Sample records for reductions problems precedents

  1. Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Reductions: Problems, Precedents, Solutions |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtriaPower SystemsRhode Island: EnergyOpen Energy

  2. Industrial waste reduction: The process problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentino, F.W.; Walmet, G.E.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial waste problems, especially those involving hazardous waste, seem to be pervasive. The national media report newly discovered waste problems and sites with alarming regularity. Examples that immediately come to mind are Love Canal, New York; Times Beach, Missouri; and Seveso, Italy. Public perceptions of the industrial waste problem, reflecting the media's focus, appear to be that: large corporations are solely responsible for creating waste dumps, and the only role of government is to prevent illegal dumping and to regulate, fine, and require corporations to rectify the problem; all efforts should be directed toward preventing illegal dumping and treatment of the existing waste dumps; all industrial wastes can be classified as hazardous in nature. This general impression is both inaccurate and incomplete. All industrial waste is not hazardous (although most of it is not benign). All waste producers are not large corporations: nearly all industries produce some wastes. And, while existing waste sites must be effectively treated, additional efforts are needed at other points in the industrial waste cycle. Most people would agree both that waste dumping must be carefully regulated because of its negative impacts on the environment and that the less waste the better, even with carefully regulated disposal. Since nearly all industry now produces some waste and no one expects industry to shut down to resolve the waste problem, other strategies need to be available to deal with the problem at the front end. This paper discusses alternative strategies.

  3. Projection-based model reduction for contact problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balajewicz, Maciej; Farhat, Charbel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large scale finite element analysis requires model order reduction for computationally expensive applications such as optimization, parametric studies and control design. Although model reduction for nonlinear problems is an active area of research, a major hurdle is modeling and approximating contact problems. This manuscript introduces a projection-based model reduction approach for static and dynamic contact problems. In this approach, non-negative matrix factorization is utilized to optimally compress and strongly enforce positivity of contact forces in training simulation snapshots. Moreover, a greedy algorithm coupled with an error indicator is developed to efficiently construct parametrically robust low-order models. The proposed approach is successfully demonstrated for the model reduction of several two-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic obstacle and self contact problems.

  4. Effective formulation reductions for the quadratic assignment problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizhen Zhang

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 17, 2008 ... In particular we apply these reductions to the well known Adams and Johnson [2] integer linear programming formulation of the QAP, which we ...

  5. The Measurement Problem and the Reduction Postulate of Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolfo Gambini

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known, that the causal Schr\\"odinger evolution of a quantum state is not compatible with the reduction postulate, even when decoherence is taken into account. The violation of the causal evolution, introduced by the standard reduction postulate distinguishes certain systems (as the measurement devices), whose states are very close to statistical mixtures (as the ones resulting from the process of decoherence). In these systems, this violation has not any observable effect. In arbitrary quantum systems, the transition from the initial density matrix to a diagonal matrix predicted by the standard reduction postulate, would lead to a complete breakdown of the Schr\\"odinger evolution, and consequently would destroy all the predictive power of quantum mechanics. What we show here, is that there is a modified version of the postulate that allows to treat all the quantum mechanical systems on equal footing. The standard reduction postulate may be considered as a good approximation, useful for practical purposes, of this modified version which is consistent with the Schr\\"odinger evolution and via decoherence with the experimental results. Within this approach, the physical role played by the reduction postulate is as a tool for the computation of relative probabilities and consequently for the determination of the probabilities of consistent histories.

  6. Scenario Reduction and Scenario Tree Construction for Power Management Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    to hydro units, and fuel and electricity prices). For most practical problems the optimization problem and optimization techniques for the generation and trading of electric power under uncertainty. Utilities partic optimization models for the operation and plan- ning of power utilities use scenarios to deal with uncertainty

  7. COMMENTS ON A SHIFTED CYCLIC REDUCTION ALGORITHM FOR QUASI-BIRTH-DEATH PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Chun-Hua

    COMMENTS ON A SHIFTED CYCLIC REDUCTION ALGORITHM FOR QUASI-BIRTH-DEATH PROBLEMS CHUN-HUA GUO-time quasi-birth-death (QBD) processes. We point out that the algorithm has quadratic convergence even, Markov chains, cyclic reduction, iterative methods, convergence rate AMS subject classifications. 15A24

  8. Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead of ContractingofReducing WasteReduction

  9. Reduction for Constrained Variational Problems and 2/2 ds Author(s): Robert Bryant and Phillip Griffiths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduction for Constrained Variational Problems and 2/2 ds Author(s): Robert Bryant and Phillip BRYANT* and PHILLIP GRIFFITHS** Introduction. In this paper we will study certain functionals whose;526 ROBERT BRYANT AND PHILLIP GRIFFITHS also implies the existence of infinitely many closed immersed

  10. Prioritisation of test suites containing precedence constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Tim

    1 Prioritisation of test suites containing precedence constraints Tim Miller Department@unimelb.edu.au Abstract--Test case prioritisation is the process of ordering the exe- cution of test cases to achieve a certain goal, such as increasing the rate of fault detection. Many existing test case prioritisation

  11. 1 Introduction 1.1 Precedents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández Orallo, José

    3 3 x x x f g 1 Introduction 1.1 Precedents Abstract Keywords: J. Hernandez­Orallo M.J. Ramirez of using background knowledge and 1 #12; 1 1 E E E E t s : : : 1.2 IFLP Motivations functional logic

  12. atp depletion precedes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    evolves, because new precedents are generated by the form... Smolin, Lee 2012-01-01 15 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  13. Do short sale transactions precede bad news events?* Holger Daske

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearns, Michael

    , 2005 Current Draft: October 18, 2005 ABSTRACT: Do short sale transactions precede bad news eventsDo short sale transactions precede bad news events?* Holger Daske Scott A. Richardson rem Tuna? Not recently. This paper examines short sale transactions around significant news events. Using a novel

  14. Mitochondrial bioenergetic deficit precedes Alzheimer's pathology in female mouse model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    Mitochondrial bioenergetic deficit precedes Alzheimer's pathology in female mouse model and suggests therapeutic targets for prevention of AD. ABAD aging bioenergetics brain hypometabolism mitochondria The essential role of mitochondria in cellular bioenergetics and survival has been well

  15. PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In each of Problems 1 through 8, ?nd the general solution of the given differentiaI ..... (b) Let yatr) = —282'. yttr) = Mr) '+ 21/20). and no) = 2n (I) * Zyrtf) Are ysU).

  16. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br BromineProbing the Proton's Weak2 Problem

  17. Phase reduction models for improving the accuracy of the finite element solution of time-harmonic scattering problems I: General

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoine, Xavier - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

    Accepted 12 January 2009 Available online 21 January 2009 Keywords: Helmholtz equation Acoustic scattering Short-wave problem Finite element method Pollution Accuracy On-Surface Radiation Condition method a b- lems in view of a numerical finite element solution. It is well-known that pollution error causes

  18. PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

  19. Un-reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins Bruveris; David C. P. Ellis; Francois Gay-Balmaz; Darryl D. Holm

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a full geometric development of a new technique called un-reduction, for dealing with dynamics and optimal control problems posed on spaces that are unwieldy for numerical implementation. The technique, which was originally concieved for an application to image dynamics, uses Lagrangian reduction by symmetry in reverse. A deeper understanding of un-reduction leads to new developments in image matching which serve to illustrate the mathematical power of the technique.

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative pathways precedes Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alternative pathways with many dif... structure formation Figure 2 Pathways of protein folding. In the framework model, precedence is given... 1936-122X080609-048920.00 Key...

  1. Energy-Aware Duplication Strategies for Scheduling Precedence-Constrained Parallel Tasks on Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    Energy-Aware Duplication Strategies for Scheduling Precedence- Constrained Parallel Tasks can help in conserving energy. Our energy-aware scheduling strategies are conducive to balancing Optimizing energy consumption has become a major concern in designing economical clusters. Scheduling

  2. The use of precedents in contemporary Arab architecture : case studies; Rasem Badran and Henning Larsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Mohammed K

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much recent architecture in the Arab World utilizes historical precedents in an attempt to articulate an identity for regional architecture. This thesis investigates this approach in relation to place and cultural context. ...

  3. 787 mid-body job precedence networks for improving production rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jason L., 1979-

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a complex manufacturing environment, generating schedules, identifying deviations, and recovering from delays have a significant impact on total operational performance. At Boeing's 787 plant, a precedence network was ...

  4. Magnitude and value of electric vehicle emissions reductions for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)); Santini, D.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emissions of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 emissions differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO[sub x,] SO[sub x] - are estimated. CO[sub 2] emissions are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO emissions are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO[sub 2] emissions reductions are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% emission reductions in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. Emissions reductions occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO[sub x]. NO[sub x] emissions are reduced in all four cities. An avoided cost'' value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the emissions reduction value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Low estimates are obtained using EPA's draft Mobile5 model for GV emissions, high values by using California's EMFAC7EP-SCF1 model. The dollar value benefit estimates include no economic value.

  5. Magnitude and value of electric vehicle emissions reductions for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Santini, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The emissions of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 emissions differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO{sub x,} SO{sub x} - are estimated. CO{sub 2} emissions are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO emissions are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO{sub 2} emissions reductions are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% emission reductions in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. Emissions reductions occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO{sub x}. NO{sub x} emissions are reduced in all four cities. An ``avoided cost`` value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the emissions reduction value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Low estimates are obtained using EPA`s draft Mobile5 model for GV emissions, high values by using California`s EMFAC7EP-SCF1 model. The dollar value benefit estimates include no economic value.

  6. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  7. Towards Energy Aware Scheduling for Precedence Constrained Parallel Tasks in a Cluster with DVFS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thus reducing the jobs' energy consumption. The green Service Level Agreement (SLA) is introduced in this research. By negotiating with users via green SLA, an energy-performance tradeoff algorithm is developedTowards Energy Aware Scheduling for Precedence Constrained Parallel Tasks in a Cluster with DVFS

  8. Clonal Evolution of Pre-Leukemic Hematopoietic Stem Cells Precedes Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Clonal Evolution of Pre-Leukemic Hematopoietic Stem Cells Precedes Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Max-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscript #12;INTRODUCTION Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy of hematopoietic progenitor (HSCs). We investigated this model through genomic analysis of HSCs from six patients with de novo acute

  9. Oligomeric Assembly of Native-like Precursors Precedes Amyloid Formation by -2 Microglobulin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranker, Andrew

    intermediates suggest that this protein forms fibrils by structural domain swapping. Amyloid fibers are highlyOligomeric Assembly of Native-like Precursors Precedes Amyloid Formation by -2 MicroglobulinVed January 29, 2004; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed March 19, 2004 ABSTRACT: The deposition of -2-microglobulin

  10. Model Order Reduction Techniques Problem Set 5 Parabolic Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and hot water for industrial process and elec- trical energy generation. They transmit heat by combustion. It is a dual fuel (oil/gas) fired unit used for heating and generating electric power. The plant has 4 inputs

  11. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Screening for School, Community, and Clinical Health Promotion Practice Utilizing the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirtz, Timothy A.; Thompson, Mark A.; Greene, Leon; Wyatt, Lawrence; Akagi, Cynthia G.

    2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    , process, and outcome measures [1]. The PRECEDE-PRO- CEED (PP) model was developed as a planning frame- work from which health and health promotion programs could be designed [1]. The PRECEDE model is based on the premise that an education diagnosis should... long term follow-up study. Clin Orthop 1985, 194:115-123. 44. Bach JR: Comprehensive rehabilitation of the severely disa- bled ventilator-assisted individual. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 1993, 48:331-345. 45. Hu SS, Holly EA, Lele C, Averbach S...

  12. Nonserial Dynamic Programming with Applications in Smart Home Appliances Scheduling Part I: Precedence Graph Simplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Nonserial Dynamic Programming with Applications in Smart Home Appliances Scheduling ­ Part I-- In this and a companion paper a dynamic pro- gramming (DP) approach to solve a smart home appliances scheduling problem to the smart home appliances scheduling problem considered in [1], [2]. The problem seeks to determine

  13. H2 -optimal model reduction of MIMO systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Keyword Multivariable systems, model reduction, optimal H2 approximation, tangential interpolation. 1 Introduction. In this paper we will consider the problem of ...

  14. Glaciar Perito Moreno, Patagonia: climate sensitivities and glacier characteristics preceding the 2003/04 and 2005/06

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuefer, Martin

    Glaciar Perito Moreno, Patagonia: climate sensitivities and glacier characteristics preceding Patago´nico Sur (southern Patagonia icefield), were investigated. Field measurements were carried out. The largest ice mass is Hielo Patago´nico Sur (HPS; southern Patagonia icefield), extending from 48.3 to 51

  15. Eigenvalue Problems and the LTSA Algorithm for Nonlinear ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eigenvalue Problems and the LTSA Algorithm for Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction Qiang Ye Department of Mathematics University of Kentucky Lexington, ...

  16. Sun et al. Reply: In the preceding Comment [1], Akola and Jones (AJ) claim that our findings [2] are artifacts of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun et al. Reply: In the preceding Comment [1], Akola and Jones (AJ) claim that our findings [2 not see much rationale in the presented criti- cism of our work. Zhimei Sun,1,* Jian Zhou,1 Andreas, preceding Comment, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 019603 (2010). [2] Z. Sun, J. Zhou, A. Blomqvist, B. Johansson

  17. Dynamic reduction, Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, G.J.; Wong, D.Y.; Ottevangers, J.; Wang, L. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the theoretical background of the EPRI Dynamic Reduction DYNRED V 1.0. EPRI initiated research under project RP763 to develop the original reduction program DYNEQU. This program was the first to be based on the concept of aggregating of coherent groups of synchronous generators into a single equivalent generator model. While technically advanced, DYNEQU proved difficult to use. Since then, the stability problems encountered in power system planning and operations have changed. The emphasis on first swing transient stability has been replaced by emphasis on inter-area oscillations and voltage stability. The method of identification of coherent generators used in DYNEQU is based on the comparison of rotor angle swings, in a linearized system model, following a fault. It has been shown that this method of coherency identification is good for first swing stability. For inter-area oscillation studies, this method of generator aggregation is less accurate. Far better, are identification methods based on the structure of the power system. Because of these changes in the requirements for reduced order power system models, a new dynamic reduction program (DYNRED) has been developed under EPRI project RP2447-1. It is coherency based, as is DYNEQU, but it has structurally based coherency identification methods in addition to the method used in DYNEQU. This report describes the techniques used in DYNRED, that is: Coherency Identification; Network Reduction; Method of Aggregation, Generator Aggregation, Excitation Aggregation, Primemover/Governor Aggregation. An example of the application of DYNRED to the reduction of a large interconnected power system model is also presented. DYNRED uses the special modeling and network solution techniques developed to enable systems having up to 12,000 bus to be studied. Dynamic data is completely compatible between MASS, PEALS, and the EPRI Extended Transient Midterm Stability Program (ETMSP).

  18. The Vehicle Platooning Problem - Optimization Online

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    truck in a platoon has a fuel cost of only c(T) · ?, owing to a reduction in air ...... T. Bektas, and G. Laporte, “The Time-Dependent Pollution-Routing Problem,”.

  19. Problem 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 17, 2015 ... Did the ball spend more time during its flight going up or going down? A panel in the Mathematics Department publishes a challenging problem ...

  20. Problem 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 9, 2014 ... COPIES ARE AVAILABLE IN THE MATH LIBRARY. PROBLEM OF ... 150 North University St., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2067. Please include ...

  1. Problem 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 7, 2014 ... COPIES ARE AVAILABLE IN THE MATH LIBRARY. PROBLEM OF ... 150 North University St., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2067. Please include ...

  2. Problem 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 2, 2014 ... COPIES ARE AVAILABLE IN THE MATH LIBRARY. PROBLEM OF ... 150 North University St., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2067. Please include ...

  3. A multiscale approximation algorithm for the cardinality constrained knapsack problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Bharath Kumar

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I develop a multiscale approximation algorithm for the cardinality constrained knapsack problem. The algorithm consists of three steps: a rounding and reduction step where a hierarchical representation of the problem data ...

  4. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  5. An aggressive reduction scheme for the simple plant location problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam Letchford

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 29, 2012 ... The idea is to spend much time and effort in reducing the size of the instance, in the hope that the reduced instance will then be small enough ...

  6. Independent set problems and odd-hole-preserving graph reductions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Jeffrey Scott

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , each Ki contains one member of S. Then sequentially add as many vertices v 2 V nT as possible (in an arbitrary sequence) to any of these cliques containing 18 only vertices of N(v), yielding cliques ?K1;:::; ?KjSj (where Ki ?Ki for each i). If we let U... with weight W in our previous definition of weighted clique cover. Given a collectionfK1;:::;Ktgof cliques in G, the generalized clique degree (GKD) of a vertex v2V is [ u2?N(v) n Kj : u2Kj o : If those cliques contain only vertices...

  7. Independent set problems and odd-hole-preserving graph reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Jeffrey Scott

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . The algorithm will exploit and extend the best techniques from previous solvers that use clique covers to provide their bounds. We will investigate the polynomial-time detection of sets U V such that G[U] contains an odd hole if G does. We will analyze... having the highest degree in G[U] are favored. Further ties are broken arbitrarily. To achieve the desired partition of V, we do the following. Let U V and let T be the vertex set of a vertex-maximal CIS in G[U]. Then let U UnT and repeat, retaining...

  8. Reductions and propositional proofs for total NP search problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Alan Starz

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thank Professor Samuel R. Buss for all the help he has given6] A. Beckmann and S. R. Buss, Separation results for thepp. 54–67. [10] S. R. Buss, Lower bounds on Nullstellensatz

  9. Error Control Based Model Reduction for Parameter Optimization of Elliptic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of technical devices that rely on multiscale processes, such as fuel cells or batteries. As the solutionError Control Based Model Reduction for Parameter Optimization of Elliptic Homogenization Problems optimization of elliptic multiscale problems with macroscopic optimization functionals and microscopic material

  10. Physical Examples of the Heun-to-Hypergeometric Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolga Birkandan

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heun's equation having four regular singularities emerge in many applications in physics. Therefore relating this equation with the well-known hypergeometric equation may provide a complete understanding of the mathematics of the Heun's equation as well as the behavior of the physical system. We studied the Heun-to-hypergeometric reductions for three physical problems: The Schrodinger's equation which was written in terms of the Heun's general equation for the Coulomb problem on a 3-sphere, the s-wave bound state equation in the problem of the attractive inverse square potential and the equation for the limit density function for the discrete-time quantum walk. We applied the limiting cases and tried to figure out if a reduction is possible. While some problems permit these reductions, some others does not because of the restrictions on the physical parameters. A Sage code is given in the appendix for the calculation of some Heun identities.

  11. Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumas, Laurent

    Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry Laurent reduction problems in the automotive industry. All the methods consist in improving classical genetic of a GA is reduced by a factor up to 7. 1 Introduction The topic of drag reduction in the automotive

  12. The development of an interactive microcomputer-based system to analyze linear network optimization problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, John Welsh

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDICES APPENDIX A ? USER' S MANUAL APPENDIX B ? CODE CHANGES NECESSARY TO PREVENT CYCLING IN THE K SHORTEST PATH PROBLEM VITA 90 92 94 95 110 112 LIST OF TABLES Table DISTANCE MATRIX Page 15 INPUT DATA FOR PLANNING... variety of problems and situations. Network analysis techniques have been used to model transportation systems, communication systems, distribution systems, river systems, precedence ordering of events, computer systems, etc. Phillips and Garcia [1981...

  13. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  14. The Use of Additional Analyses to Clarify the Functions of Problem Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, Steven Wade

    2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    and decrease problem behavior; however, treatment did not result in clinically-significant reductions in problem behavior in all cases. Additional within-session analyses and experimental analyses were used to clarify the functions of problem behavior...

  15. Forest Fuels ReductionForest Fuels Reduction Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    the initial fuels reduction treatments leave the site with regard to long-term forest vegetation and soil are the productivity and cost rates for alternative choices of equipment for mechanical fuels reduction; what reduction operations for existing markets and new markets? (eg. biomass energy) Research Rationale

  16. An optimization approach to kinetic model reduction for combustion chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebiedz, Dirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Model reduction methods are relevant when the computation time of a full convection-diffusion-reaction simulation based on detailed chemical reaction mechanisms is too large. In this article, we review a model reduction approach based on optimization of trajectories and show its applicability to realistic combustion models. As most model reduction methods, it identifies points on a slow invariant manifold based on time scale separation in the dynamics of the reaction system. The numerical approximation of points on the manifold is achieved by solving a semi-infinite optimization problem, where the dynamics enter the problem as constraints. The proof of existence of a solution for an arbitrarily chosen dimension of the reduced model (slow manifold) is extended to the case of realistic combustion models including thermochemistry by considering the properties of proper maps. The model reduction approach is finally applied to three models based on realistic reaction mechanisms: 1. ozone decomposition as a small t...

