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  1. Preliminary Reference Case Results for Oil and Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Preliminary Reference Case Results for Oil and Natural Gas AEO2014 Oil and Gas Supply Working Group Meeting Office of Petroleum, Gas, and Biofuels Analysis September 26, 2013 | Washington, DC WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AEO2014P uses ref2014.d092413a AEO2013 uses ref2013.d102312a Changes for AEO2014 2 * Revised shale & tight play resources (EURs, type curves) * Updated classification of shale gas, tight gas, &

  2. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    I Reference case projections for natural gas production This page inTenTionally lefT blank 121 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for natural gas production Table I1. World total natural gas production by region, Reference case, 2012-40 (trillion cubic feet) Region/country Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 31.8 35.7 38.6 42.1 44.6 47.3 1.4 United States a 24.0 28.7

  3. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4 Reference case Table A2. Energy consumption by sector and source (quadrillion Btu per year, unless otherwise noted) Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook 2014...

  4. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Reference case Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Table A17. Renewable energy consumption by sector and source (quadrillion Btu) Sector and source...

  5. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for natural gas production Table I1. World total natural gas production by region, Reference case, 2012-40 (trillion cubic feet) Region/country Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 31.8 35.7 38.6 42.1 44.6 47.3 1.4 United States a 24.0 28.7 30.4 32.9 34.0 35.3 1.4 Canada 6.1 5.8 6.6 7.2 7.9 8.6 1.2 Mexico 1.7 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.6 3.3

  6. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for natural gas production Table I3. World other natural gas production by region, Reference case, 2012-40 (trillion cubic feet) Region/country Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 12.0 9.8 9.5 10.7 10.3 10.3 -0.5 United States a 7.5 6.6 6.5 7.8 7.5 7.5 0.0 Canada 2.8 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 -2.2 Mexico 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 -1.2

  7. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Projections of petroleum and other liquid fuels production in three cases Table G3. International other liquid fuels a production by region and country, Reference case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day, unless otherwise noted) Region/country History (estimates) Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OPEC b 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.6 4.8 5.2 5.6 1.3 Natural gas plant liquids 3.6 3.7

  8. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections Table A6. World natural gas consumption by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (trillion cubic feet) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 30.8 31.8 32.8 34.3 36.5 38.2 40.1 0.8 United States a 24.5 25.5 26.1 26.9 28.1 28.8 29.7 0.5 Canada 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.2 4.7 5.2 5.6 1.5 Mexico and Chile 2.6 2.6 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.2 4.8

  9. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reference case projections Table A12. World carbon dioxide emissions from natural gas use by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (million metric tons carbon dioxide) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 1,666 1,715 1,766 1,849 1,965 2,063 2,167 0.8 United States a 1,305 1,363 1,394 1,432 1,497 1,538 1,586 0.5 Canada 205 205 213 234 261 287 310 1.5 Mexico and Chile 156 147 158 184 207 238 271 2.2 OECD Europe 1,016 970

  10. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H3. World installed natural-gas-fred generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 410 420 455 488 534 584 640 1.5 United States a 358 367 393 409 444 481 525 1.3 Canada 20 20 25 30 36 41 46 3.0

  11. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    DC, September 2013). 2011 and 2012 natural gas spot price at Henry Hub: Thomson Reuters. 2011 and 2012 electric power prices: EIA, Electric Power Monthly, DOEEIA-0226,...

  12. Appendix A: Reference case

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    sources 5 ... 476 459 600 634 660 686 735 1.7% Distributed generation (natural gas) ... 0 0 1 2 2 3 4 - - Total...

  13. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 133.0 147.6 173.1 175.0 178.2 184.2 199.2 1.1% Distributed generation (natural gas) 7 ... 0.0 0.0 1.6 3.3 4.6 6.2 8.9 - -...

  14. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Appendix A Table A2. World total energy consumption by region and fuel, Reference case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas Liquids 45.3 44.6 46.4 46.1 46.0 46.2 46.7 0.2 Natural gas 31.8 32.8 33.9 35.5 37.7 39.5 41.4 0.8 Coal 21.0 18.7 20.3 20.5 20.1 20.0 20.0 0.2 Nuclear 9.4 9.2 9.5 9.4 9.5 9.5 9.7 0.2 Other 13.1 12.9 15.6 16.6 17.5 18.6 20.3 1.6 Total 120.6 118.1 125.7 128.1 130.7

  15. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Appendix I Table I4. World net trade in natural gas by region, Reference case, 2012-40 (trillion cubic feet) Region/country Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 0.3 -2.6 -4.0 -5.4 -6.2 -6.9 - United States a 1.5 -2.6 -3.5 -4.8 -5.2 -5.6 - Canada -2.3 -1.9 -2.3 -2.4 -2.7 -2.8 0.7 Mexico 1.0 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.1 Chile 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.7 OECD Europe 7.8 10.9 11.9 12.7 13.0 14.0 2.1 North Europe 2.4 5.2 5.9 6.1 6.1 6.3 3.5

  16. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections Table A14. World population by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (millions) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 484 489 523 544 564 581 597 0.7 United States a 312 315 334 347 359 370 380 0.7 Canada 34 35 38 39 41 43 44 0.8 Mexico and Chile 137 139 151 158 164 169 173 0.8 OECD Europe 548 550 565 571 576 579 581

  17. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections Table A8. World nuclear energy consumption by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 888 867 902 891 901 900 924 0.2 United States a 790 769 804 808 808 812 833 0.3 Canada 88 89 86 72 72 67 62 -1.3 Mexico and Chile 9 8 12 12 20 20 29 4.5 OECD Europe 861 837

  18. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections Table A1. World total primary energy consumption by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 125.7 128.1 130.7 133.8 138.1 0.6 United States a 96.8 94.4 100.8 102.0 102.9 103.8 105.7 0.4 Canada 14.5 14.5 15.1 15.6 16.3 17.1 18.1 0.8 Mexico and Chile 9.3

  19. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections Table A4. World gross domestic product (GDP) by region expressed in market exchange rates, Reference case, 2011-40 (billion 2010 dollars) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 18,006 18,440 22,566 25,585 28,757 32,166 36,120 2.4 United States a 15,021 15,369 18,801 21,295 23,894 26,659 29,898 2.4 Canada 1,662 1,694 2,024 2,240 2,470 2,730 3,012 2.1 Mexico

  20. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections Table A10. World carbon dioxide emissions by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (million metric tons carbon dioxide) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 6,558 6,343 6,569 6,620 6,675 6,769 6,887 0.3 United States a 5,483 5,272 5,499 5,511 5,514 5,521 5,549 0.2 Canada 562 563 557 577 587 621 647 0.5 Mexico and

  1. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Projections of petroleum and other liquid fuels production in three cases Table G1. World petroleum and other liquids production by region and country, Reference case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day, unless otherwise noted) Region/country History (estimates) Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OPEC a 36.0 37.4 39.2 41.4 44.6 48.7 52.2 1.2 Middle East 26.2 26.6 29.8

  2. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Projections of petroleum and other liquid fuels production in three cases Table G9. World other liquid fuels a production by region and country, Low Oil Price case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day, unless otherwise noted) Region/country History (estimates) Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OPEC b 3.7 3.8 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.9 4.8 0.8 Natural gas plant liquids 3.6 3.7 4.0

  3. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Kaya Identity factor projections Table J3. World gross domestic product (GDP) per capita by region expressed in purchasing power parity, Reference case, 2011-40 (2010 dollars per person) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 38,441 39,055 44,716 48,842 53,114 57,747 63,278 1.7 United States a 48,094 48,865 56,285 61,453 66,639 72,107

  4. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H1. World total installed generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 1,258 1,278 1,330 1,371 1,436 1,517 1,622 0.9 United States a 1,046 1,063 1,079 1,091 1,133 1,187 1,261 0.6 Canada 133 135

  5. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H11. World installed other renewable generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 41 42 45 49 52 57 59 1.2 United States a 36 37 39 39 39 40 41 0.4 Canada 4 4 5 8 12 15 16 4.9 Mexico and Chile 1 1

  6. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H13. World net liquids-fred electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 88 88 66 37 36 35 35 -3.3 United States a 30 23 18 18 18 18 18 -0.9 Canada 6 7 6 6 6 5 5 -1.0 Mexico and

  7. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H15. World net coal-fred electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 1,857 1,630 1,808 1,820 1,786 1,778 1,769 0.3 United States a 1,733 1,514 1,709 1,724 1,713 1,704 1,702 0.4

