity at fixed values of entropy transfer rate are not anomalous but have simple scaling with exponents given by dimensional considerations, and that the intermittency corrections are given by the scaling exponents of the moments of the entropy transfer rate.

  9. A new refined theory of plates with transverse shear deformation for moderately thick and thick plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valle, Jose Miguel Martinez

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we propose a new refined shear deformation plate theory which possesses a series of desirable features, the most salient of which are as follows: (i) The loads, which are generally considered to be applied on the middle surface of the plate, act on the upper surface of the plate; (ii) The equations are applicable to the calculation of the stresses in isotropic plates and provide the same order of accuracy as several theories with second order shear deformation effects; (iii) It constitutes a theory, in the sense defined by Love, since it gives easy expressions for application to problems in different fields in architecture and civil engineering

  10. Refined reconstruction and calibration of the missing transverse energy in the ATLAS detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marianna Testa on behalf of the ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of the missing transverse energy Etmiss is fundamental for many analyses at LHC. Good Etmiss resolution and calibration are essential for searches of new physics as well as precise measurements. We describe a refined reconstruction and calibration of Etmiss developed by ATLAS and its performances on events containing Z and W bosons. The data sample was collected in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of about 36 pb-1. The determination of the absolute scale of the Etmiss, fundamental for determining systematic uncertainties in all analysis involving Etmiss measurements, is also presented.

  11. Refined Cauchy and Littlewood identities, plane partitions and symmetry classes of alternating sign matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Betea; Michael Wheeler

    2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove and conjecture some new symmetric function identities, which equate the generating series of 1. Plane partitions, subject to certain restrictions and weightings, and 2. Alternating sign matrices, subject to certain symmetry properties. The left hand side of each of our identities is a simple refinement of a relevant Cauchy or Littlewood identity, allowing them to be interpreted as generating series for plane partitions. The right hand side of each identity is a partition function of the six-vertex model, on a relevant domain. These can be interpreted as generating series for alternating sign matrices, using the well known bijection with six-vertex model configurations.

  12. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using Virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  13. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via Electron Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6% - niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  14. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium 6% niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  15. Studies of the refining of crude cottonseed oil and its solutions in commercial hexane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeitoun, Mohamed Ali

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil. In a more recent patent (17) Clayton used 1.5 per cent by weight of 29 per cent ammonium hydroxide to refine soybean oil. The well-mixed oil and ammonia solution is heated to 200?F., then rapidly cooled to 150?F., and then centrifuged... neutralized by soda ash. The soap- stock is removed in a multi-tray thickener. The neutralized miscella is then washed countercurrently with dilute caustic soda solution then with water. It is claimed that this method substantially reduces oil loss...

  16. Growth of barley exposed to solvent refined coal (SRC) materials added to soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare) grown in Ritzville silt loam soil, treated with solvent refined coal material, SRC solid (SRC I) and SRC liquid (SRC II) was examined. Although the SRC materials will not be introduced to soil or surface waters in normal uses, they could be spilled during transportation. Such spills could contaminate surface waters and agricultural, rangeland and forest soils, possibly causing acute or chronic damage to plants and also provide a way for certain inorganic and organic materials to enter food chains.

  17. Quantitative phase analysis of Mg:ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by Rietveld refinement method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaji, V., E-mail: thangadurai.p@gmail.com; Senthilkumaran, S., E-mail: thangadurai.p@gmail.com; Thangadurai, P., E-mail: thangadurai.p@gmail.com [Center for Nano Science and Technology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry- 605014 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    To quantify the structural phases of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} doped with Mg ions of varying concentrations (3, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and annealed at different temperatures. Magnesia doped zirconia was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method and annealed up to 1000°C. The monoclinic and tetragonal phases present in Mg:ZrO{sub 2} were quantified using Rietveld refinement analysis of the X-ray diffraction data and compared with the Direct method based on peak intensity calculations. Tetragonal phase was dominant in the 600°C annealed Mg:ZrO{sub 2} for all Mg concentrations.

  18. Microstructural refinement of W-Ni-Fe heavy alloys by alloying additions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, R.M.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This communication describes the effect of alloying additions on grain refinement in tungsten heavy alloys and the resulting changes in mechanical properties. The body-centered-cubic refractory metals, like molybdenum and tantalum, have total solubility in tungsten and a high solubility in the matrix. The solubility of the additive in tungsten provides a means to increase the strength by solid-solution hardening. Alternatively, the solubility of tungsten in the matrix is the key to grain growth and possible strengthening by a reduction in the grain-growth size.

  19. Implementation of the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithn on a 3-bit NMR quantum computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehyun Kim; Jae-Seung Lee; Soonchil Lee; Chaejoon Cheong

    1999-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We implemented the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on a 3-bit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer, which is the meaningful test of quantum parallelism because qubits are entangled. All of the balanced and constant functions were realized exactly. The results agree well with theoretical predictions and clearly distinguish the balanced functions from constant functions. Efficient refocusing schemes were proposed for the soft z-pulse and J-coupling and it is proved that the thermal equilibrium state gives the same results as the pure state for this algorithm.