  17. Can fermions save large N dimensional reduction?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Michael I. Buchoff; Aleksey Cherman; Roxanne P. Springer

    2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores whether Eguchi-Kawai reduction for gauge theories with adjoint fermions is valid. The Eguchi-Kawai reduction relates gauge theories in different numbers of dimensions in the large $N$ limit provided that certain conditions are met. In principle, this relation opens up the possibility of learning about the dynamics of 4D gauge theories through techniques only available in lower dimensions. Dimensional reduction can be understood as a special case of large $N$ equivalence between theories related by an orbifold projection. In this work, we focus on the simplest case of dimensional reduction, relating a 4D gauge theory to a 3D gauge theory via an orbifold projection. A necessary condition for the large N equivalence between the 4D and 3D theories to hold is that certain discrete symmetries in the two theories must not be broken spontaneously. In pure 4D Yang-Mills theory, these symmetries break spontaneously as the size of one of the spacetime dimensions shrinks. An analysis of the effect of adjoint fermions on the relevant symmetries of the 4D theory shows that the fermions help stabilize the symmetries. We consider the same problem from the point of view of the lower dimensional 3D theory and find that, surprisingly, adjoint fermions are not generally enough to stabilize the necessary symmetries of the 3D theory. In fact, a rich phase diagram arises, with a complicated pattern of symmetry breaking. We discuss the possible causes and consequences of this finding.

  18. PRECEDING F!_GE E_LA."jK _OT F:LP#,ED THE ROLES OF HUMANS AND ROBOTS AS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spudis, Paul D.

    307 PRECEDING F!_GE E_LA."jK _OT F:LP#,ED THE ROLES OF HUMANS AND ROBOTS AS FIELD GEOLOGISTS field study on the Moon is through the use of teleoperated robots, under the da'rect control of a human geologist who remains at the lunar base, or poss_ly on Earth. These robots umuld hate a global traverse

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Idling Reduction Network News Archives Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network News Archives The National Idling Reduction Network brings together trucking...

  20. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  1. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  2. Large Wind Property Tax Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2001, North Dakota established property tax reductions for commercial wind turbines constructed before 2011. Originally, the law reduced the taxable value of centrally-assessed* wind turbines...

  3. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Document states additional...

  4. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

  5. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)...

  6. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  7. Environmental Sustainability Paper Usage / Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;carbon footprint and develop carbon reduction projects around IT and staff/student behaviour change is supported by the Environmental Sustainability Manager and is seen as a key link to the University's Carbon Management Programme (e.g. to produce a forecast of carbon reductions as required by the Carbon Trust

  8. Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak, Derek

    Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in Canada: Policy or Window Dressing? Charles Plante, Upstream: Institute for a Healthy Society #12;Overview What is poverty? Current state of poverty in Saskatchewan What is a Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategy (CPRS)? Are CPRS effective at reducing

  9. Integer programming models for the branchwidth problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulusal, Elif

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    and undirected graphs and presented a randomized algorithm for the element disjoint STPP. In 2007, Lau presented a polynomial time constant factor approximation algorithm for the edge-disjoint STPP. The minimum multicast congestion problem is a generalization... tree packing problem. The third formulation is based on the notion of laminar separations. We utilize upper and lower bounds obtained by heuristic algorithms, reduction techniques and cutting planes to increase the efficiency of our models. We use all...

  10. Characterising equilibrium logic and nested logic programs: Reductions and complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, David; Woltran, Stefan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equilibrium logic is an approach to nonmonotonic reasoning that extends the stable-model and answer-set semantics for logic programs. In particular, it includes the general case of nested logic programs, where arbitrary Boolean combinations are permitted in heads and bodies of rules, as special kinds of theories. In this paper, we present polynomial reductions of the main reasoning tasks associated with equilibrium logic and nested logic programs into quantified propositional logic, an extension of classical propositional logic where quantifications over atomic formulas are permitted. We provide reductions not only for decision problems, but also for the central semantical concepts of equilibrium logic and nested logic programs. In particular, our encodings map a given decision problem into some formula such that the latter is valid precisely in case the former holds. The basic tasks we deal with here are the consistency problem, brave reasoning, and skeptical reasoning. Additionally, we also provide encoding...

  11. Electrochemical CO2 and CO Reduction on Metal-Functionalized Porphyrin-like Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thygesen, Kristian

    Electrochemical CO2 and CO Reduction on Metal-Functionalized Porphyrin-like Graphene Vladimir-functionalized graphene structures have been investigated as possible catalysts for CO2 and CO reduction to methane to this problem is to reduce CO instead of CO2. Volcano plots were constructed on the basis of scaling relations

  12. Nevada State Energy Reduction Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As mandated by the Nevada statutes, the Nevada Energy Office prepared a state energy reduction plan which requires state agencies, departments, and other entities in the Executive Branch to reduce...

  13. NOx Reduction through Efficiency Gain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, R.; Thompson, R.; Staedter, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with a novel control design to deliver a comprehensive boiler controls retrofit that provides reductions in emissions as well as substantial cost savings. Combining mechanical engineering expertise with substantial experience in control engineering...

  14. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  15. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  16. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  17. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications....

  18. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

  19. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  20. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

  1. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for the regeneration of sulfated NOx trap catalysts. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for...

  2. Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

  3. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  4. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  5. Revised Knudsen-layer reduction of fusion reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, B. J.; Molvig, Kim; Huang, C.-K.; Simakov, A. N.; Dodd, E. S.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Schmit, P. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1186 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1186 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work by Molvig et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095001 (2012)] examined how fusion reactivity may be reduced from losses of fast ions in finite assemblies of fuel. In this paper, this problem is revisited with the addition of an asymptotic boundary-layer treatment of ion kinetic losses. This boundary solution, reminiscent of the classical Milne problem from linear transport theory, obtains a free-streaming limit of fast ion losses near the boundary, where the diffusion approximation is invalid. Thermonuclear reaction rates have been obtained for the ion distribution functions predicted by this improved model. It is found that while Molvig's “Knudsen distribution function” bounds from above the magnitude of the reactivity reduction, this more accurate treatment leads to less dramatic losses of tail ions and associated reduction of thermonuclear reaction rates for finite fuel volumes.

  6. Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk Alexander Koller Joachim Niehren Programming partially. In this paper, we introduce beta reduction constraints to describe beta reduction steps between partially known lambda terms. We show that beta reduction constraints can be expressed in an extension

  7. Lead reduction in ambient air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.; Kiehn, O.A.; Wilburn, D.R.; Bowyer, R.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bureau of Mines evaluated the emission control methods, including the capital investments and operating cost, necessary for further reducing lead levels in ambient air at the Glover, Herculaneum, and Buick smelter-refineries in Missouri and the East Helena, MT, smelter. This report presents theoretically achievable lead emission reductions and estimated capital and operating costs.

  8. Symmetry in Scheduling Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 16, 2010 ... Using operating room and power generator scheduling problems ... suggested that a class of highly symmetric covering problems called Steiner Triple Systems ... The structure of symmetry present in these problems allow for.

  9. Stable reduction product of misonidazole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panicucci, R.; McClelland, R.A.; Rauth, A.M.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The predominant stable product (greater than 80%) of the anaerobic radiation chemical reduction (pH 7, formate, N/sub 2/O) of misonidazole (MISO) has been identified as the cyclic guanidinium ion MISO-DDI, a 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolium ion. This cation was prepared as its sulfate salt by the reaction of glyoxal and the appropriate N-substituted guanidinium sulfate. Its formation during MISO reduction was established by NMR spectral comparison and by derivatization as glyoxal bis-oxime, which was formed in 86% yield in fully reduced systems. The toxicity of pure MISO-DDI X sulfate was examined in vivo (C/sub 3/H mice) and in vitro (CHO cells). This product is less toxic than the parent MISO and free glyoxal. A reactive, short-lived, intermediate is suggested as the agent responsible for the toxicity of MISO under hypoxic conditions.

  10. Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p. 1 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT OF RENEWABLES October 2012 Jeff Haberl, Bahman Yazdani, Charles Culp Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University p. 2 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012... Do TCEQ: Vince Meiller, Bob Gifford ERCOT: Warren Lasher USEPA: Art Diem, Julie Rosenberg ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS p. 3 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 RENEWABLES Solar PV Solar Thermal Hydro Biomass Landfill Gas Geothermal p. 4...

  11. Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 9 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 10 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 WIND PROJECTS IN TEXAS Completed, Announced, and Retired Wind Projects in Texas, as of December 2011 p. 11 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012... Laboratory ? 2012 p. 24 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 25 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 Annual eGrid for NOx Emissions West Zone North Zone Houston Zone South Zone Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs...

  12. Precedents in African American architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sass, Lawrence

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a sub-sets of American culture, African Americans have not been able to offer culturally specific architectural elements to the design process because the history of African American form and space has not been recognized ...

  13. Precede Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska: EnergyPiratiniEdwards,PoseyPoudrePowersPrairiePreble County,

  14. Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.

  15. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

  16. Damage-prone regions in structural composite materials are difficult to detect and even harder to repair. Damage is preceded by complex spatial and temporal changes in stress state, and it is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Materials Seminar Damage-prone regions in structural composite materials are difficult to detect and even harder to repair. Damage is preceded by complex spatial and temporal changes in stress state about in response to damage or high-stress conditions include: (1) signal generation to warn of ensuing

  17. "Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction: Is conservation the answer?" Paul van for the foreseeable future. #12;John Beddington's "Perfect Storm" Population Increase Poverty Reduction Food Security Globalisation Climate Change Health Water Security Poverty Alleviation Finance Urbanisation Population Energy

  18. Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes I.S. Walker, M.H. Sherman and W.W. Nazaroff or adequacy of the information in this report. #12;Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor Ozone Reductions Using

  19. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General analysis, and public education in global environmental change. It seeks to provide leadership;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium

  20. Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination A Bioprophylactic Concept Karin/Repro, Uppsala 2013 #12;Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination. A Bioprophylactic Concept. Abstract Pesticides and their residues frequently contaminate surface waters and groundwater so

  1. Extracellular Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Extracellular Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of...

  2. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

  3. A Compressed Air Reduction Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, K. D.

    A COMPRESSED AIR REDUCTION PROGRAM K. Dwight Hawks General Motors Corporation - Ruick-Oldsmobi1e-Cadillac Group Warren, Michigan ABSTRACT The reascn for implementing this program was to assist the plant in Quantifying some of its leaks... in the equipme~t throuqhout the plant and to provide direction as to which leaks are yenerat~ng high uti 1ity costs. The direction is very beneficial in lIlaking maintenance aware of prolill,Pls within equipment .IS \\Iell as notifying them as to whf're thei...

  4. Relative trajectory data reduction analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Kenneth William

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REDATIVE TRAJECTORY DATA RFDUCTION ANA1. YS1S A Thesis KENNE'Ill Vi. GRANT Subrnitl ed to the Gratluate College of 'J exas ASM University in pa) &ial full'illment of the reouir ament for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1969 Major... Trajectory Data Reduction Analysis. (August 1969) Kenneth W. Grant, B. A. , University of California at Riverside Directed by: Dr. Rudolph Freund Knowledge of missile/drone intercept parameters is extremely important in the analysis of ordnance system...

  5. Problems on Integration.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    INTEGRATION. V2.0. 1. One-liners. Problem 1. True of false: If f is a non-negative function defined on. R and. ?. R f dx < ?, then lim|x|?? f(x) = 0. Problem 2.

  6. A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevers, Michel

    A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty model reduction with controller reduction for the same PWR system. We show that closed-loop techniques to the design of a low-order con- troller for a realistic model of order 42 of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR

  7. Analysis and Reduction of Complex Networks Under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knio, Omar M

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a collaborative proposal that aims at developing new methods for the analysis and reduction of complex multiscale networks under uncertainty. The approach is based on combining methods of computational singular perturbation (CSP) and probabilistic uncertainty quantification. In deterministic settings, CSP yields asymptotic approximations of reduced-dimensionality “slow manifolds” on which a multiscale dynamical system evolves. Introducing uncertainty raises fundamentally new issues, particularly concerning its impact on the topology of slow manifolds, and means to represent and quantify associated variability. To address these challenges, this project uses polynomial chaos (PC) methods to reformulate uncertain network models, and to analyze them using CSP in probabilistic terms. Specific objectives include (1) developing effective algorithms that can be used to illuminate fundamental and unexplored connections among model reduction, multiscale behavior, and uncertainty, and (2) demonstrating the performance of these algorithms through applications to model problems.

  8. Stochastic Dimensionality Reduction for K-means Clustering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutsidis, Christos; Mahoney, Michael W; Drineas, Petros

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the topic of dimensionality reduction methods for k-means clustering. Dimensionality reduction encompasses the union of two approaches; feature selection and feature extraction. First, feature selection selects a small subset of actual features from the data and then runs the clustering algorithm only on the selected features. Second, feature extraction constructs a small set of new artificial features and then runs the clustering algorithm only on the constructed features. Despite the significance of the problem as well as the wealth of heuristic methods addressing it there exist no provably accurate feature selection methods. On the other hand, two provably accurate feature extraction methods for k-means exist: the first one is randomized and is based on Random Projections; the other, is deterministic and it is based on the Singular Value Decomposition. This paper addresses this shortcoming by presenting the first provably accurate feature selection method for k-means clustering. We also present tw...

  9. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Abstract: Water reduction under two visible...

  10. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and...

  11. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  13. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  14. Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. 't Hooft

    2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirement that physical phenomena associated with gravitational collapse should be duly reconciled with the postulates of quantum mechanics implies that at a Planckian scale our world is not 3+1 dimensional. Rather, the observable degrees of freedom can best be described as if they were Boolean variables defined on a two-dimensional lattice, evolving with time. This observation, deduced from not much more than unitarity, entropy and counting arguments, implies severe restrictions on possible models of quantum gravity. Using cellular automata as an example it is argued that this dimensional reduction implies more constraints than the freedom we have in constructing models. This is the main reason why so-far no completely consistent mathematical models of quantum black holes have been found. Essay dedicated to Abdus Salam.

  15. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  16. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  17. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  18. Problem 5 - Purdue University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 20, 2011 ... (Neglect air resistance.) A panel in the Mathematics Department publishes a challenging problem once a week and invites college ...

  19. PROBLEM OF THE WEEK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    **This problem is a modi?ed version of one proposed by Michael Roach of New Millemium. Building Systems, who has an engineering application for it.

  20. Drinking Water Problems: Copper 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

  1. Drinking Water Problems: Copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

  2. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  3. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 The documents...

  4. Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 NOXTECH NOXTECH PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYSIS SYSTEM FOR NOx REDUCTION BY NOXTECH With the Support & Cooperation of DOE Noxtech, Inc. *Delaware Corporation registered to do business...

  5. CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - On-board idle reduction technologies * Bergstrom battery electric AC * Airtronic diesel-fired heater * Objectives - Quantify truck cabin heat transfer - Identify potential...

  6. RMOTC to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RMOTC to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) announces that the "Teapot Dome" oil field in Wyoming is hosting a series of...

  7. Metal Artifact Reduction in Computed Tomography /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Seemeen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monoenergetic imaging of dual-energy CT reduces artifactsartifact reduction by dual energy computed tomography usingimage re- construction for dual energy X-ray transmission

  8. Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    provides a valuable opportunity for Federal agency NEPA309 reviewers to incorporate pollution prevention and environmental impact reduction into actions (or projects). This...

  9. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  10. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  11. NOx reduction methods and apparatuses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, M. Lou; Maupin, Gary D.

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A NO.sub.x reduction method includes treating a first gas containing NO.sub.x, producing a second gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second gas to N.sub.2, and producing a third gas containing less NO.sub.x than the first gas, substantially all of the third gas NO.sub.x being NO. The method also includes treating the third gas, producing a fourth gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the fourth gas to N.sub.2, and producing a fifth gas containing less NO.sub.x than the third gas, substantially all of the fifth gas NO.sub.x being NO. Treating the first and/or third gas can include treatment with a plasma. Reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second and/or fourth gas can include reducing with a catalyst. The method can further include controlling energy consumption of the plasmas independent of each other.

  12. Correctness of Program Transformations as a Termination Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt-Schauss, Manfred

    Correctness of Program Transformations as a Termination Problem Conrad Rau, David Sabel,sabel,schauss}@ki.informatik.uni-frankfurt.de Abstract. The diagram-based method to prove correctness of program transformations includes the computation of (critical) overlappings be- tween the analyzed program transformation and the (standard) reduction rules

  13. Collector's problem Byron Schmuland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmuland, Byron

    Collector's problem Byron Schmuland Department of Mathematical Sciences University of Alberta the mathematics of the collector's problem. For simplicity, let's assume that you buy cards one at a time, average doesn't mean typical. Some hockey card collectors will need to buy 1525 cards or so, but some

  14. The Guderley problem revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Scott D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kamm, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolstad, John H [NON LANL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The self-similar converging-diverging shock wave problem introduced by Guderley in 1942 has been the source of numerous investigations since its publication. In this paper, we review the simplifications and group invariance properties that lead to a self-similar formulation of this problem from the compressible flow equations for a polytropic gas. The complete solution to the self-similar problem reduces to two coupled nonlinear eigenvalue problems: the eigenvalue of the first is the so-called similarity exponent for the converging flow, and that of the second is a trajectory multiplier for the diverging regime. We provide a clear exposition concerning the reflected shock configuration. Additionally, we introduce a new approximation for the similarity exponent, which we compare with other estimates and numerically computed values. Lastly, we use the Guderley problem as the basis of a quantitative verification analysis of a cell-centered, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow algorithm.

  15. Author's personal copy Microbial reduction of chlorite and uranium followed by air oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgos, William

    oneidensis MR-1, and the reoxidation of these minerals (after pasteurization) via the introduction of oxygen Uranium contamination of sediment and groundwater is a problem at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE(IV) minerals and precipitated from groundwater (Lovley and Phillips, 1992). Bacterially mediated reduction of U

  16. 2006 29 1 Reduction of Breakdown Voltage in I-MOS Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    2006 29 1 593 Reduction of Breakdown Voltage in I-MOS Devices Woo Young Choi, Jae Young Song Center and School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University 1. Introduction Aggressive scaling-down of MOSFETs has aggravated some important problems [1], [2]. One of them

  17. The Core Degree Based Tag Reduction on Chip Multiprocessor to Balance Energy Saving and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The Core Degree Based Tag Reduction on Chip Multiprocessor to Balance Energy Saving and Performance on a single-core processor. In this paper, we further investigate the problem on balancing energy saving such that the best balance of energy and performance can be achieved. In particular, as the basis

  18. Spur Reduction in Wideband PLLs by Random Positioning of Charge Pump Current Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnapura, Nagendra

    Spur Reduction in Wideband PLLs by Random Positioning of Charge Pump Current Pulses Chembiyan, Madras, Chennai 600 036, India Abstract-- Charge pump PLL is prone to reference spurs due to non-idealities like feedthrough, charge pump current mismatch and loop filter leakage. To resolve the problem

  19. Calculated Proton Uptake on Anaerobic Reduction of Cytochrome c Oxidase: Is the Reaction Electroneutral?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunner, Marilyn

    Calculated Proton Uptake on Anaerobic Reduction of Cytochrome c Oxidase: Is the ReactionVised Manuscript ReceiVed April 17, 2006 ABSTRACT: Cytochrome c oxidase is a transmembrane proton pump that builds ranging from fully oxidized to fully reduced. One long-standing problem is how proton uptake is coupled

  20. Relation algebra reducts of cylindric algebras and an application to proof theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodkinson, Ian

    Relation algebra reducts of cylindric algebras and an application to proof theory Robin Hirsch, Ian of cylindric algebras made in 1969 by J. D. Monk, confirm a later conjecture by Maddux about relation algebras obtained from cylindric algebras, and solve a problem raised by Tarski and Givant. These results

  1. Ripple reduction activities in the MG room at the Bevatron, August 1991 to August 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasbalg, M.; Bennett, M.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: magnet - voltage dividers temperature voltage influence error calculation; magnet filters summarized data table; magnet transfer function measurement setup and connection diagrams; response of existing magnet system including ripple reduction filters - Dec 1991; magnet filters - mutual inductance problem; and damping the magnet filters.