  8. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H17. World net hydroelectric and other renewable electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 1,004 987 1,278 1,376 1,472 1,598 1,763 2.1 United States a 535 520 704 741 781 848 934 2.1 Canada 398 397 459 491 524 557 606 1.5 Mexico and Chile 71 69 115 144

  9. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H19. World net wind-powered electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 142 156 295 327 354 404 460 3.9 United States a 120 141 232 235 245 278 319 3.0 Canada 20 11 39 46 53 60 66

  10. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H21. World net solar electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 6 12 57 65 79 96 120 8.7 United States a 6 11 51 59 71 88 110 8.5 Canada 0 0 3 3 4 5 5 10.3 Mexico and Chile 0 0 3

  11. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H5. World installed nuclear generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 115 117 115 113 115 114 118 0.0 United States a 102 102 101 101 102 102 105 0.1 Canada 13 14 12 10 10 10 9 -1.5 Mexico and

  12. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H7. World installed hydroelectric generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 171 171 183 187 192 198 210 0.7 United States a 78 78 80 80 80 80 80 0.1 Canada 75 75 83 85 88 90 99 1.0 Mexico and

  13. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Reference case projections for electricity capacity and generation by fuel Table H9. World installed geothermal generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 3 3 5 7 9 10 11 4.3 United States a 3 3 4 5 7 8 9 4.6 Canada 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Mexico and Chile 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3.3 OECD

  14. Analysis of Restricted Natural Gas Supply Cases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    The four cases examined in this study have progressively greater impacts on overall natural gas consumption, prices, and supply. Compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case, the no Alaska pipeline case has the least impact; the low liquefied natural gas case has more impact; the low unconventional gas recovery case has even more impact; and the combined case has the most impact.

  15. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Kaya Identity factor projections Table J1. World carbon dioxide intensity of energy use by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (metric tons per billion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 53.6 53.0 52.3 51.7 51.1 50.6 49.9 -0.2 United States a 55.7 55.0 54.5 54.0 53.6 53.2 52.5 -0.2 Canada 38.8 38.9 37.0 37.0 36.1 36.2 35.8 -0.3 Mexico

  16. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Appendix A Table A3. World gross domestic product (GDP) by region expressed in purchasing power parity, Reference case, 2011-40 (billion 2010 dollars) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 18,616 19,080 23,390 26,577 29,942 33,569 37,770 2.5 United States a 15,021 15,369 18,801 21,295 23,894 26,659 29,898 2.4 Canada 1,396 1,422 1,700 1,881 2,074 2,293 2,529 2.1 Mexico and Chile 2,200 2,288 2,890 3,400 3,974 4,618

  17. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Appendix A Table A11. World carbon dioxide emissions from liquids use by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (million metric tons carbon dioxide) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 2,881 2,838 2,861 2,812 2,785 2,794 2,812 0.0 United States a 2,291 2,240 2,269 2,227 2,182 2,163 2,147 -0.2 Canada 289 291 291 289 290 295 304 0.2 Mexico and Chile 301 307 301 296 313 335 361 0.6 OECD Europe 1,969 1,903 1,823 1,804

  18. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Appendix A Table A13. World carbon dioxide emissions from coal use by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (million metric tons carbon dioxide) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 2,000 1,779 1,931 1,947 1,912 1,901 1,896 0.2 United States a 1,876 1,657 1,824 1,840 1,822 1,808 1,804 0.3 Canada 68 68 53 54 36 38 33 -2.5 Mexico and Chile 56 54 53 53 54 55 58 0.3 OECD Europe 1,208 1,251 1,228 1,244 1,219 1,195 1,178

  19. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Appendix G Table G6. World other liquid fuels a production by region and country, High Oil Price case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day, unless otherwise noted) Region/country History (estimates) Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OPEC b 3.7 3.8 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.8 5.9 1.6 Natural gas plant liquids 3.6 3.7 4.3 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.3 1.3 Liquids from renewable sources c 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 - Liquids from coal 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 - Liquids

  20. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Appendix J Table J2. World energy intensity by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (thousand Btu per 2010 dollar of GDP) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 6.5 6.2 5.4 4.8 4.4 4.0 3.7 -1.9 United States a 6.4 6.1 5.4 4.8 4.3 3.9 3.5 -2.0 Canada 10.4 10.2 8.9 8.3 7.8 7.5 7.1 -1.3 Mexico and Chile 4.2 4.0 3.4 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.7 -1.4 OECD Europe 4.4 4.4 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.2 -1.1 OECD Asia 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.8 -0.5

  1. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    30 Appendix A Table A5. World liquids consumption by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 23.6 23.2 24.4 24.4 24.3 24.4 24.6 0.2 United States a 18.9 18.5 19.6 19.6 19.4 19.3 19.3 0.2 Canada 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 0.2 Mexico and Chile 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.9 0.6 OECD Europe 14.5 14.1 13.7 13.6 13.7 13.8 14.0 0.0 OECD Asia 7.9 8.2 7.7 7.5 7.5 7.5

  2. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    86 Appendix G Table G2. World crude oil a production by region and country, Reference case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day, unless otherwise noted) Region/country History (estimates) Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OPEC b 32.2 33.4 34.9 36.8 39.7 43.4 46.6 1.2 Middle East 22.9 23.2 26.2 27.9 30.3 33.4 35.6 1.5 North Africa 2.0 2.9 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.2 -1.0 West Africa 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.7 5.1 0.6 South America 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.6

  3. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Appendix I Table I2. World tight gas, shale gas and coalbed methane production by region, Reference case, 2012-40 (trillion cubic feet) Region/country Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 19.8 26.0 29.0 31.4 34.3 37.0 2.3 United States a 16.6 22.1 23.9 25.1 26.5 27.8 1.9 Canada 3.3 3.8 4.9 5.5 6.3 7.0 2.8 Mexico 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.8 1.4 2.2 - Chile 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 - OECD Europe 0.0 0.5 1.7 3.3 4.6 5.5 21.8 North Europe 0.0 0.5

  4. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Appendix A Table A7. World coal consumption by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 21.0 18.7 20.3 20.5 20.1 20.0 20.0 0.2 United States a 19.6 17.3 19.2 19.3 19.2 19.0 19.0 0.3 Canada 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 -2.5 Mexico and Chile 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.3 OECD Europe 12.9 13.4 13.2 13.3 13.1 12.8 12.6 -0.2 OECD Asia 9.7 9.7 10.2 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.1 0.1

  5. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Appendix A Table A9. World consumption of hydroelectricity and other renewable energy by region, Reference case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 13.1 12.9 15.6 16.6 17.5 18.6 20.3 1.6 United States a 7.9 7.7 9.3 9.7 9.9 10.4 11.3 1.4 Canada 4.3 4.2 4.8 5.1 5.5 5.8 6.3 1.4 Mexico and Chile 0.9 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.7 OECD Europe 10.7 11.5 15.7 16.7 17.3 18.5 19.6 1.9 OECD Asia

  6. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    C Low Economic Growth case projections This page inTenTionally lefT blank 47 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Low Economic Growth case projections Table C1. World total primary energy consumption by region, Low Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 123.3 123.9 124.7 126.3 128.8 0.3 United States a 96.8 94.4 98.7

  7. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    D High Oil Price case projections This page inTenTionally lefT blank 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 High Oil Price case projections Table D1. World total primary energy consumption by region, High Oil Price case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 125.3 127.9 130.8 135.5 142.1 0.7 United States a 96.8 94.4 100.8 102.2 103.3

  8. Appendix A. Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by region and country, Low Oil Price case, 2009-40 (million barrels per day) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2010-40 2009 2010 2011 2020 2025 2030...

  9. Appendix A. Reference case projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by region and end-use sector, High Oil Price case, 2010-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2010-40 2010 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD...