  20. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c : U.S.Welcome toTotala. Imported Refiner

  1. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click

  2. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 103. Relative2. Occupancy ofAviationPrices" ,"ClickRefiner

  3. Gas Cylinders: Proper Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Compressed Gas Cylinders: Proper Management And Use Published by the Office of Environment, Health;1 Introduction University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) departments that use compressed gas cylinders (MSDS) and your department's Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). Talk to your gas supplier about hands

  4. Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

  5. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  6. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  7. Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

  8. Refining Chandra/ACIS Subpixel Event Repositioning Using a Backside Illuminated CCD Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jingqiang Li; Joel H. Kastner; Gregory Y. Prigozhin; Norbert S. Schulz

    2003-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Subpixel event repositioning (SER) techniques have been demonstrated to significantly improve the already unprecedented spatial resolution of Chandra X-ray imaging with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). Chandra CCD SER techniques are based on the premise that the impact position of events can be refined, based on the distribution of charge among affected CCD pixels. ACIS SER models proposed thus far are restricted to corner split (3- and 4-pixel) events, and assume that such events take place at the split pixel corners. To improve the event counting statistics, we modified the ACIS SER algorithms to include 2-pixel split events and single pixel events, using refined estimates for photon impact locations. Furthermore, simulations that make use of a high-fidelity backside illuminated (BI) CCD model demonstrate that mean photon impact positions for split events are energy dependent leading to further modification of subpixel event locations according to event type and energy, for BI ACIS devices. Testing on Chandra CCD X-ray observations of the Orion Nebula Cluster indicates that these modified SER algorithms further improve the spatial resolution of Chandra/ACIS, to the extent that the spreading in the spatial distribution of photons is dominated by the High Resolution Mirror Assembly, rather than by ACIS pixelization.

  9. A refined empirical stability criterion for nonlinear Schroedinger solitons under spatiotemporal forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz G. Mertens; Niurka R. Quintero; I. V. Barashenkov; A. R. Bishop

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics of travelling oscillating solitons of the cubic NLS equation under an external spatiotemporal forcing of the form $f(x,t) = a \\exp[iK(t)x]$. For the case of time-independent forcing a stability criterion for these solitons, which is based on a collective coordinate theory, was recently conjectured. We show that the proposed criterion has a limited applicability and present a refined criterion which is generally applicable, as confirmed by direct simulations. This includes more general situations where $K(t)$ is harmonic or biharmonic, with or without a damping term in the NLS equation. The refined criterion states that the soliton will be unstable if the "stability curve" $p(\\v)$, where $p(t)$ and $\\v(t)$ are the normalized momentum and the velocity of the soliton, has a section with a negative slope. Moreover, for the case of constant $K$ and zero damping we use the collective coordinate solutions to compute a "phase portrait" of the soliton where its dynamics is represented by two-dimensional projections of its trajectories in the four-dimensional space of collective coordinates. We conjecture, and confirm by simulations, that the soliton is unstable if a section of the resulting closed curve on the portrait has a negative sense of rotation.

  10. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H. (Lisle, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  12. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  13. Self-consistent QM/MM methodologies for structural refinement of photosystem II and other macromolecules of biological interest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sproviero, Eduardo M [YALE UNIV; Newcomer, Michael [YALE UNIV; Gascon, Jose A [YALE UNIV; Batista, Victor S [YALE UNIV

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) is one of the most promising approaches to study the structure, function, and properties of proteins and nucleic acids. However, there some instances in which the limitations of either the MM (lack of a proper electronic description) or QM (limited to a few number of atoms) methods prevent a proper description of the system. To address this issue, we review here our approach to fine-tune the structure of biological systems using post-QM/MM refinements. These protocols are based on spectroscopy data, and/or partitioning of the system to extend the QM description to a larger region of a protein. We illustrate these methodologies through applications to several biomolecules, which were pre-optimized at the QM/MM level and then further refined using postQM/MM refinement methodologies: mod(QM/MM), which refines the atomic charges of the residues included in the MM region accounting for polarization effects; mod(QM/MM)-opt that partition the MM region in smaller parts and optimizes each part in an iterative. self-consistent way, and the Polarized-Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (P-EXAFS) fitting procedure, which fine-tune the atomic coordinates to reproduce experimental polarized EXAFS spectra. The first two techniques were applied to the guanine quadruplex. while the P-EXAFS refinement was applied to the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II.

  14. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

  15. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  16. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  17. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burbage, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  18. Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung

    2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).

  19. Supplementary Information for Refined Estimate of China's CO2 Emissions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    .95-0.98); Weibull Other washed coal 0.96 (0.92-1); Triangular Briquettes 0.90 (0.89-0.98); Weibull IPCC( 2006); Coke coal 0.93 (0.89-0.98); Gamma IPCC( 2006); Cai et al. (2009); Zhao et al (2012) Cleaned coal 0.96 (0 0.93 (0.89-1); Triangular Coke Oven Gas 0.99 (0.98-1); Triangular Other Gas 0.99 (0

  20. Ammonia synthesis gas purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuderer, A.

    1986-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes the purification of a reformed gas mixture following water gas shift conversion to produce a purified ammonia synthesis gas stream. The improved processing sequence consisting essentially of: (A) Selectively catalytically oxidizing the residual carbon monoxide content of the gas mixture to carbon dioxide so as to reduce the carbon monoxide content of the gas mixture to less than about 20 ppm, the selective catalytic oxidation being carried out with an excess of air, with the excess oxygen being catalytically reacted with a small amount of hydrogen so that the residual oxygen level is reduced to less than about 3 ppm; (B) removing the bulk of the carbon dioxide content of the gas mixture by liquid absorption; (C) Removing residual amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water by selective adsorption on the fixed beds of a thermal swing adsorption system, a dry, purified ammonia ammonia synthesis gas stream containing less than a total of 10 ppm of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide being recovered from the thermal swing adsorption system; (D) Passing the resulting dry, purified ammonia synthesis gas stream having a low content of methane to an ammonia production operation without intermediate passage of the ammonia synthesis gas stream to a methanation unit or to a cryogenic unit for removal of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide therefrom; whereby the efficiency of the overall purification operation and the effective utilization of hydrogen are enhanced.