  2. Ripple reduction activities in the MG room at the Bevatron, August 1991 to August 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasbalg, M.; Bennett, M.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: magnet - voltage dividers temperature & voltage influence error calculation; magnet filters summarized data table; magnet transfer function measurement setup and connection diagrams; response of existing magnet system including ripple reduction filters - Dec 1991; magnet filters - mutual inductance problem; and damping the magnet filters.

  3. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  4. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  5. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Problem Natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans and the tsunami in Japan in 2011 create emergency situations that must be dealt with quickly and effectively in...

  7. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

  8. Avoiding Calving Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, L. R.

    1998-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Calving difficulty, or dystocia, is influenced largely by genetics and the age of the dam. The main cause of calving problems is heavy birthweight. Solutions include selecting the right bull and mating it to properly developed heifers....

  9. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  10. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  11. Highway noise reduction by barrier walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Murray F

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    's Variables 3. Noise Reduction and Noise Reduction Factor 4. Relationship Between Noise Attenuation and d 5. Rettinger's Variables 6. Relationship of Sound-Level Reduction and v 7. Basic Principles in Sound-Transmission Loss 8. The Mass Law Relationship... that the barrier wall is acoustically opaque (i. e. , impermeable to sound waves). Purcell (8) found that the noise transmission loss of a wall was a measure of the ratio of the acoustical energy transmitted through the wall to the acoustical energy incident...

  12. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

  13. Adaptive dimension reduction for clustering high dimensional data Chris Ding a , Xiaofeng He a , Hongyuan Zha b and Horst D. Simon a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Chris

    ) and reduces computational cost. In most applications, dimension reduction is carried out as a preprocessingAdaptive dimension reduction for clustering high dimensional data Chris Ding a , Xiaofeng He in local minimum. Many initialization methods were proposed to tackle this problem , but with only limited

  14. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC) offers interest rate reductions to home buyers purchasing new and existing homes with 5 Star and 5 Star Plus energy ratings. All homes constructed on...

  15. Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golfinopoulos, Theodore

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

  16. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (TSR), ABD-WFM-006, Revision 2.1 Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), ABD-WFM-006, Revision 2.1 The...

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires...

  18. INVARIANTS OF IDEALS HAVING PRINCIPAL REDUCTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-40-82T23:59:59.000Z

    The integer r denotes the reduction number of I. In defining k, we are using the ..... H1,... ,Hs ? Q such that T2 n ? T1G = F1H1 + ..... Math. J. 27 (1978), 929–934.

  19. Solid Waste Reduction, Recovery, and Recycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute expresses the strong support of the State of Wisconsin for the reduction of the amount of solid waste generated, the reuse, recycling and composting of solid waste, and resource...

  20. Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

  1. Large Drag Reduction over Superhydrophobic Riblets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbier, Charlotte; D'Urso, Brian

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Riblets and superhydrophobic surfaces are two demonstrated passive drag reduction techniques. We describe a method to fabricate surfaces that combine both of these techniques in order to increase drag reduction properties. Samples have been tested with a cone-and-plate rheometer system, and have demonstrated significant drag reduction even in the transitional-turbulent regime. Direct Numerical Simulations have been performed in order to estimate the equivalent slip length at higher rotational speed. The sample with 100~$\\mu$m deep grooves has been performing very well, showing drag reduction varying from 15 to 20 $\\%$ over the whole range of flow conditions tested, and its slip length was estimated to be over 100 $\\mu$m.

  2. Direct determination of dissolved cobalt and nickel in seawater by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltametry preceded by adsorptive collection of cyclohexane-1,2-dione dioxime complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donat, J.R.; Bruland, K.W.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly sensitive voltametric technique was developed for the direct determination of cobalt and nickel in seawater at picomolar and nanomolar concentrations, respectively. Cyclohexane-1,2-dione dioxime (nioxime) complexes of Co(II) and Ni(II) were concentrated from 10 mL of sample onto a hanging mercury drop electrode by controlled adsorption and the current resulting from reduction of Co(II) and Ni(II) was measured by differential pulse cathodic stripping voltametry. Detailed experiments were conducted to determine the optimal ligand type and concentration, buffer type and concentration, pH, and adsorption potential. Maximum sensitivity was obtained by using a nioxime concentration of 1 x 10/sup -4/ m, a HEPES buffer concentration of 0.03 m, a solution pH of 7.6, and an adsorption potential of -0.6 V. Replicate analyses of seawater reference materials yielded excellent agreement with certified values. Analytical precision for Co and Ni at coastal and open ocean concentrations was approximately +/-5% relative standard deviation. Detection limits for Co and Ni depend upon reagent blanks and are 6 pM and 0.45 nM, respectively, for 15-min adsorption periods.

  3. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  4. Park Load Reduction by Preconditioning of Buildings at Night

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabl, A.; Norford, L. K.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling loads during the peak period can be reduced if a building is subcooled a few degrees below its normal thermostat setpoint during the preceding night. During the day, the thermostat must control the warmup in such a way that the stored energy...

  5. Robust inversion, dimensionality reduction, and randomized sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksandr Aravkin

    2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 17, 2011 ... Keywords: inverse problems, seismic inversion, stochastic optimization, robust estimation. Category 1: Nonlinear Optimization. Category 2: ...

  6. Symmetric regularization, reduction and blow-up of the planar three-body problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeckel, Richard; Montgomery, Richard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4 (1936), 829–832. MR 1507204 Zbl 0015.32406 [Saari 1984] D.G. Saari, “From rotations and inclinations to zeroof velocities the “Saari decomposition”. (See [Saari

  7. Symmetric regularization, reduction and blow-up of the planar three-body problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeckel, Richard; Montgomery, Richard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Math. 58, 25. D. Saari, From rotations and inclinationsdecomposition of velocities the “Saari decom- position”. (

  8. Automatic Reductions from PH into STRIPS or How to Generate Short Problems with Very Long Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonet, Blai

    Aldo Porco Departamento de Computaci´on Universidad Sim´on Bol´ivar Caracas, Venezuela aldo@gia.usb.ve Alejandro Machado Departamento de Computaci´on Universidad Sim´on Bol´ivar Caracas, Venezuela alejandro@gia.usb.ve Blai Bonet Departamento de Computaci´on Universidad Sim´on Bol´ivar Caracas, Venezuela bonet

  9. Automatic Polytime Reductions of NP Problems into a Fragment of STRIPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonet, Blai

    Computaci´on Universidad Sim´on Bol´ivar Caracas, Venezuela aldo@gia.usb.ve Alejandro Machado Departamento de Computaci´on Universidad Sim´on Bol´ivar Caracas, Venezuela alejandro@gia.usb.ve Blai Bonet Departamento de Computaci´on Universidad Sim´on Bol´ivar Caracas, Venezuela bonet@ldc.usb.ve Abstract We

  10. The Sedov Test Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Masser, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Nathaniel R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sedov test is classically defined as a point blast problem. The Sedov problem has led us to advances in algorithms and in their understanding. Vorticity generation can be physical or numerical. Both play a role in Sedov calculations. The RAGE code (Eulerian) resolves the shock well, but produces vorticity. The source definition matters. For the FLAG code (Lagrange), CCH is superior to SGH by avoiding spurious vorticity generation. FLAG SGH currently has a number of options that improve results over traditional settings. Vorticity production, not shock capture, has driven the Sedov work. We are pursuing treatments with respect to the hydro discretization as well as to artificial viscosity.

  11. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

  12. Linear Programming brewer's problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sedgewick, Robert

    : Brewer's problem Small brewery produces ale and beer. · Production limited by scarce resources: corn, hops, barley malt. · Recipes for ale and beer require different proportions of resources. Brewer 160 1190 ale (1 barrel) 5 4 35 13 beer (1 barrel) 15 4 20 23 all ale (34 barrels) 179 136 1190 442 all

  13. Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion Mark L. McFarland, Tony L. Provin, and Diane E. Boellstorff and fail. Corrosion can cause three types of damage: · The entire metal surface gradually thins and red (Fig. 1). · Deep pits appear that can penetrate pipe or tank walls. This type of corrosion may not add

  14. Problems in Engineering and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    Problems in Engineering and Science Education Why Do We Have a Weakness in Materials Synthesis, Materials Science and Engineering in the 1990s: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Age of Materials science and engi- neering alone; it is symptomatic of the way we teach all science and engineering. We

  15. Regularizing Inverse Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Fang

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    (q) include ?q??(2@L^(2 ) )??q??(2@H^(1) ), |q|BV and |q|TV. However, each of these has its limitations. In this work, we develop a novel H^(s) seminorm regularization method and present numerical results for model problems. This method relies...

  16. Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Diesel Emission Reduction Research Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

  17. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency...

  18. California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Customer Load Reductions during...

  19. Biomineralization Associated with Microbial Reduction of Fe3...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Associated with Microbial Reduction of Fe3+ and Oxidation of Fe2+ in Solid Minerals . Biomineralization Associated with Microbial Reduction of Fe3+ and Oxidation of Fe2+...

  20. Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron. Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron....

  1. Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile Route to Synthesis of Soluble Graphene Nanosheets. Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile...

  2. Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and Light Vehicles Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and...

  3. Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  4. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report...

  5. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous...

  6. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  7. DOE Program Resources and Tools for Petroleum Reduction in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Petroleum Reduction in the Transportation Sector Webinar Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: DOE Program Resources and Tools for Petroleum Reduction in the...

  8. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving...

  9. Sulfur Isotopes as Indicators of Amended Bacterial Sulfate Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Amended Bacterial Sulfate Reduction Processes Influencing Field Scale Uranium Bioremediation. Sulfur Isotopes as Indicators of Amended Bacterial Sulfate Reduction Processes...

  10. Theoretical Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity ofUltrathin Platinum Nanowires. Theoretical Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity...

  11. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique...

  12. Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Abstract: The research described in...

  13. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Status and Cost Reduction Prospects EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects Presentation given by technology manager David Howell at the EV...

  14. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US...

  15. CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  16. Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off-Road Equipment Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off-Road Equipment Poster presentation at the 2007...

  17. Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI...

  18. EPA Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    accepting applications for the Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program to support pollution preventionsource reduction andor resource conservation projects that reduce or...

  19. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum...

  20. assess viscosity reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    frequency distributions of load reduction Vander Zanden, Jake 11 ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS University of California eScholarship...

  1. Controlled black liquor viscosity reduction through salting-in

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J.E.; Khan, S.A.; Spontak, R.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor viscosity increases exponentially with solids content and therefore causes processing problems for the paper industry by being a limiting factor in the Kraft pulp process. This study investigates a new approach for achieving viscosity reduction by salting-in black liquor through the addition of thiocyanate salts. These salts generally increase the solubility of the polymer constituents in black liquor, leading to a decrease in its viscosity. Several thiocyanate salts capable of reducing liquor viscosity by more than two orders of magnitude have been identified, with viscosity reduction greatest at high solids content. Salting-in of black liquor depends on the cation paired with the thiocyanate anion, as well as on solution pH and temperature. Comparative studies reveal the most effective viscosity-reducing agent of the series examined and that lignin plays an important role in the viscosity behavior of both unmodified and salted-in black liquor at high solids concentrations. These experimental findings are interpreted in terms of the underlying principles that describe salting-in and how it affects aqueous solution structure.

  2. Computationally efficient Bayesian inference for inverse problems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzouk, Youssef M.; Najm, Habib N.; Rahn, Larry A.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bayesian statistics provides a foundation for inference from noisy and incomplete data, a natural mechanism for regularization in the form of prior information, and a quantitative assessment of uncertainty in the inferred results. Inverse problems - representing indirect estimation of model parameters, inputs, or structural components - can be fruitfully cast in this framework. Complex and computationally intensive forward models arising in physical applications, however, can render a Bayesian approach prohibitive. This difficulty is compounded by high-dimensional model spaces, as when the unknown is a spatiotemporal field. We present new algorithmic developments for Bayesian inference in this context, showing strong connections with the forward propagation of uncertainty. In particular, we introduce a stochastic spectral formulation that dramatically accelerates the Bayesian solution of inverse problems via rapid evaluation of a surrogate posterior. We also explore dimensionality reduction for the inference of spatiotemporal fields, using truncated spectral representations of Gaussian process priors. These new approaches are demonstrated on scalar transport problems arising in contaminant source inversion and in the inference of inhomogeneous material or transport properties. We also present a Bayesian framework for parameter estimation in stochastic models, where intrinsic stochasticity may be intermingled with observational noise. Evaluation of a likelihood function may not be analytically tractable in these cases, and thus several alternative Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) schemes, operating on the product space of the observations and the parameters, are introduced.

  3. Waste reduction at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, W.E.; Lee, R.A.; Reynolds, R.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation for the production and research of nuclear materials for national defense and peace time applications and has been operating a full nuclear fuel cycle since the early 1950s. Wastes generated include high level radioactive, transuranic, low level radioactive, hazardous, mixed, sanitary, and aqueous wastes. Much progress has been made during the last several years to reduce these wastes including management systems, characterization, and technology programs. The reduction of wastes generated and the proper handling of the wastes have always been a part of the Site's operation. This paper summarizes the current status and future plans with respect to waste reduction to waste reduction and reviews some specific examples of successful activities.

  4. Waste reduction at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, W.E.; Lee, R.A.; Reynolds, R.W.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation for the production and research of nuclear materials for national defense and peace time applications and has been operating a full nuclear fuel cycle since the early 1950s. Wastes generated include high level radioactive, transuranic, low level radioactive, hazardous, mixed, sanitary, and aqueous wastes. Much progress has been made during the last several years to reduce these wastes including management systems, characterization, and technology programs. The reduction of wastes generated and the proper handling of the wastes have always been a part of the Site`s operation. This paper summarizes the current status and future plans with respect to waste reduction to waste reduction and reviews some specific examples of successful activities.

  5. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

  6. Declarative Problem Solving through Abduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moraitis, Pavlos

    1 Declarative Problem Solving through Abduction Antonis C. Kakas Department of Computer Science PROBLEM SOLVING through Logical Representations (or models) of problems and the use of ABDUCTIVE REASONING · Acquire expertise in Declarative Problem Solving using the representation framework of ABDUCTIVE LOGIC

  7. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  8. Channeling problem for charged particles produced by confining environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Derbov, V. L. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation); Krassovitskiy, P. M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Vinitsky, S. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Channeling problem produced by confining environment that leads to resonance scattering of charged particles via quasistationary states imbedded in the continuum is examined. Nonmonotonic dependence of physical parameters on collision energy and/or confining environment due to resonance transmission and total reflection effects is confirmed that can increase the rate of recombination processes. The reduction of the model for two identical charged ions to a boundary problem is considered together with the asymptotic behavior of the solution in the vicinity of pair-collision point and the results of R-matrix calculations. Tentative estimations of the enhancement factor and the total reflection effect are discussed.

  9. Quantum Elastic Net and the Traveling Salesman Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. F. Kostenko; J. Pribish; M. Z. Yuriev

    2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Theory of computer calculations strongly depends on the nature of elements the computer is made of. Quantum interference allows to formulate the Shor factorization algorithm turned out to be more effective than any one written for classical computers. Similarly, quantum wave packet reduction allows to devise the Grover search algorithm which outperforms any classical one. In the present paper we argue that the quantum incoherent tunneling can be used for elaboration of new algorithms able to solve some NP-hard problems, such as the Traveling Salesman Problem, considered to be intractable in the classical theory of computer computations.

  10. Australia's Humanitarian Action Policy and Disaster Risk Reduction Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botea, Adi

    to get more information Disaster Risk Reduction Team Disaster Prevention and Risk Reduction Section GrantAustralia's Humanitarian Action Policy and Disaster Risk Reduction Policy A Commitment: · Disaster risk reduction is integrated into the Australian aid program · Capacity of partner governments

  11. THE ECONOMIC PAYOFF FOR GLOBAL WARMING EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr. Sam; V. Shelton; Laura A. Schaefer

    efficiency technology, such as residential electric heat pump water heaters, can cause carbon reduction to

  12. Dissimilatory Metal Reduction by Anaeromyxobacter Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qingzhong Wu; Cornell Gayle; Frank Löffler; Sanford, Robert

    2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent findings suggest that Anaeromyxobacter populations play relevant roles in metal and radionuclide reduction and immobilization at contaminated DOE sites. This research effort will characterize Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C as well as other Anaeromyxobacter isolates in hand, and assess their contribution towards metal detoxification and plume stabilization under environmentally relevant conditions.

  13. 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton University Reports Contents 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Campus Energy was established in 2008, the University has invested $5.3 million in energy-savings projects, resulting in annual of a 5.2-megawatt solar collector field. · Audit the remaining 20 of the top 50 energy- consuming

  14. Cyclone reduction of taconite. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-latif, M.A.; Hou, X.; Kumar, P. [College of Mines and Earth Resources, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone reactor system for the partial reduction and melting of taconite concentrate fines has been engineered, designed and operated. A non-transferred arc plasma torch was employed as a heat source. Taconite fines, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were fed axially into the reactor, while the plasma gas was introduced tangentially into the cyclone. The average reactor temperature was maintained at above 1400{degrees}C, and reduction experiments were performed under various conditions. The influence of the following parameters on the reduction of taconite was investigated experimentally; carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inlet feed ratio, carbon monoxide inlet partial pressure, and average reactor temperature. The interactions of the graphite lining with carbon dioxide and taconite were also studied. An attempt was made to characterize the flow behavior of the molten product within the cyclone. The results suggest that the system may approach a plug flow reactor, with little back mixing. Finally, a fundamental mathematical model was developed. The model describes the flow dynamics of gases and solid particles in a cyclone reactor, energy exchange, mass transfer, and the chemical kinetics associated with cyclone smelting of taconite concentrate fines. The influence of the various parameters on the reduction and melting of taconite particles was evaluated theoretically.

  15. Timelike reduction and T-duality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scuro, Sante Rodolfo

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expressions for the Killing sailors in Anti-de Sitter spacetime of odd dimension with respect to the field reparametrization in the bosonic sector. In addition, we perform Kaluza-Klein reduction along the time direction of D = 10 type IIB theory to D = 9. Then...

  16. Genome of Geobacter sulfurreducens: Metal Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    and in the generation of electricity. G. sulfurreducens, a member of the - Proteobacteria and of the family GeobacterGenome of Geobacter sulfurreducens: Metal Reduction in Subsurface Environments B. A. Methe´,1 * K. Utterback,1 S. E. Van Aken,1 D. R. Lovley,2 C. M. Fraser1 The complete genome sequence of Geobacter

  17. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  18. Task Performance is Prioritized Over Energy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Task Performance is Prioritized Over Energy Reduction Ravi Balasubramanian*, Member, IEEE, Robert requirements were increased. These results indicated that task performance may be prioritized over energy main results: (1) More trials were required for a brief contact task to find a low-energy strategy when

  19. Timelike reduction and T-duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scuro, Sante Rodolfo

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expressions for the Killing sailors in Anti-de Sitter spacetime of odd dimension with respect to the field reparametrization in the bosonic sector. In addition, we perform Kaluza-Klein reduction along the time direction of D = 10 type IIB theory to D = 9. Then...

  20. Equimultiplicity, reduction, and blowing up.pdf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reduction of .1 if lJn = Jm1 for some integer n; or, eguivalently, if J is contained in the ...... 5/955; so if q is a minimal prime divisor of mR, and Rq is flat over S, then.

  1. Drinking Water Problems: Lead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A lmost everyone knows that lead-based paint caused serious health problems (especially in children) before it was banned. But not everyone is aware that people can ingest lead from other sources such as contaminat- ed food and drinking water... sources of lead con- tamination. But if your water comes from a private well, it might contain enough lead to warrant action. How does lead affect health? Lead can be absorbed through the digestive tract, the lungs and the skin. It accumulates in the body...

  2. An inexact labeling problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Margaret Shuey

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of prototype and candidate objects - . 1'7 3 ~ Tree showing possible unit-label assignments for the example of Figut'e 2 (p. 17) 4. Candidate and prototype objects 5. A 3x3 pixel window . . . ~ 6. S, r parameterization of a line 20 30 36 38 7. A... with the matching problem. Haralick and Shapiro [5] deal with a set of units, (u(, ~ . . . u }, and a set of labels, L (II, . . . , I 1 . For any n units ~ \\ qp (ul, . ~ . , u , n labels from L, 11, . . . , 1 ), can be selected and called a labeling of (ul...