  10. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    E Low Oil Price case projections This page inTenTionally lefT blank 57 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Low Oil Price case projections Table E1. World total primary energy consumption by region, Low Oil Price case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-s40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 126.5 129.2 131.8 135.0 138.9 0.6 United States a 96.8 94.4 101.2 102.7 103.6 104.6

  11. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Projections of petroleum and other liquid fuels production in three cases Table G7. World petroleum and other liquids production by region and country, Low Oil Price case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day, unless otherwise noted) Region/country History (estimates) Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OPEC a 36.0 37.4 43.2 45.6 49.9 54.7 59.4 1.7 Middle East 26.2 26.6 31.1

  12. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Low Oil Price case projections Table E1. World total primary energy consumption by region, Low Oil Price case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-s40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 126.5 129.2 131.8 135.0 138.9 0.6 United States a 96.8 94.4 101.2 102.7 103.6 104.6 106.1 0.4 Canada 14.5 14.5 15.3 15.8 16.5 17.4 18.3 0.8 Mexico and

  13. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Low Oil Price case projections Table E3. World liquids consumption by region, Low Oil Price case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 23.6 23.2 24.9 25.0 25.2 25.5 26.1 0.4 United States a 18.9 18.5 20.0 20.1 20.1 20.2 20.4 0.4 Canada 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 0.4 Mexico and Chile 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6

  14. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Low Economic Growth case projections Table C1. World total primary energy consumption by region, Low Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (quadrillion Btu) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 120.6 118.1 123.3 123.9 124.7 126.3 128.8 0.3 United States a 96.8 94.4 98.7 98.1 97.5 97.4 98.0 0.1 Canada 14.5 14.5 15.0 15.4 15.9 16.6 17.3 0.6 Mexico

  15. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Projections of petroleum and other liquid fuels production in three cases Table G5. World crude oil a production by region and country, High Oil Price case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day, unless otherwise noted) Region/country History (estimates) Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OPEC b 32.2 33.4 30.7 30.9 32.4 33.4 34.4 0.1 Middle East 22.9 23.2 22.7 23.0 24.4 25.2

  16. Appendix A. Reference case projections

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4.3 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.0 1.4 Natural gas plant liquids 3.1 3.3 3.4 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.8 4.7 1.2 Biofuels c 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 - Coal-to-liquids 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -...

  17. Appendix A. Reference case projections

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4.6 4.9 5.3 5.8 5.9 1.9 Natural gas plant liquids 3.1 3.3 3.4 4.3 4.6 4.9 5.3 5.3 1.6 Biofuels c 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 - Coal-to-liquids 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -...

  18. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Appendix H Table H14. World net natural gas-fred electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 1,234 1,446 1,396 1,600 1,840 2,048 2,237 1.6 United States a 1,014 1,228 1,117 1,223 1,371 1,478 1,569 0.9 Canada 61 63 97 136 187 230 272 5.3 Mexico and Chile 160 154 182 240 282 340 396 3.4 OECD Europe 766 645 655 746 905 1,056 1,321 2.6

  19. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    58 Appendix E Table E2. World gross domestic product (GDP) by region expressed in purchasing power parity, Low Oil Price case, 2011-40 (billion 2010 dollars) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 18,616 19,080 23,330 26,574 29,998 33,626 37,702 2.5 United States a 15,021 15,369 18,742 21,299 23,963 26,735 29,885 2.4 Canada 1,396 1,422 1,700 1,881 2,073 2,290 2,521 2.1 Mexico and Chile 2,200 2,288 2,889 3,394 3,962

  20. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Appendix C Table C2. World gross domestic product (GDP) by region expressed in purchasing power parity, Low Economic Growth case, 2011-40 (billion 2010 dollars) Region History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 18,616 19,080 22,285 24,599 27,041 29,850 33,088 2.0 United States a 15,021 15,369 17,747 19,441 21,224 23,305 25,763 1.9 Canada 1,396 1,422 1,682 1,841 2,005 2,186 2,375 1.8 Mexico and Chile 2,200 2,288 2,856 3,317

  1. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Appendix G Table G4. World petroleum and other liquids production by region and country, High Oil Price case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day, unless otherwise noted) Region/country History (estimates) Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OPEC a 36.0 37.4 35.3 35.8 37.7 39.3 40.4 0.3 Middle East 26.2 26.6 26.5 27.0 28.6 29.8 30.6 0.5 North Africa 2.4 3.3 2.1 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.3 -1.4 West Africa 4.3 4.3 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 -0.2 South America 3.2 3.2

  2. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Appendix G Table G8. World crude oil a production by region and country, Low Oil Price case, 2011-40 (million barrels per day, unless otherwise noted) Region/country History (estimates) Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OPEC b 32.2 33.4 38.9 41.1 45.3 49.7 54.5 1.8 Middle East 22.9 23.2 27.8 28.9 32.2 35.6 38.5 1.8 North Africa 2.0 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.3 0.5 West Africa 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.9 5.5 6.3 1.3 South America 3.0 3.0 3.8 4.7 5.1 5.6

  3. Natural Gas Business Case (Webinar) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    future market outlook. References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleNaturalGasBusinessCase(Webinar)&oldid514498" Feedback Contact needs updating Image...

  4. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

  5. Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Reference Case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Case CO 2 Fee 10ton CO 2 Fee 25ton Coal plant retirements 8 gigawatts Source: EIA, ... gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in five cases, 2008-2040 9 ...

  6. Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release Reference Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    emission intensity index, 20051 Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2015 Reference case History Projections 2013 Carbon dioxide emissions per 2009 dollar GDP Energy use per 2009...

  7. Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Reference Case

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas & Biofuels Analysis October 4, 2012 | Washington, DC Preliminary AEO2013: Biofuels and Petroleum WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE Overview 2 Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, & Biofuels Analysis Working Group Presentation for Discussion Purposes Washington DC, October 4, 2012 DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE as results are subject to change * World oil

  8. Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

  9. REFERENCE CASES FOR USE IN THE CEMENTITOUS PARTNERSHIP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Kosson, D.; Garrabrants, A.

    2010-08-31

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership Project (CBP) is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institution cross cutting collaborative effort supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a reasonable and credible set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The period of performance is >100 years for operating facilities and > 1000 years for waste management. The CBP has defined a set of reference cases to provide the following functions: (i) a common set of system configurations to illustrate the methods and tools developed by the CBP, (ii) a common basis for evaluating methodology for uncertainty characterization, (iii) a common set of cases to develop a complete set of parameter and changes in parameters as a function of time and changing conditions, (iv) a basis for experiments and model validation, and (v) a basis for improving conceptual models and reducing model uncertainties. These reference cases include the following two reference disposal units and a reference storage unit: (i) a cementitious low activity waste form in a reinforced concrete disposal vault, (ii) a concrete vault containing a steel high-level waste tank filled with grout (closed high-level waste tank), and (iii) a spent nuclear fuel basin during operation. Each case provides a different set of desired performance characteristics and interfaces between materials and with the environment. Examples of concretes, grout fills and a cementitious waste form are identified for the relevant reference case configurations.

  10. REFERENCE CASES FOR USE IN THE CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C

    2009-01-06

    The Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) is a multidisciplinary cross cutting project initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a reasonable and credible set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The period of performance is >100 years for operating facilities and > 1000 years for waste management. The CBP has defined a set of reference cases to provide the following functions: (1) a common set of system configurations to illustrate the methods and tools developed by the CBP, (2) a common basis for evaluating methodology for uncertainty characterization, (3) a common set of cases to develop a complete set of parameter and changes in parameters as a function of time and changing conditions, and (4) a basis for experiments and model validation, and (5) a basis for improving conceptual models and reducing model uncertainties. These reference cases include the following two reference disposal units and a reference storage unit: (1) a cementitious low activity waste form in a reinforced concrete disposal vault, (2) a concrete vault containing a steel high-level waste tank filled with grout (closed high-level waste tank), and (3) a spent nuclear fuel basin during operation. Each case provides a different set of desired performance characteristics and interfaces between materials and with the environment. Examples of concretes, grout fills and a cementitious waste form are identified for the relevant reference case configurations.

  11. Case Study - Compressed Natural Gas Refuse Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughlin, M; Burnham, A.

    2014-02-01

    This case study explores the use of heavy-duty refuse trucks fueled by compressed natural gas highlighting three fleets from very different types of organizations.

  12. Enhancements to Natural Attenuation: Selected Case Studies |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Selected Case Studies More Documents & Publications Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and Site Investigation Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil ...

  13. Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case Title Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2015 Authors Mintz, MM, Saricks,...

  14. Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets...

  15. Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Early Release Reference Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Focus on the Electricity Supply Mix for Natural Gas Power Generation US May 18, 2015 | Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by Howard Gruenspecht, Deputy Administrator U.S. Energy...

  16. The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles Presentation-given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting-covers the natural gas vehicle (NGV) market, the benefits of NGVs, the growing selection of NGVs, and more. Download the The Compelling Case for Natural Gas Vehicles presentation. (2.92 MB) More Documents & Publications QER - Comment of American Gas Association 3 Growth of the NGV Market: Lessons Learned

  17. Case Study - Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas ............................................................................................................................. 4 Financial Benefits ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 Environmental and Energy Benefits ........................................................................................................................... 4 Project-Specific

  18. Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review: Evaluation of 2014 and Prior Reference Case Projections

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review: Evaluation of 2014 and Prior Reference Case Projections March 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | AEO Retrospective Review: Evaluation of 2014 and Prior Reference Case Projections i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's

  19. ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O

    2007-05-15

    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  20. Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets This report describes how NREL used the CNG Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to establish guidance for fleets making decisions about using compressed natural gas. 47919.pdf (1.06 MB) More Documents & Publications QER - Comment of American Gas Association 3 Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Summary of Experiences and Current

  1. Enhanced Attenuation: A Reference Guide On Approaches To Increase The Natural Treatment Capacity Of A System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K

    2006-01-30

    The objective of this document is to explore the realm of enhancements to natural attenuation processes for cVOCs and review examples that have been proposed, modeled, and implemented. We will identify lessons learned from these case studies to confirm that enhancements are technically feasible and have the potential to achieve a favorable, cost-effective contaminant mass balance. Furthermore, we hope to determine if opportunities for further improvement of the enhancements exist and suggest areas where new and innovative types of enhancements might be possible.

  2. ENHANCED ATTENUATION: A REFERENCE GUIDE ON APPROACHES TO INCREASE THE NATURAL TREATMENT CAPACITY OF A SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B; Michael Heitkamp, M; Gary Wein , G; Karen Vangelas, K; Karen-M Adams, K; Tom Early; Bob Borden; David Major; W. Jody Waugh; Todd Wiedemeier; Claire H. Sink

    2006-08-10

    The objective of this document is to explore the realm of enhancements to natural attenuation processes for cVOCs and review examples that have been proposed, modeled, and implemented. We will identify lessons learned from these case studies to confirm that enhancements are technically feasible and have the potential to achieve a favorable, cost-effective contaminant mass balance. Furthermore, we hope to determine if opportunities for further improvement of the enhancements exist and suggest areas where new and innovative types of enhancements might be possible.

  3. Natural vegetation at the proposed Reference Repository Location in southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rickard, W.H.

    1988-02-01

    The dominant shrubs were sagebrush and spiny hopsage; the herbs were dominated by cheatgrass and Sandberg bluegrass. Spiny hopsage appeared to be vulnerable to burning and also to damage by off-road vehicular traffic. It appears to have little or no ability to reproduce through seedlings; once the existing plants are killed they are not likely to be replaced, even if seed-producing plants are nearby. The only pure stand of spiny hopsage known to exist on the Hanford Site is on and near study plot 2H. Sagebrush, like spiny hopsage, is killed by burning and by heavy vehicles. Sagebrush is capable of reproducing via seeds, indicating that it is an inherently aggressive species with a capacity to reestablish itself if parent plants are in the vicinity to act as seed sources. Alien, annual plants, especially cheatgrass, were a major contributor to the herbaceous canopy cover in plots 3S, 4S, and 5S. However, native perennial grasses, especially Sandberg bluegrass, were a major contributor to the canopy cover in plots 1S and 2H. These differences are probably caused by differences in soil properties (e.g., water retention capacity), rather than to historical disturbances such as livestock grazing or wildfire. Specimens of Sandwort, Arenaria franklinii, growing near the Reference Repository Location were collected for examination by taxonomists to determine if the specimens are of the variety A. f. thompsonii, a taxon currently listed as threatened in the state of Washington. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research January 5-6, 2011 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion Energy Sciences

  5. An Updated Annual Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Case Reflecting Provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and Recent Changes in the Economic Outlook

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    This report updates the Reference Case presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 based on recently enacted legislation and the changing macroeconomic environment.

  6. Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Municipal Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report describes how NREL used the CNG Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to establish guidance for fleets making decisions about using compressed natural gas.

  7. Technical basis for cases N-629 and N-631 as an alternative for RTNDT reference temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkle, John Graham; Server, W. L.

    2007-01-01

    ASME Code Cases N-629/N-631, published in 1999, provided an important new approach to allow material specific, measured fracture toughness curves for ferritic steels in the code applications. This has enabled some of the nuclear power plants whose reactor pressure vessel materials reached a certain threshold level based on overly conservative rules to use an alternative RTNDT to justify continued operation of their plants. These code cases have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and these have been proposed to be codified in Appendix A and Appendix G of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This paper summarizes the basis of this approach for the record.

  8. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences August 3-4, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors [not available] NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion

  9. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics November 12-13, 2009 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion Energy Sciences

  10. Property-rights application in utilization of natural resources: the case of Iran's natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abghari, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    The concessionaries produce more oil in Iran because of fear of nationalization, lower oil production costs in the Middle East, and more investment opportunities around the globe. This higher discount rate means more oil production and also, more natural gas, a joint product, is produced. Produced natural gas could have been used in the Iranian market, or exported. Low oil prices and high transportation costs of natural gas resulted in the low well-head value of natural gas. The fear of nationalization kept concessionaires from utilizing natural gas in Iran's domestic market. The high transportation costs of natural gas was a negative factor in export utilization. Also, if natural gas, which can be substituted for oil in many uses, were to be utilized, concessionaires would have had to produce less oil. Because oil had a well-established market, it would have been contrary to their interest to leave a lot of oil underground while their concessions ran out. Consequently, they chose to take the oil and flare natural gas. The Iranian government must take responsibility in this matter also. The country's rulers were not concerned with maximizing the country's wealth, but maximizing the security of their regimes, and their personal wealth and pleasure.

  11. Mechanism reduction for multicomponent surrogates: A case study using toluene reference fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Niemeyer, Kyle E.; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2014-11-01

    Strategies and recommendations for performing skeletal reductions of multicomponent surrogate fuels are presented, through the generation and validation of skeletal mechanisms for a three-component toluene reference fuel. Using the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis method followed by a further unimportant reaction elimination stage, skeletal mechanisms valid over comprehensive and high-temperature ranges of conditions were developed at varying levels of detail. These skeletal mechanisms were generated based on autoignition simulations, and validation using ignition delay predictions showed good agreement with the detailed mechanism in the target range of conditions. When validated using phenomena other than autoignition, suchmore » as perfectly stirred reactor and laminar flame propagation, tight error control or more restrictions on the reduction during the sensitivity analysis stage were needed to ensure good agreement. In addition, tight error limits were needed for close prediction of ignition delay when varying the mixture composition away from that used for the reduction. In homogeneous compression-ignition engine simulations, the skeletal mechanisms closely matched the point of ignition and accurately predicted species profiles for lean to stoichiometric conditions. Furthermore, the efficacy of generating a multicomponent skeletal mechanism was compared to combining skeletal mechanisms produced separately for neat fuel components; using the same error limits, the latter resulted in a larger skeletal mechanism size that also lacked important cross reactions between fuel components. Based on the present results, general guidelines for reducing detailed mechanisms for multicomponent fuels are discussed.« less

  12. Mechanism reduction for multicomponent surrogates: A case study using toluene reference fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemeyer, Kyle E.; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2014-11-01

    Strategies and recommendations for performing skeletal reductions of multicomponent surrogate fuels are presented, through the generation and validation of skeletal mechanisms for a three-component toluene reference fuel. Using the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis method followed by a further unimportant reaction elimination stage, skeletal mechanisms valid over comprehensive and high-temperature ranges of conditions were developed at varying levels of detail. These skeletal mechanisms were generated based on autoignition simulations, and validation using ignition delay predictions showed good agreement with the detailed mechanism in the target range of conditions. When validated using phenomena other than autoignition, such as perfectly stirred reactor and laminar flame propagation, tight error control or more restrictions on the reduction during the sensitivity analysis stage were needed to ensure good agreement. In addition, tight error limits were needed for close prediction of ignition delay when varying the mixture composition away from that used for the reduction. In homogeneous compression-ignition engine simulations, the skeletal mechanisms closely matched the point of ignition and accurately predicted species profiles for lean to stoichiometric conditions. Furthermore, the efficacy of generating a multicomponent skeletal mechanism was compared to combining skeletal mechanisms produced separately for neat fuel components; using the same error limits, the latter resulted in a larger skeletal mechanism size that also lacked important cross reactions between fuel components. Based on the present results, general guidelines for reducing detailed mechanisms for multicomponent fuels are discussed.

  13. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and related equipment 2 ... 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.39 0.5% Computers and related equipment 3 ... 0.13 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05...

  14. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    district services. 2 Includes (but is not limited to) miscellaneous uses such as transformers, medical imaging and other medical equipment, elevators, escalators, off-road...

  15. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 1,096 1,016 1,077 1,114 1,127 1,126 1,121 0.3% Waste coal supplied 2 ... 13 11 14 14 15 17 19...

  16. Appendix A: Reference case

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sources: 2011 and 2012 interregional firm electricity trade data: 2012 seasonal reliability assessments from North American Electric Reliability Council regional entities and...