  3. Euclid Known Problems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /Email Announcements Archive EmailKnown Problems Known

  4. Savannah River Site Footprint Reduction Results under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - 13302

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flora, Mary [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Bldg. 730-4B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Bldg. 730-4B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Adams, Angelia [United States Department of Energy Bldg. 730-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [United States Department of Energy Bldg. 730-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Pope, Robert [United States Environmental Protection Agency Region IV Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)] [United States Environmental Protection Agency Region IV Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is an 802 square-kilometer United States Department of Energy (US DOE) nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina, managed and operated by Savannah River Nuclear Solutions. Construction of SRS began in the early 1950's to enhance the nation's nuclear weapons capability. Nuclear weapons material production began in the early 1950's, eventually utilizing five production reactors constructed to support the national defense mission. Past operations have resulted in releases of hazardous constituents and substances to soil and groundwater, resulting in 515 waste sites with contamination exceeding regulatory thresholds. More than 1,000 facilities were constructed onsite with approximately 300 of them considered radiological, nuclear or industrial in nature. In 2003, SRS entered into a Memorandum of Agreement with its regulators to accelerate the cleanup using an Area Completion strategy. The strategy was designed to focus cleanup efforts on the 14 large industrial areas of the site to realize efficiencies of scale in the characterization, assessment, and remediation activities. This strategy focuses on addressing the contaminated surface units and the vadose zone and addressing groundwater plumes subsequently. This approach streamlines characterization and remediation efforts as well as the required regulatory documentation, while enhancing the ability to make large-scale cleanup decisions. In February 2009, Congress approved the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) to create jobs and promote economic recovery. At SRS, ARRA funding was established in part to accelerate the completion of environmental remediation and facility deactivation and decommissioning (D and D). By late 2012, SRS achieved 85 percent footprint reduction utilizing ARRA funding by accelerating and coupling waste unit remediation with D and D of remnant facilities. Facility D and D activities were sequenced and permitted with waste unit remediation activities to streamline regulatory approval and execution. Achieving footprint reduction fulfills the Government's responsibility to address legacy contamination; allows earlier completion of legally enforceable compliance agreement milestones; and enables future potential reuse of DOE resources, including land and infrastructure for other missions. Over the last 3.5 years significant achievements were met that contributed to footprint reduction, including the closure of 41 waste units (including 20 miles of radiologically contaminated stream) and decommissioning of 30 facilities (including the precedent setting in situ closure of two former production reactors, the first in the DOE Complex). Other notable achievements included the removal of over 39,750 cubic meters of debris and 68,810 cubic meters of contaminated soils, including 9175 cubic meters of lead-contaminated soil from a former site small arms testing range and treatment of 1,262 cubic meters of tritium-laden soils and concrete using a thermal treatment system. (authors)

  5. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  6. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  7. 10.1177/0270467605279324BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / October 2005Imboela / POVERTY REDUCTION IN ZAMBIA Poverty Reduction in Zambia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    10.1177/0270467605279324BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / October 2005Imboela / POVERTY REDUCTION IN ZAMBIA Poverty Reduction in Zambia: A Conceptual Analysis of the Zambian Poverty Reduction Poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) present a recipient country's program of intent for the utiliza

  8. SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

  9. The Primordial Lithium Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian D. Fields

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory, together with the precise WMAP cosmic baryon density, makes tight predictions for the abundances of the lightest elements. Deuterium and 4He measurements agree well with expectations, but 7Li observations lie a factor 3-4 below the BBN+WMAP prediction. This 4-5\\sigma\\ mismatch constitutes the cosmic "lithium problem," with disparate solutions possible. (1) Astrophysical systematics in the observations could exist but are increasingly constrained. (2) Nuclear physics experiments provide a wealth of well-measured cross-section data, but 7Be destruction could be enhanced by unknown or poorly-measured resonances, such as 7Be + 3He -> 10C^* -> p + 9B. (3) Physics beyond the Standard Model can alter the 7Li abundance, though D and 4He must remain unperturbed; we discuss such scenarios, highlighting decaying Supersymmetric particles and time-varying fundamental constants. Present and planned experiments could reveal which (if any) of these is the solution to the problem.

  10. Historical and Short-Term Controls on Sulfate Reduction and Alkalinity Generation in Three Aquatic Ecosystems of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    precipitation, pyrite, sediments #12;Introduction First described as acid rain in 1852 by Scottish chemist Angus.19 to 13.47 mEq m-2 y-1 in freshwater sediments. Keywords: Sulfate reduction, alkalinity, acid Smith, all forms of atmospheric acid deposition continue to be an environmental problem faced

  11. [Fundamental studies in oxidation-reduction in relation to water photolysis]. Progress report, June 26, 1989--November 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurst, J.K.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective is to solve problems in photoredox catalysis pertinent to developing membrane-base photoconversion/photostorage systems. The research is divided into: Physical studies (light scattering) on viologen-doped vesicles, transmembrane oxidation-reduction mechanisms, interfacial charge recombination, water oxidation catalysts.

  12. Technetium reduction in sediments of a shallow aquifer exhibiting dissimilatory iron reduction potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    mechanisms, constraints on Tc solubility, and the oxidation state, and speciation of sediment reduction of medical and defense nuclear waste. During spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, 99 Tc(IV)O2 is solubilized

  13. Novel reactions of a neutral organic reductant : reductive coupling and nanoparticle synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mork, Anna Jolene

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently developed bis-pyridinylidene neutral organic electron donor captured our interest as a potential source of new chemistries for reductive coupling and the synthesis of group IV nanoparticles. This super electron ...

  14. Modeling applied to problem solving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawl, Andrew

    We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and ...

  15. The optimization problem Genetic Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giménez, Domingo

    The optimization problem Genetic Algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization Experimental results for time-power optimization META, October 27-31, 2014 1 / 25 #12;The optimization problem Genetic Algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization Experimental results Conclusions Time and energy optimization Traditionally

  16. The prediction problem Empirical studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCullagh, Peter

    The prediction problem Empirical studies Details and summary Conditional prediction intervals 2009 Peter McCullagh, V. Vovk, I. Nouretdinov, D. Devetyarov and A. Gammerman #12;The prediction problem Empirical studies Details and summary Outline 1 The prediction problem Linear regression model

  17. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  18. Multi-Site Energy Reduction Through Teamwork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tutterow, V.; Walters, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-Site Energy Reduction Through Teamwork Thomas R. Theising Energy/Waste Management and Procurement Manager BASF Corporation Freeport, Texas ABSTRACT Energy Teams were established at seven locations in Tennessee, Texas... to the business. The completion of an energy audit will leave a laundry list of ideas to be considered. The energy management process, at the Site level, begins at this point. At BASF, we have found the most successful method of evaluating...

  19. Dimensional reduction without continuous extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut, Lebanon and I.H.E.S. F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)] [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut, Lebanon and I.H.E.S. F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Froehlich, J.; Schubnel, B. [ETHZ, Mathematics and Physics Departments, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [ETHZ, Mathematics and Physics Departments, Zuerich (Switzerland); Wyler, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a novel approach to dimensional reduction in classical field theory. Inspired by ideas from noncommutative geometry, we introduce extended algebras of differential forms over space-time, generalized exterior derivatives, and generalized connections associated with the 'geometry' of space-times with discrete extra dimensions. We apply our formalism to theories of gauge- and gravitational fields and find natural geometrical origins for an axion- and a dilaton field, as well as a Higgs field.

  20. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Chandre

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac-Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed.

  1. Radiological Threat Reduction | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations:Radiological Threat Reduction SHARE

  2. Optimized Simple Tabular Reduction for Table Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .e. values which cannot lead to any solution. It is an essential component of the Maintaining Arc Consistency Problem (CSP). It is also at the heart of stronger consistencies that have recently received some

  3. Sampling-based algorithms for dimension reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshpande, Amit Jayant

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Can one compute a low-dimensional representation of any given data by looking only at its small sample, chosen cleverly on the fly? Motivated by the above question, we consider the problem of low-rank matrix approximation: ...

  4. SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NOX IN OXYGEN RICH ENVIRONMENTS WITH PLASMA-ASSISTED CATALYSIS: CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND MECHANISTIC STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peden, C; Barlow, S; Hoard, J; Kwak, J; *Balmer-Millar, M; *Panov, A; Schmieg, S; Szanyi, J; Tonkyn, R

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of NOx (NO and NO2) emissions from so-called ''lean-burn'' vehicle engines remains a challenge. In recent years, there have been a number of reports that show that a plasma device combined with a catalyst can reduce as high as 90% or more of NOx in simulated diesel and other ''lean-burn'' exhaust. In the case of propylene containing simulated diesel exhaust, the beneficial role of a plasma treatment is now thought to be due to oxidation of NO to NO2, and the formation of partially oxidized hydrocarbons that are more active for the catalytic reduction of NO2 than propylene. Thus, the overall system can be most usefully described as hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) enhanced by 'reforming' the exhaust with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) device. For plasma-enhanced catalysis, both zeolite- and alumina-based materials have shown high activity, albeit in somewhat different temperature ranges, when preceded by an NTP reactor. This paper will briefly describe our research efforts aimed at optimizing the catalyst materials for NTP-catalysis devices based, in part, on our continuing studies of the NTP- and catalytic-reaction mechanisms. Various alkali- and alkaline earth-cation-exchanged Y zeolites have been prepared, their material properties characterized, and they have been tested as catalytic materials for NOx reduction in laboratory NTP-catalysis reactors. Interestingly, NO2 formed in the plasma and not subsequently removed over these catalysts, will back-convert to NO, albeit to varying extents depending upon the nature of the cation. Besides this comparative reactivity, we will also discuss selected synthesis strategies for enhancing the performance of these zeolite-based catalyst materials. A particularly important result from our mechanistic studies is the observation that aldehydes, formed during the plasma treatment of simulated diesel exhaust, are the important species for the reduction of NOx to N2. Indeed, acetaldehyde has been found to be especially effective in the thermal reduction of both NO and NO2 over Ba- and Na-Y zeolite catalysts.

  5. Reduction potentials of vesicle-bound viologens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabin Lei; Hurst, J.K. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton (United States))

    1991-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamic reduction potentials have been determined by using spectroelectrochemical and cyclic voltammetric methods for a homologous series of amphiphilic ciologens (N-methyl-N{prime}-alkyl-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium ions, C{sub n}MV{sup 2+}) in a variety of media, including dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP), dioctadecylimethylammonium, and phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles. In general, potentials for both one-electron steps, i.e., C{sub n}MV{sup 2+} + e{sup {minus}} {yields} C{sub n}MV{sup +} and C{sub n}MV{sup +} + e{sup {minus}} {yields} C{sub n}MV{sup 0}, were insensitive to the alkyl chain length, which was varied over the range n = 6{minus}20. The single exception was a large decrease ({approximately}100 mV) in the first reduction potential for DHP-bound viologens when the chain length was increased from n = 10 to n = 12; this effect was attributed to a change in binding topography. The magnitudes of the reduction potentials were highly dependent upon the vesicle charge; the pattern observed indicated that interfacial electrostatic interactions between the surfactant headgroups and bipyridinium rings were the dominant factors determining the potentials. As discussed in the text, the data allow resolution of several heretofore puzzling observations concerning viologen reactivities in microphase suspensions.

  6. Self-Reduction Rate of a Microtubule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hiramatsu; Tetsuo Matsui; Kazuhiko Sakakibara

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate and study a quantum field theory of a microtubule, a basic element of living cells. Following the quantum theory of consciousness by Hameroff and Penrose, we let the system to reduce to one of the classical states without measurement if certain conditions are satisfied(self-reductions), and calculate the self-reduction time $\\tau_N$ (the mean interval between two successive self-reductions) of a cluster consisting of more than $N$ neighboring tubulins (basic units composing a microtubule). $\\tau_N$ is interpreted there as an instance of the stream of consciousness. We analyze the dependence of $\\tau_N$ upon $N$ and the initial conditions, etc. For relatively large electron hopping amplitude, $\\tau_N$ obeys a power law $\\tau_N \\sim N^b$, which can be explained by the percolation theory. For sufficiently small values of the electron hopping amplitude, $\\tau_N$ obeys an exponential law, $\\tau_N \\sim \\exp(c' N)$. By using this law, we estimate the condition for $\\tau_N $ to take realistic values $\\tau_N$ \\raisebox{-0.5ex}{$\\stackrel{>}{\\sim}$} $10^{-1}$ sec as $N$ \\raisebox{-0.5ex} {$\\stackrel{>}{\\sim}$} 1000.

  7. Engineering problems of tandem-mirror reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Boghosian, B.M.

    1981-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have completed a comparative evaluation of several end plug configurations for tandem mirror fusion reactors with thermal barriers. The axi-cell configuration has been selected for further study and will be the basis for a detailed conceptual design study to be carried out over the next two years. The axi-cell end plug has a simple mirror cell produced by two circular coils followed by a transition coil and a yin-yang pair, which provides for MHD stability. This paper discusses some of the many engineering problems facing the designer. We estimated the direct cost to be 2$/W/sub e/. Assuming total (direct and indirect) costs to be twice this number, we need to reduce total costs by factors between 1.7 and 2.3 to compete with future LWRs levelized cost of electricity. These reductions may be possible by designing magnets producing over 20T made possible by use of combinations of superconducting and normal conducting coils as well as improvements in performance and cost of neutral beam and microwave power systems. Scientific and technological understanding and innovation are needed in the area of thermal barrier pumping - a process by which unwanted particles are removed (pumped) from certain regions of velocity and real space in the end plug. Removal of exhaust fuel ions, fusion ash and impurities by action of a halo plasma and plasma dump in the mirror end region is another challenging engineering problem discussed in this paper.

  8. Final report : CO2 reduction using biomimetic photocatalytic nanodevices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Robert M.; Shelnutt, John Allen; Medforth, Craig John (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Song, Yujiang; Wang, Zhongchun; Miller, James Edward; Wang, Haorong

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nobel Prize winner Richard Smalley was an avid champion for the cause of energy research. Calling it 'the single most important problem facing humanity today,' Smalley promoted the development of nanotechnology as a means to harness solar energy. Using nanotechnology to create solar fuels (i.e., fuels created from sunlight, CO{sub 2}, and water) is an especially intriguing idea, as it impacts not only energy production and storage, but also climate change. Solar irradiation is the only sustainable energy source of a magnitude sufficient to meet projections for global energy demand. Biofuels meet the definition of a solar fuel. Unfortunately, the efficiency of photosynthesis will need to be improved by an estimated factor of ten before biofuels can fully replace fossil fuels. Additionally, biological organisms produce an array of hydrocarbon products requiring further processing before they are usable for most applications. Alternately, 'bio-inspired' nanostructured photocatalytic devices that efficiently harvest sunlight and use that energy to reduce CO{sub 2} into a single useful product or chemical intermediate can be envisioned. Of course, producing such a device is very challenging as it must be robust and multifunctional, i.e. capable of promoting and coupling the multi-electron, multi-photon water oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction processes. Herein, we summarize some of the recent and most significant work towards creating light harvesting nanodevices that reduce CO{sub 2} to CO (a key chemical intermediate) that are based on key functionalities inspired by nature. We report the growth of Co(III)TPPCl nanofibers (20-100 nm in diameter) on gas diffusion layers via an evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method. Remarkably, as-fabricated electrodes demonstrate light-enhanced activity for CO{sub 2} reduction to CO as evidenced by cyclic voltammograms and electrolysis with/without light irradiation. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to observe such a light-enhanced CO{sub 2} reduction reaction based on nanostructured cobalt(III) porphyrin catalysts. Additionally, gas chromatography (GC) verifies that light irradiation can improve CO production by up to 31.3% during 2 hours of electrolysis. In addition, a variety of novel porphyrin nano- or micro-structures were also prepared including nanospheres, nanotubes, and micro-crosses.

  9. Finite element calculations illustrating a method of model reduction for the dynamics of structures with localized nonlinearities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Daniel Todd; Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique published in SAND Report 2006-1789 ''Model Reduction of Systems with Localized Nonlinearities'' is illustrated in two problems of finite element structural dynamics. That technique, called here the Method of Locally Discontinuous Basis Vectors (LDBV), was devised to address the peculiar difficulties of model reduction of systems having spatially localized nonlinearities. It's illustration here is on two problems of different geometric and dynamic complexity, but each containing localized interface nonlinearities represented by constitutive models for bolted joint behavior. As illustrated on simple problems in the earlier SAND report, the LDBV Method not only affords reduction in size of the nonlinear systems of equations that must be solved, but it also facilitates the use of much larger time steps on problems of joint macro-slip than would be possible otherwise. These benefits are more dramatic for the larger problems illustrated here. The work of both the original SAND report and this one were funded by the LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories.

  10. Large Spectral Library Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the Żeld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identiŻcation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identiŻcation is possible. We show that unique identiŻcation becomes less likely as p increases.

  11. DEFORMATION-BASED NONLINEAR DIMENSION REDUCTION: APPLICATIONS TO NUCLEAR MORPHOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Geoffrey J.

    DEFORMATION-BASED NONLINEAR DIMENSION REDUCTION: APPLICATIONS TO NUCLEAR MORPHOMETRY Gustavo K, contrary to common intuition, the most likely nuclear shape configuration is not symmetric. Index Terms-- Nuclear shape analysis, nonlinear, dimension reduction, image registration. 1. INTRODUCTION Under

  12. Competitive Energy Reduction (CER) Campaign at the University of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    1 Competitive Energy Reduction (CER) Campaign at the University of Texas Scientists and Engineers Reduction Campaign at the University of Texas Energy Reduced by Enlisting Volunteers and Promoting .................................................................................................................................................10 Appendix A ­ Lab Energy Audit Checklist

  13. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 · www.nrel.gov Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap

  14. Radiation-Induced Reduction of Ceria in Single and Polycrystalline...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation-Induced Reduction of Ceria in Single and Polycrystalline Thin Films. Radiation-Induced Reduction of Ceria in Single and Polycrystalline Thin Films. Abstract: Ceria (CeO2)...

  15. Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

  16. Nickel-catalysed reductive aldol cyclisation: scope and mechanistic insight 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fordyce, Euan Alexander Fraser

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly diastereoselective nickel-catalysed reductive aldol cyclisation is described. Using Ni(acac)2 as a precatalyst and diethylzinc as a stoichiometric reductant, various ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds tethered through an amide or ester...

  17. Integrated Assessment of the Energy Savings and Emissions-Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of the Energy Savings and Emissions-Reduction Potential of CHP, June 1999 Integrated Assessment of the Energy Savings and Emissions-Reduction Potential of CHP, June 1999...

  18. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings.

  19. Identify Petroleum Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As defined by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction strategies for Federal vehicles and equipment are based on the three driving principles of petroleum reduction: Reduce vehicle miles traveled Improve fuel efficiency Use alternative fuels.

  20. arteries dose reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    artery Price, Paul A. 8 a 50% reduction in Prlr gene dose, provides strong evidence for PRL being the mediator Geosciences Websites Summary: a 50% reduction in Prlr gene dose,...

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces Dong Song · Robert J- phobic surfaces with random surface microstructure. These superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated was found to produce the largest pressure drop reduction. 1 Introduction Superhydrophobic surfaces can

  2. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  3. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the results of a low-cost approach used to measure reported load reductions from a residential electric water heater (EWH) load control program operated as part of PJM Interconnection's Demand Response small customer pilot program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted this independent review of the engineering estimates for EWH load control reported by a Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM's request. LBNL employed low-cost measurement and verification (M&V) approaches that utilized existing interval metering equipment to monitor results for a series of load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data for two substations and several hundred households over a six-week period in October and November 2003. During this time period, the CSP operated its electric water heater load control program during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems signifiogram during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems significantly limit our ability to differentiate between control-related and non-control related differences in substation-level load shape data. The usefulness and accuracy of the results were hampered by operational problems encountered during the measurement period as well as in sufficient number of load research grade interval meters at one cooperative. Given the larger sample size at one electric cooperative and more statistically-robust results, there is some basis to suggest that the Adjusted Diversified Demand Factor (ADDF) values used by the CSP somewhat over-state the actual load reductions. Given the results and limitations of the M&V approach as implemented, we suggest several options for PJM to consider: (1) require load aggregators participating in ISODR programs to utilize formal PURPA-compliant load research samples in their M&V plans, and (2) continue developing lower cost M&V approaches for mass market load control programs that incorporate suggested improvements described in this study.

  4. Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

  5. Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J. [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

  6. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (adapted from ref. 1). Technology Approximate Reduction (%) Approximate Emissions (lb/MMBtu) Standard Burners Base Case 0.14 Low-NOx Burners (LNB) 60% 0.06 Ultra-Low-NOx- Burners (ULNB) 80 – 95% 0.007 – 0.03 Flue Gas Recirculation 55% 0..., and oxidizer switching. Fuel switching is simply replacing a more polluting fuel with a less polluting fuel. For example, fuel oils generally contain some organically-bound nitrogen that produces fuel NOx. Natural gas does not normally contain any...