  17. Appendix A: Reference case

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 29.52 28.85 29.72 29.67 30.56 31.49 32.63 0.4% Non-renewable energy expenditures by sector (billion 2012 dollars) Residential...

  18. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    523.3 1.5% 1 Does not include water heating portion of load. 2 Includes televisions, set-top boxes, home theater systems, DVD players, and video game consoles. 3 Includes desktop...

  19. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    12.92 12.90 13.09 -0.2% 1 Commercial trucks 8,501 to 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating. 2 CAFE standard based on projected new vehicle sales. 3 Includes CAFE credits for...

  20. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Table A18. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector and source (million metric tons, unless otherwise noted)...

  1. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2012-2040 (percent) 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Energy consumption Residential Propane ... 0.51 0.51 0.42 0.40...

  2. Appendix A: Reference case

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 4,370 4,525 5,735 6,467 7,148 7,784 8,443 2.3% Agriculture, mining, and construction ... 1,556 1,623 2,226 2,311 2,389 2,457...

  3. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    supplies. 2 Includes lease condensate. 3 Tight oil represents resources in low-permeability reservoirs, including shale and chalk formations. The specific plays included in...

  4. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2011 and 2012 Brent and West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot prices: Thomson Reuters. 2011 and 2012 average imported crude oil cost: U.S. Energy Information...

  5. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 9,429 9,603 11,592 12,773 14,220 15,828 17,635 2.2% Real investment ... 1,744 1,914 2,876 3,269 3,740...

  6. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    road oil, still gas, special naphthas, petroleum coke, crude oil product supplied, methanol, and miscellaneous petroleum products. 14 Includes energy for combined heat and...

  7. Appendix A: Reference case

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    energy. See Table A17 for selected nonmarketed residential and commercial renewable energy data. 5 Includes non-biogenic municipal waste, liquid hydrogen, methanol, and some...

  8. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. 3 Other Europe and Eurasia Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan,...

  9. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makan, Abdelhadi

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Waste management opportunities in small and medium companies were highlighted. • Pilot scale program for windrow co-composting of natural casings was investigated. • Compost preparation, characterization and application phases were discussed. • Natural casings co-composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution. - Abstract: After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6–0.9–0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations.

  10. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research May 7-8, 2009 Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter...

  11. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences February 9-10, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation...

  12. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Developing a Natural Gas- Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study George Mitchell National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-64756 November 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

  13. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications George Mitchell National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-63707 March 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National

  14. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences February 9-10, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:05

  15. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research May 7-8, 2009 Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE ASCR Program Manager Yukiko Sekine Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:54

  16. Quick Reference

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reference 2015 Annual Planning Summary (APS) User's Guide 1, 2 PART 1 OFFICE Enter the office preparing this APS. NEPA REVIEWS Select one of two responses. SITE-WIDE EISs Select...

  17. Reference Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials There are a variety of reference materials the NSSAB utilizes and have been made available on its website. Documents Fact Sheets - links to Department of Energy Nevada Field Office webpage Public Reading Room NTA Public Reading Facility Open Monday through Friday, 7:30 am to 4:30 pm (except holidays) 755C East Flamingo Road Las Vegas, Nevada 89119 Phone (702) 794-5106 http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/testingarchive.aspx DOE Electronic Database Also available to the public is an

  18. The NEPA reference guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swartz, L.L.; Reinke, D.C.

    1999-10-01

    The NEPA Reference Guide conveniently organizes and indexes National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations and guidance, along with relevant federal case law, all in one place. It allows the user to quickly learn the statutory, regulatory, and case law authority for a large number of NEPA subjects. A unique feature of The NEPA Reference Guide is its detailed index that includes a large number of diverse NEPA subjects. The index enables users to find and compile any statutory, regulatory (including CEQ guidance), and case law original source material and references on virtually any NEPA subject. This will be an especially useful tool for new NEPA practitioners who need to become immersed in a particular subject quickly.

  19. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table F1. Total world delivered energy consumption by end-use sector and fuel, 2011-40 ... 4.7 4.8 4.5 4.3 4.1 4.1 4.0 -0.6 Electricity 18.0 18.4 22.5 25.5 28.6 32.0 35.8 ...

  20. Appendix A. Reference case projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9.7 15.3 15.2 14.2 13.8 13.5 1.2 Canada 3.4 3.6 3.7 5.4 6.4 7.3 7.8 8.0 2.7 Mexico and Chile 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.4 3.7 3.9 4.2 1.1 OECD Europe 4.9 4.6 4.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.4 -1.0...

  1. Appendix A. Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9.7 13.6 12.9 11.7 11.2 10.6 0.4 Canada 3.4 3.6 3.7 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.7 5.8 1.6 Mexico and Chile 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.4 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 -1.0 OECD Europe 4.9 4.6 4.3 3.1 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.5 -2.0...

  2. Appendix A. Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Persian Gulf Share of World Production 29% 29% 31% 32% 35% 38% 40% 42% a Crude and lease condensate includes tight oil, shale oil, extra-heavy oil, field condensate, and bitumen. b ...

  3. Appendix A. Reference case projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Persian Gulf Share of World Production 29% 29% 31% 24% 24% 26% 27% 28% a Crude and lease condensate includes tight oil, shale oil, extra-heavy oil, field condensate, and bitumen. b ...

  4. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Non-OECD Asia 168.2 175.9 222.7 246.4 269.9 295.1 322.1 2.2 China 109.4 115.0 147.3 159.4 ... Non-OECD Asia 26,261 27,914 44,139 56,222 69,542 84,680 102,015 4.7 China 13,286 14,309 ...

  5. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,708 2,383 2,612 2,840 3,079 3,332 2.4 China 1,065 1,153 1,657 1,808 1,937 2,066 2,194 ... Non-OECD Asia 56 56 55 53 50 48 46 -0.7 China 8 8 8 7 7 7 6 -0.9 India 8 7 7 7 7 7 6 ...

  6. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Asia 8.2 8.3 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.6 9.9 0.6 China 4.4 4.4 4.9 5.2 5.5 6.0 6.3 1.2 India 1.0 ... Asia 7.2 7.2 7.4 7.2 7.0 7.1 6.9 -0.2 China 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.4 4.7 4.7 0.5 India 0.8 ...

  7. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... OECD Asia 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.1 4.9 4.8 -0.5 Japan 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.1 -0.5 South ... Non-OECD Asia 6.4 6.3 5.0 4.4 3.9 3.5 3.2 -2.4 China 8.2 8.0 6.4 5.4 4.7 4.1 3.7 -2.8 ...

  8. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    OECD Asia 203 204 207 208 208 207 206 0.0 Japan 127 127 125 123 120 117 114 -0.4 South ... Non-OECD Asia 3,691 3,730 4,013 4,159 4,278 4,373 4,443 0.6 China 1,373 1,381 1,435 1,450 ...

  9. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Appendix H Table H10. World installed solar generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 5 8 32 36 44 54 67 7.7 United States a 4 8 28 32 39 48 61 7.7 Canada 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5.9 Mexico and Chile 0 0 2 2 2 2 3 14.4 OECD Europe 52 70 93 93 93 94 98 1.2 OECD Asia 7 9 45 51 57 59 60 6.9 Japan 5 7 38 43 48 49 49 7.4 South Korea 1 1 2 3 4 4 4 5.1 Australia

  10. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Appendix H Table H12. World total net electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 5,071 5,017 5,449 5,724 6,036 6,359 6,727 1.1 United States a 4,102 4,055 4,351 4,513 4,691 4,860 5,056 0.8 Canada 627 616 692 748 809 880 958 1.6 Mexico and Chile 342 346 406 463 535 618 713 2.6 OECD Europe 3,455 3,483 3,858 4,090 4,328 4,590 4,889 1.2

  11. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Appendix H Table H16. World net nuclear electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 888 867 902 891 901 900 924 0.2 United States a 790 769 804 808 808 812 833 0.3 Canada 88 89 86 72 72 67 62 -1.3 Mexico and Chile 9 8 12 12 20 20 29 4.5 OECD Europe 861 837 845 879 930 948 896 0.2 OECD Asia 304 161 381 437 457 450 427 3.5 Japan 156 17

  12. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Appendix H Table H18. World net hydroelectric electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 747 703 764 784 806 831 887 0.8 United States a 319 275 292 294 295 295 297 0.3 Canada 372 377 403 414 425 437 475 0.8 Mexico and Chile 57 51 68 76 86 99 114 2.9 OECD Europe 498 556 592 617 617 617 657 0.6 OECD Asia 128 115 127 131 135 143 153

  13. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Appendix H Table H2. World installed liquids-fred generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 125 121 108 98 92 87 85 -1.2 United States a 105 101 89 80 75 71 70 -1.3 Canada 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 -1.0 Mexico and Chile 16 16 14 14 13 12 12 -1.0 OECD Europe 50 50 47 45 43 41 39 -0.9 OECD Asia 58 59 54 52 49 47 45 -1.0 Japan 52 52 49 46 44 42 40 -1.0 South

  14. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6 Appendix H Table H20. World net geothermal electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 22 21 37 49 64 75 85 5.0 United States a 15 16 27 39 52 62 70 5.5 Canada 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - Mexico and Chile 7 6 10 10 11 13 15 3.5 OECD Europe 11 12 21 23 23 23 25 2.7 OECD Asia 9 9 17 18 20 22 25 3.9 Japan 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 0.1 South Korea 0 0 1 1 2 2 2

  15. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 Appendix H Table H22. World net other renewable electricity generation by region and country, 2011-40 (billion kilowatthours) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 87 94 125 151 169 191 210 2.9 United States a 75 77 103 115 119 125 138 2.1 Canada 6 9 14 28 41 55 60 7.0 Mexico and Chile 6 8 8 8 9 11 13 1.8 OECD Europe 155 149 201 210 210 210 224 1.5 OECD Asia 28 37 60 71 80 84 87 3.1 Japan 23 33 38 44 50

  16. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Appendix H Table H4. World installed coal-fred generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 333 327 279 276 272 272 271 -0.7 United States a 314 308 263 260 260 260 260 -0.6 Canada 10 10 7 7 3 3 2 -5.2 Mexico and Chile 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 -0.2 OECD Europe 197 198 207 200 194 188 183 -0.3 OECD Asia 109 112 117 113 111 109 110 -0.1 Japan 50 50 49 47 46 44 43

  17. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Appendix H Table H6. World installed hydroelectric and other renewable generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 273 293 372 396 424 460 507 2.0 United States a 168 185 233 240 252 273 301 1.8 Canada 85 87 106 114 123 132 144 1.8 Mexico and Chile 20 21 34 42 48 55 62 3.9 OECD Europe 337 372 514 534 553 594 626 1.9 OECD Asia 54 57 115 129 145 153

  18. Appendix A: Reference case projections

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 Appendix H Table H8. World installed wind-powered generating capacity by region and country, 2011-40 (gigawatts) Region/country History Projections Average annual percent change, 2012-40 2011 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 OECD OECD Americas 53 67 107 117 127 141 159 3.1 United States a 47 59 83 84 87 97 110 2.2 Canada 5 6 15 18 20 22 24 5.0 Mexico and Chile 1 2 9 16 19 22 25 10.1 OECD Europe 94 107 189 203 222 263 277 3.5 OECD Asia 6 6 24 29 37 40 44 7.2 Japan 2 3 3 5 8 8 8 4.1 South Korea 0 0

  19. Poroelastic references

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Christina Morency

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  20. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christina Morency

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  1. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and...

  2. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ID 412- 11/16/2012 - Page 1 Log No 2012-263 Reference Materials * Transporting Radioactive Waste to the Nevada National Security Site fact sheet (ww.nv.energy.gov/library/factsheets/DOENV_990.pdf) - Generators contract with commercial carriers - U.S. Department of Transportation regulations require carriers to select routes which minimize radiological risk * Drivers Route and Shipment Information Questionnaire completed by drivers to document routes taken to the NNSS upon entry into Nevada -

  3. International Energy Outlook 2016-Natural gas - Energy Information

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Administration 3. Natural gas print version Overview Consumption of natural gas worldwide is projected to increase from 120 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 2012 to 203 Tcf in 2040 in the International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) Reference case. By energy source, natural gas accounts for the largest increase in world primary energy consumption. Abundant natural gas resources and robust production contribute to the strong competitive position of natural gas among other resources. Natural gas

  4. Quick Reference

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quick Reference 2016 Annual Planning Summary (APS) User's Guide 1, 2 PART 1 OFFICE Enter the office preparing this APS. NEPA REVIEWS Select one of two responses. SITE-WIDE Select one of three responses. DOCUMENT NUMBER & TITLE Enter the DOE NEPA identification number if available, e.g., DOE/EIS-XXXX. If no document number has been assigned, enter N/A. Also enter the document title. Text is limited to 350 characters. PART 2 TYPE Select the type of document using the dropdown menu. STATUS

  5. Incentives for Methane Mitigation and Energy-Efficiency Improvements in Case of Ukraine’s Natural Gas Transmission System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roshchanka, Volha; Evans, Meredydd

    2014-06-01

    Reducing methane losses is a concern for climate change policy and energy policy. The energy sector is the major source of methane emissions into the atmosphere. Reducing methane emissions and avoiding combustion can be very cost-effective, but various barriers prevent such energy-efficiency measures from taking place. To date, few examples of industry-wide improvements exist. One example of substantial investments into upgrading natural gas transmission system comes from Ukraine. The Ukrainian transmission company, Ukrtransgaz, reduced its own system’s natural gas consumption by 68 percent in 2011 compared to the level in 2005. Evaluating reductions in methane emissions is challenging because of lack of accurate data and gaps in accounting methodologies. At the same time, Ukraine’s transmission system has undergone improvements that, at the very least, have contained methane emissions, if not substantially reduced them. In this paper, we describe recent developments in Ukraine’s natural gas transmission system and analyze the incentives that forced the sector to pay close attention to its methane losses. Ukraine is one of most energy-intensive countries, among the largest natural gas consumers in the world, and a significant emitter of methane. The country is also dependent on imports of natural gas. A combination of steep increases in the price of imported natural gas, and comprehensive domestic environmental and energy policies, regional integration policy, and international environmental agreements has created conditions for successful methane emission and combustion reductions. Learning about such case studies can help us design better policies elsewhere.

  6. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-03-19

    Natural gas is a clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced source of energy. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has recently garnered interest as a transportation fuel because of these attributes and because of its cost savings and price stability compared to conventional petroleum fuels. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to help businesses and fleets evaluate the financial soundness of CNG vehicle and CNG fueling infrastructure projects.

  7. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  8. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  9. Exploring the Potential Business Case for Synergies Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.; Arent, D.

    2014-02-01

    Natural gas and renewable energy each contribute to economic growth, energy independence, and carbon mitigation, sometimes independently and sometimes collectively. Often, natural gas and renewables are considered competitors in markets, such as those for bulk electricity. This paper attempts to address the question, 'Given near- and long-term needs for abundant, cleaner energy sources and decarbonization, how can more compelling business models be created so that these two domestic forms of energy work in greater concert?' This paper explores revenue opportunities that emerge from systems-level perspectives in 'bulk energy' (large-scale electricity and natural gas production, transmission, and trade) and four 'distribution edge' subsectors: industrial, residential, commercial, and transportation end uses.

  10. Reference Model Project (RMP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Model Project (RMP) - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs

  11. Alternative fuel trucks case studies: Running refuse haulers on compressed natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-07-01

    This document details the experience of New York City`s compressed natural gas refuse haulers. These 35 ton vehicles have engines that displace 10 liters and provide 240 horsepower. Fuel economy, range, cost, maintenance, repair issues, and emissions are discussed. Photographs and figures illustrate the attributes of these alternative fuel vehicles.

  12. Natural time analysis of critical phenomena: The case of pre-fracture electromagnetic emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potirakis, S. M.; Karadimitrakis, A.; Eftaxias, K.

    2013-06-15

    Criticality of complex systems reveals itself in various ways. One way to monitor a system at critical state is to analyze its observable manifestations using the recently introduced method of natural time. Pre-fracture electromagnetic (EM) emissions, in agreement to laboratory experiments, have been consistently detected in the MHz band prior to significant earthquakes. It has been proposed that these emissions stem from the fracture of the heterogeneous materials surrounding the strong entities (asperities) distributed along the fault, preventing the relative slipping. It has also been proposed that the fracture of heterogeneous material could be described in analogy to the critical phase transitions in statistical physics. In this work, the natural time analysis is for the first time applied to the pre-fracture MHz EM signals revealing their critical nature. Seismicity and pre-fracture EM emissions should be two sides of the same coin concerning the earthquake generation process. Therefore, we also examine the corresponding foreshock seismic activity, as another manifestation of the same complex system at critical state. We conclude that the foreshock seismicity data present criticality features as well.