  7. Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

  8. Process simulation of aluminum reduction cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabsh, I. [CompuSIM Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dupuis, M. [GeniSim, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada); Gomes, A. [Alcan Aluminio do Brasil S.A., Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program was developed to model the dynamic behavior of an aluminum reduction cell. The program simulates the physical process by solving the heat and mass balance equations that characterize the behavior of eleven chemical species in the system. It also models operational events (such as metal tapping, anode change, etc.) and the process control logic including various alumina feeding policies and anode effect quenching. The program is a PC based Windows{reg_sign} application that takes full advantage of the Windows user interface. This paper describes the implementation of the process model and the control logic. Various results using the simulation are compared to measured data.

  9. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between...

  10. Steam Pressure Reduction Opportunities and Issues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, J.; Griffin, B.; Wright, A. L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM PRESSURE REDUCTION, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ISSUES Jan Berry, CEM U.S. DOE BestPractices Steam Coordinator Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6070 berryjb@ornl.gov Phone: 865-241-1939 Bob Griffin, PE Energy... Solutions Manager Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. P.O. Box 650, Scarborough, ON Canada, M1K 5E3 robert.griffin@enbridge.com Phone: 416-495-5298 Fax: 416-495-5331 Anthony L. Wright, Ph.D. U.S. DOE BestPractices Coordinator Oak Ridge National...

  11. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the public's awareness increased, industry began looking for new strategies to curb NOx emissions. The strategies for reducing NOx are discussed next. Table 1 shows a summary of common NOx control technologies [1]. Table 1 NOx reduction technologies... for NOx Control, in Industrial Combustion Technologies, ed. by M.A. Lukasiewicz, American Society of Metals, Warren, PA, pp. 345-350, 1986. 7. A. Garg, Trimming NOx, Chem Eng., Vol. 99, No. 11, pp. 122-124, 1992. 8. C.E. Baukal, Industrial Combustion...

  12. Paperwork Reduction Act Submission (OMB 83-I)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHA Administrative Judge issuedEnergy1ofPAPERWORK REDUCTION ACTPA

  13. National Idling Reduction Network News - October 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum |Energy November 2013 National Idling Reduction

  14. National Idling Reduction Network News - October 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum |Energy November 2013 National Idling Reduction0

  15. Seismicity parameters preceding moderate to major earthquakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Seggern, D.; Alexander, S.S.; Baag, C.

    1981-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Seismic events reported in the bulletins of the two large arrays, LASA and NORSAR, were merged with those from the NEIS bulletin for the period 1970-1977. Using a lower cutoff of m/sub b/ = 5.8, 510 'main shocks' within the P range of LASA or NORSAR were selected for this period; and various seismicity trends prior to them were investigated. A search for definite foreshocks, based on a significantly short time delay to the main shock, revealed that the true rate of foreshock occurrence was less than 20%. Foreshocks are almost exclusively associated with shallow (h<100 km) main shocks. Averaging shows that the seismicity level around the main shock increases somewhat for 10 days before main shocks; this feature peaks in the last 3--4 hours prior to the main shocks. Again by averaging, the seismicity about main shocks is shown to tend with time toward the main shock as its origin time is approached, but the average effect is small (approx.10% change).Using a new variable to track the departures from both spatial and temporal randomness, the Poisson-like behavior of deeper seismicity (>100 km) was demonstrated. For shallow events (<100 km) this variable reveals numerous instances of clustering and spatial-temporal seismic gaps, with little tendency toward a uniformity of behavior prior to main shocks. A statistical test of the validity of seismic precursors was performed for approximately 90 main shock regions which had sufficient seismicity. Using a five-variable vector, (interevent time, interevent distance, magnitude, epicentral distance to main shock, and depth difference relative to main shock) for each event in a 'precursory' time window of 500 days before the main shock and for each event in a 'normal' time window of 500 days before that, the null hypothesis of equal vector means between the two groups was tested. At 90% confidence levels, less than 30% of the main shock regions were thus found to exhibit precursory seismicity changes.

  16. DB-6 Precedent Transactions.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. DepartmentEnergy This partAsAmandaRev. 1)Projects1Form02 JuneTO:DATE:

  17. Termination and Reduction Checking for HigherOrder Logic Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pientka, Brigitte

    Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher­Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax­directed termination and reduction checker for higher­order logic programs and output of well­moded predicates. These reduction con­ straints are exploited during termination checking

  18. Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pientka, Brigitte

    Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax-directed termination and reduction checker for higher-order logic programs and output of well-moded predicates. These reduction con- straints are exploited during termination checking

  19. Semidefinite Relaxations of Ordering Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 19, 2011 ... from z? only in an additive constant. We are now dropping the ...... Machine Layout Problem in Flexible Manufacturing Systems. Operations.

  20. Pooling problems: relaxations and discretizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    also possible to send flow directly from inputs to the outputs. ... mid-term planning problem that is designed to answer the optimal process control decisions in.

  1. Inverse Problems in Transport Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The inverse scattering problem for (2.1) is the following: Does S determine ...... J. Voigt, Spectral properties of the neutron transport equation, J. Math. Anal. Appl.

  2. Turbulent drag reduction through oscillating discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Daniel J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The changes of a turbulent channel flow subjected to oscillations of wall flush-mounted rigid discs are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number is $R_\\tau$=$180$, based on the friction velocity of the stationary-wall case and the half channel height. The primary effect of the wall forcing is the sustained reduction of wall-shear stress, which reaches a maximum of 20%. A parametric study on the disc diameter, maximum tip velocity, and oscillation period is presented, with the aim to identify the optimal parameters which guarantee maximum drag reduction and maximum net energy saving, computed by taking into account the power spent to actuate the discs. This may be positive and reaches 6%. The Rosenblat viscous pump flow is used to predict the power spent for disc motion in the turbulent channel flow and to estimate localized and transient regions over the disc surface subjected to the turbulent regenerative braking effect, for which the wall turbulence exerts work on the discs. The...

  3. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew [Sellafield Ltd, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  4. Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  5. Extragalactic database. VII Reduction of astrophysical parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Paturel; H. Andernach; L. Bottinelli; H. Di Nella; N. Durand; R. Garnier; L. Gouguenheim; P. Lanoix; M. C. Marthinet; C. Petit; J. Rousseau; G. Theureau; I. Vauglin

    1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic database (LEDA) gives a free access to the main astrophysical parameters for more than 100,000 galaxies. The most common names are compiled allowing users to recover quickly any galaxy. All these measured astrophysical parameters are first reduced to a common system according to well defined reduction formulae leading to mean homogeneized parameters. Further, these parameters are also transformed into corrected parameters from widely accepted models. For instance, raw 21-cm line widths are transformed into mean standard widths after correction for instrumental effect and then into maximum velocity rotation properly corrected for inclination and non-circular velocity. This paper presents the reduction formulae for each parameter: coordinates, morphological type and luminosity class, diameter and axis ratio, apparent magnitude (UBV, IR, HI) and colors, maximum velocity rotation and central velocity dispersion, radial velocity, mean surface brightness, distance modulus and absolute magnitude, and group membership. For each of these parameters intermediate quantities are given: galactic extinction, inclination, K-correction etc.. All these parameters are available from direct connexion to LEDA (telnet lmc.univ-lyon1.fr, login: leda, no passwd OR http://www-obs.univ-lyon1.fr/leda ) and distributed on a standard CD-ROM (PGC-ROM 1996) by the Observatoire de Lyon via the CNRS (mail to petit@obs.univ-lyon1.fr).

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Optimal Scenario Tree Reduction for ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    2 Electric Power Research Center – CEPEL, CP 68007 - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 3 IMPA – Estrada ... stochastic data. Such a criterion ... ning, such as thermal generation, energy interchanges between subsystems1, stored volumes in ... introduced in [4] for two-stage problems provides a tool (efficient both from the theoretical ...

  7. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  8. Optimization problems with value function objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    max programming problem and the bilevel optimization problem. In this paper, we ... 1. Introduction. An optimization problem with value function objective is a.

  9. The Traveling Salesman Problem with Flexible Coloring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roemer, T. A.; Ahmadi, R.; Dasu, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salesman Problem with Flexible Coloring Thomas A. Roemer TheSalesman Problem with Flexible Colors (? ?? ?? ). We note,Salesman Problem with Flexible Colors (? ?? ?? ) can

  10. Performing a local reduction operation on a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Faraj, Daniel A.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel computer including compute nodes, each including two reduction processing cores, a network write processing core, and a network read processing core, each processing core assigned an input buffer. Copying, in interleaved chunks by the reduction processing cores, contents of the reduction processing cores' input buffers to an interleaved buffer in shared memory; copying, by one of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network write processing core's input buffer to shared memory; copying, by another of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network read processing core's input buffer to shared memory; and locally reducing in parallel by the reduction processing cores: the contents of the reduction processing core's input buffer; every other interleaved chunk of the interleaved buffer; the copied contents of the network write processing core's input buffer; and the copied contents of the network read processing core's input buffer.

  11. Performing a local reduction operation on a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocksome, Michael A; Faraj, Daniel A

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel computer including compute nodes, each including two reduction processing cores, a network write processing core, and a network read processing core, each processing core assigned an input buffer. Copying, in interleaved chunks by the reduction processing cores, contents of the reduction processing cores' input buffers to an interleaved buffer in shared memory; copying, by one of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network write processing core's input buffer to shared memory; copying, by another of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network read processing core's input buffer to shared memory; and locally reducing in parallel by the reduction processing cores: the contents of the reduction processing core's input buffer; every other interleaved chunk of the interleaved buffer; the copied contents of the network write processing core's input buffer; and the copied contents of the network read processing core's input buffer.

  12. Declarative Problem Solving through Abduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moraitis, Pavlos

    1 Declarative Problem Solving through Abduction Antonis C. Kakas Department of Computer Science, 2007 Paris, France #12;2 Course Breakdown · Introduction · Abduction ­ General Introduction · Modelling Problems for Abduction and DPS · Computational Logic & PROLOG ­ Background · Abductive Logic Programming

  13. MATRIXDEPENDENT MULTIGRIDHOMOGENIZATION FOR DIFFUSION PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bebendorf, Mario

    , such as matrix­ dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse­grid operators by means of the Galerkin. Introduction. Solutions for problems which model locally strong varying phe­ nomena on a micro­scale level require that all length scales present in the problem are completely resolved. However, due to storage

  14. PROBLEM SETS: Fundamentals of Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daganzo, Carlos F.

    on the publications section of Carlos Daganzo's world wide web home page at http improved the wording, graphics and notation of many of the problems, and facilitated the internet comments on several problem statements. Thanks also go to Ms. Alison Andreas for her excellent word

  15. Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Srinivasan, Shiva (Greer, SC); Lynch, John Joseph (Wilmington, NC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Kim, Kwanwoo (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Crothers, Sarah (Greenville, SC); Singh, Kapil Kumar (Rexford, NY)

    2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction are provided. A combustion chamber may include a first premixer and a second premixer. Each premixer may include at least one fuel injector, at least one air inlet duct, and at least one vane pack for at least partially mixing the air from the air inlet duct or ducts and fuel from the fuel injector or injectors. Each vane pack may include a plurality of fuel orifices through which at least a portion of the fuel and at least a portion of the air may pass. The vane pack or packs of the first premixer may be positioned at a first axial position and the vane pack or packs of the second premixer may be positioned at a second axial position axially staggered with respect to the first axial position.

  16. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argo, Megan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent, carry out some or all of the calibration procedures including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so that the quality of the data can be assessed. The software is available for download from the e-MERLIN website or via Github.

  17. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

  18. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  19. High reduction transaxle for electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalns, Ilmars (Plymouth, MI)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A drivetrain (12) includes a transaxle assembly (16) for driving ground engaging wheels of a land vehicle powered by an AC motor. The transaxle includes a ratio change section having planetary gear sets (24, 26) and brake assemblies (28, 30). Sun gears (60, 62) of the gear sets are directly and continuously connected to an input drive shaft (38) driven by the motor. A first drive (78a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (78) of gear sets (24) with a ring gear (68) of gear set (26). A second drive (80a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (80) of gear set (26) with a sun gear (64) of a final speed reduction gear set (34) having a planetary gear carrier directly and continuously connected to a differential (22). Brakes (28, 30) are selectively engageable to respectively ground a ring gear 66 of gear set 24 and ring gear 68 of gear set 26.

  20. Core-melt source reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A core-melt source reduction system for ending the progression of a molten core during a core-melt accident and resulting in a stable solid cool matrix. The system includes alternating layers of a core debris absorbing material and a barrier material. The core debris absorbing material serves to react with and absorb the molten core such that containment overpressurization and/or failure does not occur. The barrier material slows the progression of the molten core debris through the system such that the molten core has sufficient time to react with the core absorbing material. The system includes a provision for cooling the glass/molten core mass after the reaction such that a stable solid cool matrix results. 4 figs.

  1. Core-melt source reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beahm, Edward C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Parker, George W. (Concord, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A core-melt source reduction system for ending the progression of a molten core during a core-melt accident and resulting in a stable solid cool matrix. The system includes alternating layers of a core debris absorbing material and a barrier material. The core debris absorbing material serves to react with and absorb the molten core such that containment overpressurization and/or failure does not occur. The barrier material slows the progression of the molten core debris through the system such that the molten core has sufficient time to react with the core absorbing material. The system includes a provision for cooling the glass/molten core mass after the reaction such that a stable solid cool matrix results.

  2. Lagrange-Poincaré reduction for optimal control of underactuated mechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonardo Colombo

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We deal with regular Lagrangian constrained systems which are invariant under the action of a symmetry group. Fixing a connection on the higher-order principal bundle where the Lagrangian and the (independent) constraints are defined, the higher-order Lagrange-Poincar\\'e equations of classical mechanical systems with higher-order constraints are obtained from classical Lagrangian reduction. Higher-order Lagrange-Poincar\\'e operator is introduced to characterize higher-order Lagrange-Poincar\\'e equations. Interesting applications are derived as, for instance, the optimal control of an underactuated Elroy's Beanie and a snakeboard seens as an optimization problem with higher-order constraints.

  3. Dimension reduction for anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates in the strong interaction regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weizhu Bao; Loic Le Treust; Florian Mehats

    2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the problem of dimension reduction for the three dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) describing a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a strongly anisotropic harmonic trap. Since the gas is assumed to be in a strong interaction regime, we have to analyze two combined singular limits: a semi-classical limit in the transport direction and the strong partial confinement limit in the transversal direction. We prove that both limits commute together and we provide convergence rates. The by-products of this work are approximated models in reduced dimension for the GPE, with a priori estimates of the approximation errors.

  4. Markov Modeling of Cooperative Multiplayer Coupon Collectors' Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rovatti, R; Mazzini, G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper introduces a modified version of the classical Coupon Collector's Problem entailing exchanges and cooperation between multiple players. Results of the development show that, within a proper Markov framework, the complexity of the Cooperative Multiplayer Coupon Collectors' Problem can be attacked with an eye to the modeling of resource harvesting and sharing within the context of Next Generation Network. The cost of cooperation is computed in terms of exchange protocol burden and found to be dependent on only ensemble parameters such as the number of players and the number of coupons but not on the detailed collection statistics. The benefits of cooperation are quantified in terms of reduction of the average number of actions before collection completion.

  5. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ({approximately}55{degrees}C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  6. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ([approximately]55[degrees]C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  7. Surrogate Guderley Test Problem Definition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The surrogate Guderley problem (SGP) is a 'spherical shock tube' (or 'spherical driven implosion') designed to ease the notoriously subtle initialization of the true Guderley problem, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity. In this problem (similar to the Guderley problem), an infinitely strong shock wave forms and converges in one-dimensional (1D) cylindrical or spherical symmetry through a polytropic gas with arbitrary adiabatic index {gamma}, uniform density {rho}{sub 0}, zero velocity, and negligible pre-shock pressure and specific internal energy (SIE). This shock proceeds to focus on the point or axis of symmetry at r = 0 (resulting in ostensibly infinite pressure, velocity, etc.) and reflect back out into the incoming perturbed gas.

  8. Mathematical Problems of Thermoacoustic Tomography 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Linh V.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is a newly emerging modality in biomedical imaging. It combines the good contrast of electromagnetic and good resolution of ultrasound imaging. The mathematical model of TAT is the observability problem for the wave...

  9. SOME COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEMS IN MICROFLUIDICS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin, Thierry

    SOME COMPUTATIONAL PROBLEMS IN MICROFLUIDICS. S. Tancogne, Ch.-H. Bruneau, Th. Colin Institut de is to present some results of flow simulations in microflu- idics. Microfluidics is characterized

  10. Industrial Mathematics and Inverse Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulmek, Markus

    #12;The Industrial Mathematics Structure in Linz 5 #12;The Blast Furnace Process 6 #12;Aims": Looking for causes of an observed or desired effect! A.Tikhonov ( 1936), geophysical problems. F

  11. BILEVEL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS WITH VECTORVALUED ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 1 ... been topic of a large number of articles, see the bibliography [8], and of at least two monographs [2, 7]. If the optimal solution of the problem (1.1) is not ...

  12. Galois Groups of Schubert Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Del Campo Sanchez, Abraham

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    GALOIS GROUPS OF SCHUBERT PROBLEMS A Dissertation by ABRAHAM MARTIN DEL CAMPO SANCHEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY... August 2012 Major Subject: Mathematics GALOIS GROUPS OF SCHUBERT PROBLEMS A Dissertation by ABRAHAM MARTIN DEL CAMPO SANCHEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  13. Rate of reduction of ore-carbon composites: Part II. Modeling of reduction in extended composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortini, O.M.; Fruehan, R.J. [US Steel Research & Technological Center, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process for ironmaking was proposed using a rotary hearth furnace and an iron bath smelter to produce iron employing wood charcoal as an energy source and reductant. This paper examines reactions in composite pellet samples with sizes close to sizes used in industrial practice (10 to 16 min in diameter). A model was constructed using the combined kinetic mechanism developed in Part I of this series of articles along with equations for the computation of pellet temperature and shrinkage during the reaction. The analysis of reaction rates measured for pellets with wood charcoal showed that heat transfer plays a significant role in their overall rate of reaction at elevated temperatures. The slower rates measured in pellets containing coal char show that the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation is more significant than heat transfer. Model calculations suggest that the rates are highly sensitive to the thermal conductivity of pellets containing wood charcoal and are less sensitive to the external conditions of heat transfer. It was seen that the changes in pellet surface area and diameter due to shrinkage introduce little change on reaction rates. The model developed provides an adequate description of pellets of wood charcoal up to circa 90% of reduction. Experimentally determined rates of reduction of iron oxide by wood charcoal were approximately 5 to 10 times faster than rates measured in pellets with coal char.

  14. Isolation and microbial reduction of Fe(III) phyllosilicates...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to conditions similar to that in the pristine sediment. The extent of microbial (Geobacter sulfurreducens) reduction of Fe(III) phyllosilicates isolated by CDB extraction (ca....

  15. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to reduce vehicle miles traveled, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  16. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA)

    1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  17. Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gu, Baohua (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

  18. assessing emission reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduction by means Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Websites Summary: and Plasma Research Department, Ris), Helge Egsgaard (Biosystems Department, Ris), Per G....

  19. advanced emission reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduction by means Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Websites Summary: and Plasma Research Department, Ris), Helge Egsgaard (Biosystems Department, Ris), Per G....

  20. Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Policy Category Other Policy Policy Type Environmental Regulations Affected Technologies BiomassBiogas, Coal with CCS,...

  1. Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline...

  2. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Co-benefits...

  3. Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidificat...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon humidification: Roles of inorganically-induced hygroscopicity, Reduction in biomass burning aerosol light absorption upon...

  4. Corporate Property Tax Reduction for New/Expanded Generating Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Montana generating plants producing one megawatt (MW) or more with an alternative renewable energy source are eligible for the new or expanded industry property tax reduction. This incentive...

  5. Efficiency Improvement through Reduction in Friction and Wear...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications Heavy Truck Friction & Wear Reduction Technologies Development of High Power Density Driveline for Vehicles Low-Friction Engineered Surfaces...

  6. absorption-biological reduction integrated: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    toward employing mechanical fuel reduction treatments Meeting, July 11-14, 2005, Fortuna, California. 2 The authors are, respectively, Graduate Research Bolding, M. Chad 28...