  13. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, George

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  14. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  15. The Case for Natural Gas Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Weimar, Mark R.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Natural-gas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (NGSOFC) power systems yield electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 60% and may become a viable alternative for distributed generation (DG) if stack life and manufacturing economies of scale can be realized. Currently, stacks last approximately 2 years and few systems are produced each year because of the relatively high cost of electricity from the systems. If mass manufacturing (10,000 units per year) and a stack life of 15 years can be reached, the cost of electricity from an NGSOFC system is estimated to be about 7.7 ¢/kWh, well within the price of commercial and residential retail prices at the national level (9.9-10¢/kWh and 11-12 ¢/kWh, respectively). With an additional 5 ¢/kWh in estimated additional benefits from DG, NGSOFC could be well positioned to replace the forecasted 59-77 gigawatts of capacity loss resulting from coal plant closures due to stricter emissions regulations and low natural gas prices.

  16. Easy natur | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natur Jump to: navigation, search Name: Easy-natur Place: Germany Sector: Buildings Product: Installs PV systems on residential buildings. References: Easy-natur1 This article is...

  17. Limited Electricity Generation Supply and Limited Natural Gas Supply Cases (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Development of U.S. energy resources and the permitting and construction of large energy facilities have become increasingly difficult over the past 20 years, and they could become even more difficult in the future. Growing public concern about global warming and CO2 emissions also casts doubt on future consumption of fossil fuels -- particularly coal, which releases the largest amount of CO2 per unit of energy produced. Even without regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, the investment community may already be limiting the future use of some energy options. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty about the future availability of, and access to, both domestic and foreign natural gas resources.

  18. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, George

    2015-03-01

    VICE 2.0 is the second generation of the VICE financial model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for fleet managers to assess the financial soundness of converting their fleets to run on CNG. VICE 2.0 uses a number of variables for infrastructure and vehicles to estimate the business case for decision-makers when considering CNG as a vehicle fuel. Enhancements in version 2.0 include the ability to select the project type (vehicles and infrastructure or vehicle acquisitions only), and to decouple vehicle acquisition from the infrastructure investment, so the two investments may be made independently. Outputs now include graphical presentations of investment cash flow, payback period (simple and discounted), petroleum displacement (annual and cumulative), and annual greenhouse gas reductions. Also, the Vehicle Data are now built around several common conventionally fueled (gasoline and diesel) fleet vehicles. Descriptions of the various model sections and available inputs follow. Each description includes default values for the base-case business model, which was created so economic sensitivities can be investigated by altering various project parameters one at a time.

  19. Comparison of AEO 2010 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX Futures Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-01-04

    On December 14, 2009, the reference-case projections from Annual Energy Outlook 2010 were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference-case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables can play in itigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO reference-case gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings.

  20. The role of IRP in the natural gas industry: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, J.A.; Brockman, L.; Herman, P.

    1994-09-29

    The natural gas industry has changed radically over the last decade. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Order 636 completed plans to unbundle interstate pipeline services and create open access for distribution companies and their customers. There has also been increasing competition for local distribution companies (LDCs) from fuel oil, electricity and unregulated energy service companies. Meanwhile, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 includes provisions that encourage energy efficiency and promote reliance on competitive forces. In response to these changes, coupled with growing environmental concerns and the need for increased energy efficiency, a number of state public utility commissions and LDCs took an interest in integrated resource planning (IRP) for gas utilities. Gas IRP was in its formative stages and a variety of regulatory approaches were being considered when this project began. In response, this project originated with the total project scope being to define, implement and institutionalize an IRP process for the Gas Customer Service Business Unit of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMGas).

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Improving the Field Performance of Natural Gas Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces, as measured by steady-state efficiency and AFUE. PARR identified twelve furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines Iowa metropolitan area and worked with a local HVAC contractor to retrieve them and test them for steady-state efficiency and AFUE in the lab. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace. After removal from the field the furnaces were transported to the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) laboratory, where PARR conducted steady-state efficiency and AFUE testing. The test results show that steady-state efficiency in the field was 6.4% lower than that measured for the same furnaces under standard conditions in the lab, which included tuning the furnace input and air flow rate. Comparing AFUE measured under ASHRAE standard conditions with the label value shows no reduction in efficiency for the furnaces in this study over their 15 to 24 years of operation when tuned to standard conditions. Further analysis of the data showed no significant correlation between efficiency change and the age or the rated efficiency of the furnace.

  2. Case Study of The ARRA-Funded GSHP Demonstration at the Natural Sources Building, Montana Tech

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, Mini; Liu, Xiaobing

    2015-04-01

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects was proposed by Montana Tech of the University of Montana for a 56,000 sq ft, newly constructed, on-campus research facility – the Natural Resources Building (NRB) located in Butte, Montana. This demonstrated GSHP system consists of a 50 ton water-to-water heat pump and a closed-loop ground heat exchanger with two redundant 7.5 hp constant-speed pumps to use water in the nearby flooded mines as a heat source or heat sink. It works in conjunction with the originally installed steam HX and an aircooled chiller to provide space heating and cooling. It is coupled with the existing hot water and chilled water piping in the building and operates in the heating or cooling mode based on the outdoor air temperature. The ground loop pumps operate in conjunction with the existing pumps in the building hot and chilled water loops for the operation of the heat pump unit. The goal of this demonstration project is to validate the technical and economic feasibility of the demonstrated commercial-scale GSHP system in the region, and illustrate the feasibility of using mine waters as the heat sink and source for GSHP systems. Should the demonstration prove satisfactory and feasible, it will encourage similar GSHP applications using mine water, thus help save energy and reduce carbon emissions. The actual performance of the system is analyzed with available measured data for January through July 2014. The annual energy performance is predicted and compared with a baseline scenario, with the heating and cooling provided by the originally designed systems. The comparison is made in terms of energy savings, operating cost savings, cost-effectiveness, and environmental benefits. Finally

  3. Case Study for the ARRA-funded Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration at Denver Museum of Nature & Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, Piljae; Liu, Xiaobing

    2015-11-30

    High initial costs and lack of public awareness of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technology are the two major barriers preventing rapid deployment of this energy-saving technology in the United States. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 GSHP projects were competitively selected and carried out to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. This report highlights the findings of a case study of one such GSHP demonstration projects that uses a recycled water heat pump (RWHP) system installed at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science in Denver, Colorado. The RWHP system uses recycled water from the city’s water system as the heat sink and source for a modular water-to-water heat pump (WWHP). This case study was conducted based on the available measured performance data from December 2014 through August 2015, utility bills of the building in 2014 and 2015, construction drawings, maintenance records, personal communications, and construction costs. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was calculated based on the available measured data and other related information. It was compared with the performance of a baseline scenario— a conventional VAV system using a water-cooled chiller and a natural gas fired boiler, both of which have the minimum energy efficiencies allowed by ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The comparison was made to determine energy savings, operating cost savings, and CO2 emission reductions achieved by the RWHP system. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate the simple payback of the RWHP system. Summarized below are the results of the performance analysis, the learned lessons, and recommended improvement in the operation of the RWHP system.

  4. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Natural Resources Atlas ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Natural Resources Atlas Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Natural...

  5. Subsurface Knowledge Reference Page

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The below listing provides additional references related to Subsurface & Groundwater Remediation.  The references are categorized by documents types (e.g., Strategic Plans, Groundwater Plume...

  6. Nature Energie | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nature Energie Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nature Energie Place: France Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: French developer of wind and solar energy projects. References:...

  7. Arizona Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    12312015 Next Release Date: 01292016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Used for Repressuring Arizona Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Used for Repressuring...

  8. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study on Leadership: Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Presentation); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) represents a series of unique successes in alternative fuel deployment by pushing the envelope with innovative solutions. In the last year, RFTA demonstrated the ability to utilize compressed natural gas buses at a range of altitudes, across long distances, in extreme weather conditions and in a modern indoor fueling and maintenance facility - allwhile saving money and providing high-quality customer service. This case study will highlight how the leadership of organizations and communities that are implementing advances in natural gas vehicle technology is paving the way for broader participation.

  9. West Virginia Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processed (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Processed West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Processing Natural ...

  10. West Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Wellhead Price West Virginia Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  11. Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price Virginia Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  12. West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Vehicle ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price West Virginia Natural Gas Prices Natural ...

  13. New Mexico Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Industrial Price New Mexico Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  14. New York Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Wellhead Price ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Wellhead Price New York Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  15. New Mexico Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Wellhead Price ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Wellhead Price New Mexico Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  16. New York Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price New York Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  17. New Mexico Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Processed New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Processing Natural ...

  18. New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price New Mexico Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  19. New Jersey Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Jersey Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price New Jersey Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  20. North Dakota Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processed (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Processed North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Processing Natural ...

  1. North Carolina Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) North Carolina Natural Gas Vehicle ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price North Carolina Natural Gas Prices Natural ...