  7. Teaching Variation Reduction Using a Virtual Manufacturing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Mu

    short courses. KEY WORDS: Simulation; Six Sigma; Variation reduction; Virtual environment. 1 by adopting a systematic frame- work like DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) in Six Sigma

  8. NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative launches mobile app...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press Releases Video Gallery Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home NNSA Blog NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative launches mobile app...

  9. NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Removes More Than One...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press Releases Video Gallery Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home NNSA Blog NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Removes More ......

  10. Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    tiarravt043erickson2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program Utah Clean Cities Transportation...

  11. Comment on 'New Insights in the Electrocatalytic Proton Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    investigation of the mechanism of oxidation of H2 proton reduction using a model nickel complex for nickel-based electrocatalysts with cyclic phosphorous ligands...

  12. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  13. Segmentation of artifacts and anatomy in CT metal artifact reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Seemeen; Cosman, Pamela; Wald, Christoph; Martz, Harry

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maximum- likelihood dual-energy tomographic imageartifact reduction by dual energy CT using monoenergetictive reconstruction of dual energy data 21 has the potential

  14. Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: UNDP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: www.undp.orgenergydocsCatalogue-Energy%20for%20Poverty%20Reduction% Cost: Free Language: English This catalogue contains...

  15. Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions: Effect of Amended Goethite on Microbial Community Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions:...

  16. A Facial Reduction Algorithm for Finding Sparse SOS Representations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    facial reduction algorithm and the elimination method for a sparse. SOS polynomial. ... reduce the size of the SDP obtained from a sparse SOS polynomial.

  17. ash reduction potential: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the David W. Macfarlane; Shawna Patterson Meyer 2005-01-01 3 ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS University of California eScholarship Repository...

  18. Bridging the Divide Between Poverty Reduction and Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bridging the Divide Between Poverty Reduction and Climate Change Through Sustainable and Innovative Energy Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  19. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and...

  20. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace026peden2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials...

  1. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting ace026peden2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High and Low...

  2. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma- Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction February 20, 2003 CRADA Protected Document and Data 2 Introduction * Engine dynamometer evaluation of...

  3. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company 2003deerhoard.pdf More Documents & Publications Plasma Assisted Catalysis...

  4. Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Compression ratio control Enablers: Advanced controls Variable Valve Timing Two-stage turbo-charging CoolingEGR Two stage combustion Fuel CN reduction Vaporization too slow...

  5. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life...

  6. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source...

  7. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Principal Investigator: Y.-X. Tao Florida International...

  8. alternative fuel reductions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Fuels? Alternative Fuels, the Smart Choice: Alternative fuels - biodiesel, electricity, ethanol (E85), natural gas 4 Mastication: A fuel reduction and site...

  9. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Improve Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  10. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  11. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy...

  12. assessing risk reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    State Ferries risk assessments, the studies van Dorp, Johan Ren 22 ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS University of California eScholarship...

  13. A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A Requirement for Significant Reduction in the Maximum BTU Input Rate of Decorative Vented Gas Fireplaces Would Impose Substantial Burdens on Manufacturers A Requirement for...

  14. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Balch

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The pool of experts is much reduced today. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fourth of five annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the April 2002 through March 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  15. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  17. Depletion GPT-free sensitivity analysis for reactor eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript introduces a novel approach to solving depletion perturbation theory problems without the need to set up or solve the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) equations. The approach, hereinafter denoted generalized perturbation theory free (GPT-Free), constructs a reduced order model (ROM) using methods based in perturbation theory and computes response sensitivity profiles in a manner that is independent of the number or type of responses, allowing for an efficient computation of sensitivities when many responses are required. Moreover, the reduction error from using the ROM is quantified in the GPT-Free approach by means of a Wilks' order statistics error metric denoted the K-metric. Traditional GPT has been recognized as the most computationally efficient approach for performing sensitivity analyses of models with many input parameters, e.g. when forward sensitivity analyses are computationally intractable. However, most neutronics codes that can solve the fundamental (homogenous) adjoint eigenvalue problem do not have GPT capabilities unless envisioned during code development. The GPT-Free approach addresses this limitation by requiring only the ability to compute the fundamental adjoint. This manuscript demonstrates the GPT-Free approach for depletion reactor calculations performed in SCALE6 using the 7x7 UAM assembly model. A ROM is developed for the assembly over a time horizon of 990 days. The approach both calculates the reduction error over the lifetime of the simulation using the K-metric and benchmarks the obtained sensitivities using sample calculations. (authors)

  18. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    more secure electricity for customers and will reduce our nation's dependence on fossil fuels. Many energy technologies, particularly renewables, generate direct current (DC)...

  19. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that could benefit from this coating process include high-definition flat panel displays, sensor coatings for both biological and chemical sensors, and low-k materials for next...

  20. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and offset the benefits. Australia has met its water supply demand with freshwater dams and water catchments in the past, but has been unable to do so in the last decade due...

  1. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and is charged by an energy harvesting PV device. Originally funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the device...

  2. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solutions, Sandia and Princeton Power Systems have teamed up to develop the Demand Response Inverter (DRI). Innovative Edge The DRI is a power flow control system that...

  3. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnical News, informationPriority Firm

  4. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnical News, informationPriority FirmTech Transfer Success

  5. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br BromineProbing the Proton's Weak SideTech

  6. Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 Br BromineProbing the Proton's Weak

  7. Kron`s reduction method applied to the time stepping finite element analysis of induction machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degeneff, R.C.; Gutierrez, M.R.; Salon, S.J.; Burow, D.W. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Electric Power Engineering Dept.] [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Electric Power Engineering Dept.; Nevins, R.J. [Martin Marietta Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)] [Martin Marietta Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of large induction motors during transient as well as steady state running conditions is of significant interest to the power industry. A variety of analytical predictive tools are employed to aid the design and predict their operation under transient and steady state conditions. One of the most powerful method for investigating the transient behavior of induction machines is a coupled time stepping finite element analysis which can combine electromagnetic fields, circuits and mechanical systems. Due to the complexity of the finite element induction machine model and the resulting large number of describing equations, the computation time required for such programs to solve practical problems becomes a major limitation. This becomes even more of a concern when different design options or operating scenarios are evaluated. This paper presents a strategy to reduce the required running time in order to make a parametric study of induction machines such as the assessment of different design options feasible. This is accomplished by reducing the number of finite element equations that must be solved while maintaining the same level of accuracy of solutions. This method is based on Kron`s network reduction work for linear systems and has successfully been applied to large lumped parameter model of transformers. This paper illustrates the reduction method by comparing the flux density in the air gap for a complete FEM model of an induction machine to that of the reduced model. The results are essentially identical with a reduction in computational time of approximately 71%.

  8. Solving the Tulsa ozone problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, K.K. [Atmospheric Information Systems, Norman, OK (United States); Wilson, J.D. [Wilson Consulting Group, Tulsa, OK (United States); Gibeau, E. [Aeromet Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

  9. Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hymes, Edward

    2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set forth in California?s Climate Change law, presents a major opportunity for both the environment as well as the region. C6 Resources is conducting the Project in collaboration with federally-funded research centers, such as Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab. C6 Resources and Shell have identified CCS as one of the critical pathways toward a worldwide goal of providing cleaner energy. C6 Resources, in conjunction with the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), has conducted an extensive and ongoing public outreach and CCS education program for local, regional and state-wide stakeholders. As part of a long term relationship, C6 Resources will continue to engage directly with community leaders and residents to ensure public input and transparency. This topical report summarizes the technical work from Phase 1 of the Project in the following areas: ? Surface Facility Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the preliminary engineering work performed for CO2 capture, CO2 compression and dehydration at the refinery, and surface facilities at the sequestration site ? Pipeline Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the pipeline routing study and preliminary engineering design ? Geologic Sequestration: summarizes the work to characterize, model and evaluate the sequestration site ? Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (MVA): summarizes the MVA plan to assure long-term containment of the sequestered CO2

  10. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  11. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: DEFINING THE NEEDED CAPABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the second of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper begins with a discussion of the current nuclear force and the plans and procurement programs for the modernization of that force. Current weapon systems and warheads were conceived and built decades ago, and procurement programs have begun for the modernization or replacement of major elements of the nuclear force: the heavy bomber, the air-launched cruise missile, the ICBMs, and the ballistic-missile submarines. In addition, the Nuclear Weapons Council has approved a new framework for nuclear-warhead life extension ? not fully fleshed out yet ? that aims to reduce the current number of nuclear explosives from seven to five, the so-called ?3+2? vision. This vision includes three interoperable warheads for both ICBMs and SLBMs (thus eliminating one backup weapon) and two warheads for aircraft delivery (one gravity bomb and one cruise-missile, eliminating a second backup gravity bomb). This paper also includes a discussion of the current and near-term nuclear-deterrence mission, both global and regional, and offers some observations on future of the strategic deterrence mission and the challenges of regional and extended nuclear deterrence.

  12. IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel's Manufacturing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel's Manufacturing Environment Brian Subirana subirana@mit.edu MIT Center for Coordination Science WP #222 July 2003 #12;IT/Automation Cost Reduction in Intel maintaining existing service levels. "We want you to reduce automation costs by 50% while maintaining equal

  13. Reduction in Work Force Unclassified Staff Office of Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Reduction in Work Force ­ Unclassified Staff 9.15 Office of Human Resources Applies to: Regular by the Health System. Health System employees should contact their human resource department for further information. The Ohio State University ­ Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Policy 9.15 Reduction in Work

  14. Metamaterials for threat reduction applications: imaging, signal processing, and cloaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metamaterials for threat reduction applications: imaging, signal processing, and cloaking R. D effort is underway to fill this "THz gap" in view of potential threat reduction applications) and Theoretical Divisions, are exploring metamaterials-based de- vices operating at THz frequencies for threat

  15. Model Reduction Near Periodic Orbits of Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    manipulation in manufacturing [2], gene regulation in cells [3], and power generation in electrical systems [41 Model Reduction Near Periodic Orbits of Hybrid Dynamical Systems Samuel A. Burden, Shai Revzen system. We demonstrate reduction of a high­dimensional underactuated mechanical model for terrestrial

  16. UK Energy Research Centre Demand Reduction Theme, University of Oxford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UK Energy Research Centre Demand Reduction Theme, University of Oxford The Experience of Carbon Energy Research Centre ­ Demand Reduction Theme Environmental Change Institute Oxford University Centre for the Environment South Parks Road Oxford OX1 3QY www.eci.ox.ac.uk www.ukerc.ac.uk #12;UK Energy Research Centre 2 1

  17. Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department to groundwater and soil contamination. In particular, VC can be produced as an intermediate in the reductive- lenging. Traditional "pump-and-treat" treatment systems have proven to be costly and ineffective in many

  18. Measuring the poverty reduction potential of land in rural Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Measuring the poverty reduction potential of land in rural Mexico Frederico Finan, Elisabeth debate on the role of land as an instrument for poverty reduction, we analyze the conditions under which access to land reduces poverty in Mexican rural communities. Semi-parametric regression results show

  19. Oxygen Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201403264

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Oxygen Reduction DOI: 10.1002/anie.201403264 Dramatic Increase in the Oxygen Reduction Reaction solvation) is used to predict how the energies and barriers for the mechanistic steps of the oxygen. In these electro- chemical devices, H2 (generated e.g. from solar energy conversion) reacts with O2 to produce

  20. Reduction and Unfolding for Quantum Systems: the Hydrogen Atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. D'Avanzo; G. Marmo; A. Valentino

    2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we propose a ``quantum reduction procedure'' based on the reduction of algebras of differential operators on a manifold. We use these techniques to show, in a systematic way, how to relate the hydrogen atom to a family of quantum harmonic oscillators, by the means of the Kustaahneimo-Stiefel fibration.

  1. Phosphorus reduction in dairy effluent through flocculation and precipitation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bragg, Amanda Leann

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    to the flocculated effluent raised the pH from near 8 to near 9, inducing P precipitation, further reducing the P content. The total P reduction for the best combination of treatments was 97%, a decrease from 76 to 2 mg L-1. If this level of reduction were achieved...

  2. The dynamic sphere test problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chabaud, Brandon M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brock, Jerry S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brandon M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this manuscript we define the dynamic sphere problem as a spherical shell composed of a homogeneous, linearly elastic material. The material exhibits either isotropic or transverse isotropic symmetry. When the problem is formulated in material coordinates, the balance of mass equation is satisfied automatically. Also, the material is assumed to be kept at constant temperature, so the only relevant equation is the equation of motion. The shell has inner radius r{sub i} and outer radius r{sub o}. Initially, the shell is at rest. We assume that the interior of the shell is a void and we apply a time-varying radial stress on the outer surface.

  3. ITERATIVE METHODS FOR NEUTRON TRANSPORT EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Ivan

    Abstract. We discuss iterative methods for computing criticality in nuclear reactors. In general as the inner solver. Key words. neutron transport, criticality, generalised eigenvalue problem, symmetry. Reactor criticality problems. Climate change is a challenging problem of great contemporary interest

  4. Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex Applied Mathematics 121 -- Spring 2011 Due 5:00 PM, Friday, February 18 linear programs using the Simplex method. Second, you will get a better understanding of linear programming through a better understanding of the Simplex method. Contents 1 Making it rain 2 2 Simplex

  5. Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex AM121/ES121 -- Fall 2014 Due 5:00 PM, Tuesday, September 30, 2014 linear programs using the Simplex method. Second, you will get a better understanding of linear programming through a better understanding of the Simplex method. Contents 1 Making it rain 3 2 Simplex

  6. Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex Applied Mathematics 121 -- Spring 2014 Due 5:00 PM, Friday, February 21 practice solving linear programs using the Simplex method. Second, you will get a better understanding of linear programming through a better understanding of the Simplex method. Contents 1 Making it rain 3 2

  7. Problems in unification and supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, G.; Henyey, F. (eds.)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Problems in unification of the various gauge groups, quantum gravity, supersymmetry and supergravity, compact dimensions of space-time, and conditions at the beginning of the universe are discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 15 papers presented. (WHK)

  8. Sour landfill gas problem solved

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.

  9. MATRIXDEPENDENT MULTIGRIDHOMOGENIZATION FOR DIFFUSION PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse grid operators by means of the Galerkin approximation. In numerical on a micro­scale level, require that all length scales appearing in the problem are completely resolved. In numerical simulation however, due to reasons of storage requirements and numerical complexity

  10. Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    PSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN WITH AIR PSE Developed by Prof. Donald Dabdub Computational Environmental Sciences Laboratory Mechanical COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical

  11. Monte Carlo photon benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photon benchmark calculations have been performed to validate the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code. These are compared to both the COG Monte Carlo computer code and either experimental or analytic results. The calculated solutions indicate that the Monte Carlo method, and MCNP and COG in particular, can accurately model a wide range of physical problems.

  12. Substation automation problems and possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H.L.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolutionary growth in the use and application of microprocessors in substations has brought the industry to the point of considering integrated substation protection, control, and monitoring systems. An integrated system holds the promise of greatly reducing the design, documentation, and implementation cost for the substation control, protection, and monitoring systems. This article examines the technical development path and the present implementation problems.

  13. Moment problems and boundaries of number triangles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gnedin, Alexander

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The boundary problem for graphs like Pascal's but with general multiplicities of edges is related to a `backward' problem of moments of the Hausdorff type.

  14. Relaxations and discretizations for the pooling problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akshay Gupte

    2015-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 28, 2015 ... Abstract: The pooling problem is a folklore NP-hard global optimization problem that finds appli- cations in industries such as petrochemical ...

  15. photo copy of assignment 1 problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The problems listed below, and in Exercise 9, are from a Russian Grade 3 textbook.6 Solve the problems and compare their conditions and solutions. a.

  16. Test instances for the traffic assignment problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 8, 2008 ... mation on test problems previously used in the literature to facilitate benchmarking. Keywords. Traffic assignment problem, BPR function, ...

  17. Asymptotic analysis of an optimal location problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Asymptotic analysis of an optimal location problem. One considers the problem of optimal location of masses(say production centers) in order to approximate a ...

  18. Abstract--We revisit the loss reduction problem for network reconfiguration in power distribution systems in this paper.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chenye

    power networks. However, we can tackle this challenge in smart grid especially with the help of smart meter. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic greedy algorithm to achieve the minimal LPL

  19. Effects of Distributed Energy Resources on Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ruchi; Tuffner, Francis K.; Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is one of the cheapest technologies which can be intelligently leveraged to provide considerable energy savings. The addition of renewables in the form of distributed resources can affect the entire power system, but more importantly, affects the traditional substation control schemes at the distribution level. This paper looks at the effect on energy consumption, peak load reduction, and voltage profile changes due to the addition of distributed generation in a distribution feeder using combinations of volt var control. An IEEE 13-node system is used to simulate the various cases. Energy savings and peak load reduction for different simulation scenarios are compared.

  20. Liquid measurement - Techniques and problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffey, B.R.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews a few liquid measurement techniques and their associated problems. In measuring liquid petroleum gas, the first obstacle to overcome is accomodating some form of volumetric measurement. This is usually accomplished by orifice, positive displacement, or turbine meters. Each of the three established methods is covered extensively by industry standards in the API Manual of Petroleum Standards. If the operator follows these standards, very accurate results can be achieved.

  1. On the Hardness of Approximating the MINHACK Problem Ramkumar Chinchani, Duc Ha, Anusha Iyer, Hung Q. Ngo, and Shambhu Upadhyaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngo, Hung Q.

    of New York at Buffalo, Amherst, NY 14260, USA. {rc27,ducha,aa44,hungngo as the problem of finding the best way to compromise a target node given a few initial compromised nodes in a network. We give several reductions to show that MINIMUM HACKING is not approximable to within 2 (log n) 1

  2. Diagnostics for multiple regression problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, J.C.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last 10 to 15 years there has been much work done in trying to improve linear regression results. Individuals have analyzed the susceptibility of least-squares results to values far removed from the center of the independent variable observations. They have studied the problem of heavy-tailed residuals, and they have studied the problem of collinearity. From these studies have come ridge regression techniques, robust regression techniques, regression on principal components, etc. However, many practitioners view these methods with suspicion (and ignorance), and prefer to continue using the usual least-squares procedures to fit their models, even though their results might not be answering the question they think. In reaction to this, statisticians are spending more time analyzing how the individual observations affect the least squares results. In the last few years approximately 10 papers and one text have appeared that address the problem of how to study the influence of the individual observations. This report is a study of the recent work done in linear regression diagnostics. It is concerned with analyzing the effect of one case at a time, since the methods to analyze this situation are relatively straight-forward and are not prohibitive computationally.

  3. Beamer graphics problem solved Abhijit Champanerkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Champanerkar, Abhijit

    Beamer graphics problem solved Abhijit Champanerkar College of Staten Island, CUNY January 15, 2009 Abhijit Champanerkar (CSI, CUNY) Beamer graphics problem solved #12;I wanted to get the following and not on a Mac :( Abhijit Champanerkar (CSI, CUNY) Beamer graphics problem solved #12;Graphics Problem: Figure

  4. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.

    1985-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  5. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

  6. Ris-R-1545(EN) Emission reduction by means

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Plasma Research Department, Risø), Helge Egsgaard (Biosystems Department, Risø), Per G. Kristensen reduction by means of low temperature plasma. Summary Department: Optics and Plasma Research Department Risø

  7. On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

  8. Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Catalyst Paper strategy to manage GHG exposure is a combination of energy reduction initiatives in manufacturing and the effective use of biomass and alternative fuels to produce mill steam and electricity from the powerhouse. The energy...

  9. Transaction Abort Rate Reduction with Prioritized Atomic Multicast Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muńoz, Francesc

    and Francesc D. Mu~noz-Esco´i Instituto Tecnol´ogico de Inform´atica Universitat Polit`ecnica de Val Abort Rate Reduction with Prioritized Atomic Multicast Protocols Emili Miedes and Francesc D. Mu~noz-Esco

  10. A Review of Energy Reduction Competitions. What Have We Learned?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward, Vine; Jones, Christopher M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for taking energy conservation strategies (such as investingBehavior Change Strategies Energy reduction competitions useAs a behavior energy intervention strategy, I don’t know how

  11. Evidence of magnetic isotope effects during thermochemical sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oduro, Harry D.

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction experiments with simple amino acid and dilute concentrations of sulfate reveal significant degrees of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation. Enrichments of up to 13‰ for [superscript ...

  12. Turbulent drag reduction by constant near-wall forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JIN XU, SUCHUAN DONG, MARTIN R. MAXEY and GEORGE E. KARNIADAKIS

    2007-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of high molecular weight polymer solutions or gas in the near-wall region of a liquid boundary layer can result in turbulent drag reduction of more than ...

  13. Soil Disturbance from an Integrated Mechanical Forest Fuel Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Soil Disturbance from an Integrated Mechanical Forest Fuel Reduction Operation in Southwest Oregon1 literature has quantified harvesting system effectiveness or soil disturbance concerns from such operations. This paper reports results of soil disturbance generated from an integrated forest harvesting

  14. Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the potential peak load reductions from residential energy efficiency upgrades in hot and humid climates. First, a baseline scenario is established. Then, the demand and consumption impacts of individual upgrade measures are assessed. Several of these upgrades...

  15. Rapid Wolff–Kishner reductions in a silicon carbide microreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wolff–Kishner reductions are performed in a novel silicon carbide microreactor. Greatly reduced reaction times and safer operation are achieved, giving high yields without requiring a large excess of hydrazine. The corrosion ...

  16. Energy Conservation and Waste Reduction in the Metal Fabrication Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, M. C. Jr.; Looby, G. P.

    Reductions of energy use and waste generation can help manufacturers to be more profitable and more environmentally acceptable. Industrial Assessment Centers located at universities throughout the United States, funded by the U.S. Department...

  17. ZERO WASTE STANFORD WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING GUIDELINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerdes, J. Christian

    ZERO WASTE STANFORD WASTE REDUCTION, RECYCLING AND COMPOSTING GUIDELINES PLASTICS, METALS & GLASS pleaseemptyandflatten COMPOSTABLES kitchenandyardwasteonly LANDFILL ONLY ifallelsefails All Plastic Containers Metal Material All Food Paper Plates & Napkins *including pizza & donut boxes Compostable & Biodegradable

  18. Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    support for allocating resources to alter the market mix of carbon sequestration and direct emission carbon sequestration practices also influence the environment by for example reducing erosion1 Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental

  19. Metal Reduction and Iron Biomineralization by a Psychrotolerant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sp. strain PV-4, from the microbial mat at a hydrothermal vent of Loihi Seamount in the Pacific Ocean has been further characterized, with emphases on metal reduction and iron...

  20. Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...

  1. Reduction of Quantum Phase Fluctuations in Intermediate States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amit Verma; Anirban Pathak

    2008-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently we have shown that the reduction of the Carruthers-Nieto symmetric quantum phase fluctuation parameter (U) with respect to its coherent state value corresponds to an antibunched state, but the converse is not true. Consequently reduction of U is a stronger criterion of nonclassicality than the lowest order antibunching. Here we have studied the possibilities of reduction of $U$ in intermediate states by using the Barnett Pegg formalism. We have shown that the reduction of phase fluctuation parameter U can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, generalized binomial state, hypergeometric state, negative binomial state, and photon added coherent state. It is also shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be controlled by various parameters related to intermediate states. Further, we have provided specific examples of antibunched states, for which $U$ is greater than its poissonian state value.

  2. Microbubble drag reduction phenomenon study in a channel flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez Bernal, Jose Alfredo

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on drag reduction by injection of microbubbles was performed in the upper wall of a rectangular channel at Re = 5128. Particle Image Velocimetry measurement technique (PIV) was used to obtain instantaneous ...

  3. Model reduction for nonlinear dynamical systems with parametric uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yuxiang Beckett

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear dynamical systems are known to be sensitive to input parameters. In this thesis, we apply model order reduction to an important class of such systems -- one which exhibits limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) and ...

  4. Antibody-mediated reduction of {alpha}-ketoamides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, P.G.; Gallop, M.A.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against a 4-nitrophenyl phosphonate hapten catalyze the stereospecific reduction of an {alpha}-ketoamide to the corresponding {alpha}-hydroxyamide in the presence of an appropriate reducing agent.

  5. 3D Module Placement for Congestion and Power Noise Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    3D Module Placement for Congestion and Power Noise Reduction Jacob R. Minz School of ECE Georgia that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice

  6. City of Philadelphia- Streamlined Solar Permitting and Fee Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photovoltaic systems of 10 kW or less installed on 1- or 2-family residential units are eligible for streamlined permitting and a fee reduction. PV projects can use a [http://www.phila.gov/green...

  7. Hydrogen Reduction of Ferric Ions for Use in Copper Electrowinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karl S. Noah; Debby F. Bruhn; John E. Wey; Robert S. Cherry

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional copper electrowinning process uses the water hydrolysis reaction as the anodic source of electrons. However this reaction generates acid mist and requires large quantities of energy. In order to improve energy efficiency and avoid acid mist, an alternative anodic reaction of ferrous ion oxidation has been proposed. This reaction does not involve evolution of acid mist and can be carried out at a lower cell voltage than the conventional process. However, because ferrous ions are converted to ferric ions at the anode in this process, there is a need for reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions to continue this process. The most promising method for this reduction is the use of hydrogen gas since the resulting byproduct acid can be used elsewhere in the process and, unlike other reductants, hydrogen does not introduce other species that need subsequent removal. Because the hydrogen reduction technology has undergone only preliminary lab scale testing, additional research is needed to evaluate its commercial potential. Two issues for this research are the potentially low mass transfer rate of hydrogen into the electrolyte stream because of its low solubility in water, and whether other gaseous reductants less expensive than hydrogen, such as natural gas or syngas, might work. In this study various reductants were investigated to carry out the reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions using a simulated electrolyte solution recycled through a trickle bed reactor packed with catalyst. The gases tested as reductants were hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and a 50/50 mixture of H2 and CO. Nitrogen was also tested as an inert control. These gases were tested because they are constituents in either natural gas or syngas. The catalysts tested were palladium and platinum. Two gas flow rates and five electrolyte flow rates were tested. Pure hydrogen was an effective reductant of ferric ion. The rates were similar with both palladium and platinum. The ferric iron reduction increased with both the flow rate of gas as well as the liquid flow rate (up to ~0.1 g/L/min). Pure carbon monoxide also reduced the ferric ion, but at a rate about one tenth that of pure hydrogen at similar conditions. The syngas mixture of equimolar hydrogen and carbon monoxide reacted at a rate intermediate between each gas as a pure stream (up to ~ 0.06 g/L/min). This gas mixture shows that some form of unpurified reformer gas could be used to reduce the ferric ion in the electrolyte solution. Nitrogen was inert causing very little to no reduction of ferric ion.

  8. The Complexity of the Consistency and N-representability Problems for Quantum States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi-Kai Liu

    2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    QMA (Quantum Merlin-Arthur) is the quantum analogue of the class NP. There are a few QMA-complete problems, most notably the ``Local Hamiltonian'' problem introduced by Kitaev. In this dissertation we show some new QMA-complete problems. The first one is ``Consistency of Local Density Matrices'': given several density matrices describing different (constant-size) subsets of an n-qubit system, decide whether these are consistent with a single global state. This problem was first suggested by Aharonov. We show that it is QMA-complete, via an oracle reduction from Local Hamiltonian. This uses algorithms for convex optimization with a membership oracle, due to Yudin and Nemirovskii. Next we show that two problems from quantum chemistry, ``Fermionic Local Hamiltonian'' and ``N-representability,'' are QMA-complete. These problems arise in calculating the ground state energies of molecular systems. N-representability is a key component in recently developed numerical methods using the contracted Schrodinger equation. Although these problems have been studied since the 1960's, it is only recently that the theory of quantum computation has allowed us to properly characterize their complexity. Finally, we study some special cases of the Consistency problem, pertaining to 1-dimensional and ``stoquastic'' systems. We also give an alternative proof of a result due to Jaynes: whenever local density matrices are consistent, they are consistent with a Gibbs state.

  9. The iron reduction ability of various rose rootstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Garry Vernon

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and day 14. . . . . . . . 3. Summation of peak iron reduction rates in the rose genotypes at day 7, and FeEDTA concentration of peak reduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page . . . . 30 . . . . 36 . . . . 38 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Iron nutrition..., usually as oxides. The amount of iron that is soluble in a soil is quite low compared to the total iron content, being dependent on the solubility of inorganic iron oxides. Soluble forms of inorganic iron include Fe +, Fe(OH) +, Fe(OH)g+ and Fe...

  10. Towards the reduction of sex-based stereotypes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian Anthony

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    TOWARDS THE REDUCTION OF SEX-BASED STEREOTYPES A Senior Honors Thesis by BRIAN ANTHONY THOMAS Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University In partial fulfillment of the requirements... of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS APRIL 2001 Group: Psychology I TOWARDS THE REDUCTION OF SEX-BASED STEREOTYPES A Senior Honors Thesis by BRIAN ANTHONY THOMAS Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas ASM...

  11. A new Lagrangian dynamic reduction in field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    François Gay-Balmaz; Tudor S. Ratiu

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For symmetric classical field theories on principal bundles there are two methods of symmetry reduction: covariant and dynamic. Assume that the classical field theory is given by a symmetric covariant Lagrangian density defined on the first jet bundle of a principal bundle. It is shown that covariant and dynamic reduction lead to equivalent equations of motion. This is achieved by constructing a new Lagrangian defined on an infinite dimensional space which turns out to be gauge group invariant.

  12. Microbial Reduction of Intragrain U(VI) in Contaminated Sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Zhong, Lirong; Heald, Steve M.; Wang, Zheming; Jeon, Byong Hun; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accessibility of precipitated, intragrain U(VI) in a contaminated sediment to microbial reduction was investigated to ascertain geochemical and microscopic transport phenomena controlling U(VI) bioavailability. The sediment was collected from the US DOE Hanford site, and contained uranyl precipitates in a form of Na-boltwoodite within the mm-sized granitic lithic fragments in the sediment. Microbial reduction was investigated in a culture of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium (DMRB), Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, in bicarbonate solutions at pH 6.8 buffered by PIPES. Measurements of uranium concentration, speciation, and valence in aqueous and solid phases indicated that microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) proceeded by two mechanisms: 1) sequentially coupled dissolution of intragrain uranyl precipitates, diffusion of dissolved U(VI) out of intragrain regions, and microbial reduction of dissolved U(VI); and 2) U(VI) reduction in the intragrain regions by soluble, diffusible biogenic reductants. The bioreduction rate in the first pathway was over 3 orders of magnitude slower than that in comparable aqueous solutions containing aqueous U(VI) only. The slower bioreduction rate was attributed to: 1) the release of calcium from the desorption/dissolution of calcium-containing minerals in the sediment, which subsequently altered U(VI) aqueous speciation and slowed U(VI) bioreduction and 2) alternative electron transfer pathways that reduced U(VI) in the intragrain regions and changed its dissolution and solubility behavior. The results implied that the overall rate of microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) will be influenced by the reactive mass transfer of U(VI) and biogenic reductants within intragrain regions, and geochemical reactions controlling major ion concentrations that affect U(VI) aqueous speciation and microbial activity.

  13. Reduction of trichloroethylene in a model aquifer with methanotrophic bacteria 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Duane Dee

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTERIA A Thesis by Duane Dee Hicks Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fullfillment of the requirements for thc degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Civil Engineering REDUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN A MODEL AQUIFER WITH METHANOTROPHIC BACTEPslA A Thesis by Duane Dec Hicks Approved as to style and content by Bill Batchclor (Chair of Committee...

  14. Chromium isotopes as indicators of hexavalent chromium reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Thomas M.

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for a university research project which advanced development of a new technology for identifying chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium contamination in groundwater systems. Reduction renders mobile and toxic hexavalent chromium immobile and less toxic. The new method uses stable isotope ratio measurements, which are made using multicollector ICP-mass spectrometry. The main objectives of this project were completed during the project period and two peer-reviewed articles were published to disseminate the information gained.

  15. Advanced configurations for leakage reduction in a labyrinth seal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veldanda, Sharath B.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADVANCED CONFIGURATIONS FOR LEAKAGE REDUCTION IN A LABYRINTH SEAL A Thesis by SHARATH B. VELDANDA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering ADVANCED CONFIGURATION FOR LEAKAGE REDUCTION IN A LABYRINTH SEAL A Thesis by SHARATH B. VELDANDA Approved as to style and content by: David L. Rhode y~~ (Member) K. D. Korkan (Member...

  16. A Generalized Coupon Collector Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Weiyu

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides analysis to a generalized version of the coupon collector problem, in which the collector gets $d$ distinct coupons each run and she chooses the one that she has the least so far. On the asymptotic case when the number of coupons $n$ goes to infinity, we show that on average $\\frac{n\\log n}{d} + \\frac{n}{d}(m-1)\\log\\log{n}+O(mn)$ runs are needed to collect $m$ sets of coupons. An efficient exact algorithm is also developed for any finite case to compute the average needed runs exactly. Numerical examples are provided to verify our theoretical predictions.

  17. Pattern Alteration: Prominent Posture Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    if the problem is severe. These two techniques can help: you can compare the upper back width and the center back length, lines 5 and 9 of your Personal Measurement Chart, with the corresponding measurements on the pattern; or you can check garments you... to the point where you need the altera- tion (generally approximately 5 inches, or 12.7 cm). Draw a horizontal line across the pattern at a right angle to the lengthwise grainline or the center back. (Note: When measuring, allow for a lowered neckline...

  18. First Passage Problems in Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Chou; Maria R. D'Orsogna

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications of first passage times in stochastic processes arise across a wide range of length and time scales in biological settings. After an initial technical overview, we survey representative applications and their corresponding models. Within models that are effectively Markovian, we discuss canonical examples of first passage problems spanning applications to molecular dissociation and self-assembly, molecular search, transcription and translation, neuronal spiking, cellular mutation and disease, and organismic evolution and population dynamics. In this last application, a simple model for stem-cell ageing is presented and some results derived. Various approximation methods and the physical and mathematical subtleties that arise in the chosen applications are also discussed.

  19. Mosquito Problems after a Storm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnsen, Mark

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    ER-042 8-08 Mark M. Johnsen, Texas AgriLife Extension Service, The Texas A&M System After a severe storm, mosquito populations can explode, and the diseases they carry can be a danger to humans. Mosquito problems occur in two distinct waves after.... Louis encephalitis. This mosquito species lays eggs in roadside ditches, storm sew- ers, birdbaths, or any container or depression that holds water. Eggs hatch in 7 days. West Nile virus (WNV) has two distinct clini- cal forms known as West Nile Fever...

  20. Mathematical Problems of Thermoacoustic Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Linh V.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    (y,s) = ?integraldisplay 0 ?R(s,?) ?integraldisplay 0 g(y,r)I(r,?)drd?. The key ingredient in the proof of Theorem A.1 is the following identity, which is equivalent to a range description of operator T (see Remark D.3): Theorem A.4 Suppose that ? is a ball, f ? C?0... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 C. Publications and presentations of the results . . . . . . . . 7 II INVERSION FORMULAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 A. Introduction to the problem and main results . . . . . . . 9 B. Derivation of Theorem A.1 from Theorem A.4...

  1. Hydrazine-reduction of graphite-and graphene oxide Sungjin Park a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) particles, which were not exfoliated, and completely exfoliated individual graphene oxide platelets hydrazine reduction of graphene oxide platelets pro- duced agglomerates of exfoliated platelets, the reduction of GO particles produced particles that were not exfoliated. The degree of chemical reduction

  2. Effect of additives on the reduction of nitrogen oxides using cyanuric acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standridge, Brad Lee

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature band within which reduction is achieved; (3) increase the maximum amount of reduction. It was found that, with the exception of methanol and hydrogen peroxide, these additives had the tendency to shift the reduction "window" toward slightly lower...

  3. Perchlorate reduction using electrochemically induced pitting corrosion of zero-valent titanium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chun Woo

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    reduced to chloride using electrochemically developed pitting corrosion on Ti(0). Perchlorate reduction was believed to be caused by an active reductant (dissolved Ti(II)) during the pitting corrosion of Ti(0). The rate of perchlorate reduction...

  4. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China’s CementEnergy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China’s Cementenergy savings and CO2 emission reduction potentials are

  5. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF MICROBIAL TECHNETIUM REDUCTION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiChristina, Thomas J. [Georgia Tech

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbial Tc(VII) reduction is an attractive alternative strategy for bioremediation of technetium-contaminated subsurface environments. Traditional ex situ remediation processes (e.g., adsorption or ion exchange) are often limited by poor extraction efficiency, inhibition by competing ions and production of large volumes of produced waste. Microbial Tc(VII) reduction provides an attractive alternative in situ remediation strategy since the reduced end-product Tc(IV) precipitates as TcO2, a highly insoluble hydrous oxide. Despite its potential benefits, the molecular mechanism of microbial Tc(VII) reduction remains poorly understood. The main goal of the proposed DOENABIR research project is to determine the molecular mechanism of microbial Tc(VII) reduction. Random mutagenesis studies in our lab have resulted in generation of a set of six Tc(VII) reduction-deficient mutants of Shewanella oneidensis. The anaerobic respiratory deficiencies of each Tc(VII) reduction-deficient mutant was determined by anaerobic growth on various combinations of three electron donors and 14 terminal electron acceptors. Results indicated that the electron transport pathways to Tc(VII), NO3 -, Mn(III) and U(VI) share common structural or regulatory components. In addition, we have recently found that wild-type Shewanella are also able to reduce Tc(IV) as electron acceptor, producing Tc(III) as an end-product. The recent genome sequencing of a variety of technetium-reducing bacteria and the anticipated release of several additional genome sequences in the coming year, provides us with an unprecedented opportunity to determine the mechanism of microbial technetium reduction across species and genus lines.

  6. Metric problems in sub-Riemannian geometry Gromov's dimension approach to the Holder equivalence problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pansu, Pierre

    Metric problems in sub-Riemannian geometry Gromov's dimension approach to the H¨older equivalence problem Gromov's cochain approach to the H¨older equivalence problem Rumin's complex Quasisymmetric H¨older-Lipschitz equivalence problem Differential forms and the H¨older equivalence problem P. Pansu September 1st, 2014 P

  7. PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

  8. Oxide Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell Fe Nanoclusters under Ion Irradiation. Oxide Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell Fe Nanoclusters...

  9. OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBON SUPPORTED METALLIC CLUSTER CATALYSTS IN ALKALINE ELECTROLYTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be published in the Proceedings OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBONof California. LBL-11891 Oxygen Reduction with Carbonof Pt interacts with both oxygen and water more strongly

  10. Reduction in downstream test utilization following introduction of coronary computed tomography in a cardiology practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlsberg, Ronald P.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Thomson, Louise E.; Friedman, John D.; Berman, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PAPER Reduction in downstream test utilization followingtesting, reduction of downstream SPECT MPI and TME as wellechocardiography Á Downstream utilization Á Cardiology

  11. Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions for Operations and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bode, Josh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions forMeasuring Short-term Air Conditioner Demand Reductions forpilots have shown that air conditioner (AC) electric loads

  12. Image reduction pipeline for the detection of variable sources in highly crowded fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claus A. Goessl; Arno Riffeser

    2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a reduction pipeline for CCD (charge-coupled device) images which was built to search for variable sources in highly crowded fields like the M31 bulge and to handle extensive databases due to large time series. We describe all steps of the standard reduction in detail with emphasis on the realisation of per pixel error propagation: Bias correction, treatment of bad pixels, flatfielding, and filtering of cosmic rays. The problems of conservation of PSF (point spread function) and error propagation in our image alignment procedure as well as the detection algorithm for variable sources are discussed: We build difference images via image convolution with a technique called OIS (Alard & Lupton, 1998), proceed with an automatic detection of variable sources in noise dominated images and finally apply a PSF-fitting, relative photometry to the sources found. For the WeCAPP project (Riffeser et al., 2001) we achieve 3 sigma detections for variable sources with an apparent brightness of e.g. m = 24.9 mag at their minimum and a variation of dm = 2.4 mag (or m = 21.9 mag brightness minimum and a variation of dm = 0.6 mag) on a background signal of 18.1 mag/arcsec^2 based on a 500 s exposure with 1.5 arcsec seeing at a 1.2 m telescope. The complete per pixel error propagation allows us to give accurate errors for each measurement.

  13. Rational reductions of the 2D-Toda hierarchy and mirror symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Brini; Guido Carlet; Stefano Romano; Paolo Rossi

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and study a two-parameter family of symmetry reductions of the two-dimensional Toda lattice hierarchy, which are characterized by a rational factorization of the Lax operator into a product of an upper diagonal and the inverse of a lower diagonal formal difference operator. They subsume and generalize several classical 1 + 1 integrable hierarchies, such as the bigraded Toda hierarchy, the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy and E. Frenkel's q-deformed Gelfand-Dickey hierarchy. We establish their characterization in terms of block Toeplitz matrices for the associated factorization problem, and study their Hamiltonian structure. At the dispersionless level, we show how the Takasaki-Takebe classical limit gives rise to a family of non-conformal Frobenius manifolds with flat identity. We use this to generalize the relation of the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy to Gromov-Witten theory by proving an analogous mirror theorem for rational reductions: in particular, we show that the dual-type Frobenius manifolds we obtain are isomorphic to the equivariant quantum cohomology of a family of toric Calabi-Yau threefolds obtained from minimal resolutions of the local orbifold line.

  14. Grid artifact reduction for direct digital radiography detectors based on rotated stationary grids with homomorphic filtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong Sik [Department of Electronics Engineering, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Gyeonggi-do 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanggyun [R and D Center, DRTECH Co., Gyeonggi-do 463-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Grid artifacts are caused when using the antiscatter grid in obtaining digital x-ray images. In this paper, research on grid artifact reduction techniques is conducted especially for the direct detectors, which are based on amorphous selenium. Methods: In order to analyze and reduce the grid artifacts, the authors consider a multiplicative grid image model and propose a homomorphic filtering technique. For minimal damage due to filters, which are used to suppress the grid artifacts, rotated grids with respect to the sampling direction are employed, and min-max optimization problems for searching optimal grid frequencies and angles for given sampling frequencies are established. The authors then propose algorithms for the grid artifact reduction based on the band-stop filters as well as low-pass filters. Results: The proposed algorithms are experimentally tested for digital x-ray images, which are obtained from direct detectors with the rotated grids, and are compared with other algorithms. It is shown that the proposed algorithms can successfully reduce the grid artifacts for direct detectors. Conclusions: By employing the homomorphic filtering technique, the authors can considerably suppress the strong grid artifacts with relatively narrow-bandwidth filters compared to the normal filtering case. Using rotated grids also significantly reduces the ringing artifact. Furthermore, for specific grid frequencies and angles, the authors can use simple homomorphic low-pass filters in the spatial domain, and thus alleviate the grid artifacts with very low implementation complexity.

  15. A Review of Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies forefficiency and CO2 Emission- reduction Technologies forefficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies The

  16. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO[sub 2]-containing gas streams is highly attractive as it produces a saleable. Product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO[sub 2] with coke) and Claus plants(reaction of SO[sub 2] with H[sub 2]S over catalyst). This project win investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single-stage selective reduction SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified as a superior catalyst for SO[sub 2] reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because of its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650C). Kinetic and parametric studies of SO[sub 2] reduction planned over various CeO[sub 2]-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a simplified process, a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. A first apparent application is treatment of regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought Claus-alternative'' for coal-fired power plant applications.

  17. Effective Metaroutines for Organizational Problem Solving EFFECTIVE METAROUTINES FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobek II, Durward K.

    Effective Metaroutines for Organizational Problem Solving 1 EFFECTIVE METAROUTINES FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEM SOLVING MANIMAY GHOSH and DURWARD K. SOBEK II* Mechanical and Industrial Engineering@ie.montana.edu * Corresponding Author #12;Effective Metaroutines for Organizational Problem Solving 2 Abstract Short

  18. 16.513 Midterm Exam (Spring 2005) There are 5 problems and one bonus problem.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Tingshu

    16.513 Midterm Exam (Spring 2005) There are 5 problems and one bonus problem. 1. (15) For eachSSS -= - -= 100 110 110 , 31 20 21 AA #12;6. Bonus problem (20) : Given a state equation Bu

  19. Multiple Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuel Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, David

    2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a Multiple Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuel Constraints (MVRPFC) is considered. This problem consists of a field of targets to be visited, and a collection of vehicles with fuel tanks that may visit the targets. Consideration...

  20. Characteristics of problem solving success in physics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Marsali Beth

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Skills in problem solving, including finding and applying the appropriate knowledge to a problem, are important learning outcomes from the completion of a Physics degree at University. This thesis investigates the ...

  1. Computational evaluation of two reactor benchmark problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowan, James Anthony

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    macroscopic cross sections for various pincell models in each benchmark problem. DEF3D, a multigroup multidimensional diffusion code, was used to evaluate the uranium-fueled lattice benchmark problem of the American Nuclear Society. TWODANT, a multigroup, two...

  2. Multiple Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuel Constraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, David

    2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a Multiple Vehicle Routing Problem with Fuel Constraints (MVRPFC) is considered. This problem consists of a field of targets to be visited, and a collection of vehicles with fuel tanks that may visit the targets. Consideration...

  3. A system analysis of the spam problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinberg, Gabriel R. (Gabriel Reiter)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers the problem of the large amount of unwanted email that is being sent and received, which lowers the aggregate value of email as a communication medium from what it would otherwise be. This problem is ...

  4. The Multi-Network Design Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Anantaram

    This paper studies a new multi-facility network synthesis problem, called the Multi-level Network Design (MLND) problem, that arises in the topological design of hierarchical communication, transportation, and electric ...

  5. Some Problems in Stochastic Portfolio Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaobo

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider some problems in the stochastic portfolio theory of equity markets. In the first part, we maximize the expected terminal value of a portfolio of equities. The optimal investment problem is then solved by the stochastic control approach...

  6. Nonparametric Bayesian analysis of some clustering problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Shubhankar

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    it useful for clustering problems where the number of clusters is unknown. We develop nonparametric Bayesian models for two different clustering problems, namely functional and graphical clustering. We propose a nonparametric Bayes wavelet model...

  7. The 3He Supply Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  8. Quantum simulations of physics problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somma, R. D. (Rolando D.); Ortiz, G. (Gerardo); Knill, E. H. (Emanuel H.); Gubernatis, J. E.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If a large Quantum Computer (QC) existed today, what type of physical problems could we efficiently simulate on it that we could not efficiently simulate on a classical Turing machine? In this paper we argue that a QC could solve some relevant physical 'questions' more efficiently. The existence of one-to-one mappings between different algebras of observables or between different Hilbert spaces allow us to represent and imitate any physical system by any other one (e.g., a bosonic system by a spin-1/2 system). We explain how these mappings can be performed, and we show quantum networks useful for the efficient evaluation of some physical properties, such as correlation functions and energy spectra.

  9. Quantum geometrodynamics creates new problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. P. Shestakova

    2008-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of last years in quantum geometrodynamics highlights new problems which were not obvious in its first formulation proposed by Wheeler and DeWitt. At the first stage the main task was to apply known quantization schemes to gravitational field or a certain cosmological model. This way has led to the realization of the fact that a quantum description of the Universe is impossible without implicit or explicit indication to a reference frame presented by some medium, filling the whole Universe, with its own equation of state and thermodynamical properties. Thus the questions arise, should one seek for a "privileged" reference frame or consider all the variety of gauge conditions and appropriate solutions for the wave function? It is worth noting that thermodynamical properties of such a quantum Universe would also depend on a chosen reference frame to some extent. So, we need a self-consistent quantum theoretical and thermodynamical description of the Universe.

  10. Evaluation of Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) on a National Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Conservation Voltage Reduction (CVR) is a reduction of energy consumption resulting from a reduction of feeder voltage. While there have been numerous CVR systems deployed in North America there has been little substantive analytic analysis of the effect; the majority of the published results are based on empirical field measurements. Since these results are based on empirical measurements it is difficult to extrapolate how this technology will behave on the various types of distribution feeders found throughout the nation. This report has utilized the Taxonomy of Prototypical feeder developed under the Modern Grid Initiative (MGI), now the Modern Grid Strategy (MGS), in order to estimate the benefits of CVR on multiple distribution feeder types. This information will then be used to determine an estimate of the national benefits of a wide scale deployment of CVR.

  11. Data Reduction Pipeline for the MMT and Magellan Infrared Spectrograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chilingarian, Igor; Moran, Sean; Brown, Warren; McLeod, Brian; Fabricant, Daniel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the new spectroscopic data reduction pipeline for the multi-object MMT/Magellan Infrared Spectrograph. The pipeline is implemented in idl as a stand-alone package and is publicly available in both stable and development versions. We describe novel algorithms for sky subtraction and correction for telluric absorption. We demonstrate that our sky subtraction technique reaches the Poisson limit set by the photon statistics. Our telluric correction uses a hybrid approach by first computing a correction function from an observed stellar spectrum, and then differentially correcting it using a grid of atmosphere transmission models for the target airmass value. The pipeline provides a sufficient level of performance for real time reduction and thus enables data quality control during observations. We reduce an example dataset to demonstrate the high data reduction quality.

  12. Direct printing and reduction of graphite oxide for flexible supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hanyung [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ve Cheah, Chang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Namjo [Energy Materials and Convergence Research Department, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junghoon, E-mail: jleenano@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Division of WCU Multiscale Mechanical Design, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We report direct printing and photo-thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) to obtain a highly porous pattern of interdigitated electrodes, leading to a supercapacitor on a flexible substrate. Key parameters optimized include the amount of GO delivered, the suitable photo-thermal energy level for effective flash reduction, and the substrate properties for appropriate adhesion after reduction. Tests with supercapacitors based on the printed-reduced GO showed performance comparable with commercial supercapacitors: the energy densities were 1.06 and 0.87 mWh/cm{sup 3} in ionic and organic electrolytes, respectively. The versatility in the architecture and choice of substrate makes this material promising for smart power applications.

  13. Optimization Online - Equivalence of Convex Problem Geometry ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Freund

    2009-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 7, 2009 ... Equivalence of Convex Problem Geometry and Computational Complexity in the Separation Oracle Model. Robert Freund (rfreund ***at*** ...

  14. The Monty Hall Problem Richard D. Gill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, Richard D.

    the Monty Hall problem is often called the Monty Hall para- dox. The key to accepting and understanding

  15. Einfuhrung Matroid-Probleme in Graphen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, Tobias

    Einf¨uhrung Matroid-Probleme in Graphen Graphen-Algorithmen Matroide und Greedy-Algorithmen Dr. Tobias Baumann 14. Juni 2011 Dr. Tobias Baumann Matroide #12;Einf¨uhrung Matroid-Probleme in Graphen MST. Tobias Baumann Matroide #12;Einf¨uhrung Matroid-Probleme in Graphen MST Matroide Greedy-Algorithmen Wir

  16. COSMOLOGICAL LITHIUM PROBLEM: A DIFFERENT APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ?umer, Slobodan

    LITHIUM 7Li sources BBN cosmic-ray interactions (ingredients: shock waves, magnetic field, chargedCOSMOLOGICAL LITHIUM PROBLEM: A DIFFERENT APPROACH Tijana Prodanovi, University of Novi Sad Tamara Observations - boxes 4He ­ OK D ­ right on! 7Li ­ problem! Factor of 3-4 discrepancy! LITHIUM PROBLEM

  17. The Polymatroid Steiner Problems G. Calinescu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelikovsky, Alexander

    sensors capable of monitoring all targets and t is time during which T is used. A simple energy model. #12;2 G. Calinescu and A. Zelikovsky Target-monitoring sensor network lifetime problem. Find problem which is dual to the target-monitoring sensor network lifetime problem. Target-monitoring sensor

  18. Secret Santa, Generalized (and Some Enumerative Problems)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Rob

    Secret Santa, Generalized (and Some Enumerative Problems) Rob Donnelly May 17, 2006 #12;Secret Santa, Generalized May 17, 2006 The Original Secret Santa Problem The Original Secret Santa Problem/she takes A mathematical interpretation of Secret Santa The question essentially asks for the pro- portion

  19. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William W. Weiss

    2001-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This second annual report contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. During the second year of the project, data acquisition of the Brushy Canyon Formation was completed with the compiling and analyzing of well logs, geophysical data, and production information needed to characterize production potential in the Delaware Basin. A majority of this data now resides in several online databases on our servers and is in proper form to be accessed by external programs such as Web applications. A new concept was developed and tested in well log analysis using neural networks. Bulk volume oil (BVO) was successfully predicted using wireline logs as inputs. This concept provides a new tool for estimating the potential success of a well and determining the productive interval to be perforated. Regional attributes have been gridded to a 40-ac bin (gridblock) size, and our fuzzy ranking procedures were applied to determine which attributes are best able to predict production trends in the Delaware Basin. The production indicator was the average of the first 12 full producing months of oil production as the value to be predicted. A study to determine the ability of an artificial intelligence system to predict depth using seismic attributes in a Delaware field was completed and the results were published. Significant improvements over standard techniques were found, particularly when test wells were on the dataset boundary where extrapolation is required. Programming the expert system was undertaken, and a decision tree program was coded in Java Expert System Shell (JESS) that allows development and tabulation of rules and relationships between rules that can be used by our expert system. This important program allows lists of rules to be entered and easily tested and verified. The design of the expert system itself was clarified and an expanded system was created where several distinct factors such as geologic/geophysical data, trap assessment, and formation assessment can be operated on in parallel to increase efficiency of the overall system. Coding of the Java interface, which users can use to access data in the online databases and run the expert system, was completed. Development of the interface ties together the data and the expert system programs coded in JESS while allowing user customization and informative reports of results to be retrieved. Technology transfer continued to be an important aspect of this project. Research and progress to date was presented to a group of industry and academic professionals at the second annual consortium meeting held November 2, 2000 in Hobbs, NM. Key technical res

  20. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, Jr., Fred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  1. Dimensional Reduction in 6D Standing Waves Braneworld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otari Sakhelashvili

    2014-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We found cosmological solution of the 6D standing wave braneworld model generated by gravity coupled to a massless scalar phantom-like field. By obtaining a full exact solution of the model we found a novel dynamical mechanism in which the anisotropic nature of the primordial metric gives rise to expansion of three spatial brane dimensions and affectively reduction of other spatial directions. This dynamical mechanism can be relevant for dimensional reduction in string and other higher dimensional theories in the attempt of getting a 4D isotropic expanding space-time.

  2. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  3. Progress on Footprint Reduction at the Hanford Site - 12406

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenney, Dale E. [CH2M HILL, Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Seeley, Paul [Cenibark International, Inc., Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Farabee, Al [U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) continues to reduce the footprint of legacy sites throughout the EM complex. Footprint reduction is being accomplished by focusing cleanup activities on decontamination and demolition of excess contaminated facilities, soil and groundwater remediation, and solid waste disposition. All of these initiatives are being accomplished with established technologies in proven regulatory frameworks. Ultimately, completion of these environmental cleanup activities will reduce the monitoring and maintenance costs associated with managing large federal facilities, allowing EM to place more focus on other high priority cleanup efforts and facilitate a successful transition to land-term stewardship of these sites. Through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) investment, the Department's cleanup footprint has been reduced by 45 percent to date, from 2411 km{sup 2} (931 mi{sup 2}) to 1336 km{sup 2} (516 mi{sup 2}s). With this significant progress on footprint reduction, the Department is on track towards their goal to reduce its overall footprint by approximately 90 percent by 2015. In addition, some areas cleaned up may become available for alternate uses (i.e. recreation, conservation, preservation, industrialization or development). Much of the work to reduce the complex's footprint occurred at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina and the Hanford Site in Washington, but cleanup continues across the complex. Footprint reduction is progressing well at the Hanford Site, supported predominantly through ARRA investment. To date, 994 km{sup 2} (384 mi{sup 2}) (65%) of footprint reduction have been achieved at Hanford, with a goal to achieve a 90% reduction by Fiscal Year 2015. The DOE EM and DOE Richland Operations Office, continue to make great progress to reduce the legacy footprint of the Hanford Site. Footprint reduction is being accomplished by focusing cleanup activities on decontamination and demolition of excess facilities, both contaminated and uncontaminated, waste site cleanup activities, and debris pile removal. All of these activities can be accomplished with proven technologies and within established regulatory frameworks. Footprint reduction goals for Fiscal Year 2011 were exceeded, largely with the help of ARRA funding. As cleanup projects are completed and the total area requiring cleanup shrinks, overall costs for surveillance and maintenance operations and infrastructure services decrease. This work completion and decrease in funding requirements to maintain waste sites and antiquated facilities allows more focus on high priority site missions (i.e. groundwater remediation, tank waste disposition, etc.) and moves Site areas closer to transition from EM to the Legacy Management program. The progress in the Hanford footprint reduction effort will help achieve success in these other important mission areas. (authors)

  4. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  5. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  6. Applicability of hydroxylamine nitrate reductant in pulse-column contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reif, D.J.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium and plutonium separations were made from simulated breeder reactor spent fuel dissolver solution with laboratory-sized pulse column contactors. Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) was used for reduction of plutonium (1V). An integrated extraction-partition system, simulating a breeder fuel reprocessing flowsheet, carried out a partial partition of uranium and plutonium in the second contactor. Tests have shown that acceptable coprocessing can be ontained using HAN as a plutonium reductant. Pulse column performance was stable even though gaseous HAN oxidation products were present in the column. Gas evolution rates up to 0.27 cfm/ft/sup 2/ of column cross section were tested and found acceptable.

  7. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

  8. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothingmore »(AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications.« less

  9. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothing (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications.

  10. Constraint Reduction for Linear Programs with Many Inequality ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    each iteration, rather than being updated in a build-up/build-down fashion. ...... convex or quasiconvex feasibility problems, Large Scale Optimization: State of ...

  11. Many Californians with Asthma Have Problems Understanding Their Doctor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babey, Susan H.; Meng, Ying-Ying; Jones, Malia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Management Plan Problems Understanding Doctor No Problems Source: 2005 California Health Interview Survey

  12. Problem of Time: Facets and Machian Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Anderson

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Problem of Time is that `time' in each of ordinary quantum theory and general relativity are mutually incompatible notions. This causes difficulties in trying to put these two theories together to form a theory of Quantum Gravity. The Problem of Time has 8 facets in canonical approaches. I clarify that all but one of these facets already occur at the classical level, and reconceptualize and re-name some of these facets as follows.The Frozen Formalism Problem becomes Temporal Relationalism, the Thin Sandwich Problem becomes Configurational Relationalism, via the notion of Best Matching. The Problem of Observables becomes the Problem of Beables, and the Functional Evolution Problem becomes the Constraint Closure Problem. I also outline how each of the Global and Multiple-Choice Problems of Time have their own plurality of facets. This article additionally contains a local resolution to the Problem of Time at the conceptual level and which is actually realizable for the relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution is, moreover, Machian, and has three levels: classical, semiclassical and a combined semiclassical-histories-timeless records scheme. I end by delineating the current frontiers of this program toward resolution of the Problem of Time in the cases of full GR and of slightly inhomogeneous cosmology.

  13. Optimal Deployment Plan of Emission Reduction Technologies for TxDOT's Construction Equipment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................ 13 Emission Reduction Options .......................................................... 15 Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Technologies for Emissions Reductions... Page Figure 15 Total NOx Reduction at the First Stage at Different Budget Amounts (Case 2A) ........................................................................... 66 Figure 16 Total NOx Reduction at the First and Second Stage...

  14. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Project entitled "Mechanism of Uranium Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiChristina, Thomas J. [Georgia Tech

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Final Scientific/Technical Report for Project entitled "Mechanism of Uranium Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis"

  15. Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R. Wilson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smaragdakis, Yannis

    reduction techniques. In this paper we present two new algorithms for trace re- duction | Safely AllowedTrace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R Drop SAD and Optimal LRU Reduction OLR. Both achieve high reduction factors and guarantee exact

  16. Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R. Wilson \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Scott

    reduction techniques. In this paper we present two new algorithms for trace re­ duction --- Safely AllowedTrace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R Drop (SAD) and Optimal LRU Reduction (OLR). Both achieve high reduction factors and guarantee exact

  17. Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R. Wilson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Scott

    reduction techniques. In this paper we present two new algorithms for trace re- duction | Safely AllowedTrace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R Drop (SAD) and Optimal LRU Reduction (OLR). Both achieve high reduction factors and guarantee exact

  18. An efficient evolutionary algorithm for solving incrementally structured problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansel, Jason Andrew

    Many real world problems have a structure where small problem instances are embedded within large problem instances, or where solution quality for large problem instances is loosely correlated to that of small problem ...

  19. Additional reductions in the k-constrained modified KP hierarchy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleksandr Chvartatskyi; Yuriy Sydorenko

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Additional reductions in the modified k-constrained KP hierarchy are proposed. As a result we obtain generalizations of Kaup-Broer system, Korteweg-de Vries equation and a modification of Korteweg-de Vries equation that belongs to modified k-constrained KP hierarchy. We also propose solution generating technique based on binary Darboux transformations for the obtained equations.

  20. An Investigation Into the Potential for PVC Reduction in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Investigation Into the Potential for PVC Reduction in Residential Building Drainage Lines A Triple Bottom Line Analysis of PVC vs. HDPE For Penny Martyn, Stakeholder of Project, Green Building for flexibility and cheap cost, PVC comes with numerous harmful side-effects to both the environment