  2. North Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price North Dakota Natural Gas Prices Natural ...

  3. North Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Wellhead Price North Dakota Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  4. Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Vehicle Fuel Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Price Minnesota Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  5. Minnesota Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Industrial Price Minnesota Natural Gas Prices Natural Gas ...

  6. The case for unified linear reference system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Mackoy, R.D.; Fletcher, D.R.

    1997-06-01

    The transportation industry distinguishes its activities and data into three functionally and institutionally distinct domains. Transportation infrastructure management activities make transport links (e.g., roads, rail lines, transit routes) available for travel. In contrast, civilian and military transport operations focus on finding and using the best transport links. Each of these three transportation interest groups - transportation facility operators, civilian and military transportation users - currently collects and maintains separate, often redundant or inconsistent information concerning the location and status of the transportation system, the vehicles using the system, and the passengers and freight (or material) being conveyed. Although there has been some progress made in integrating data within each domain, little emphasis has been placed on identifying and improving the flow of information between them. Because activities initiated in one domain affect conditions in the others, defining these flows is crucial to the next generation of planners, traffic managers and customers of transportation services. For example, construction and maintenance activities affect civilian and military route choices and travel times; large scale military movements disrupt civilian travel and have potentially major effects on the infrastructure and so on. This intertwined interest in the transportation system implies the need for data integration not only within each sphere of interest but among the spheres as well. Although recent policy statements by the U.S. Departments of Transportation and Defense and ITS America indicate a desire to combine and share information resources, there are enormous technical and institutional barriers that need to be overcome.

  7. Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Reference Case

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (RFS2, for example) * Prices of primary energy (crude oil, etc.) LP * Minimize cost to ... Biomass- based diesel FAME biodiesel Green Diesel Cellulosic Drop-in For use as motor ...

  8. Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Reference Case

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... and engineering notes: - Fuel economy (Final Rule 2017-2025 and Lumped Parameter Model) - Cost (derived from Final Rule ... Gaseous and fuel cell AEO2013 Transportation ...

  9. Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Reference Case

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    August 14, 2012 | Washington, DC Annual Energy Outlook 2013: Modeling Updates in the Transportation Sector WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE Overview 2 AEO2013 Transportation Model Updates Washington, D.C., August 2012 Discussion purposes only - Do not cite or circulate * Light-duty vehicle - Light-duty vehicle technology update based on EPA/NHTSA Notice of Proposed Rule for model years 2017 through 2025 * Heavy-duty vehicle

  10. Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Reference Case

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) after U.S. Court of Appeals vacated Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) * Continued to coordinate with Survey Team and Statistics Group to: - ...

  11. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klass, D.L. ); Khwaja, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  13. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  14. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  15. Optical voltage reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  16. Reference Model Project (RMP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Reference Model 5: Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter. NRELTP-5000-62861. Golden, CO, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). January 2015. Power Conversion Chain Design ...

  17. EFRC Management Reference Document

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EFRC management reference document Energy Frontier Research Centers Acknowledgments of Support (v.1, October 2009) Office of Basic Energy Sciences Office of Science US Department ...

  18. NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representation of common equipment at a natural gas hydraulic fracturing drill pad. How is Shale Gas Produced? Shale gas formations are "unconventional" reservoirs - i.e., reservoirs of low "permeability." Permeability refers to the capacity of a porous, sediment, soil - or rock in this case - to transmit a fluid. This contrasts with a "conventional" gas reservoir produced from sands and carbonates (such as limestone). The bottom line is that in a conventional

  19. Reference Documents | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reference Documents Summary References Main Draft SEIS References Additional SEIS References Appendix C References Appendix D References Appendix E References Appendix F References Learn More Summary References Main Draft SEIS References Appendix C References Appendix D References Appendix E References Appendix F References Additional SEIS references

  20. Sandia Energy - Reference Model Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documents Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Reference Model Project (RMP) Reference Model Documents Reference Model DocumentsTara Camacho-Lopez2015-05-...

  1. Multifunctional reference electrode (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multifunctional reference electrode Title: Multifunctional reference electrode A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the ...

  2. reference | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reference Home Jweers's picture Submitted by Jweers(88) Contributor 7 August, 2013 - 18:23 New Robust References citation citing developer formatting reference Semantic Mediawiki...

  3. Uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  4. The development of petroleum and natural gas as the center of growth in Aceh; a case analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadipoetro, S.; Nurandi, A.

    1996-11-01

    Since the discovery of oil and natural gas by PERTAMINA-Mobil Oil Indonesia Inc. at Lhok Sukon - Aceh in 1971 and the construction of the LNG Plant at Lhok Seumawe which serves as a supplier of natural gas for export, the development in Aceh Special Region has been taking place rapidly. With the existence of the growth area at Lhok Sukon for 25 years, many people from Aceh and other regions have come to work as employees of LNG Plant, Contractors, Government employees and private employees. This phenomenon is especially due to the facilities provided by PERTAMINA, such as roads, electricity and business opportunities. To transport natural gas from Lhok Sukon Field to LNG Plant at Lhok Seumawe, a pipeline of approximately 30 kilometers was constructed from Point A to Point B. The road is designated only to serve as infrastructure for inspecting the pipeline, without any population on the left and right side. In 1992, the 20 inches dia. condensate pipeline had a leakage at KM-29 giving off flames reaching as far as 100 meters from the point of leakage. At that time the area was not heavily populated; therefore there were no seriously injured. PERTAMINA is currently encountering problems of dense population on both sides of the road since the road between Point A and Point B has been paved and used by public road. In addition, the weight of the vehicles passing the road has exceeds the designed. To prevent an accident which occurred in 1992 from happening again, it is necessary to take measures which will be elaborated in this paper.

  5. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Morency, Christina

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  6. REFERENCES Baines, W. D.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    REFERENCES Baines, W. D. aud Peterson, E. G., 1951, "An Investigation of Flow Through ... D 50.8 m. A flow facility has been constructed for experiments with these screens. Air ...

  7. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  8. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

  9. Precision displacement reference system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  10. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  11. Natural Climate Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Natural Climate Systems Place: Spain Product: Develops bioclimatic architecture projects. References: Natural Climate Systems1 This article is a stub. You can...

  12. Northeast Gateway Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Release Date: 10302015 Next Release Date: 11302015 Referring Pages: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry Northeast Gateway LNG Imports from TrinidadTobago...

  13. Northeast Gateway Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    data. Release Date: 10302015 Next Release Date: 11302015 Referring Pages: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry Northeast Gateway LNG Imports from All Countries...

  14. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  15. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  16. Vermont Natural Gas Imports (No intransit Receipts) (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vermont Natural Gas Imports (No intransit Receipts) (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 ... 06302016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports (Summary) Vermont U.S. Natural Gas ...

  17. Vermont Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Vermont Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per ... 06302016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports Price Vermont U.S. Natural Gas Imports & ...

  18. Washington Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per ... 06302016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Imports Price Washington U.S. Natural Gas Imports ...

  19. West Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Used for Repressuring West Virginia Natural Gas Gross ...

  20. West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption West Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  1. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  2. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  3. Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by ...

  4. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  5. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release Date: 03312016 Next Release Date: 04292016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Vented and ...

  6. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  7. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  8. West Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption West Virginia Natural Gas Consumption ...

  9. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and ...

  10. Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption Virginia Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  11. Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Marketed ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Marketed Production Federal Offshore Texas Natural Gas Gross ...

  12. Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Marketed ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Marketed Production Texas State Offshore Natural Gas Gross ...

  13. New York Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Commercial ... Referring Pages: Number of Natural Gas Commercial Consumers New York Number of Natural Gas ...

  14. New York Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption New York Natural Gas Consumption by ...

  15. New Jersey Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) New Jersey Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use New Jersey Natural Gas ...

  16. New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by ...

  17. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales New York Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...

  18. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments New York Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  19. New York Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves (Million Barrels...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Release Date: 11192015 Next Release Date: 12312016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 New York Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves Natural Gas ...

  20. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Extensions New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  1. New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Commercial ... Referring Pages: Number of Natural Gas Commercial Consumers New Mexico Number of Natural ...

  2. New Jersey Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Jersey Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption New Jersey Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  3. New York Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use New York Natural Gas Consumption ...

  4. New Mexico Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use New Mexico Natural Gas ...

  5. New York Natural Gas Exports (Price) All Countries (Dollars per...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Price) All Countries (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Exports ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Exports Price New York U.S. Natural Gas Imports & Exports ...

  6. New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption New York Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  7. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  8. New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Consumption New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  9. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Plant Fuel Consumption New Mexico Natural Gas Consumption by ...

  10. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Sales New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves ...