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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Procurement Guideline for Simple- and Combined-Cycle Combustion Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) procurement guideline for simple- and combined-cycle combustion turbines.

2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

2

Equilibrium Characteristics of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalyst Poisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Power River Basin (PRB) coal applications, phosphorus (P) is known as the primary catalyst poison. Recent utility experience shows that some units burning PRB coal are deactivating the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst more rapidly than others. The exact mechanism is not well understood but could be related to boiler type or combustion modifications leading to increased levels of phosphorus vaporization. With increased levels of phosphorus in flue gas, greater quantities of phosphorus would...

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

3

Evaluation of Oil-Fired Gas Turbine Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities are experiencing increasing regulatory pressure to equip oil-fired power generation units with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) control systems. This report addresses factors utilities may wish to evaluate when justifying an NOx reduction system other than SCR or ensuring successful implementation of an SCR system.

1990-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

4

Calibration and performance of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) bench rig for NOx? emissions control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A laboratory test rig was designed and built to easily test SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. Equipped with three 6 kW heaters, connections for liquid N2 and an assortment of test gases, and a connection with ...

Castro Galnares, Sebastián (Castro Galnares Wright Paz)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

NETL: 2001 Conference on Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operating Experience with SCR on a 600-MW PRB-Fired Boiler PDF-8KB Dave Harris, Black & Veatch & Scot Pritchard, Cormetech Bench- and Pilot-Scale Evaluation of SCR and Other...

6

Pilot Evaluation of the Impact of Chloride on Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Mercury Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated the effect of blending Powder River Basin (PRB) coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. A pilot-scale coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used to evaluate the effect of coal blending on improving Hg oxidation across an SCR catalyst. Several parameters such as the ratio of PRB/bituminous coal blend and the concentrations of hydrogen halides (HCl, HBr, and HF) and halogens (Cl2 an...

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

7

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Recycle, Re-Use and Disposal Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The widespread utilization of Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) technology will create a significant amount of spent catalyst in the coming years. This report summarizes the current disposal methods and regulations associated with spent SCR catalysts. Since catalyst recycle and re-use is currently limited to reconditioning and bulk metals recovery, an effort was made to identify and evaluate alternate recycle/re-use routes for the ceramic portion of the material, in particular, the direct utilization of...

2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

8

A Case Study of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System at the Algonquin Power Energy-From-Waste Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

available NOx control technologies, the APEFW facility chose to install a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR on the reduction of NOx to nitrogen gas. SNCR involves the addition of urea or ammonia at high furnace temperaturesA Case Study of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System at the Algonquin Power Energy

Columbia University

9

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalyst Reconditioning as Part of Catalyst Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous EPRI work on catalyst reconditioning for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems sought to offer guidance to catalyst users as to the expected performance of reconditioned catalysts, both in the short term and long term, as well as to offer guidance as to the actual processes used for catalyst reconditioning. The present work seeks to compile these past efforts into a single document offering maximum utility to catalyst end users. In addition, the report updates previous findings where pract...

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

10

Modeling of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia using four modern catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, the steady-state performance of zeolite-based Cu-ZSM-5, vanadium based honeycomb monolith catalysts (V), vanadium-titanium based pillared inter layered clay catalyst (V-Ti PLIC) and vanadium-titanium-tungsten-based honeycomb monolith catalysts (V-Ti-W) was investigated in the selective catalytic reduction process (SCR) for NO removal using NH3 in presence of oxygen. The objective is to obtain the expression that would predict the conversion performance of the catalysts for different values of the SCR process parameters, namely temperature, inlet oxygen concentration and inlet ammonia concentration. The NOx emission, its formation and control methods are discussed briefly and then the fundamentals of the SCR process are described. Heat transfer based and chemical kinetics based SCR process models are discussed and widely used rate order based model are reviewed. Based on the experimental data, regression analysis was performed that gives an expression for predicting the SCR rate for the complete temperature range and the rate order with respect to inlet oxygen and ammonia concentration. The average activation energy for the SCR process was calculated and optimum operating conditions were determined for each of the catalyst. The applicable operating range for the catalyst depends on the NO conversion as well as on the ammonia slip and the N2O and NO2 emission. The regression analysis was repeated for the applicable range and an expression was obtained that can be used to estimate the catalyst performance. For the Cu-ZSM-5, the best performance was observed for 400oC, 660 ppm inlet ammonia concentration and 0.1% inlet oxygen concentration. For the V based honeycomb monolith catalyst, the best performance was observed for 300oC, 264 ppm inlet ammonia concentration and 3% inlet oxygen concentration. For the V-Ti based PLIC catalyst, the best performance was observed for 350oC, 330 ppm inlet ammonia concentration and 3% inlet oxygen concentration. For the V-Ti-W based honeycomb monolith catalyst, the best performance was observed for 300oC, 330 ppm inlet ammonia concentration and 3% inlet oxygen concentration. The conversion performance of all of these catalysts is satisfactory for the industrial application. At the operating conditions listed above, the N2O emission is less than 20 ppm and the NO2 emission is less than 10 ppm. The results were validated by comparing the findings with the similar work by other research groups. The mechanism of SCR process is discussed for each of the catalyst. The probable reactions are listed and adsorption and desorption process are studied. The various mechanisms proposed by the researchers are discussed briefly. It is concluded that V-Ti-W and Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst are very promising for SCR of NOx. The expressions can be used to estimate the conversion performance and can be utilized for optimal design and operation. The expressions relate the SCR rate to the input parameters such as temperature and inlet oxygen and ammonia concentration hence by controlling these parameters desired NOx reduction can be achieved with minimal cost and emission.

Sharma, Giriraj

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

An Assessment of Experience with Selective Catalytic Reduction in Germany and Denmark: A Report from the EPRI / Utility SCR Mission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The limit on nitrogen oxides (NOx) of 0.15 lb/MBtu identified in a September 24, 1998 notice issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) could mandate selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on the majority of coal-fired generators in the 22 states designated by the EPA, as well as in the District of Columbia. Proponents of the 0.15 lb/Btu limit claim that significant experience with SCR in both Europe and Japan eliminates any uncertainty with regard to the design, installation, and operation of...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Staff Analysis of Proposed Installation of Two New Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Units on the Project’s Two Auxiliary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The modification(s) proposed in the petition would install two new Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) units on the project’s two auxiliary boilers. The addition of a SCR system on each boiler would allow the project to comply with recent changes to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District regulations for emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) for auxiliary boilers. The Bay Area Air Quality Management District has determined that the project proposal would result in new permit to operate requirements from the district. The Gilroy Cogeneration Project is a 115-megawatt, natural gas-fired power plant located in the City of Gilroy in Santa Clara County. The project was certified by the

Edmund G. Brown

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

UREA INFRASTRUCTURE FOR UREA SCR NOX REDUCTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Urea SCR is currently the only proven NOX aftertreatment for diesel engines - high NOX reduction possible - some SCR catalyst systems are robust against fuel sulfur - durability has been demonstrated - many systems in the field - long history in other markets - Major limitations to acceptance - distribution of urea solution to end user - ensuring that urea solution is added to vehicle.

Bunting, Bruce G.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

14

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based and pillared interlayer clay-based catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) and pillared interlayer clay-based (V2O5/Ti-PILC) monolithic honeycomb catalysts using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor was investigated. The experiments used a number of gas compositions to simulate different combustion gases. A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to determine the concentrations of the product species. The major products were nitric oxide (NO), ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The aim was to delineate the effect of various parameters including reaction temperature, oxygen concentration, NH3-to-NO ratio, space velocity, heating area, catalyst arrangement, and vanadium coating on the removal of nitric oxide. The investigation showed that the change of the parameters significantly affected the removals of NO and NH3 species, the residual NH3 concentration (or NH3 slip), the temperature of the maximum NO reduction, and the temperature of complete NH3 conversion. The reaction temperature was increased from the ambient temperature (25°C) to 450 °C. For both catalysts, high NO and NH3 removals were obtained in the presence of a small amount of oxygen, but no significant influence was observed from 0.1 to 3.0% O2. An increase in NH3-to-NO ratio increased NO reduction but decreased NH3 conversions. For V2O5-WO3/TiO2, the decrease of space velocity increased NO and NH3 removals and broadened the active temperature window (based on NO > 88% and NH3 > 87%) about 50°C. An increase in heating area decreased the reaction temperature of the maximum NO reduction from 350 to 300°C, and caused the active reaction temperature window (between 250 and 400°C) to shift toward 50°C lower reaction temperatures (between 200 and 350°C). The change of catalyst arrangements resulted slight improvement for NO and NH3 removals, therefore, the change might contribute to more gas removals. The catalyst with extra vanadium coating showed higher NO reductions and NH3 conversions than the catalyst without the extra vanadium coating.

Oh, Hyuk Jin

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

An experimental investigation of the urea-water decomposition and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxides with urea using V2O5-WO3-TiO2 catalyst.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two flow reactor studies, using an electrically heated laminar flow reactor over Vanadia based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) honeycomb catalyst, were performed at 1 atm pressure and various temperatures. The experiments were conducted using simulated exhaust gas compositions for different exhaust gases. A quartz tube was used in order to establish inert conditions inside the reactor. The experiments utilized a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer in order to perform both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the reaction products. Urea-water solution decomposition was investigated over V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst over the entire SCR temperature range using the temperature controlled flow reactor. The solution was preheated and then injected into pure nitrogen (N2) stream. The decomposition experiments were conducted with a number of oxygen (O2) compositions (0, 1, 10, and 15%) over the temperature range of 227oC to 477oC. The study showed ammonia (NH3), carbon-dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) as the major products of decomposition along with other products such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with urea-water solution over V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor was investigated. Urea-water solution was injected at a temperature higher than the vaporization temperature of water and the flow reactor temperature was varied from 127oC to 477oC. A FTIR spectrometer was used to determine the concentrations of the product species. The major products of SCR reduction were NH3, NO and CO2 along with the presence of other minor products NO2 and N2O. NO removal of up to 87% was observed. The aim of the urea-water decomposition experiments was to study the decomposition process as close to the SCR configuration as possible. The aim of the SCR experiments was to delineate the effect of various parameters including reaction temperature and O2 concentration on the reduction process. The SCR investigation showed that changing parameter values significantly affected the NO removal, the residual NH3 concentration, the temperature of the maximum NO reduction, and the temperature of complete NH3 conversion. In the presence of O2, the reaction temperature for maximum NO reduction was 377?C for ratio of 1.0.

Johar, Jasmeet Singh

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

2001 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 100,000 megawatts of coal-fired capacity in the United States will employ selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for the control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions by 2004. The 2001 Workshop on SCR, held in Baltimore, Maryland, provided a forum for discussion of current SCR issues.

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

17

Annual Operation of Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2009, many coal-fired generating units equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for nitrogen oxide (NOX) control will convert from seasonal to annual SCR operation. This report provides guidelines on how to prepare for annual operation. It focuses on existing experience with annual operation, catalyst management strategy, equipment reliability, cold weather issues, low load and cycling operation, and risk assessment.

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

18

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia using Cu-ZSM-5 and Va-based honeycomb monolith catalysts: effect of H2 pretreatment, NH3-to-NO ratio, O2, and space velocity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, the steady-state performance of zeolite-based (Cu-ZSM-5) and vanadium-based honeycomb monolith catalysts was investigated in the selective catalytic reduction process (SCR) for NO removal using NH3. The aim was to delineate the effect of various parameters including pretreatment of the catalyst sample with H2, NH3-to-NO ratio, inlet oxygen concentration, and space velocity. The concentrations of the species (e.g. NO, NH3, and others) were determined using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The temperature was varied from ambient (25 C) to 500 C. The investigation showed that all of the above parameters (except pre-treatment with H2) significantly affected the peak NO reduction, the temperature at which peak NO reduction occurred, and residual ammonia left at higher temperatures (also known as 'NH3 slip'). Depending upon the particular values of the parameters, a peak NO reduction of around 90% was obtained for both the catalysts. However, an accompanied generation of N2O and NO2 species was observed as well, being much higher for the vanadium-based catalyst than for the Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst. For both catalysts, the peak NO reduction decreased with an increase in space velocity, and did not change significantly with an increase in oxygen concentration. The temperatures at which peak NO reduction and complete NH3 removal occurred increased with an increase in space velocity but decreased with an increase in oxygen concentration. The presence of more ammonia at the inlet (i.e. higher NH3-to-NO ratio) improved the peak NO reduction but simultaneously resulted in an increase in residual ammonia. Pretreatment of the catalyst sample with H2 (performed only for the Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst) did not produce any perceivable difference in any of the results for the conditions of these experiments.

Gupta, Saurabh

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

SCR body May 16  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 May 2005 3 May 2005 Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers An Update of Topical Report Number 9 TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 23 May 2005 An Update of Topical Report Number 9 Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Photos on pages 1, 3, 9, 11, and 16 courtesy of Riley Power Inc.,

20

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is the 2009 update to Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001. The landscape of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has significantly changed since then and promises to continue to change in the coming years. Specifically, the number of SCR applications on coal-fired units has increased considerably beyond the 15 units operating in mid 2001. Approximately 120 GW of capacity are expected to utilize SCR for NOx co...

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

2003 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 105,000 MW of coal-fired generating capacity in the United States will be equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to meet the nitrogen oxide (NOx) limits of the state implementation plan (SIP). Power producers placed approximately 40,000 MW of capacity into operation in 2003. Combined with early SCR adopters from prior years, about 65 percent of the planned inventory is presently operable. Since 1999, EPRI has organized and held annual SCR workshops to discuss key issues a...

2004-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

22

2002 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Approximately 100,000 MW of coal-fired generating capacity in the United States will be equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to meet the nitrogen oxides (NOx) limits of the state implementation plan (SIP) call. Approximately 20,000 MW of capacity was expected to go into operation in 2002. Added to early SCR adopters in prior years, about 25 percent of the planned inventory is presently operable. Since 1999, EPRI has organized annual SCR workshops to discuss key issues and development...

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

23

Database - Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Deactivation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst deactivation is a critical parameter controlling to a large extent achievable catalyst life, as well as overall SCR system performance. Accurate assessment and prediction of catalyst deactivation is required to adequately manage reactor potential. EPRI has on-going efforts underway aimed at better understanding the factors that affect catalyst deactivation, especially as a function of fuel, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions, in hopes of ...

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

24

2006 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI held the 2006 Workshop on Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) on October 31 November 2, 2006 at the Dearborn Inn in Dearborn, Michigan and at DTE Energy's Monroe Station. Post-Combustion NOX Control Program members, invited speakers, and EPRI staff participated in this two and a half day event. The workshop agenda was comprised of twenty-seven presentations, two panel discussions, and a plant tour. Operating experience reports on SCR systems at Baldwin, Bowen, Bull Run, Crist, Cumberland, Gaston, Go...

2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

25

Catalyst Management Handbook for Coal-Fired Selective Catalytic Reduction NOx Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides guidelines for operators of coal-fired power plants equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) NOx-control processes. These control processes define when to exchange or replace catalyst, while minimizing power-production cost impacts from SCR process equipment.BackgroundSelective catalytic reduction (SCR) is deployed on most major coal-fired generating units in the United States. Over 225 units, totaling 140 GW of ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

26

Regenerated Plate Type SCR Catalyst Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology has become the technology of choice for meeting stringent nitrogen oxides (NOX) emission limits for many coal fired electric generating plants. With the aging of the domestic SCR fleet, the average age of catalysts currently in use has increased; and many facilities are now considering replacement or regeneration of the catalyst materials. Facilities planning to integrate SCR catalyst regeneration into their operations need to understand the overall performa...

2009-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

27

Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction Andrew the effect of the ammonia feed ratio on the NOx reduction efficiency for the SCR model. Optimal NOx removal NOx in an inert gas slows its absorption in the absorber and its reduction in the SCR because

Liu, Y. A.

28

Thermochemical Equilibrium Modeling of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SRC) Catalyst Poisons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A previous EPRI publication (1022073) provided a detailed literature review on the propensity of the alkali and alkaline earth metals sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and the Group (V) elements phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As) to deactivate selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts in commercial flue gas cleaning systems. It also listed the conditions under which such deactivation has been reported. This report extends this earlier work to predict the transformation of SCR catalyst ...

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction  

SciTech Connect

Multiple catalytic functions (NOx conversion, NO and NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage) of a commercial Cu-zeolite urea/NH3-SCR catalyst were assessed in a laboratory fixed-bed flow reactor system after differing degrees of hydrothermal aging. Catalysts were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), 27Al solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) / energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy to develop an understanding of the degradation mechanisms during catalyst aging. The catalytic reaction measurements of laboratory-aged catalysts were performed, which allows us to obtain a universal curve for predicting the degree of catalyst performance deterioration as a function of time at each aging temperature. Results show that as the aging temperature becomes higher, the zeolite structure collapses in a shorter period of time after an induction period. The decrease in SCR performance was explained by zeolite structure destruction and/or Cu agglomeration, as detected by XRD/27Al NMR and by TEM/EDX, respectively. Destruction of the zeolite structure and agglomeration of the active phase also results in a decrease in the NO/NH3 oxidation activity and the NH3 storage capacity of the catalyst. Selected laboratory aging conditions (16 h at 800oC) compare well with a 135,000 mile vehicle-aged catalyst for both performance and characterization criteria.

Schmieg, Steven J.; Oh, Se H.; Kim, Chang H.; Brown, David B.; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Kim, Do Heui

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

Inter-Layer Mixing in Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary parameter for achieving high NOx reduction and low ammonia (NH3) slip in Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems on large coal-fired boilers is a uniform NH3/NOx ratio distribution at the catalyst surface. Large non-uniformities yield local NH3/NOx ratios greater than one, leading directly to NH3 slip. Areas of low NH3/NOx ratios have low NOx reduction. Both of these conditions are undesirable. SCR system designers specify a maximum acceptable NH3/NOx non-uniformity at the catalyst inlet....

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

31

Laboratory-Scale Evaluation of the Mercury Chemical Reactions Across SCR Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes laboratory-scale studies by Lehigh University to characterize and evaluate mercury chemical reactions across selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts.

2005-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

32

Accelerated Thermal Aging of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalysts on an Engine Bench.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with urea/NH3 is a leading candidate to the impending more stringent emissions regulations for diesel engines. Currently, there… (more)

Foster, Adam Lamar

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Impacts of Texas Lignite on Selective Catalytic Reduction System Life and Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx control are being broadly applied to U.S. power generating units fired with western subbituminous and eastern bituminous coals and natural gas. Prior to 2010, no power generating units firing Texas lignite were equipped with SCR. To develop an understanding of the potential deactivation and erosion of SCR catalyst by Texas lignite, a pilot-scale SCR reactor was used in a two-phase program at the Sandow Station, located near Rockdale, Texas. The test pro...

2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

34

Impacts of Texas Lignite on Selective Catalytic Reduction System Life and Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx control are being broadly applied to U.S. power generating units fired with western subbituminous and eastern bituminous coals and natural gas. To date, no power generating units firing Texas lignite are equipped with SCR. To develop an understanding of the potential deactivation and erosion of SCR catalyst by Texas lignite, a pilot-scale SCR reactor was used in a one-year program to test a plate-type catalyst at the Sandow Station, located near Rockdal...

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

35

Mercury Oxidation Behavior of New, Aged, and Regenerated SCR Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over 110,000 MW of coal-fired capacity in the United States has deployed selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for nitrogen oxide (NOx) control, and an additional estimated 60,000 MW may be installed by 2020. End users and operators of SCR systems have an ongoing need for the latest guidelines, methods, and other tools to ensure that existing and additional SCR equipment functions optimally without disrupting other unit operations. It is now widely known that along with NOx reduction, SCR catalysts have th...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

36

SCR Catalyst Disposal, Recycle, and On-Site Washing/Rejuvenation Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction SCR technology has enjoyed widespread implementation within the fossil fuel utility industry. The rate of spent SCR catalyst being generated is increasing proportional to the implementation of the technology, as well as the aging of the SCR fleet as a whole. Current projections estimate that nearly 30,000 tons per year of spent catalyst will be generated by 2020. This report addresses several topics associated with spent SCR catalyst, including catalyst disposal, recycle, an...

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

Method to monitor HC-SCR catalyst NOx reduction performance for lean exhaust applications  

SciTech Connect

A method for initiating a regeneration mode in selective catalytic reduction device utilizing hydrocarbons as a reductant includes monitoring a temperature within the aftertreatment system, monitoring a fuel dosing rate to the selective catalytic reduction device, monitoring an initial conversion efficiency, selecting a determined equation to estimate changes in a conversion efficiency of the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the monitored temperature and the monitored fuel dosing rate, estimating changes in the conversion efficiency based upon the determined equation and the initial conversion efficiency, and initiating a regeneration mode for the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the estimated changes in conversion efficiency.

Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Sloane, Thompson M. (Oxford, MI); Hilden, David L. (Shelby Township, MI); Mulawa, Patricia A. (Clinton Township, MI); Lee, Jong H. (Rochester Hills, MI); Cheng, Shi-Wai S. (Troy, MI)

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

38

Mercury Oxidation Performance of Advanced SCR Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts to oxidize mercury is an important aspect of many utilities’ mercury control strategies. Improved SCR mercury oxidation will facilitate its capture in downstream wet–flue gas desulfurization systems and will generally result in lower emission rates. Recently, catalyst manufacturers have attempted to maximize mercury oxidation through advanced catalyst formulations.This study documents the performance of an advanced ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

39

Recycling and Disposal of Spent Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has become widespread within the utility industry as a means of controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The technology uses a solid catalyst that deactivates over time; and thus significant volumes of catalyst will need regeneration, recycle, or disposal. This study examined issues related to spent catalyst recycle and disposal.

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

40

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Timely and proper execution of operation and maintenance (O&M) activities may be a key factor in ensuring the successful function of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. This report serves as the 2012 update of EPRI’s Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001 and updated annually. New and revised content this year includes: 1) recent developments in in situ NOx analyzers, including a ...

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the 2011 update of Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001 and updated annually. New and revised content this year includes: (1) an analysis of the performance of the U.S. fleet of selective catalytic reduction (SCR)equipped generating units in 2009, 2010, and 2011; (2) a discussion of experience in mitigating the role of arsenic in catalyst deactivation, including the addition of alkali material to the coal; (3) an updat...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

42

Development of an open loop fuzzy logic urea dosage controller for use with an SCR equipped HDD engine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) has been shown to be the most promising exhaust aftertreatment system for reducing oxides of nitrogen in near term in-use applications.… (more)

Adams, Theodore R. (Theodore Richard)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Mercury Oxidation Behavior of a New Advanced Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Formulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industry data have indicated that along with NOx reduction, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has the potential for oxidizing mercury, providing enhanced removal in downstream systems. In recent years there has been an incentive to develop SCR catalyst formulations that maximize mercury oxidation while retaining their deNOx and SO2 conversion properties. The subject test program sought to evaluate the mercury oxidation performance of Hitachis new Triple Action Catalyst (TRAC) as a function o...

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

44

Formation of N2O and NO2 Across Conventional DeNOx SCR Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project investigated the formation of N2O and NO2 across conventional DeNOx selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. N2O is a particularly strong greenhouse gas, and both N2O and NO2 may adversely impact downstream processes. Additional data related to their formation or reduction across SCR catalysts is desirable.

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

SCR Performance Improvement with Advanced In Situ Process Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

More stringent emission mandates have required that NOx levels be reduced from a broad range of coal-fired boilers. In response, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have been deployed on numerous newer and larger capacity boilers. Although these SCR systems have provided large overall NOx reductions, recent changes in boiler load profiles have resulted from a combination of reduced economic activity as a result of the recession and increased renewable generation mandates in many states. Increased...

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

Design and Cost Estimating Procedures for SCR and SNCR Retrofits on Gas- and Oil-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utility companies have been reevaluating the feasibility of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) retrofits in order to meet increasingly stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission limits. This report describes two EPRI-developed models for helping utility companies screen the cost effectiveness of SCR and SNCR technologies for application at specific gas- and oil-fired boiler sites.

2002-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

47

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - SCR Catalyst Blinding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCR Catalyst Blinding SCR Catalyst Blinding University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) is determining the potential of low-rank coal ash to cause blinding or masking of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. A secondary goal will be to determine the degree of elemental mercury conversion across the catalysts. Specific objectives include (1) identify candidate coals and blends for testing under bench-scale conditions, (2) conduct bench-scale testing to screen coals and identify key conditions for full-scale testing, (3) design and construct an SCR slipstream test chamber for sampling at full-scale facilities, (4) conduct testing at full-scale testing, (5) identify SCR blinding mechanisms, rates, and cleaning methods as well as mercury conversion efficiencies, and (6) interpret data, prepare a report, and attend sponsor meetings to present information and recommendations.

48

State of Knowledge Concerning Fuel Impacts on SCR Performance and Longevity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems will be installed on about 100,000 MW of U.S. coal-fired generating capacity by 2004. Because the investment in capital, maintenance, and operation of SCR reactors will be the largest for any nitrogen oxides (NOx) control strategies implemented to date, many technical issues and economic factors are under active investigation to ensure the lowest compliance cost. This report summarizes the state of knowledge on deactivation of SCR catalysts caused by known pois...

2002-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Selective Catalytic Reduction Mercury Oxidation Data to Support Catalyst Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) mercury oxidation can be pivotal for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards compliance, especially for those units that rely on co-benefits as their primary method of mercury control. Much work has been done historically to understand the mercury behavior across SCRs, especially as a function of operating conditions, and in particular, flue gas composition. The present work seeks to integrate the accumulated knowledge into a practical document that will aid utilities in ...

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

50

Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Recycle and Re-Use Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the widespread implementation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology, there is a great deal of interest in finding viable recycle/re-use routes for spent catalyst as an alternative to landfilling. The current effort has focused on detailed evaluation of several recycle/re-use processes that were identified in previous EPRI studies. These recycle/re-use technologies include mineral filler applications, incorporation into wet-bottom boiler slag, cement kiln co-processing, and use in iron/s...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

51

Predictable SCR co-benefits for mercury control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A test program, performed in cooperation with Dominion Power and the Babcock and Wilcox Co., was executed at Dominion Power's Mount Storm power plant in Grant County, W. Va. The program was focused on both the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst capability to oxide mercury as well as the scrubber's capability to capture and retain the oxidized mercury. This article focuses on the SCR catalyst performance aspects. The Mount Storm site consists of three units totaling approximately 1,660 MW. All units are equipped with SCR systems for NOx control. A full-scale test to evaluate the effect of the SCR was performed on Unit 2, a 550 MWT-fired boiler firing a medium sulfur bituminous coal. This test program demonstrated that the presence of an SCR catalyst can significantly affect the mercury speciation profile. Observation showed that in the absence of an SCR catalyst, the extent of oxidation of element a mercury at the inlet of the flue gas desulfurization system was about 64%. The presence of a Cornertech SCR catalyst improved this oxidation to levels greater than 95% almost all of which was captured by the downstream wet FGD system. Cornertech's proprietary SCR Hg oxidation model was used to accurately predict the field results. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Pritchard, S. [Cormtech Inc. (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Protocol for Laboratory Testing of SCR Catalyst: 2nd Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the widespread deployment of selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR) throughout the U.S. fleet of coal fired utility boilers, there was a need to establish standardized protocols to test catalyst. In 2006, EPRI issued a protocol that provided a uniform basis for testing SCR catalyst. In 2007, a wide range of industry representatives, including members of the Post-Combustion NOx Control Program, catalyst vendors, an independent catalyst testing laboratory, a catalyst reconditioner, and a provider of ...

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

53

Local ammonia storage and ammonia inhibition in a monolithic copper-beta zeolite SCR catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sub 3} was studied on a Cu-beta zeolite catalyst, with specific focus on the distributed NH{sub 3} capacity utilization and inhibition. In addition, several other relevant catalyst parameter distributions were quantified including the SCR zone, or catalyst region where SCR occurs, and NO and NH{sub 3} oxidation. We show that the full NH{sub 3} capacity (100% coverage) is used within the SCR zone for a range of temperatures. By corollary, unused NH{sub 3} capacity exists downstream of the SCR zone. Consequently, the unused capacity relative to the total capacity is indicative of the portion of the catalyst unused for SCR. Dynamic NH{sub 3} inhibition distributions, which create local transient conversion inflections, are measured. Dynamic inhibition is observed where the gas phase NH{sub 3} and NO concentrations are high, driving rapid NH{sub 3} coverage buildup and SCR. Accordingly, we observe dynamic inhibition at low temperatures and in hydrothermally aged states, but predict its existence very near the catalyst front in higher conversion conditions where we did not specifically monitor its impact. While this paper addresses some general distributed SCR performance parameters including Oxidation and SCR zone, our major new contributions are associated with the NH{sub 3} capacity saturation within the SCR zone and dynamic inhibition distributions and the associated observations. These new insights are relevant to developing accurate models, designs and control strategies for automotive SCR catalyst applications.

Auvray, Xavier P [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL; Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Yezerets, Alex [Cummins, Inc; Kamasamudram, Krishna [Cummins, Inc; Currier, Neal [Cummins, Inc; Olsson, Louise [Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Oil-Fired Combustion Turbine SCR NOx Control Testing and Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains results of a Tailored Collaboration project to determine the technical feasibility and cost of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) as applied to 0.4%-sulfur fuel oil-fired combustion turbines.

1997-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

55

Effects of Chlorine and Other Flue Gas Parameters on Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology for Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technologythe technology of choice for meeting stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission limits for coal-fired electric generating plantshas potential for oxidizing mercury, which would provide enhanced removal in downstream systems. Catalyst behavior is relatively well understood for deNOx and SO2 oxidation, but less is known about mercury oxidation behavior. This test program was designed to determine general behavior of typical SCR catalysts on mercury oxidation and ...

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

56

Multi-stage selection catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} in lean burn engine exhaust  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. These studies have prompted the development of schemes that use an oxidation catalyst to convert NO to NO{sub 2}, followed by a reduction catalyst to convert NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2}. Multi-stage SCR offers high NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from catalysts that, separately, are not very active for reduction of NO, and alleviates the problem of selectivity between NO reduction and hydrocarbon oxidation. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. This paper compares the multi-stage catalytic scheme with the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme for reduction of NO{sub x} in lean-bum engine exhausts. The advantages of plasma oxidation over catalytic oxidation are presented.

Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.O.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogling, E.

1998-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

57

Impacts of Texas Lignite Coal on SCR Catalyst Life and Performance: Field Data from TXU's Martin Lake Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are being broadly applied to power generating units fired with Power River Basin (PRB) and bituminous coals and natural gas. To develop an understanding of the potential deactivation and erosion of SCR catalyst in Texas-lignite-fired units, an in-situ mini SCR reactor was used to test two types of catalyst at TXU Energy's Martin Lake Unit 3. Prior to this test program, no long-term test data on the effects of Texas lignite on SCR catalyst life and performance e...

2003-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

58

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems: 2003 Edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

More than 100,000 MW of coal-fired generating capacity in the United States will be equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems to meet the nitrogen oxides (NOx) limits called for in state implementation plans. In the year 2003, approximately 40,000 MW of capacity is expected to go into operation. Nearly 90,000 MW will be installed by 2004, and the remainder implemented by 2007. Due to the significant commitment by the power industry to SCR technology, EPRI sponsored development of operatio...

2003-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

59

Hydrocarbon Fouling of SCR during PCCI combustion  

SciTech Connect

The combination of advanced combustion with advanced selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst formulations was studied in the work presented here to determine the impact of the unique hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion on SCR performance. Catalyst core samples cut from full size commercial Fe- and Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and PCCI combustion modes. The zeolites which form the basis of these catalysts are different with the Cu-based catalyst made on a chabazite zeolite which las smaller pore structures relative to the Fe-based catalyst. Subsequent to exposure, bench flow reactor characterization of performance and hydrocarbon release and oxidation enabled evaluation of overall impacts from the engine exhaust. The Fe-zeolite NOX conversion efficiency was significantly degraded, especially at low temperatures (<250 C), after the catalyst was exposed to the raw engine exhaust. The degradation of the Fe-zeolite performance was similar for both combustion modes. The Cu-zeolite showed better tolerance to HC fouling at low temperatures compared to the Fe-zeolite but PCCI exhaust had a more significant impact than the exhaust from conventional combustion on the NOX conversion efficiency. Furthermore, chemical analysis of the hydrocarbons trapped on the SCR cores was conducted to better determine chemistry specific effects.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

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61

Emissions Tradeoffs Between Boiler Operations and a Selective Catalytic Reduction System: Field Test Results on an 850-MW Opposed-Wall Design Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Burning low-cost, high-sulfur coals under staged combustion conditions can lead to increased waterwall wastage. Utilities are thus in need of a method for determining the least-cost approach for minimizing nitrogen oxide (NOx) through both boiler and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) operations, while taking into account potential cost impacts of various operating scenarios. This report is one in an EPRI series to quantify the costs and benefits associated with different boiler and SCR ...

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

62

Multimedia Mercury Fate at Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped With SCR and Wet FGD Controls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the current regulatory climate in the United States, a number of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems will be installed at new and existing coal-fired power plants to remove nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and mercury. The multimedia fate of trace metal species, especially mercury, in SCR/wet FGD systems is not well understood. Understanding and quantifying the amount of mercury removed from the flue gas and distributed to the solid and aqueous ...

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

63

Fuel Impacts on SCR Catalyst Life and Performance: Analysis of Field Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the United States, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is being used on approximately 100 GW of coal-fired utility boilers, a 12-billion-dollar investment by the utility industry. In addition to the initial capital expenditure, catalyst management and replacement strategies will have a major impact on operations and maintenance costs at each SCR site. EPRI and Post Combustion NOx Control Program funders have sponsored tests to assess catalyst life and performance issues and to develop data for making ...

2004-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

64

Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCR systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOx reduction in net oxidizing exhaust gas, SAE International Paper N° 900496, 99, 1990. [2] KOEBEL M on the performance of metal exchanged zeolites for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx: Part I. Pyrolysis thermolysis and NOx reduction with and without SCR catalysts, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 46, pp.17

65

Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Long-Term Tracking of Regenerated Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of regenerated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst has become quite commonplace in the utility industry over the past several years. As a result, a clear understanding of the long-term performance of regenerated catalysts is needed so that informed purchasing decisions can be made and accurate catalyst management plans can be developed. EPRI and others have evaluated the initial performance of regenerated catalysts in numerous studies, but long-term performance has not been studied in ad...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

67

2012 Long-Term Tracking of Regenerated Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of regenerated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst has become quite commonplace in the utility industry over the past several years. As a result, a clear understanding of the long-term performance of regenerated catalysts is needed so that informed purchasing decisions can be made and accurate catalyst management plans can be developed. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others have evaluated the initial performance of regenerated catalysts in numerous studies, but ...

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

68

SCR_1_pps v2.p65  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coals because of the potential for high SO 3 levels, both from SO 3 formation in the boiler and oxidation of SO 2 in the SCR reactor. NO x reduction is controlled for the most...

69

PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Impacts of PRB Coals on SCR Catalyst Life and Performance: Field Data from Texas Genco's W.A. Parish Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States utility industry is seeing a trend of greater use of Powder River Basin (PRB) coals while at the same time moving towards selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for compliance with nitrogen oxides (NOx) regulations. Previous catalyst coupon tests have raised concerns within the industry that PRB coal ash could result in accelerated catalyst deactivation. The study reported here exposed catalyst coupons to PRB flue gas for 10,000 hours under realistic SCR reactor conditions in order to moni...

2002-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF DIESEL ENGINE NOX EMISSIONS USING ETHANOL AS A REDUCTANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400 C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.

(1)Kass, M; Thomas, J; Lewis, S; Storey, J; Domingo, N; Graves, R (2) Panov, A

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

72

Pilot-scale study of the effect of selective catalytic reduction catalyst on mercury speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin coal combustion flue gases  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl)) and one Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal with very low S and very low Cl were tested in a pilot-scale combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for controlling nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The SCR catalyst induced high oxidation of elemental Hg (Hg{sup 0}), decreasing the percentage of Hg{sup 0} at the outlet of the SCR to values <12% for the three Illinois coal tests. The PRB coal test indicated a low oxidation of Hg{sup 0} by the SCR catalyst, with the percentage of Hg{sup 0} decreasing from {approximately} 96% at the inlet of the reactor to {approximately} 80% at the outlet. The low Cl content of the PRB coal and corresponding low level of available flue gas Cl species were believed to be responsible for low SCR Hg oxidation for this coal type. The test results indicated a strong effect of coal type on the extent of Hg oxidation. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Lee, C.W.; Srivastava, R.K.; Ghorishi, S.B.; Karwowski, J.; Hastings, T.H.; Hirschi, J.C. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

SCR Catalyst Disposal, Recycle, and On-site Washing Options and Experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology becomes more widespread and the catalyst fleet ages, cost-effective and environmentally friendly approaches are need to handle the increasing volumes of spent catalyst or extend its life through simple on-site processing. This report addresses various issues related to catalyst rejuvenation, cleaning, recycling, and disposal.

2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

74

Impacts of PRB Coals on SCR Catalyst Life and Performance: Field Data from Ameren's Sioux Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The United States utility industry is making greater use of Powder River Basin (PRB) coals while at the same time moving towards selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for compliance with nitrogen oxide (NOx) regulations. Some catalyst test coupons in PRB fired boilers have reportedly experienced accelerated deactivation. This project studied the effects of PRB flue gas on catalytic samples at Ameren's Sioux Station.

2001-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

75

INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Continuous Ammonia Slip Measurements on a Lignite-Fired Unit with a Selective Catalytic Reduction System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ammonia slip measurements that were made by a tunable diode laser (TDL) were conducted on a lignite-fired unit with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system using a newly developed adjustable flange assembly for dynamic alignment of cross-duct measurements. The single path optics were integrated with a fiber optic–coupled TDL system (Unisearch LasIR) and two shields to allow measurements over the 25-foot (7.62-meter) flue gas duct dimension. The nominal 4.5-foot (1.67-meter) shields were required to ...

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

77

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Four sampling tests were performed in August 2004 during ozone season with the SCR operating; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, SCR outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Three sampling tests were also performed in November 2004 during non-ozone season with the SCR bypassed; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet). Process samples for material balances were collected during the flue gas measurements. The results show that, at the point where the flue gas enters the FGD, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized form when the SCR was operating compared to when the SCR was bypassed (97% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the FGD because the FGD removed 90-94% of the oxidized mercury in both cases. Total coal-to-stack mercury removal was 86% with the SCR operating, and 73% with the SCR bypassed. The average mercury mass balance closure was 81% during the ozone season tests and 87% during the non-ozone season tests.

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Impacts of PRB Coals on SCR Catalyst Life and Performance: Field Data from In Situ Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the greater use of both Powder River basin (PRB) coals and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) in the utility industry, there is a concern about the effects of the high calcium coals on SCR catalyst life and performance. Using the "in situ" reactor approach, two catalysts are invloved in an ongoing long-term activity evaluation program at two test sites. The "in situ" reactor is a 2" by 2" (50mm x 50mm) cross-section probe installed in the economizer exit of utility boilers. It subjects catalyst sam...

2000-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

79

2003 Conference on Selective Catalytic Reduction and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Universitt Stuttgart Summary PDF-103KB Presentation PDF-685KB The Effect of Co-Firing Large Amounts of Secondary Fuels on SCR Deactivation Leo H.J.Vredenbregt and Ronald...

80

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane was investigated. Unpromoted and promoted catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than the other metals (Rh, Li, K, Na, Zn, and Sn) for the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study. The effectiveness of the promoter increased with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. Among the catalysts tested, the Cu1Ce3 catalyst promoted with 1 weight % Mn was found to be the best catalyst for the SCR of NO with methane. This catalyst was subjected to long-term testing at the facilities of our industrial partner TDA Research. TDA report indicated that the performance of this catalyst did not deteriorate during 100 hours of operation and the activity and selectivity of the catalyst was not affected by the presence of SO{sub 2}. The conversions obtained by TDA were significantly lower than those obtained at Hampton University due to the transport limitations on the reaction rate in the TDA reactor, in which 1/8th inch pellets were used while the Hampton University reactor contained 250-425-{micro}m catalyst particles. The selected catalyst was also tested at the TDA facilities with high-sulfur heavy oil as the reducing agent. Depending on the heavy oil flow rate, up to 100% NO conversions were obtained. The temperature programmed desorption studies a strong interaction between manganese and cerium. Presence of manganese not only enhanced the reduction rate of NO by methane, but also significantly improved the N{sub 2} selectivity. To increase the activity of the Mn-promoted catalyst, the manganese content of the catalyst need to be optimized and different methods of catalyst preparation and different reactor types need to be investigated to lower the transport limitations in the reactor.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2003-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

JV 58-Effects of Biomass Combustion on SCR Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A portable slipstream selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor was installed at a biomass cofired utility boiler to examine the rates and mechanisms of catalyst deactivation when exposed to biomass combustion products. The catalyst was found to deactivate at a much faster rate than typically found in a coal-fired boiler, although this may have been the result of high ash loading rather than a general property of biomass combustion. Deactivation was mainly the result of alkali and alkaline-earth sulfate formation and growth in catalyst pores, apparently caused by alkaline-earth ash deposition on or near the pore sites. The high proportion of biomass in the fuel contributed to elevated levels of alkali and alkaline-earth material in the ash when compared to coal ash, and these higher levels provided more opportunity for sulfate formation. Based on laboratory tests, neither catalyst material nor ammonia contributed measurably to ash mass gains via sulfation. A model constructed using both field and laboratory data was able to predict catalyst deactivation of catalysts under subbituminous coal firing but performed poorly at predicting catalyst deactivation under cofiring conditions. Because of the typically higher-than coal levels of alkali and alkaline-earth elements present in biomass fuels that are available for sulfation at typical SCR temperatures, the use of SCR technology and biomass cofiring needs to be carefully evaluated prior to implementation.

Bruce C. Folkedahl; Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Joshua R. Strege; Donald P. McCollor; Jason D. Laumb; Lingbu Kong

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

Consol Energy Summary Report: Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities With SCR and FGD Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was a joint effort between EPRI, the U.S. Department of Energy, Consol Energy, and a number of electric utility companies who hosted the mercury field measurements. This report summarizes mercury measurements by the Consol Energy to characterize the impact of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury speciation and removal at ten (10) coal-fired power plants.

2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

83

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Test Site 5 - Eastern Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant wi th an SCR, ESP, and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber 8212 fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining ...

2005-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

84

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Site 7 - Eastern Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant with an SCR, ESP, and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercu...

2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

85

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Test Site 4 - Eastern Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant wit h an SCR, ESP, and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercu...

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Site 6 - Eastern Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant with an SCR, ESP, and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber 8211 fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining ...

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

87

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1 is similar to Unit 2, except that Unit 1 has no SCR for NOx control. Four sampling tests were performed on both units in January 2005; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the economizer outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process samples for material balances were collected with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the SCR increased the oxidation of the mercury at the air heater outlet. At the exit of the air heater, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized and particulate forms on the unit equipped with an SCR compared to the unit without an SCR (97.4% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the scrubber. Total mercury removal averaged 97% on the unit with the SCR, and 87% on the unit without the SCR. The average mercury mass balance closure was 84% on Unit 1 and 103% on Unit 2.

J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

DEMONSTRATION OF POTENTIAL FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project addresses the potential for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) devices (using urea as reductant) together with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) and low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to achieve future stringent emissions standards for heavy-duty engines powering Class 8 vehicles. Two emission control systems consisting of the three technologies (EGR, SCR, and DPF) were calibrated on a Caterpillar C-12 heavy-duty diesel engine. Results of these calibrations showed good promise in meeting the 2010 heavy-duty emission standards as set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These two emission control systems were developed to evaluate a series of fuels that have similar formulations except for their sulfur content. Additionally, one fuel, code-named BP15, was also evaluated. This fuel was prepared by processing straight-run distillate stocks through a commercial, single stage hydrotreater employing high activity catalyst at maximum severity. An additional goal of this program is to provide data for an on-going EPA technology review that evaluates progress toward meeting 2007/2010 emission standards. These emissions levels were to be achieved not only on the transient test cycles but in other modes of operation such as the steady-state Euro-III style emission test known as the OICA (Organisation Internationale des Compagnies d'Automobiles) or the ESC (European Stationary Cycle). Additionally, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions standards are to be met.

McGILL,R; KHAIR, M; SHARP, C

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

89

Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

08FFL-0020Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of fuel rail pressure (FRP) and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on particulate matter (PM) formation is investigated in this paper along with notes regarding the NOx and other emissions. Increasing FRP was shown to reduce the overall soot and total PM mass for four operating conditions. These conditions included two high speed conditions (2400 rpm at 540 and 270 Nm of torque) and two moderated speed conditions (1400 rpm at 488 and 325 Nm). The concentrations of CO2 and NOx increased with fuel rail pressure and this is attributed to improved fuel-air mixing. Interestingly, the level of unburned hydrocarbons remained constant (or increased slightly) with increased FRP. PM concentration was measured using an AVL smoke meter and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS); and total PM was collected using standard gravimetric techniques. These results showed that the smoke number and particulate concentrations decrease with increasing FRP. However the decrease becomes more gradual as very high rail pressures. Additionally, the total PM decreased with increasing FRP; however, the soluble organic fraction (SOF) reaches a maximum after which it declines with higher rail pressure. The total PM was collected for the two 1400 rpm conditions downstream of the engine, diesel oxidation catalyst, and a urea-SCR catalyst. The results show that significant PM reduction occurs in the SCR catalyst even during high rates of urea dosage. Analysis of the PM indicates that residual SOF is burned up in the SCR catalyst.

Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Domingo, Norberto [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

SCR SYSTEMS FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS: PROGRESS TOWARDS MEETING EURO 4 EMISSION STANDARDS IN 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Emissions of diesel engines contain some components, which support the generation of smog and which are classified hazardous. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is a powerful tool to reduce the NOx and Particulate emissions. The NOx-emission can be reduced by the SCR technology. SCR stands for Selective Catalytic Reduction. A reduction agent has to be injected into the exhaust upstream of a catalyst. On the catalyst the NOx is reduced to N2 (Nitrogen) and H2O (Water). This catalytic process was developed in Japan about 30 years ago to reduce the NOx emission of coal-fired power plants. The first reduction agent used was anhydrous ammonia (NH3). SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. To day, SCR technology is the most promising technology to fulfill the new European Regulations EURO 4 and EURO 5 being effective Oct. 2005 and Oct. 2008. The efficient NOx reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfill the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NOx emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. The infrastructure for AdBlue is under evaluation in Europe by Urea Producers and Mineral Oil companies to be readily available in time. Urea is one of the most common chemical products in the world and the production and the distribution very much experienced. However, a pure grade is needed for automotive application and requires special attention.

Frank, W; Huethwohl, G; Maurer, B

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

92

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in the flue gas; this was true for all SCR catalyst types and sources. Although chlorine has been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas, coal chlorine was not a statistically significant factor affecting mercury speciation at the economizer exit or at the air heater exit. The only statistically significant factors were the coal ash CaO content and the fly ash carbon content; the fraction of mercury in the elemental form at the economizer exit was positively correlated with both factors. In a direct comparison at four SCR-equipped units vs. similar units at the same sites without SCR (or with the SCR bypassed), the elemental mercury fractions (measured at the ESP outlet) were lower, and the coal-to-stack mercury removals were higher, when the SCR was present and operating. The average coal-to-stack mercury removal at the four units without an operating SCR was 72%, whereas the average removal at the same sites with operating SCRs was 88%. The unit mercury mass balance (a gauge of the overall quality of the tests) at all of the units ranged from 81% to 113%, which were within our QA/QC criterion of 80-120%.

J.A. Withum

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

Mitigation of SCR-Ammonia Related Aqueous Effects in a Fly Ash Pond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminated fly ash resulting from secondary injection of ammonia to mitigate SO3 produced by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system altered the water quality of a fly ash pond at a coal-fired power generation station. This project attempted to improve water quality by encouraging the growth of algae in the pond to remove ammonia, while keeping other important parameters (pH, total suspended solids, Biological Oxygen Demand, and metals) within allowable limits.

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

94

Effects of Chlorine and Other Flue Gas Parameters on SCR Catalyst Mercury Oxidation and Capture Efficiencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although catalyst behavior is relatively well understood with respect to deNOx and SO2 oxidation, relatively little is known about mercury oxidation behavior. This test program seeks to evaluate the mercury oxidation performance of multiple types of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst as a function of changes in various flue gas parameters, including chlorine level, ammonia level, flow rate, and temperature. This interim report describes the results from parametric testing on the first catalyst.

2008-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

95

Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

96

Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}, Task 2.6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides(NO{sub x}) in flue gas or engine exhaust gas with hydrocarbons as the reductant has great potential for less expense, less pollution, and easier operation than SCR with ammonia. Methane is the preferred reducing gas because of its low cost and low toxicity. Stable, low-cost catalysts for SCR with methane are required to demonstrate this technology for controlling NO{sub x} emissions. Several cobalt and nickel catalysts on synthetic clay and uranium oxide supports were investigated for their activities in reducing NO{sub x} with methane in the presence of air. The efficiency of the synthetic clay-supported nickel and cobalt catalysts for nitric oxide (NO) reduction with methane as the reducing gas was poor. The nickel oxide-uranium oxide catalyst, which was chosen for its high stability, was also ineffective. Results from the two-step experiments conducted at two-temperatures produced some interesting information on the reactions of methane with the catalysts and the reactivity of the carbonaceous intermediate. The carbonaceous material formed from methane dissociation at 450{degrees}C not only reduces NO to N{sub 2}O at lower temperatures, but also prevents oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. Unfortunately, the carbonaceous forms that reduce the NO are not available for reactions at 400{degrees}C in the presence of oxygen. A two-step process employing this chemistry would be difficult because the catalyst would have to be cycled between the two temperatures. Also the desired reduction to nitrogen is not very efficient.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Modelling of catalytic aftertreatment of NOx emissions using hydrocarbon as a reductant.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) is emerging as one of the most practical methods for the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from light-duty-diesel engine exhaust… (more)

Sawatmongkhon, Boonlue

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Microsoft Word - scr-log  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Control Log Page : Log Date: System Name: Approval Status SCR Reqmnt Date Submitted Priority (E,U,R) * Change Approved Change Not Approved Hold (Future...

99

Formaldehyde and VOC Emissions from a Siemens-Westinghouse 501F Combustion Turbine with Lean Pre-Mix Combustors and SCR and CO Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of flue gas formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measurements conducted at a Siemens-Westinghouse 501F gas-fired combustion turbine with lean pre-mix low-NOx combustors and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and carbon monoxide (CO) catalysts.

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Formaldehyde Emissions from a Siemens-Westinghouse 501F Combustion Turbine with Pre-Mix Combustors, with SCR and CO Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim report presents a summary of formaldehyde emission measurements conducted at full operating load from a Siemens-Westinghouse 501F gas-fired combustion turbine with lean pre-mix low-NOx combustors, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and carbon monoxide (CO) catalysts.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Final Report of a CRADA Between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the General Motors Company (CRADA No. PNNL/271): “Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology”  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel engines can offer substantially higher fuel efficiency, good driving performance characteristics, and reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emission compared to stoichiometric gasoline engines. Despite the increasing public demand for higher fuel economy and reduced dependency on imported oil, however, meeting the stringent emission standards with affordable methods has been a major challenge for the wide application of these fuel-efficient engines in the US market. The selective catalytic reduction of NOx by urea (urea-SCR) is one of the most promising technologies for NOx emission control for diesel engine exhausts. To ensure successful NOx emission control in the urea-SCR technology, both a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a urea-SCR catalyst with high activity and durability are critical for the emission control system. Because the use of this technology for light-duty diesel vehicle applications is new, the relative lack of experience makes it especially challenging to satisfy the durability requirements. Of particular concern is being able to realistically simulate actual field aging of the catalyst systems under laboratory conditions, which is necessary both as a rapid assessment tool for verifying improved performance and certifiability of new catalyst formulations. In addition, it is imperative to develop a good understanding of deactivation mechanisms to help develop improved catalyst materials. In this CRADA program, General Motors Company and PNNL have investigated fresh, laboratory- and vehicle-aged DOC and SCR catalysts. The studies have led to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of catalysts used in the urea-SCR technology, and have improved the correlation between laboratory and vehicle aging for reduced development time and cost. This Final Report briefly highlights many of the technical accomplishments and documents the productivity of the program in terms of peer-reviewed scientific publications (2 total), reports (3 total including this Final Report), and presentations (5 total).

Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Kim, Chang H.; Oh, Se H.; Schmieg, Steven J.; Wiebenga, Michelle H.

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

102

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 87%. The mercury material balance closures for the four tests conducted at the plant ranged from 89% to 114%, with an average of 100%. These results appear to show that the SCR had a positive effect on mercury removal. In earlier programs, CONSOL sampled mercury at six plants with wet FGDs for SO{sub 2} control without SCR catalysts. At those plants, an average of 61 {+-} 15% of the mercury was in the oxidized form at the air heater outlet. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential Hg removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of Hg chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize Hg removal.

J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An accelerated durability test method determined the potential impact of biodiesel ash impurities, including engine testing with multiple diesel particulate filter substrate types, as well as diesel oxidation catalyst and selective catalyst reduction catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of a DPF after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in thermal shock resistance. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher hydrocarbon slip and a reduction in NO2 formation. The SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging. The SCR catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF and exposed to B20 exhaust suffered a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. The results of this study suggest that long-term operation with B20 at the current specification limits for alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities will adversely impact the performance of DOC, DPF and SCR systems.

Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Test Site 10---Eastern-Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant w ith an SCR, ESP and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber – fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is to determine mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired faci...

2005-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

105

Mercury Measurements Characterizing the Impact of SCR on Mercury: Consol Test Site 3 - Eastern Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plant Wit h an SCR, ESP, and Wet FGD; Impact of Chloride Addition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber - fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mer...

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

106

Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous sampling has shown that air pollution control devices can have a significant impact on mercury and other trace elements. For example, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can substantially increase the percentage of oxidized mercury that can then be removed by a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) also readily captures most of the trace elements of interest. The emission of these trace elements is then directly related to the overall particulate collect...

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

107

Ammonia Production and Utilization in a Hybrid LNT+SCR System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hybrid LNT+SCR system is used to control NOx from a light-duty diesel engine with in-cylinder regeneration controls. A diesel oxidation catalyst and diesel particulate filter are upstream of the LNT and SCR catalysts. Ultraviolet (UV) adsorption spectroscopy performed directly in the exhaust path downstream of the LNT and SCR catalysts is used to characterize NH3 production and utilization in the system. Extractive exhaust samples are analyzed with FTIR and magnetic sector mass spectrometry (H2) as well. Furthermore, standard gas analyzers are used to complete the characterization of exhaust chemistry. NH3 formation increases strongly with extended regeneration (or over regeneration ) of the LNT, but the amount of NOx reduction occurring over the SCR catalyst is limited by the amount of NH3 produced as well as the amount of NOx available downstream of the LNT. Control of lean-rich cycling parameters enables control of the ratio of NOx reduction between the LNT and SCR catalysts. During lean-rich cycling, fuel penalties are similar for either LNT dominant or LNT with supplemental SCR NOx reduction. However, stored NH3 after multiple lean-rich cycles can enable continued NOx reduction by the SCR after lean-rich cycling stops; thus, requirements for active regeneration of the LNT+SCR system can be modified during transient operation.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Annual technical report, September 30, 1993--September 29, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay catalyst was prepared for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH{sub 3} at above 300{degrees}C. The delaminated pillard clay was characterized by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) chemical analysis, XRD (X-ray diffraction) structure and line broadening analyses, micropore size probing, and Moessbauer analysis. These analyses showed that the catalyst contained fragmented Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay forming {open_quotes}house-of-cards{close_quotes} structure with dispersed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles approximately 170 {angstrom} in size. The SCR activity of the delaminated pillard clay was higher than the commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst, and also higher than the undelaminated pillard clay and supported Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, under conditions with SO{sub 2}. Infrared measurements of adsorbed NH{sub 3} showed strong Bronsted acidity which was caused possibly by interactions between Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and clay.

Chen, J.P.; Hausladen, M.C.; Yang, R.T.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 53%. The average Hg concentration in the stack flue gas was 4.09 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The average stack mercury emission was 3.47 Ib/TBtu. The mercury material balance closures ranged from 87% to 108%, with an average of 97%. A sampling program similar to this one was performed on a similar unit (at the same plant) that was equipped with an SCR for NOx control. Comparison of the results from the two units show that the SCR increases the percentage of mercury that is in the oxidized form, which, in turn, lends to more of the total mercury being removed in the wet scrubber. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal.

J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

CONTROL OF DIESEL ENGINE UREA SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A systematic nonlinear control methodology for urea-SCR systems applicable for light-to-heavy-duty Diesel engine platforms in a variety of on-road, off-road, and marine applications is developed… (more)

Hsieh, Ming-Feng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Program on Technology Innovation: Bench-Scale Evaluation of an Ammonia Slip Destruction Catalyst at Intermediate and Post SCR Reacto r Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reducing ammonia slip from selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems may allow unit operators to maintain or increase NOx removal efficiencies by increasing reagent flow rates without affecting downstream equipment or ash contamination. This research project is studying the performance of a near-commercial ammonia destruction catalyst using a gas-fired bench-scale reactor. A test program was designed to evaluate the catalyst at different NH3 to NOx ratios, flue gas temperatures, and catalyst volumes. C...

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

112

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) Technology Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides a technology overview regarding the application and operation of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) to coal-fired electric utility boilers for the incremental reduction of NOx emissions. The document provides a historical perspective of the SNCR technology development, background regarding the reaction chemistry, and process parameters that impact SNCR NOx reduction performance. In addition, a review of reagent choices along with storage and handling requirements is ...

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

113

Urea for SCR-based NOx Control Systems and Potential Impacts to Ground Water Resources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the key challenges facing manufacturers of diesel engines for light- and heavy-duty vehicles is the development of technologies for controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides, In this regard, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems represent control technology that can potentially achieve the NOx removal efficiencies required to meet new U.S. EPA standards. SCR systems rely on a bleed stream of urea solution into exhaust gases prior to catalytic reduction. While urea's role in this emission control technology is beneficial, in that it supports reduced NOx emissions, it can also be an environmental threat to ground water quality. This would occur if it is accidentally released to soils because once in that environmental medium, urea is subsequently converted to nitrate--which is regulated under the U.S. EPA's primary drinking water standards. Unfortunately, nitrate contamination of ground waters is already a significant problem across the U.S. Historically, the primary sources of nitrate in ground waters have been septic tanks and fertilizer applications. The basic concern over nitrate contamination is the potential health effects associated with drinking water containing elevated levels of nitrate. Specifically, consumption of nitrate-contaminated water can cause a blood disorder in infants known as methemoglobinemia.

Layton, D.

2002-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

114

NOx Reduction Study at New York Power Authority's Charles Poletti Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This engineering study assessed the feasibility and economics of obtaining significant NOx reduction levels at New York Power Authoritys Charles Poletti Station through one or more of a variety of approaches. Specific NOx reduction technologies included in the assessment were: 30 Unit De-Rate Induced Flue Gas Recirculation (IFGR) IFGR +30 De-Rate Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) IFGR +SNCR IFGR +SNCR +30 De-Rate Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) A number of windbox re-powering options, ...

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

In-line localized monitoring of catalyst activity in selective catalytic NO.sub.x reduction systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Localized catalyst activity in an SCR unit for controlling emissions from a boiler, power plant, or any facility that generates NO.sub.x-containing flue gases is monitored by one or more modules that operate on-line without disrupting the normal operation of the facility. Each module is positioned over a designated lateral area of one of the catalyst beds in the SCR unit, and supplies ammonia, urea, or other suitable reductant to the catalyst in the designated area at a rate that produces an excess of the reductant over NO.sub.x on a molar basis through the designated area. Sampling probes upstream and downstream of the designated area draw samples of the gas stream for NO.sub.x analysis, and the catalyst activity is determined from the difference in NO.sub.x levels between the two probes.

Muzio, Lawrence J. (Laguna Niguel, CA); Smith, Randall A. (Huntington Beach, CA)

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

116

Modeling Species Inhibition and Competitive Adsorption in Urea-SCR Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the urea-SCR technology exhibits high NOx reduction efficiency over a wide range of temperatures among the lean NOx reduction technologies, further improvement in low-temperature performance is required to meet the future emission standards and to lower the system cost. In order to improve the catalyst technologies and optimize the system performance, it is critical to understand the reaction mechanisms and catalyst behaviors with respect to operating conditions. Urea-SCR catalysts exhibit poor NOx reduction performance at low temperature operating conditions (T catalysts based on bench reactor experiments. We further use the competitive adsorption (CA) model to develop a standard SCR model based on previously identified kinetics. Simulation results indicate that the CA model predicts catalyst outlet NO and NH3 concentrations with minimal root mean square error.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Lee, Jong H.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

117

DEVELOPMENT OF UREA-SCR FOR HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS DEMONSTRATION UPDATE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study included engine cell and vehicle tests. The engine cell tests are aimed at determining NOX reduction using the US transient and OICA emissions test cycles. These cycles will be included in future US HD emissions standards. The vehicle tests will show urea-SCR system performance during real-world operation. These tests will prove that the technology can be successfully implemented and demonstrated over-the-road. The program objectives are to: (a) apply urea-SCR to a US HD diesel engine; (b) determine engine cell emissions reduction during US-transient and OICA cycles; (c) apply urea-SCR to a US HD diesel truck; and (d) determine NOX reduction and urea consumption during over-the-road operation.

Miller, William

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

118

On the selection of dimension reduction techniques for scientific applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many dimension reduction methods have been proposed to discover the intrinsic, lower dimensional structure of a high-dimensional dataset. However, determining critical features in datasets that consist of a large number of features is still a challenge. In this paper, through a series of carefully designed experiments on real-world datasets, we investigate the performance of different dimension reduction techniques, ranging from feature subset selection to methods that transform the features into a lower dimensional space. We also discuss methods that calculate the intrinsic dimensionality of a dataset in order to understand the reduced dimension. Using several evaluation strategies, we show how these different methods can provide useful insights into the data. These comparisons enable us to provide guidance to a user on the selection of a technique for their dataset.

Fan, Y J; Kamath, C

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

119

Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document is the 2010 version of Operation and Maintenance Guidelines for Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems, originally published in 2001 and updated annually. New content this year includes: (1) A section on static mixers added in Chapter 3; (2) Substantial expansion of the discussion on inspection of ammonia storage and delivery equipment in Chapter 8; (3) Expanded coverage of unit startup, shutdown, and low-load operation in Chapter 15; (4) a new chapter, Chapter 18, on the means to ensure tha...

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

120

SCR Tech LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SCR Tech LLC SCR Tech LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name SCR-Tech LLC Place Charlotte, North Carolina Zip 28214 Sector Services Product US-based provider of catalyst regeneration technologies and management services for SCR systems. Coordinates 35.2225°, -80.837539° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.2225,"lon":-80.837539,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

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121

SCR Catalyst Management for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of EPRI projects conducted over the past several years have examined the effects of SCR catalyst on mercury speciation. These projects have focused on the various factors influencing mercury oxidation, related to both the flue gas conditions and the catalysts themselves. However, the majority of these studies have only examined the speciation at the SCR inlet and outlet. Much less is known about the interlayer speciation, however, which is very important when developing catalyst management ...

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

122

Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems  

SciTech Connect

A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NOX IN OXYGEN RICH ENVIRONMENTS WITH PLASMA-ASSISTED CATALYSIS: CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND MECHANISTIC STUDIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The control of NOx (NO and NO2) emissions from so-called ''lean-burn'' vehicle engines remains a challenge. In recent years, there have been a number of reports that show that a plasma device combined with a catalyst can reduce as high as 90% or more of NOx in simulated diesel and other ''lean-burn'' exhaust. In the case of propylene containing simulated diesel exhaust, the beneficial role of a plasma treatment is now thought to be due to oxidation of NO to NO2, and the formation of partially oxidized hydrocarbons that are more active for the catalytic reduction of NO2 than propylene. Thus, the overall system can be most usefully described as hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) enhanced by 'reforming' the exhaust with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) device. For plasma-enhanced catalysis, both zeolite- and alumina-based materials have shown high activity, albeit in somewhat different temperature ranges, when preceded by an NTP reactor. This paper will briefly describe our research efforts aimed at optimizing the catalyst materials for NTP-catalysis devices based, in part, on our continuing studies of the NTP- and catalytic-reaction mechanisms. Various alkali- and alkaline earth-cation-exchanged Y zeolites have been prepared, their material properties characterized, and they have been tested as catalytic materials for NOx reduction in laboratory NTP-catalysis reactors. Interestingly, NO2 formed in the plasma and not subsequently removed over these catalysts, will back-convert to NO, albeit to varying extents depending upon the nature of the cation. Besides this comparative reactivity, we will also discuss selected synthesis strategies for enhancing the performance of these zeolite-based catalyst materials. A particularly important result from our mechanistic studies is the observation that aldehydes, formed during the plasma treatment of simulated diesel exhaust, are the important species for the reduction of NOx to N2. Indeed, acetaldehyde has been found to be especially effective in the thermal reduction of both NO and NO2 over Ba- and Na-Y zeolite catalysts.

Peden, C; Barlow, S; Hoard, J; Kwak, J; *Balmer-Millar, M; *Panov, A; Schmieg, S; Szanyi, J; Tonkyn, R

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

124

CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF THE SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NO by NH3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Maloney, K.L. , "NOx Reduction with Ammonia: Laboratoryand Hashizawa, K. , "Reduction of NOx in Combustion ExhaustSelective Noncatalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3," EPRI NOx

Brown, N.J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

THERMAL DeNOx: A COMMERCIAL SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC NOx REDUCTION PROCESS FOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THERMAL DeNOx: A COMMERCIAL SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC NOx REDUCTION PROCESS FOR WASTE when high NOx reduction is required. To illustrate the cost effectiveness, investment and operating in cinerators. INTRODUCTION THERMAL DeNO", a selective noncatalytic NO" reduction process, was invented just

Columbia University

126

Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Novel catalyst for selective NOx reduction using hydrocarbons ...  

This invention discloses a catalyst and process for removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust streams under lean burn conditions using hydrocarbons as the reductant.

128

Mercury Oxidation and Capture over SCR Catalysts in Simulated ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The SCR catalysts were tested for oxidation and capture of elemental mercury ... EBSD Analysis of Complex Microstructures of CSP? Processed Low Carbon ...

129

Method and system for SCR optimization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and systems are provided for controlling SCR performance in a boiler. The boiler includes one or more generally cross sectional areas. Each cross sectional area can be characterized by one or more profiles of one or more conditions affecting SCR performance and be associated with one or more adjustable desired profiles of the one or more conditions during the operation of the boiler. The performance of the boiler can be characterized by boiler performance parameters. A system in accordance with one or more embodiments of the invention can include a controller input for receiving a performance goal for the boiler corresponding to at least one of the boiler performance parameters and for receiving data values corresponding to boiler control variables and to the boiler performance parameters. The boiler control variables include one or more current profiles of the one or more conditions. The system also includes a system model that relates one or more profiles of the one or more conditions in the boiler to the boiler performance parameters. The system also includes an indirect controller that determines one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions to satisfy the performance goal for the boiler. The indirect controller uses the system model, the received data values and the received performance goal to determine the one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions. The system model also includes a controller output that outputs the one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions.

Lefebvre, Wesley Curt (Boston, MA); Kohn, Daniel W. (Cambridge, MA)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

130

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Model Evaluation of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As federal and state regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from fossil-fueled power plants become stricter, post-combustion techniques such as selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) become viable options to achieve compliance. In the SNCR process, urea or ammonia is injected into the combustion products and reacts selectively with NOx to form nitrogen and water. Operating scenarios often arise that justify application of a low-capital cost technology that can provide incremental NOx reductions ...

2003-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

131

Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power controller device which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage to frequency converter controls the reset input of a R-S flip flop, while an 0 crossing detector controls the set input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the reset and set inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations.

Hughes, Wallace J.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power controller device which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the "reset" input of a R-S flip flop, while an "0" crossing detector controls the "set" input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the "reset" and "set" inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations.

Hughes, Wallace J. (Boston Lake, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power controller device is disclosed which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the ``reset`` input of a R-S flip flop, while an ``0`` crossing detector controls the ``set`` input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the ``reset`` and ``set`` inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations. 9 figs.

Hughes, W.J.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

136

Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This annual report describes recent progress on a collaborative project between scientists and engineers in the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at PNNL and at Ford Motor Company, involving investigations of laboratory- and engine-aged SCR catalysts, containing mainly base metal zeolites. These studies are leading to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of SCR catalysts and improve the correlation between laboratory and engine aging, saving experimental time and cost. We are investigating SCR catalysts with reduced ammonia slip, increased low temperature activity, and increased product selectivity to N2. More recent recognition that high temperature performance, under regimes that sometimes cause deactivation, also needs to be improved is driving current work focused on catalyst materials modifications needed to achieve this enhanced performance. We are also studying materials effective for the temporary storage of HC species during the cold-start period. In particular, we examine the adsorption and desorption of various HC species produced during the combustion with different fuels (e.g., gasoline, E85, diesel) over potential HC adsorber materials, and measure the kinetic parameters to update Ford’s HC adsorption model.

Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Kim, Do Heui; Li, Xiaohong S.; Tran, Diana N.; Peden, Charles HF

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

137

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control, Prepared byReduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)NOx removal technologies. Volume 1. Selective catalytic reduction.

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Effect of Hydrocarbon Emissions From PCCI-Type Combustion On The Performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Core samples cut from full size commercial Fe-and Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and PCCI combustion modes. Subsequently, the NOx reduction performance of the exposed catalysts was evaluated on a laboratory bench- reactor fed with simulated exhaust. The Fe-zeolite NOx conversion efficiency was significantly degraded, especially at low temperatures (<250 C), after the catalyst was exposed to the engine exhaust. The degradation of the Fe-zeolite performance was similar for both combustion modes. The Cu-zeolite was much more resistant to HC fouling than the Fe-zeolite catalyst. In the case of the Cu-zeolite, PCCI exhaust had a more significant impact than the exhaust from conventional combustion on the NOx conversion efficiency. For all cases, the clean catalyst performance was recovered after heating to 600 C. GC-MS analysis of the HCs adsorbed to the catalyst surface provided insights into the observed NOx reduction performance trends.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Effect of Hydrocarbon Emissions From PCCI-Type Combustion On The Performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Core samples cut from full size commercial Fe-and Cu-zeolite SCR catalysts were exposed to a slipstream of raw engine exhaust from a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operating in conventional and PCCI combustion modes. Subsequently, the NOx reduction performance of the exposed catalysts was evaluated on a laboratory bench- reactor fed with simulated exhaust. The Fe-zeolite NOx conversion efficiency was significantly degraded, especially at low temperatures (catalyst was exposed to the engine exhaust. The degradation of the Fe-zeolite performance was similar for both combustion modes. The Cu-zeolite was much more resistant to HC fouling than the Fe-zeolite catalyst. In the case of the Cu-zeolite, PCCI exhaust had a more significant impact than the exhaust from conventional combustion on the NOx conversion efficiency. For all cases, the clean catalyst performance was recovered after heating to 600 C. GC-MS analysis of the HCs adsorbed to the catalyst surface provided insights into the observed NOx reduction performance trends.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

2011 Long-Term Tracking of Regenerated Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of regenerated SCR catalyst has become quite commonplace in the utility industry over the past several years. As a result, a clear understanding of the long-term performance of regenerated catalysts is needed so that informed purchasing decisions can be made and accurate catalyst management plans can be developed. EPRI and others have evaluated the initial performance of regenerated catalysts in numerous studies, but long-term performance has not been studied in adequate detail. The current proje...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Experimental Studies for CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The research carried out on this project developed experimentally validated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) high?fidelity models that served as the basis for the reduced order models used for internal state estimation. The high?fidelity and reduced order/estimator codes were evaluated by the industrial partners with feedback to MTU that improved the codes. Ammonia, particulate matter (PM) mass retained, PM concentration, and NOX sensors were evaluated and used in conjunction with the estimator codes. The data collected from PM experiments were used to develop the PM kinetics using the high?fidelity DPF code for both NO2 assisted oxidation and thermal oxidation for Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (ULSF), and B10 and B20 biodiesel fuels. Nine SAE papers were presented and this technology transfer process should provide the basis for industry to improve the OBD and control of urea injection and fuel injection for active regeneration of the PM in the DPF using the computational techniques developed. This knowledge will provide industry the ability to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles in the field. Four MS and three PhD Mechanical Engineering students were supported on this project and their thesis research provided them with expertise in experimental, modeling, and controls in aftertreatment systems.

Johnson, John; Naber, Jeffrey; Parker, Gordon; Yang, Song-Lin; Stevens, Andrews; Pihl, Josh

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

142

Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust Fluid, and Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies on the AFDC (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation covers new content available on the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center regarding diesel vehicles, diesel exhaust fluid, and selective catalytic reduction technologies.

Brodt-Giles, D.

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

143

Pilot-Scale Evaluation of Mercury Oxidation Across SCR Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements were conducted to evaluate the mercury chemical reactions using a pilot-scale SCR operating on flue gas slipstream from an eastern bituminous (~1.75% sulfur, ~750 ppm Cl) coal-fired power plant. Tests were conducted by the Western Kentucky University (WKU) to evaluate the impact of flue gas constituents (HCl, Cl2, SO2, SO3, NH3:NOx) as well as two commercially-available SCR catalysts. The results and data were reviewed by Reaction Engineering International, who prepared this technical update...

2005-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

144

Pilot-Scale Evaluation of Mercury Oxidation Across SCR Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluated the effects of addition of various acid gas species on the oxidation of elemental mercury across two commercial SCR catalysts in a pilot SCR reactor operating on a slipstream from a Powder River Basin coal-fired power plant. Tests were conducted by the Western Kentucky University (WKU) to evaluate the impact of flue gas constituents (HCl, HF, HBr, HI, SO3, NH3:NO), operating conditions, and catalyst design on mercury oxidation. The results and data were reviewed by Reaction Engineer...

2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

145

Durability Evaluation of Urea SCR Catalysts for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Assess the potential long-term durability of various SCR catalyst formulations for mobile heavy duty diesel application.

Koshkarian, Kent

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

146

Adaptive PI control of NOx? emissions in a Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System using system identification models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Urea SCR System has shown great potential for implementation on diesel vehicles wanting to meet the upcoming emission regulations by the EPA. The objective of this thesis is to develop an adaptive controller that is ...

Ong, Chun Yang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Characterization of the selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/ addition has been studied in a lean-burning oil-fired laboratory combustion tunnel as a function of equivalence ratio, NH/sub 3/ injection temperature, concentration of NH/sub 3/ added, and the source of NO. Ammonia breakthrough was found to depend strongly on the NH/sub 3/ addition temperature. The total concentration of nitrogen containing species other N/sub 2/, NO, and NH/sub 3/ was measured with a variety of techniques and was found to be less than 5 ppM over the range of conditions studied.

Lucas, D.; Brown, N.J.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NO BY HYDROCARBONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Novel bifunctional catalysts combining two active phases, typically Cu-ZSM-5 and a modifier, were prepared and tested for the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides using propylene in order to overcome the hindering effects of water typically seen for single-phase catalysts such as Cu-ZSM-5. The catalysts were made by typical preparation techniques, but parameters could be varied to influence the catalyst. The physical characterization of the materials showed that the modification phase was added strictly to the external surface of the zeolite without hindering any internal surface area. Chemical characterization by temperature programmed reactions, DRIFTS and x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated strong interaction between the two phases, primarily producing materials that exhibited lower reduction temperatures. Two improvements in NOx reduction activity (1000 ppm NO, 1000 ppm C3H6, 2% O2, 30,000 hr-1 GHSV) were seen for these catalysts compared with Cu- ZSM-5: a lower temperature of maximum NOx conversion activity (as low at 250 C), and an enhancement of activity when water was present in the system. The use of a second phase provides a way to further tune the properties of the catalyst in order to achieve mechanistic conditions necessary to maximize NOx remediation.

Neylon, M; Castagnola, M; Kropf, A.; Marshall, C

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

149

Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher HC slip and a reduction in NO{sub 2} formation. The metal-zeolite SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000 mile equivalent aging. This catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF, showed a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle.

Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Effects of a Zeolite-Selective Catalytic Reduction System on Comprehensive Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and also from the same engine equipped with the exhaust aftertreatment system. The results have shown engine equipped with a zeolite urea-SCR aftertreatment system will be made to evaluate the effects to a baseline measurement from the same engine equipped with no exhaust aftertreatment system. The majority

Wu, Mingshen

152

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

Constance Senior

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Earthquake risk reduction in the United States: An assessment of selected user needs and recommendations for the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Assessment was conducted to improve the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) by providing NEHRP agencies with information that supports their user-oriented setting of crosscutting priorities in the NEHRP strategic planning process. The primary objective of this Assessment was to take a ``snapshot`` evaluation of the needs of selected users throughout the major program elements of NEHRP. Secondary objectives were to conduct an assessment of the knowledge that exists (or is being developed by NEHRP) to support earthquake risk reduction, and to begin a process of evaluating how NEHRP is meeting user needs. An identification of NEHRP`s strengths also resulted from the effort, since those strengths demonstrate successful methods that may be useful to NEHRP in the future. These strengths are identified in the text, and many of them represent important achievements since the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act was passed in 1977.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control; Prepared byNOx Removal Technologies. Volume 1. Selective Catalytic Reduction.

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Characteristics of AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure RT-SCR model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical properties of a resonant-tunneling-semiconductor-controlled rectifier (RT-SCR) model have been presented. The current, temperature, gain, doping concentration, and layer size versus voltage relationships have been numerically obtained. The ... Keywords: RT-SCR, Semiconductor devices, Thyristors

B. D. Barkana

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter, progress was made on the following tasks: TPD techniques were employed to study the reaction mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia over iron oxide pillared clay catalyst; and a sulfur dioxide resistant iron oxide/titanium oxide catalyst was developed.

Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

OBSERVATION-BASED METHODS (OBMS) FOR ANALYZING URBAN/REGIONAL OZONE PRODUCTION AND OZONE-NOx-VOC SENSITIVITY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and reduction ofFormation and reduction of NOxNOx during burner combustionduring burner combustion ·· LowLow NOxNOx gas treatment forFlue gas treatment for NOxNOx reduction: SCR, SNCR, otherreduction: SCR, SNCR, other OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Selective catalyticSelective catalytic reduction (SCR) ofreduction (SCR) of NOxNOx /1

Sillman, Sanford

158

Use power factor correction to cut SCR rig fuel bills  

SciTech Connect

When drilling with SCR-powered drilling rigs, there are specific instances on every well when the kVA capacity of the AC generators prohibits efficient engine loading. It then becomes necessary to run another engine-generator set to provide sufficient kVA to power the load, even though the kW required by the load can be furnished by existing engine(s) on line. The practice of running one more engine than can be fully loaded causes all engines on line to run at a less efficient point on the brake specific fuel consumption curve (BSFC) and therefore costs more in terms of engine hours, fuel and maintenance costs. This article presents a study of the load represented by the mud pump and drawworks along with a graphical representation that shows the effect of these loads on the engine generator system both with and without a power factor correction device.

Logan, R.T.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Selection of Thresholding Scheme for Image Noise Reduction on Wavelet Components Using Bayesian Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods for image noise reduction based on wavelet analysis perform by first decomposing the image and then by applying non-linear compression functions on the wavelet components. The approach commonly used to reduce the noise is to threshold the absolute ... Keywords: Bayesian estimation, Image noise reduction, wavelet analysis

A. De Stefano; P. R. White; W. B. Collis

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Optimal Deployment Plan of Emission Reduction Technologies for TxDOT's Construction Equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to develop and test an optimization model that will provide a deployment plan of emission reduction technologies to reduce emissions from non-road equipment. The focus of the study was on the counties of Texas that have nonattainment (NA) and near-nonattainment (NNA) status. The objective of this research was to develop methodologies that will help to deploy emission reduction technologies for non-road equipment of TxDOT to reduce emissions in a cost effective and optimal manner. Three technologies were considered for deployment in this research, (1) hydrogen enrichment (HE), (2) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and (3) fuel additive (FA). Combinations of technologies were also considered in the study, i.e. HE with FA, and SCR with FA. Two approaches were investigated in this research. The first approach was "Method 1" in which all the technologies, i.e. FA, HE and SCR were deployed in the NA counties at the first stage. In the second stage the same technologies were deployed in the NNA counties with the remaining budget, if any. The second approach was called "Method 2" in which all the technologies, i.e. FA, HE and SCR were deployed in the NA counties along with deploying only FA in the NNA counties at the first stage. Then with the remaining budget, SCR and HE were deployed in the NNA counties in the second stage. In each of these methods, 2 options were considered, i.e. maximizing NOx reduction with and without fuel economy consideration in the objective function. Thus, the four options investigated each having different mixes of emission reduction technologies include Case 1A: Method 1 with fuel economy consideration; Case 1B: Method 1 without fuel economy consideration; Case 2A: Method 2 with fuel economy consideration; and Case 2B: Method 2 without fuel economy consideration and were programmed with Visual C++ and ILOG CPLEX. These four options were tested for budget amounts ranging from $500 to $1,183,000 and the results obtained show that for a given budget one option representing a mix of technologies often performed better than others. This is conceivable because for a given budget the optimization model selects an affordable option considering the cost of technologies involved while at the same time maximum emission reduction, with and without fuel economy consideration, is achieved. Thus the alternative options described in this study will assist the decision makers to decide about the deployment preference of technologies. For a given budget, the decision maker can obtain the results for total NOx reduction, combined diesel economy and total combined benefit using the four models mentioned above. Based on their requirements and priorities, they can select the desired model and subsequently obtain the required deployment plan for deploying the emission reduction technologies in the NA and NNA counties.

Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Discovery of New NOx Reduction Catalysts for CIDI Engines Using Combinatorial Techniques  

SciTech Connect

This project for the discovery of new lean reduction NOx catalysts was initiated on August 16th, 2002 and is now into its fourth year. Several materials have already been identified as NOx reduction catalysts for possible future application. NOx reduction catalysts are a critical need in the North American vehicle market since these catalysts are needed to enable both diesels and lean gasoline engines to meet the 2007-2010 emission standards. Hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a preferred technology since it requires no infrastructure changes (as may be expected for urea SCR) and most likely has the simplest engine control strategy of the three proposed NOx reduction approaches. The use of fast throughput techniques and informatics greatly enhances the possibility of discovering new NOx reduction catalysts. Using fast throughput techniques this project has already screened over 3000 new materials and evaluates hundreds of new materials a month. Evaluating such a high number of new materials puts this approach into a very different paradigm than previous discovery approaches for new NOx reduction catalysts. With so much data on materials it is necessary to use statistical techniques to identify the potential catalysts and these statistical techniques are needed to optimize compositions of the multi-component materials that are identified under the program as possible new lean NOx catalysts. Several new materials have conversions in excess of 80% at temperatures above 300 C. That is more than twice the activity of previous HC SCR materials. These materials are candidates for emission control on heavy-duty systems (i.e.; over 8500 pounds gross weight). Tests of one of the downselected materials on an engine dynamometer show NOx reductions greater than 80% under some conditions even though the net NOx reductions on the HWFET and the US06 cycles were relatively low. The program is scheduled to continue until the end of the 2006 calendar year. Work in the final year will focus on continued discovery and identity of candidate materials, and also on refining the engine operating strategies to increase NOx reduction over a full engine cycle.

Blint, Richard J

2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Project process mapping : evaluation, selection, implementation, and assessment of energy cost reduction opportunities in Manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Company X uses large amounts of electricity in its manufacturing operations. Electricity prices at selected plants in the company's Region 1 territory rose by over 350% between 2000 and 2011, in part due to increasing ...

Stoddard, Steven J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

For stricter emissions needs, try custom catalytic reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When O`Brien California Cogen Ltd. was contracted to develop a system to generate steam for an Artesia, Calif., mild producer`s evaporation process, local regulations required NO{sub x} emissions reduced 9 ppm and CO to 10 ppm. Johnson Matthey supplied the solution with a custom system combining an oxidation catalyst to control CSO emissions and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to control NO{sub x}. O`Brien`s cogen operation runs off an aircraft-derivative GE Gas Turbine, model LM2500, with a 22.4-MW output. The catalyst system is installed in the exhaust stream of a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) form the Henry Vogt Machine Co.

Chambers, A.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Coverage Dependent Charge Reduction of Cationic Gold Clusters on Surfaces Prepared Using Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ionic charge state of monodisperse cationic gold clusters on surfaces may be controlled by selecting the coverage of mass-selected ions soft landed onto a substrate. Polydisperse diphosphine-capped gold clusters were synthesized in solution by reduction of chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I) with borane tert-butylamine in the presence of 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane. The polydisperse gold clusters were introduced into the gas phase by electrospray ionization and mass selection was employed to select a multiply charged cationic cluster species (Au11L53+, m/z = 1409, L = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) which was delivered to the surfaces of four different self-assembled monolayers on gold (SAMs) at coverages of 1011 and 1012 clusters/mm2. Employing the spatial profiling capabilities of in-situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) it is shown that, in addition to the chemical functionality of the monolayer (as demonstrated previously: ACS Nano, 2012, 6, 573) the coverage of cationic gold clusters on the surface may be used to control the distribution of ionic charge states of the soft-landed multiply charged clusters. In the case of a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol SAM (FSAM) almost complete retention of charge by the deposited Au11L53+ clusters was observed at a lower coverage of 1011 clusters/mm2. In contrast, at a higher coverage of 1012 clusters/mm2, pronounced reduction of charge to Au11L52+ and Au11L5+ was observed on the FSAM. When soft landed onto 16- and 11-mercaptohexadecanoic acid surfaces on gold (16,11-COOH-SAMs), the mass-selected Au11L53+ clusters exhibited partial reduction of charge to Au11L52+ at lower coverage and additional reduction of charge to both Au11L52+ and Au11L5+ at higher coverage. The reduction of charge was found to be more pronounced on the surface of the shorter (thinner) C11 than the longer (thicker) C16-COOH-SAM. On the surface of the 1-dodecanethiol (HSAM) monolayer, the most abundant charge state was found to be Au11L52+ at lower coverage and Au11L5+ at higher coverage, respectively. A coverage-dependent electron tunneling mechanism is proposed to account for the observed reduction of charge of mass-selected multiply charged gold clusters soft landed on SAMs. The results demonstrate that one of the critical parameters that influence the chemical and physical properties of supported metal clusters, ionic charge state, may be controlled by selecting the coverage of charged species soft landed onto surfaces.

Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

165

Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Catalyst Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two primary NOx after-treatment technologies have been recognized as the most promising approaches for meeting stringent NOx emission standards for diesel vehicles within the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) 2007/2010 mandated limits, NOx Storage Reduction (NSR) and NH3 selective catalytic reduction (SCR); both are, in fact being commercialized for this application. However, in looking forward to 2015 and beyond with expected more stringent regulations, the continued viability of the NSR technology for controlling NOx emissions from lean-burn engines such as diesels will require at least two specific, significant and inter-related improvements. First, it is important to reduce system costs by, for example, minimizing the precious metal content while maintaining, even improving, performance and long-term stability. A second critical need for future NSR systems, as well as for NH3 SCR, will be significantly improved higher and lower temperature performance and stability. Furthermore, these critically needed improvements will contribute significantly to minimizing the impacts to fuel economy of incorporating these after-treatment technologies on lean-burn vehicles. To meet these objectives will require, at a minimum an improved scientific understanding of the following things: i) the various roles for the precious and coinage metals used in these catalysts; ii) the mechanisms for these various roles; iii) the effects of high temperatures on the active metal performance in their various roles; iv) mechanisms for higher temperature NOx storage performance for modified and/or alternative storage materials; v) the interactions between the precious metals and the storage materials in both optimum NOx storage performance and long term stability; vi) the sulfur adsorption and regeneration mechanisms for NOx reduction materials; vii) materials degradation mechanisms in CHA-based NH3 SCR catalysts. The objective of this CRADA project between PNNL and Cummins, Inc. is to develop a fundamental understanding of the above-listed issues. Model catalysts that are based on literature formulations are the focus of the work being carried out at PNNL. In addition, the performance and stability of more realistic high temperature NSR catalysts, supplied by JM, are being studied in order to provide baseline data for the model catalysts that are, again, based on formulations described in the open literature. For this short summary, we will primarily highlight representative results from our recent studies of the stability of candidate high temperature NSR materials.

Gao, Feng; Kim, Do Heui; Luo, Jinyong; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Currier, Neal; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Kumar, Ashok; Li, Junhui; Stafford, Randy; Yezerets, Aleksey; Castagnola, Mario; Chen, Hai Ying; Hess, Howard ..

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown  

SciTech Connect

In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, a review of the available data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts from small, laboratory-scale experiments, pilot-scale slipstream reactors and full-scale power plants was carried out. Data from small-scale reactors obtained with both simulated flue gas and actual coal combustion flue gas demonstrated the importance of temperature, ammonia, space velocity and chlorine on mercury oxidation across SCR catalyst. SCR catalysts are, under certain circumstances, capable of driving mercury speciation toward the gas-phase equilibrium values at SCR temperatures. Evidence suggests that mercury does not always reach equilibrium at the outlet. There may be other factors that become apparent as more data become available.

Constance Senior

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7  

SciTech Connect

The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Development of Nitric Oxide Oxidation Catalysts for the Fast SCR Reaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study was undertaken in order to assess the potential for oxidizing NO to NO{sub 2} in flue gas environments, with the aim of promoting the so-called fast SCR reaction. In principle this can result in improved SCR kinetics and reduced SCR catalyst volumes. Prior to commencing experimental work, a literature study was undertaken to identify candidate catalysts for screening. Selection criteria comprised (1) proven (or likely) activity for NO oxidation, (2) low activity for SO2 oxidation (where data were available), and (3) inexpensive component materials. Catalysts identified included supported base metal oxides, supported and unsupported mixed metal oxides, and metal ion exchanged ZSM-5 (Fe, Co, Cu). For comparison purposes, several low loaded Pt catalysts (0.5 wt% Pt) were also included in the study. Screening experiments were conducted using a synthetic feed gas representative of flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers: [NO] = 250 ppm, [SO{sub 2}] = 0 or 2800 ppm, [H{sub 2}O] = 7%, [CO{sub 2}] = 12%, [O{sub 2}] = 3.5%, balance = N{sub 2}; T = 275-375 C. Studies conducted in the absence of SO{sub 2} revealed a number of supported and unsupported metal oxides to be extremely active for NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}. These included known catalysts (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, FeMnO{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}), as well as a new one identified in this work, CrFeO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}. However, in the presence of SO{sub 2}, all the catalysts tested were found to be severely deactivated with respect to NO oxidation. Of these, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/ZSM-5 and Pt/CeO{sub 2} showed the highest activity for NO oxidation in the presence of SO{sub 2} (based on peak NO conversions to NO{sub 2}), although in no cases did the NO conversion exceed 7%. Reactor studies indicate there are two components to SO{sub 2}-induced deactivation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, corresponding to an irreversible deactivation due to sulfation of the surface of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, together with a reversible inhibition due to competitive adsorption of SO{sub 2} with NO on the catalyst. In an effort to minimize the deactivating effect of SO{sub 2} on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, two synthetic approaches were briefly examined. These consisted of (1) the incorporation of highly dispersed Co(II) ions in silica, as a non-sulfating matrix, via the sol-gel preparation of CoO-SiO{sub 2}; and (2) the sol-gel preparation of a mixed metal oxide, CoO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SiO{sub 2}, with the aim of exploiting the acidity of the niobium oxide to minimize SO2 adsorption. While both catalysts showed almost no activity for NO oxidation in the absence of SO{sub 2}, when SO{sub 2} was present low activity was observed, indicating that SO{sub 2} acts as a promoter for NO oxidation over these materials. The kinetics of NO oxidation over Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} were also examined. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} was found to exhibit a higher apparent activation energy for NO oxidation than the Pt catalysts, while the combined reaction order in NO and O{sub 2} for the three catalysts was very close to one. CO{sub 2} was found to have no effect on the kinetics of NO oxidation over these catalysts. The presence of H{sub 2}O caused a decrease in NO conversion for both Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/CeO{sub 2} catalysts, while no effect was observed for Pt/SiO{sub 2}. The inhibiting effect of water was reversible and is attributed to competitive adsorption with the reactants. In sum, this study has shown that a variety of base metal catalysts are very active for NO oxidation. However, all of the catalysts studied are strongly deactivated in the presence of 2800 ppm SO{sub 2} at typical flue gas temperatures; consequently improving catalyst resistance to SO{sub x} will be a pre-requisite if the fast SCR concept is to be applied to coal-fired flue gas conditions.

Mark Crocker

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

171

Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Liu Feifei [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Fyles, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.fyles@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

The CFHT Open Star Cluster Survey I -- Cluster Selection and Data Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present this paper in conjuction with the following as the first results in the CFHT Open Star Cluster Survey. This survey is a large BVR imaging data set of 19 open star clusters in our Galaxy. This data set was taken with the CFH12K mosaic CCD (42' X 28') and the majority of the clusters were imaged under excellent photometric, sub-arcsecond seeing conditions. The combination of multiple exposures extending to deep (V ~ 25) magnitudes with short (white dwarf stars in these clusters and establish observational constraints on the initial-final mass relationship for these stars and the upper mass limit to white dwarf production. Additionally, we hope to better determine the properties of the clusters, such as age and distance, and also test evolution and dynamical theories by analyzing luminosity and mass functions. In order to more easily incorporate this data in further studies, we have produced a catalogue of positions, magnitudes, colors, and stellarity confidence for all stars in each cluster of the survey. This paper is intended both as a source for the astronomical community to obtain information on the clusters in the survey and as a detailed reference of reduction procedures for further publications of individual clusters. We discuss the methods employed to reduce the data and compute the photometric catalogue. The scientific results for each individual cluster and global results from the study of the entire survey will be presented in further publications (results for the rich old open cluster NGC 6819 immediately follow this paper).

Jasonjot Singh Kalirai; Harvey B. Richer; Gregory G. Fahlman; Jean-Charles Cuillandre; Paolo Ventura; Francesca D'Antona; Emmanuel Bertin; Gianni Marconi; Patrick R. Durrell

2001-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

173

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

2003-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the available data from laboratory, pilot and full-scale SCR units was reviewed, leading to hypotheses about the mechanism for mercury oxidation by SCR catalysts.

Constance Senior

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

Kass, Michael Delos (Oak Ridge, TN); Graves, Ronald Lee (Knoxville, TN); Storey, John Morse Elliot (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur (Andersonville, TN); Sluder, Charles Scott (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, John Foster (Powell, TN)

2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

176

241-SY-101 DACS High hydrogen abort limit reduction (SCR 473) acceptance test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The capability of the 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) computer system to provide proper control and monitoring of the 241-SY-101 underground storage tank hydrogen monitoring system utilizing the reduced hydrogen abort limit of 0.69% was systematically evaluated by the performance of ATP HNF-4927. This document reports the results of the ATP.

ERMI, A.M.

1999-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

177

Combined Catalyzed Soot Filter and SCR Catalyst System for Diesel Engine Emission Reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Substantially reduces particulate emission for diesel vehicles Up to 90% effective against carbonaceous particulate matter Significantly reduces CO and HC Filter regenerates at normal diesel operation temperatures Removable design for easy cleaning and maintenance.

Kakwani, R.M.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

178

Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Application of RBF-type ARX Modeling and Control to Gas Turbine Combined Cycle SCR Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Application of RBF-type ARX Modeling and Control to Gas Turbine Combined Cycle SCR Systems Y, nonlinear model-based predictive control, energy saving. 1. INTRODUCTION In Japan, GTCC(Gas Turbine Combined gas-firing GTCC power plant is most effective in terms of thermal efficiency and lower CO2 energy

Ozaki, Tohru

180

Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Final Report of a CRADA Between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Ford Motor Company (CRADA No. PNNL/265): “Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials”  

SciTech Connect

Reducing NOx emissions and particulate matter (PM) are primary concerns for diesel vehicles required to meet current LEV II and future LEV III emission standards which require 90+% NOx conversion. Currently, urea SCR as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) are being used for emission control system components by Ford Motor Company for 2010 and beyond diesel vehicles. Because the use of this technology for vehicle applications is new, the relative lack of experience makes it especially challenging to satisfy durability requirements. Of particular concern is being able to realistically simulate actual field aging of the catalyst systems under laboratory conditions. This is necessary both as a rapid assessment tool for verifying improved performance and certifiability of new catalyst formulations, and to develop a good understanding of deactivation mechanisms that can be used to develop improved catalyst materials. In addition to NOx and PM, the hydrocarbon (HC) emission standards are expected to become much more stringent during the next few years. Meanwhile, the engine-out HC emissions are expected to increase and/or be more difficult to remove. Since HC can be removed only when the catalyst becomes warm enough for its oxidation, three-way catalyst (TWC) and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) formulations often contain proprietary zeolite materials to hold the HC produced during the cold start period until the catalyst reaches its operating temperature (e.g., >200°C). Unfortunately, much of trapped HC tends to be released before the catalyst reaches the operating temperature. Among materials effective for trapping HC during the catalyst warm-up period, siliceous zeolites are commonly used because of their high surface area and high stability under typical operating conditions. However, there has been little research on the physical properties of these materials related to the adsorption and release of various hydrocarbon species found in the engine exhaust. For these reasons, automakers and engine manufacturers have difficulty improving their catalytic converters for meeting the stringent HC emission standards. In this collaborative program, scientists and engineers in the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Ford Motor Company have investigated laboratory- and engine-aged SCR catalysts, containing mainly base metal zeolites. These studies are leading to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of SCR catalysts and improve the correlation between laboratory and engine aging, saving experimental time and cost. We have also studied materials effective for the temporary storage of HC species during the cold-start period. In particular, we have examined the adsorption and desorption of various HC species produced during the combustion with different fuels (e.g., gasoline, E85, diesel) over potential HC adsorber materials, and measured the kinetic parameters to update Ford’s HC adsorption model. Since this CRADA has now been completed, in this final report we will provide brief summaries of most of the work carried out on this CRADA over the last several years.

Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Tran, Diana N.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Cheng, Yisun; Lupescu, Jason; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Lambert, Christine; McCabe, Robert W.

2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

182

Keck Deep Fields. I. Observations, Reductions, and the Selection of Faint Star-Forming Galaxies at Redshifts z~4, 3, and 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a very deep, R_lim~27, multicolor imaging survey of very faint star-forming galaxies at z~4, z~3, z~2.2, and z~1.7. This survey, carried out on the Keck I telescope, uses the very same UGRI filter system that is employed by the Steidel team to select galaxies at these redshifts, and thus allows us to construct identically-selected, but much fainter, samples. However, our survey reaches ~1.5 mag deeper than the work of Steidel and his group, letting us probe substantially below the characteristic luminosity L* and thus study the properties and redshift evolution of the faint component of the high-z galaxy population. The survey covers 169 square arcminutes in three spatially independent patches on the sky and -- to R<~27 -- contains 427 GRI-selected z~4 LBGs, 1481 UGR-selected z~3 LBGs, 2417 UGR-selected z~2.2 star-forming galaxies, and 2043 UGR-selected z~1.7 star-forming galaxies. In this paper, the first in a series, we introduce the survey, describe our observing and data reduction strategies, and outline the selection of our z~4, z~3, z~2.2, and z~1.7 samples.

Marcin Sawicki; David Thompson

2005-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

183

Comparison between an SCR and a vacuum interrupter system for repetitive opening  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two conceptual systems are analyzed for repetitive interruption of current from an inductive energy storage source. The interruption level for both systems is 25 kA at 25 kV. Factors such as interruption frequency, power dissipation, reliability, maintenance, developmental time, and cost are compared. The vacuum interrupter system is considered feasible for an interruption frequency of 25 Hz and a 10 to 20% duty cycle. The SCR system is considered feasible for an interruption frequency of up to 10 kHz.

Parsons, W.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials  

SciTech Connect

In this collaborative program, scientists and engineers in the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Ford Motor Company have investigated laboratory- and engine-aged SCR catalysts, containing mainly base metal zeolites. These studies are leading to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of SCR catalysts and improve the correlation between laboratory and engine aging, saving experimental time and cost. We have also studied materials effective for the temporary storage of HC species during the cold-start period. In particular, we have examined the adsorption and desorption of various HC species produced during the combustion with different fuels (e.g., gasoline, E85, diesel) over potential HC adsorber materials, and measured the kinetic parameters to update Ford’s HC adsorption model. Since this CRADA has now been completed, in this annual report we will provide very brief summaries of most of the work carried out on this CRADA over the last several years.

Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Tran, Diana N.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Cheng, Yisun; Lupescu, Jason; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Lambert, Christine; McCabe, Robert W.

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

186

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxice Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2000/1111 2000/1111 Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal- Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment August 1998 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Federal Energy Technology Center Morgantown, WV/Pittsburgh, PA 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or respon- sibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference

187

Mercury oxidation over the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}(WO{sub 3})/TiO{sub 2} commercial SCR catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Mercury oxidation by hydrochloric acid over the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}(WO{sub 3})/TiO{sub 2} commercial SCR catalyst was investigated. Both fresh and aged catalysts with honeycomb structure, which were exposed to a coal combustion flue gas in a coal-fired boiler for over 71 000 h. were examined. The aged catalysts were characterized by X-ray and SEM-EDX analysis to examine the presence of ash deposition on the surface. The mercury oxidation rate was enhanced by increasing HCl concentrations and inhibited strongly by the presence of NH{sub 3}. This behavior could be explained by a kinetic model assuming that HCl competes for the catalyst active sites against NH{sub 3}. As the catalyst operation time increased, the mercury oxidation rate was observed to decrease considerably in the presence of NH{sub 3} while NO reduction rate was apparently nearly unchanged. By examining aged catalysts, deposits stemming from fly ash and SO{sub 2}/SO{sub 3} were observed to accumulate continuously on the catalyst surface. The ash deposited on the surface may partially block the active catalyst sites and decrease their number. The decrease of the number of active sites on the catalyst surface caused NH{sub 3} to remain unreacted in the honeycomb catalyst. The decrease of the Hg{sup 0} oxidation rate was caused by the inhibition effect of NH{sub 3} remaining in the catalyst.

Kamata, H.; Ueno, S.; Naito, T.; Yukimura, A [IHI Corp, Kanagawa (Japan)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

NETL: News Release - DOE Selects Five NOx-Control Projects to Combat Acid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

November 5, 2004 November 5, 2004 DOE Selects Five NOx-Control Projects to Combat Acid Rain and Smog Industry Partners to Focus on Reducing Emissions While Cutting Energy Costs PITTSBURGH, PA - Continuing efforts to cut acid rain and smog-producing nitrogen oxides (NOx) have prompted the U.S. Department of Energy to partner with industry experts to develop advanced NOx-control technologies. With the selection of five new NOx-control projects, the Energy Department continues as a leader in developing advanced technologies to achieve environmental compliance for the nation's fleet of coal-fired power plants. Although today's NOx-control workhorses, such as low-NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction (SCR), have been successfully deployed to address existing regulations, proposed regulations will require deeper cuts in NOx emissions, at a greater number of generating facilities. Many of the smaller affected plants will not be able to cost-effectively use today's technologies; these are the focus of the advanced technologies selected in this announcement.

189

Mechanistic Investigation of Ethanol SCR of NOx over Ag/Al2O3  

SciTech Connect

A 2 wt.% Ag/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied for the ethanol selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} from 200 to 550 C and space velocities between 30,000 h{sup -1} and 140,000 h{sup -1}. Peak NO{sub x} conversions reached 85% at 400 C, and an activation energy was determined to be 57 kJ/mol with a feed of ethanol to NO{sub x} or HC{sub 1}/NO{sub x} = 3. Up to 80% of the NO is oxidized to NO{sub 2} at 250 C, but overall NO{sub x} conversion is only 15%. Interestingly, ethanol oxidation occurs at much lower temperatures than NO{sub x} reduction; at 250 C, ethanol oxidation is 80% when flowing ethanol + NO + O{sub 2}. This increased reactivity, compared to only 15% when flowing only ethanol + O{sub 2}, combined with the observation that NO is not oxidized to NO{sub 2} in the absence of ethanol illustrates a synergistic relationship between the reactants. To further investigate this chemistry, a series of DRIFTS experiments were performed. To form nitrates/nitrites on the catalysts it was necessary to include ethanol in the feed with NO. These nitrates/nitrites were readily formed when flowing NO{sub 2} over the catalyst. It is proposed that ethanol adsorbs through an ethoxy-intermediate that results in atomic hydrogen on the surface. This hydrogen aids the release of NO{sub 2} from Ag to the gas-phase which, can be subsequently adsorbed at {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sites away from Ag. The disappearance of these nitrates/nitrites at higher temperatures proceeds in parallel with the increase in NO{sub x} reduction reactivity between 300 and 350 C observed in the kinetic study. It is therefore proposed that the consumption of nitrates is involved in the rate determining step for this reaction.

Johnson, William L [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan; Toops, Todd J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Microturbine Economic Competitiveness: A Study of Two Potential Adopters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a lower cost approach to NOx reduction than SCR. MT Economicselective catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce NOx emissionsselective catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce NOx emissions

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

NETL F 451.1/1-1, Categorical Exclusion Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on CuChabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life.. Creation of a molecular scale model of entire selective catalytic reduction...

192

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Mercury...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Speciation from NOx Control University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) is addressing the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR),...

193

On-Road and In-Laboratory Testing to Demonstrate Effects of ULSD, B20 and B99 on a Retrofit Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Emissions changes for a 2005 International tractor operating on low-sulfur diesel and biodiesel in Santa Monica were measured to demonstrate performance and impacts of selective catalytic reduction.

Walkowicz, K.; Na, K.; Robertson, W.; Sahay, K.; Bogdanoff, M.; Weaver, C.; Carlson, R.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Simultaneous Removal of NOx and Mercury in Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The results of a 18-month investigation to advance the development of a novel Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR), for the simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and mercury (elemental and oxidized) from flue gases in a single unit operation located downstream of the particulate collectors, are reported. In the proposed LTSCAR, NO{sub x} removal is in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The concomitant capture of mercury in the unit is achieved through the incorporation of a novel chelating adsorbent. As conceptualized, the LTSCAR will be located downstream of the particulate collectors (flue gas temperature 140-160 C) and will be similar in structure to a conventional SCR. That is, it will have 3-4 beds that are loaded with catalyst and adsorbent allowing staged replacement of catalyst and adsorbent as required. Various Mn/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to reduce NO at low temperature using CO as the reductant. It has been shown that with a suitably tailored catalyst more than 65% NO conversion with 100% N{sub 2} selectivity can be achieved, even at a high space velocity (SV) of 50,000 h-1 and in the presence of 2 v% H{sub 2}O. Three adsorbents for oxidized mercury were developed in this project with thermal stability in the required range. Based on detailed evaluations of their characteristics, the mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTS) adsorbent was found to be most promising for the capture of oxidized mercury. This adsorbent has been shown to be thermally stable to 200 C. Fixed-bed evaluations in the targeted temperature range demonstrated effective removal of oxidized mercury from simulated flue gas at very high capacity ({approx}>58 mg Hg/g adsorbent). Extension of the capability of the adsorbent to elemental mercury capture was pursued with two independent approaches: incorporation of a novel nano-layer on the surface of the chelating mercury adsorbent to achieve in situ oxidation on the adsorbent, and the use of a separate titania-supported manganese oxide catalyst upstream of the oxidized mercury adsorbent. Both approaches met with some success. It was demonstrated that the concept of in situ oxidation on the adsorbent is viable, but the future challenge is to raise the operating capacity beyond the achieved limit of 2.7 mg Hg/g adsorbent. With regard to the manganese dioxide catalyst, elemental mercury was very efficiently oxidized in the absence of sulfur dioxide. Adequate resistance to sulfur dioxide must be incorporated for the approach to be feasible in flue gas. A preliminary benefits analysis of the technology suggests significant potential economic and environmental advantages.

Neville G. Pinto; Panagiotis G. Smirniotis

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Role of the nature of the support (alumina or silica), of the support porosity, and of the Pt dispersion in the selective reduction of NO by C{sub 3}H{sub 6} under lean-burn conditions  

SciTech Connect

During selective reduction of NO{sub x} under lean-burn conditions, a Pt particle size dependency has previously been observed with various supports. In this study, the authors have examined the influence of various parameters over a large range of initial metal dispersion: nature of the support (silica or alumina), support porosity, presence of impurities (particularly chlorine or sulfur), nature of the platinum precursor salt, and Pt particle size distribution. Furthermore, the authors have considered the mean particle size after sintering under the reactant mixture up to 773 K. Of the factors considered, only the Pt dispersion is of key importance. The intrinsic activity increases with decreasing dispersion (measured initially or after reaction) for each of the main reactions: reduction of NO into N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}O, oxidation of NO into NO{sub 2}, or oxidation of C{sub 3}H{sub 6} into CO{sub 2}. The dispersion does not clearly affect the selectivity.

Denton, P.; Giroir-Fendler, A.; Praliaud, H.; Primet, M.

2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

196

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

Tom Campbell

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Allocation Reductions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Allocation Allocation Reductions Quarterly Allocation Reductions MPP (or computational) repositories that haven't used significant amounts of time are adjusted at certain times by transferring a part of the unused balance to the corresponding DOE Office reserve. The following schedule will be used for allocation year 2014 (which runs 14 January 2014 through 132January 2015). On April 9: if usage is less than 10% remove 25% of the unused balance On July 9: if usage is less than 25% remove 25% of the unused balance if usage is less than 10% remove 50% of the unused balance On October 8: if usage is less than 50% remove 25% of the unused balance if usage is less than 25% remove 75% of the unused balance if usage is less than 10% remove 90% of the unused balance On November 5:

198

Investigation of Catalyst Deactivation from Operation Below the Minimum Operating Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The expanding use of alternative and renewable energy sources is forcing large coal-fired power plants to operate at low load more frequently and for longer periods. For units with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems and without economizer bypass capabilities, low-load operation requires the SCR system to operate at reduced flue gas temperatures. For units burning high-sulfur coal, these lower temperatures are often below the minimum operating temperature defined by SCR catalyst vendors. ...

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

199

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on the larger reactors were also combined into a single manifold and returned to the host boiler draft system at the existing host APH outlet. All particulate matter removed from...

200

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42726 was established in January 2006, and is current through Amendment 2, April 2006. The current reporting period, April 1, 2008 through June 30, 2008, is the eighth progress-reporting period for the project. However, this report will be the final report (instead of a quarterly report) because this project is being terminated. Efforts to bring this project to a close over the past several months focused on internal project discussions, and subsequent communications with NETL, regarding the inherent difficulty with completing this project as originally scoped, and the option of performing an engineering study to accomplish some of the chief project objectives. However, NETL decided that the engineering study did indeed constitute a significant scope deviation from the original concepts, and that pursuit of this option was not recommended. These discussions are summarized in the Results and Discussion, and the Conclusion sections. The objective of this project by a team lead by URS Group was to demonstrate the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption in wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intended to demonstrate that regenerative heat exchange to cool flue gas upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and reheat flue gas downstream of the FGD system would result in the following benefits to air pollution control (APC) systems on coal-fired power plants: (1) Improve ESP performance due to reduced gas volume and improved ash resistivity characteristics, (2) Control SO3 emissions through condensation on the fly ash, and (3) Avoid the need to install wet stacks or to provide flue gas reheat. Finally, operation at cooler flue gas temperatures offered the potential benefit of increasing mercury (Hg) removal across the ESP and FGD systems. This project planned to conduct pilot-scale tests of regenerative heat exchange to determine the reduction in FGD water consumption that can be achieved and assess the resulting impact on APC systems. An analysis of the improvement in the performance of the APC systems and the resulting reduction in capital and operating costs were going to be conducted. The tests were intended to determine the impact of operation of cooling flue gas temperatures on FGD water consumption, ESP particulate removal, SO{sub 3} removal, and Hg removal, and to assess the potential negative impact of excessive corrosion rates in the regenerative heat exchanger. Testing was going to be conducted on Columbian coal (with properties similar to low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal) and SO{sub 3} will be spiked onto the flue gas to simulate operation with higher SO{sub 3} concentrations resulting from firing a higher sulfur coal, or operating with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit. The project was also going to include associate planning, laboratory analytical support, reporting, and management activities. The URS project team finalized a conceptual alternative approach to demonstrate, via an engineering study, the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption. This idea was presented in summary format to NETL for consideration. NETL determined that this alternative approach deviated from the original project objectives, and that it would be in the best interest of all parties involved to cancel the project.

David Rencher

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Hydrothermally Stable, Low-Temperature NOx Reduction NH3 ...  

aging. In contrast, the conventional, commercially available chabazite SCR catalyst, Cu-SSZ-13, exhibits high activity only in 200-550 °C range.

202

Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace  

SciTech Connect

Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature characteristics. These favorable emissions characteristics were obtained while maintaining performance and fuel economy. These aggressive emissions and performance results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. This systems approach benefits substantially from an integrated experimental and analytical approach to technology development, which is one of DDCs core competencies Also, DDC is uniquely positioned to undertake such a systems technology development approach, given its vertically integrated commercial structure within the DaimlerChrysler organization. State-of-the-art analytical tools were developed targeting specific LEADER program objectives and were applied to guide system enhancements and to provide testing directions, resulting in a shortened and efficient development cycle. Application examples include ammonia/NO{sub x} distribution improvement and urea injection controls development, and were key contributors to significantly reduce engine out as well as tailpipe out emissions. Successful cooperation between DDC and Engelhard Corporation, the major subcontractor for the LEADER program and provider of state-of-the-art technologies on various catalysts, was another contributing factor to ensure that both passenger car and LD truck applications achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. Significant technical challenges, which highlight barriers of commercialization of diesel technology for passenger cars and LD truck applications, are presented at the end of this report.

None

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

204

Use of experience curves to estimate the future cost of power plants with CO2 capture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the combined cycle gas turbine—an experience curve analysis.reduction (SCR) systems, gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC)catalytic reduction (SCR) Gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC)

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Antes, Matt; Berkenpas, Michael; Davison, John

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

SF6 Emission Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SF 6 Emission Reduction Steve Lowder Bonneville Power Administration 2010.09 slide 1 Emission Reduction Emission Reduction is the reason for why we do all of this - because:...

206

Roasting, Reduction and Smelting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013 ... Researches on Reduction Roasting of Low-grade Manganese Oxide Ores Using Biomass Charcoal as Reductant: Yuanbo Zhang1; Daoxian ...

207

Gas pressure reduction circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note describes passive pressure reduction devices for use with sensitive instruments. Two gas circuits are developed which not only provide a pressure reduction under flow demand

D. W. Guillaume; D. DeVries

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

body  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 JULY 1997 Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 9 A report on a project conducted jointly under a cooperative agreement between: The U.S. Department of Energy and Southern Company Services, Inc. JULY 1997 Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Cover image: Photo of SCR Project at Plant Crist. Preparation and printing of this document conforms to the general funding provisions of a cooperative agreement between Southern Company Services and the U.S. Department of Energy. The funding contribution of the industrial participant permitted inclusion of multicolored artwork and photographs at no additional expense to the U.S. Government. Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)

209

Catalyst Management Planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalyst used in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx control in coal-fired power plants is susceptible to deactivation over time due to exposure to trace elements contained in the coal. In order to sustain the levels of NOx reduction needed to comply with regulatory requirements, periodic replacement of the catalyst modules with new or regenerated catalyst is an essential element in operating an SCR system. Catalyst management planning is a process whereby decisions are made about when ca...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

210

Selected References  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...T.C. Fowler, Value Analysis in Materials Selection and Design, Materials Selection and Design, Vol 20, ASM Handbook,

211

Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

catalytic reduction (SCR) to meet 2010 NOx standards. Navistar is the exception, and they plan to rely filters, auxiliary power units, and selective catalytic reduction, are being used in the production of new power units, and selective catalytic reduction, are being used in the production of new vehicles

212

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing the Power Modulation Window of Aluminium Smelter Pots with Shell Heat Exchanger Technology · Initiatives To Reduction Of Aluminum Potline ...

213

Cobalt Reduction Sourcebook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many nuclear utilities have a cobalt reduction plan in place for each plant. However, establishing a cobalt reduction plan is a challenging and often plant-specific task. This document seeks to provide a general approach to not only minimizing elemental cobalt transport to Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) reactors, but also to help prioritize cobalt reduction actions for optimum dose rate reduction.

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

214

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2011 ... GHG Measurement and Inventory for Aluminum Production · HEX Retrofit Enables Smelter Capacity Expansion · HF Emission Reduction from ...

215

MCNP variance reduction overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code.

Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Recycling, Source Reduction,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Type:" ,"Emission Reductions by Gas in U.S. Units:" ,"Year","Carbon Dioxide (CO2)",,"Methane (CH4)",,"Perfluoromethane (CF4)",,"Perfluoroethane (C2F6)" ,,"short...

217

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased Energy Efficiency and Reduced HF Emissions with New Heat Exchanger · Industrial Test of Low-voltage Energy-saving Aluminum Reduction ...

218

Lattice Reduction - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lattice reduction`);" }} {PARA 0 "> " 0 "" {MPLTEXT 1 0 6 " fi;" }}{PARA 0 "> " 0 "" { MPLTEXT 1 0 13 " if dd then" }}{PARA 0 "> " 0 "" {MPLTEXT 1 0 27 " \\+ uu ...

219

PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT SUBMISSION  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

19. Certification for Paperwork Reduction Act Submissions On behalf of this Federal agency, I certify that the collection of information encompassed ...

220

(Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms)  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to: (1) characterize selected aerobic bacterial strains for their abilities to depolymerize lignite coal polymers, and isolate and identify the extracellular enzymes responsible for depolymerization of the coal; (2) characterize selected strictly anaerobic bacteria, that were previously shown to reductively transform coal substructure model compounds, for the ability to similarly transform polymeric coal; and (3) isolate more strains of anaerobic bacteria by enrichment using additional coal substructure model compounds and coal as substrates.

Crawford, D.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Microsoft Word - scr-form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Use attachment if necessary.) Lifecycle Stage Est. Time Act. Time Date Comp. Remarks AnalysisDesign ...

222

Operator strength reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operator strength reduction is a technique that improves compiler-generated code by reformulating certain costly computations in terms of less expensive ones. A common case arises in array addressing expressions used in loops. The compiler can replace ... Keywords: loops, static single assignment form, strength reduction

Keith D. Cooper; L. Taylor Simpson; Christopher A. Vick

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Transparent partial order reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Partial Order Reduction (POR) techniques improve the basic model checking algorithm by reducing the numbers of states and transitions explored in verifying a property of the model. In the "ample set" POR framework for the verification of an LTL¿X ... Keywords: Invisibility, Model checking, Partial order reduction, Transparent, Verification

Stephen F. Siegel

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Staging Effects on Catalyst Deactivation with Powder River Basin Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of the current study were to investigate cost benefits or disadvantages resulting from operating Powder River Basin (PRB-) fired boilers at different combustion staging levels. The study's inherent assumption is that increased staging levels increases catalyst deactivation, requiring less ammonia consumption at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit but more catalyst replacement events. The program sought to evaluate the impacts of staging on total SCR operation and maintenance (OM) ...

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

225

Catalyst Reaction (CatReact) Version 1.2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalyst Reaction (CatReact) is a spreadsheet-based software tool that helps operators of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems in coal-fired power plants make catalyst management decisions throughout the lifetime of the plant.   The program determines when future catalyst additions or replacements will be necessary and calculates the operations and maintenance costs of the SCR system. Cost elements include 1) catalyst purchases, 2) labor to add or replace catalyst, 3) reagent usage, ...

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

226

Ammonia Monitor Lab Test Verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The broad-based deployment of post-combustion NOx control systems, such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), in response to more stringent NOx control mandates has highlighted the need for continuous ammonia monitoring capabilities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been investigating the potential that tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) can have ...

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

227

Author Select  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Author Select Last Name First Name search Type in a name, or the first few letters of a name, in one or both of appropriate search boxes above and select "Go". An attempt will be...

228

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 15, 2013... and academia from all over the world meet each other and share information. ... Trend and market demand, Energy saving initiatives in Reduction Process, ... An improved finite element model for thermal balance analysis of ...

229

Reduction-in-Force  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Reduction in force (RIF) is a set of regulations and procedures that are used to determine whether an employee keeps his or her present position, or whether the employee has a right to another...

230

Human Error Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reducing human error is recognized in the power-generation industry as a key factor in reducing safety-related events as well as improving asset availability. Achieving a sustainable culture change that leads to human error reduction in plant operations and maintenance remains a significant challenge to the industry. This report presents a behavior-based approach to human performance improvement and error reduction. The report explains fundamental elements of culture change and describes proven practices...

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

231

Development and application of optimal design capability for coal gasification systems - Task 1 (Volume 1, 2 and 3). Topical report, July 1995  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a process for the post-combustion removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gas of fossil-fuel-fired power plants. SCR is capable of NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of up to 80 or 90 percent. SCR technology has been applied for treatment of flue gases from a variety of emission sources, including natural gas- and oil-fired gas turbines, process steam boilers in refineries, and coal-fired power plants. SCR applications to coal-fired power plants have occurred in Japan and Germany. Full-scale SCR systems have not been applied to coal-fired power plants in the U.S., although there have been small-scale demonstration projects. SCR has become increasingly widely applied in the U.S. to natural-gas fired gas turbine combined cycle systems. In the remainder of this section, we review the applicability of SCR, as well as the need for post-combustion NO{sub x} control, for several power generation systems.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

comprehensive comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism; and  The key organization responsible for implementing the U.S. HEU minimization policy. GTRI MISSION Reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. DOE STRATEGIC GOAL 2.2 Prevent the acquisition of nuclear and radiological materials for use in weapons of mass destruction and other acts of terrorism Protect high priority nuclear and radiological materials from theft and sabotage These efforts result in threat reduction by improving security on the bomb material remaining at civilian sites - each vulnerable building that is protected reduces the risk until a permanent threat reduction solution can be implemented.

234

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY  

SciTech Connect

This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

235

Reduction of Block Artifacts by Selective Removal and Reconstruction of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: We present a new technique for saving data rate and improving the image quality in block-based coders for low-rate video transmission. The concept is based on the fact that blocking artifacts appear in the decoded image. For reducing these artifacts it is necessary to change pixel values near the block edges. By this means transmitted information is cancelled. Our technique excludes pixels around the block edges from transmission. Rows and columns between the blocks are cancelled. These lines are reconstructed in the decoder. The reconstruction acts like a low-pass filter and reduces blocking artifacts. The number of blocks to be transmitted has been diminished by cancelling pixels and data rate is saved while the image quality remains constant. Improvements of this concept have been implemented: The reconstruction of missing rows and columns is performed by subsampling and oversampling filters at the block edges. The motion estimation and compensation is related to the expanded and not to the reduced block grid. We demonstrate the improvement of the image quality for video communication by 64 kbit/s and below. 1.

The Block Borders; Stathis Panis; Robert Kutka; André Kaup

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Catalyst for selective NO.sub.x reduction using ...  

A method of preparing the two phase catalyst and using same to remediate NO.sub.x in combustion gases is also described. Skip to Content. Skip to ...

237

Catalyst for selective NO.sub.x reduction using hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two phase catalyst is disclosed with one or more transition metals such as Cu, Co, Fe, Ag and Mo supported on a molecular sieve having a pore size not greater than 8 .ANG. along with a stabilizing oxide of one or more of the oxides of Zr, Mo, V, Nb or the rare earths coating the molecular sieve. A method of preparing the two phase catalyst and using same to remediate NO.sub.x in combustion gases is also described.

Marshall, Christopher L. (Naperville, IL); Neylon, Michael K. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

238

Synthesis of Nanoporous Mg Spinel through Selective Reduction of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of high purity hydrogen from methane steam reforming and biomass gasification reactions. ... Solid State Synthesis of Perovskite-Spinel Nanocomposites.

239

Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

DOE-Fossil Energy: 1998 University Coal Research Selections  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE FOSSIL ENERGY TECHLINE Issued on April 16, 1998 DOE Funds University Coal Grants, Selects Ideas For "Vision 21," Greenhouse Gas Reduction and Coal Science Secretary of Energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components  

SciTech Connect

A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR samples is present throughout the length of the catalysts with a higher concentration on the washcoat surface. In both the long-term engine-aged DPF and the accelerated Na-aged DPFs, there is significant Na ash present in the upstream channels; however, in the engine-aged sample lube oil-based ash is the predominant constituent.

Brookshear, D. William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nguyen, Ke [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Howe, Janet E [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Aluminum reduction cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

1982-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

243

Thermochemical nitrate reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with {approximately}3 wt% NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200{degrees}C to 350{degrees}C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia {approx} methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics.

Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Select Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dosanjh » Select Dosanjh » Select Publications Select Publications Sort by: Date | Author | Type 2013 Richard A. Barrett, Shekhar Borkar, Sudip S. Dosanjh, Simon D. Hammond, Michael A. Heroux, X. Sharon Hu, Justin Luitjens, Steven G. Parker, John Shalf, Li Tang, "On the Role of Co-design in High Performance Computing", Transition of HPC Towards Exascale Computing, E.H. D'Hollander et. al (Eds.), IOS Press, 2013, ( November 1, 2013) Download File: Codesign-Paper.pdf (pdf: 867 KB) Rolf Riesen, Sudip Dosanjh, Larry Kaplan, "The ExaChallenge Symposium", IBM Research Paper, August 26, 2013, Download File: ExaChallenge2012.pdf (pdf: 1.4 MB) S. Dosanjh, R. Barrett, D. Doerfler, S. Hammond, K. Hemmert, M. Heroux, P. Lin, K. Pedretti, A. Rodrigues, T. Trucano, J.Juitjens, "Exascale Design

245

On the longest perpetual reductions in orthogonal expression reduction systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study perpetual reductions in orthogonal (or conflict-free) fully extended expression reduction systems (OERS). ERS is a formalism for rewriting that subsumes term rewriting systems (TRSs) and the &lgr;-calculus. We design a strategy ... Keywords: &lgr;-calculus, perpetual reductions, rewrite systems, strong normalization

Zurab Khasidashvili

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

NETL: Turbine Projects - Emissions Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Reduction Turbine Projects Emissions Reduction Pre-Mixer Design for High Hydrogen Fuels DataFact Sheets Low-NOX Emissions in a Fuel Flexible Gas Turbine Combustor Design...

247

Long-Term, Low-Level Radwaste Volume-Reduction Strategies, Volumes 1-5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sharp increases in the cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal make volume reduction an attractive alternative for owners of nuclear power plants. This study evaluated the leading volume-reduction options and developed the powerful VRTECH computer code to assist utilities in making long-range volume-reduction selection decisions.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

facial reduction and extended duals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Facial reduction and extended duals Here we study two fundamental approaches ...... denberghe, and Henry Wolkowicz, editors, Handbook of semidefinite ...

249

ALUMINIUM REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY: V: Fundamentals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ALUMINIUM REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY: Session V: Fundamentals. Sponsored by: LMD Aluminum Committee Program Organizer: Harald A. Øye, Institute of ...

250

An investigation to define the physical/chemical constraints which limit NO sub x emission reduction achievable by reburning  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reburning is a NO{sub x} control technology which uses fuel to reduce NO. Thus, the main heat release zone can be operated normally to achieve optimum combustion conditions without regard for NO{sub x} control. Objectives of this program are to define the physical and/or chemical constraints which prevent realization of Point 5 (85% NO{sub x} reduction) with reburning, to use this information to identify and test improved configurations for reburning as an NO{sub x} control technique on coal-fired boilers, and to test various methods which could be used in practice to reduce NO{sub x} during the burnout step of the reburning process. The program will be performed at two experimental scales. Bench scale studies will be carried out in a 100 {times} 10{sup 3} Btu/hr tunnel furnace to evaluate the importance of chemical and physical constraints in the absence of mixing limitations. A 10 {times} 10{sup 6} Btu/hr pilot scale facility will subsequently be used to investigate the impacts of finite rate mixing and determine methods of minimizing them. A series of experiments will be conducted to verify the various concepts and demonstrate the optimum configuration for an advanced reburning process to achieve 85% NO{sub x} reduction at a cost lower than SCR. 24 figs.

McCarthy, J. M.; Moller, E. C.; Chen, S. L.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nonproliferation Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 The Current Status of Gap and U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals 2011 Jeff Galan, Deputy Project Manager U.S.-Origin Nuclear Remove Program National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2 GTRI Mission and Goals GTRI is: A part of President Obama's comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism; and The key organization responsible for implementing the U.S. HEU minimization policy. GTRI MISSION Reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. DOE STRATEGIC GOAL 2.2 Prevent the acquisition of nuclear and radiological materials for use in weapons of mass destruction and other

252

Aluminum reduction cell electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

Payne, J.R.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

253

Site Energy Reduction Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DuPont’s Sabine River Works site is the largest energy consuming location within DuPont. In the year 2000, each production area was encouraged to reduce energy costs. By 2003 site energy consumption was down 16% on an absolute basis and 12% on a BTU/LB basis. By 2004, overall progress had slowed, energy consumption increased slightly, and area results were mixed. It was time to shake things up with a new perspective. A coordinated site energy program was launched. In 2005, the first full year of the unified program, the site saved $6.9 MM from energy reduction projects. The rate of improvement is accelerating in 2006 with $3.6 MM in energy projects being implemented in the first four months.

Jagen, P. R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Dose Reduction Techniques  

SciTech Connect

As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

WAGGONER, L.O.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

255

Program on Technology Innovation: Water Quality Trading Program for Nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic releases of nitrogen have greatly increased environmental fluxes of biologically available nitrogen and contributed to serious ecological problems, such as algal blooms that cause waters to become severely depleted of oxygen. Power plant sources of nitrogen include NOx air emissions, the ammonia required for the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) systems that are used for NOx reduction, and the ammonia used for SOx control and ash pond condition...

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Energy Reduction at HQ | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Reduction at HQ Energy Reduction at HQ Aviation Management Executive Secretariat Energy Reduction at HQ Electric Metering Facilities Initiatives Recycling Programs Services...

257

Yale's Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yale's Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy ...creating a sustainable future August 2007 #12;Yale is a greenhouse gas re- duction goal. This goal has guided the development of an aggressive and in- formed to similar commitments to greenhouse gas reductions by other institutions of higher learning nationally

Haller, Gary L.

258

Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Interest Rate Reduction Program Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial...

259

National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program Staff ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program Staff. National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (731.05). Dr. John (Jack) R. Hayes, Jr. ...

2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

260

DRAG REDUCTION WITH SUPERHYDROPHOBIC RIBLETS  

SciTech Connect

Samples combining riblets and superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated at University of Pittsburgh and their drag reduction properties are studied at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a commercial cone-and-plate rheometer. In parallel to the experiments, numerical simulations are performed in order to estimate the slip length at high rotational speed. For each sample, a drag reduction of at least 5% is observed in both laminar and turbulent regime. At low rotational speed, drag reduction up to 30% is observed with a 1 mm deep grooved sample. As the rotational speed increases, a secondary flow develops causing a slight decrease in drag reductions. However, drag reduction above 15% is still observed for the large grooved samples. In the turbulent regime, the 100 microns grooved sample becomes more efficient than the other samples in drag reduction and manages to sustain a drag reduction above 15%. Using the simulations, the slip length of the 100 micron grooved sample is estimated to be slightly above 100 micron in the turbulent regime.

Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; D'Urso, Brian R [ORNL; Jenner, Elliot [University of Pittsburgh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Power reduction control for inductive lighting installation  

SciTech Connect

A control system for continuously, selectively reducing power consumption in an inductive lighting installation energized from an A.C. power source, the installation including at least one gas discharge lamp such as a fluorescent lamp energized through any of a plurality of different types of electromagnetic ballast having different harmonic distortion characteristics, the control system is described comprising: load energizing circuit means, including a signal-actuated normally-closed primary switch, for connecting an A.C. power source to the lighting installation; a signal-actuated, normally-open secondary switch connected in parallel with the lighting installation; actuation means for generating actuation signals and applying such actuation signals to the primary and secondary switches to actuate the primary switch open and to actuate the secondary switch closed in approximate time coincidence in each half-cycle of the A.C. power; zero-crossing detector means for generating zero-crossing signals at times TX indicative of zero-voltage transitions in the A.C. power; and program means, connected to the zero-crossing detector means and to the actuation means, programming the actuation means to generate (a) power reduction actuation signals at times T1 and T2 in each half-cycle of the A.C. power, (b) a first filter actuation signal at a time T3 prior to each zero-crossing time TX, and (c) a second filter actuation signal at a time T4 following each zero-crossing time TX; the program means including a plurality of programs each establishing a set of times T1, T2, T3 and T4 for several different power reduction levels for a particular type of ballast; and selection means for selecting a program to match the ballast type of the load.

Falk, K.R.

1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

262

Accelerated cleanup risk reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is no proven technology for remediating contaminant plume source regions in a heterogeneous subsurface. This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop the requisite new technologies so that will be rapidly accepted by the remediation community. Our technology focus is hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) which is a novel in situ thermal technique. We have expanded this core technology to leverage the action of steam injection and place an in situ microbial filter downstream to intercept and destroy the accelerated movement of contaminated groundwater. Most contaminant plume source regions, including the chlorinated solvent plume at LLNL, are in subsurface media characterized by a wide range in hydraulic conductivity. At LLNL, the main conduits for contaminant transport are buried stream channels composed of gravels and sands; these have a hydraulic conductivity in the range of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -2} cm/s. Clay and silt units with a hydraulic conductivity of 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -6} cm/s bound these buried channels; these are barriers to groundwater movement and contain the highest contaminant concentrations in the source region. New remediation technologies are required because the current ones preferentially access the high conductivity units. HPO is an innovative process for the in situ destruction of contaminants in the entire subsurface. It operates by the injection of steam. We have demonstrated in laboratory experiments that many contaminants rapidly oxidize to harmless compounds at temperatures easily achieved by injecting steam, provided sufficient dissolved oxygen is present. One important challenge in a heterogeneous source region is getting heat, contaminants, and an oxidizing agent in the same place at the same time. We have used the NUFT computer program to simulate the cyclic injection of steam into a contaminated aquifer for design of a field demonstration. We used an 8 hour, steam/oxygen injection cycle followed by a 56 hour relaxation period in which the well was `capped`. Our results show the formation of an inclined gas phase during injection and a fast collapse of the steam zone within an hour of terminating steam injection. The majority of destruction occurs during the collapse phase, when contaminant laden water is drawn back towards the well. Little to no noncondensible gasses are created in this process, removing any possibility of sparging processes interfering with contaminant destruction. Our models suggest that the thermal region should be as hot and as large as possible. To have HPO accepted, we need to demonstrate the in situ destruction of contaminants. This requires the ability to inexpensively sample at depth and under high temperatures. We proved the ability to implies monitoring points at depths exceeding 150 feet in highly heterogeneous soils by use of cone penetrometry. In addition, an extractive system has been developed for sampling fluids and measuring their chemistry under the range of extreme conditions expected. We conducted a collaborative field test of HPO at a Superfund site in southern California where the contaminant is mainly creosote and pentachlorophenol. Field results confirm the destruction of contaminants by HPO, validate our field design from simulations, demonstrate that accurate field measurements of the critical fluid parameters can be obtained using existing monitoring wells (and minimal capital cost) and yield reliable cost estimates for future commercial application. We also tested the in situ microbial filter technology as a means to intercept and destroy the accelerated flow of contaminants caused by the injection of steam. A series of laboratory and field tests revealed that the selected bacterial species effectively degrades trichloroethene in LLNL Groundwater and under LLNL site conditions. In addition, it was demonstrated that the bacteria effectively attach to the LLNL subsurface media. An in-well treatability study indicated that the bacteria initially degrade greater than 99% of the contaminant, to concentrations less than regulatory limit

Knapp, R.B.; Aines, R.M.; Blake, R.G.; Copeland, A.B.; Newmark, R.L.; Tompson, A.F.B.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

PISCES Water Characterization Field Study: Site F Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report, part of EPRI's Power Plant Integrated Systems-Chemical Emissions Study (PISCES), evaluates the impacts of ammonia slip from selective catalytic reduction (SCR) operation on pond-based passive wastewater treatment systems at a coal-fired power station. The research evaluated fly ash pond treatment performance as well as the impacts of the upstream scrubber pond and bottom ash pond.

2000-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

264

PISCES Water Characterization Field Study: Site G Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report, part of EPRI's Power Plant Integrated Systems-Chemical Emissions Study (PISCES), evaluates impacts of ammonia slip from selective catalytic reduction (SCR) operation on pond-based passive wastewater treatment systems at a coal-fired power station. The research evaluated fly ash pond treatment performance as well as impacts of the upstream scrubber pond and bottom ash pond.

2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

265

Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

selective catalytic reduction (urea SCR) catalyst used in diesel aftertreatment systems. Understand-efficient advanced combustion engines meet the current and future hydrocarbon (HC) emission standards with effective of interaction between engine-out HCs and HC adsorber materials during the cold-start and the catalyst warm

266

Assessment of Alternative Post-Combustion NOx Controls Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As emission control requirements continually become stricter, power producers need new, efficient, cost-effective approaches to reduce NOx and other atmospheric pollutants. This report focuses on alternative emerging and commercial post-combustion NOx controls applications other than the industry standard selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Te c h n i c a l u n i v e r s i t y o f d e n m a r k DTU 2008Te c h n i c a l u n i v e r s i t y o f d e n m a r k  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Europe in the mideighties and it became evident that the flue gases of MWCs contained significant amounts, residual heavy metals (mainly mercury) and acid gases (5) install a selective catalytic reduction (SCR metals, especially mercury, and acid gases are removed to levels at or below the detection limits of even

Mosegaard, Klaus

268

/select/modify/life  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... OOF: Finite Element Analysis of Microstructures. Table of Contents, /select/modify/life, OOF home. Prev, ... select/modify/life. /select ...

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

269

ALUMINIUM REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY: VII: Modelling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous models of the behaviour of interfacial waves in aluminium reduction cells ... Attia A. Arif, Omar M. Dahab, Power and Energy Dept., Minya University, Egypt ... of Technology, Liancheng Aluminum Plant, Lanzhou, Gansu 730335, China.

270

Carbothermic Reduction of Niobium Concentrate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Ferro Niobium is produced by aluminothermic reduction of the ... However, the niobium concentrate has impurities, such as phosphorus, lead and tin, ... Phase Transformation of Andalusite-Mullite and Its Fiber Reinforcement to ...

271

Metal reduction kinetics in Shewanella  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivation: Metal reduction kinetics have been studied in cultures of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria which include the Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. Estimation of system parameters from time-series data faces obstructions in ...

Raman Lall; Julie Mitchell

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT OF 1995  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT OF 1995 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY INFORMATION COLLECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Chris Rouleau, PRA Officer Records Management Division Office of the Associate Chief Information Officer for IT Planning, Architecture and E-Government Office of the Chief Information Officer Office of the Chief Information Officer 2/16/2010 2 TOPICS  Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 - Law  Paperwork Reduction Act - Overview  Information Collection Requests (ICRs)  Information Collection Request Associated with A Notice of Proposed Rule Making  Program Points of Contacts  Information Collection Clearance Managers  Information Collection Requests Checklist  Drivers  Annual Information Collection Budget  Summary of What To Do  Summary of What NOT

273

Piecewise polynomial nonlinear model reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a novel, general approach towards model-order reduction (MOR) of nonlinear systems that combines good global and local approximation properties. The nonlinear system is first approximated as piecewise polynomials over a number of regions, ...

Ning Dong; Jaijeet Roychowdhury

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper will address the following. 1. Factors that determine the feasibility of reducing the plant steam operating pressure. 2. The operating advantages and disadvantages associated with the decreased steam pressure. 3. The economics of steam pressure reduction. Appropriate visual aids will be utilized as part of the discussion.

Sylva, D. M.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Model-constrained optimization methods for reduction of parameterized large-scale systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most model reduction techniques employ a projection framework that utilizes a reduced-space basis. The basis is usually formed as the span of a set of solutions of the large-scale system, which are computed for selected ...

Bui-Thanh, Tan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emissions Reduction Emissions Reduction Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reduction Requirements Recognizing the impact of carbon-emitting fuels on climate change and to

277

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Petroleum Reduction Petroleum Reduction Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Petroleum Reduction Requirements The Wisconsin Department of Administration's fleet management policy

278

CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE FY 2011 Advanced Combustion Technologies Annual Report. CLEERS is a research and development focus project of the Diesel Cross-Cut Team. The overall objective is to promote the development of improved computational tools for simulating realistic full-system performance of lean-burn engines and the associated emissions control systems. Three fundamental research projects are sponsored at PNNL through CLEERS: DPF, SCR, and LNT. Resources are shared between the three efforts in order to actively respond to current industrial needs. In FY 2011, more emphasis was placed on the SCR and LNT activities because of urgent application issues associated with these technologies. Objectives of this project are to lead and contribute to the Cross-Cut Lean Exhaust Emissions Reduction Simulations (CLEERS) activities - (a) Provide project updates to the industry sub-team, solicit feedback, and adjust work scope accordingly; and (b) Lead technical discussions, invite distinguished speakers, and maintain an open dialogue on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), lean-NOx trap (LNT), and diesel particulate filter (DPF) modeling issues. Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Objectives are to: (1) Develop improved modeling capabilities for SCR and DPFs through fundamental experiments; and (2) Develop a fundamental understanding of SCR and LNT catalysts with primary focus on reaction mechanisms and material characterization. Some accomplishments are: (1) Participated in monthly CLEERS teleconferences and coordinated the calls focused on SCR, LNT and DPF technologies; (2) Updated PNNL's SCR model for the state-of-the-art commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst to extract kinetic parameters and to quantitatively describe the effects of hydrothermal aging; (3) Examined the effects of hydrothermal aging on the physicochemical properties and SCR reactions using the commercial Cu catalyst in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (4) Investigated the nature of Cu species and obtained kinetic parameters for small-pore zeolite-based Cu SCR catalyst. (5) Examined the effects of support materials for Ba-based LNT catalysts, and found magnesium aluminate may improve the oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) reduction performance at high temperatures; (6) Investigated soot oxidation mechanisms for relevant oxidants (O{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}) through reactor experiments and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) analysis; (7) Seven publications and 21 public presentations (eight invited) during the past FY; and (8) Co-organized sessions on emission control and modeling for the SAE World Congress and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Internal Combustion Engine Conference.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Stewart, Mark L.; Strzelec, Andrea; Szanyi, Janos; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

279

Effects of Ammonia and Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Wastewater on Power Plant Effluent Toxicity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments and subsequently the Clean Air Interstate Rule and other state-level actions have resulted in implementation of a variety of technologies to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and to further reduce emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx). Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and SNCR (non-catalytic) are two of the primary NOx emission reduction technologies. Often, ammonia is injected into flue gas as the reductant for the chemical reaction that converts NOx to nitrogen gas. ...

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

280

High reduction transaxle for electric vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A drivetrain (12) includes a transaxle assembly (16) for driving ground engaging wheels of a land vehicle powered by an AC motor. The transaxle includes a ratio change section having planetary gear sets (24, 26) and brake assemblies (28, 30). Sun gears (60, 62) of the gear sets are directly and continuously connected to an input drive shaft (38) driven by the motor. A first drive (78a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (78) of gear sets (24) with a ring gear (68) of gear set (26). A second drive (80a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (80) of gear set (26) with a sun gear (64) of a final speed reduction gear set (34) having a planetary gear carrier directly and continuously connected to a differential (22). Brakes (28, 30) are selectively engageable to respectively ground a ring gear 66 of gear set 24 and ring gear 68 of gear set 26.

Kalns, Ilmars (Plymouth, MI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Model order reduction methods for coupled systems in the time domain using Laguerre polynomials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, based on Laguerre polynomials, we present new methods for model reduction of coupled systems in the time domain. By appropriately selected projection matrices, a reduced order system is produced to retain the topology structure of the ... Keywords: Coupled systems, Function approximation, Laguerre polynomials, Model reduction, Structure preservation

Xiao-Long Wang; Yao-Lin Jiang

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Program on Technology Innovation: Formation of Large-Particle Ash in Coal-Fired Boilers Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is a follow-on study of large particle ash (LPA) formation mechanisms in combustion systems equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst systems for nitrogen oxide reduction. In an earlier study, the chemical and physical properties of LPA were examined, and potential origins were identified. LPA samples, along with fireside deposits and coals from selected utility boilers, were characterized in order to find the root cause or the origin of the LPA ...

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

283

Ammonia Monitor Lab Test Verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad-based deployment of postcombustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control systems, such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), in response to more stringent NOx control mandates has highlighted the need for continuous ammonia monitoring capabilities. EPRI has investigated the potential that tunable diode laser (TDL) spectroscopy can have in the continuous monitoring of ammonia slip. Field measurement programs for validation of TDL-based monitors, however, have yi...

2006-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

284

Ammonia Monitor Lab Test Verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing use of post combustion NOx control systems such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) has heightened the need for reliable continuous monitoring of ammonia slip. This report describes laboratory tests conducted to assess the ability of the Norsk Elektro Optik's (NEO) LaserGas II tunable diode laser monitor to measure ammonia under highly controlled conditions over a typical range of process conditions.

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

285

Ammonia Monitor Lab Test Verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad-based deployment of post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOX) control systems, such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), in response to more stringent NOX control mandates has highlighted the need for continuous ammonia monitoring capabilities. EPRI has investigated the potential that tunable diode laser (TDL) spectroscopy can have in the continuous monitoring of ammonia slip. Field measurement programs for validation of TDL-based monitors, however, have y...

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

286

Research on Ammonium Bisulfate Formation in Air Preheaters - Experimental Investigation and CFD Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ammonium bisulfate (ABS) formation and deposition is the most common operating problem affecting air preheaters (APHs) in fossil power plants with post combustion NOx controls that use selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) or selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This report describes pilot-scale experiments conducted to better understand ABS chemistry and efforts to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an APH to identify the key phenomena that may affect ABS formation and deposition.

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

288

An Evolutionary Reduction Principle for Mutation Rates at Multiple Loci  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model of mutation rate evolution for multiple loci under arbitrary selection is analyzed. Results are obtained using techniques from Karlin (1982) that overcome the weak selection constraints needed for tractability in prior studies of multilocus event models. A multivariate form of the reduction principle is found: reduction results at individual loci combine topologically to produce a surface of mutation rate alterations that are neutral for a new modifier allele. New mutation rates survive if and only if they fall below this surface - a generalization of the hyperplane found by Zhivotovsky et al. (1994) for a multilocus recombination modifier. Increases in mutation rates at some loci may evolve if compensated for by decreases at other loci. The strength of selection on the modifier scales in proportion to the number of germline cell divisions, and increases with the number of loci affected. Loci that do not make a difference to marginal fitnesses at equilibrium are not subject to the reduction principle, and under fine tuning of mutation rates would be expected to have higher mutation rates than loci in mutation-selection balance. Other results include the nonexistence of 'viability analogous, Hardy-Weinberg' modifier polymorphisms under multiplicative mutation, and the sufficiency of average transmission rates to encapsulate the effect of modifier polymorphisms on the transmission of loci under selection. A conjecture is offered regarding situations, like recombination in the presence of mutation, that exhibit departures from the reduction principle. Constraints for tractability are: tight linkage of all loci, initial fixation at the modifier locus, and mutation distributions comprising transition probabilities of reversible Markov chains.

Lee Altenberg

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

289

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

291

NETL: Turbine Projects - Cost Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Reduction Cost Reduction Turbine Projects Cost Reduction Single Crystal Turbine Blades Enhancing Gas Turbine Efficiency Data/Fact Sheets Enabling and Information Technologies to Increase RAM of Advanced Powerplants Data/Fact Sheets Development of NDE Technology for Environmental Barrier Coating and Residual Life Estimation Data/Fact Sheets Welding and Weld Repair of Single Crystal Gas Turbine Alloy Data/Fact Sheets Combustion Turbine Hot Section Coating Life Management Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization Data/Fact Sheets On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating [PDF] Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle RAM Data/Fact Sheets Advanced Monitoring to Improve Combustion Turbine [PDF]

292

B133 Facility Screening Report (SCR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

B133 is located in the southwest quadrant inside the 1 square mile site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The property is about 250 meters from the nearest boundary along Vasco Road. Building 133 is a 1 story steel framed building constructed in 1994 with stainless steel sidings. The facility covers 5,631 gross square feet of space. The building is used to house equipment to heat and cool buildings 132N and 132S. A 1380 volts electrical substation is located outside on the northeast corner, along with 2 diesel generators and a 1000 gallons diesel fuel tank. An evaporative cooling tower is located to the south of B133 to dissipate heat from the chillers located in B133. The inside of the facility is divided into three main rooms housing the cooling system units, the boilers, and the electrical distribution panels. The facility has an automatic sprinkler system installed through out and a Freon alarm located in room 1000. Building 133 is used to supply electrical power, chilled water, and hot water to Bldgs 132 N & S. Primary activities include servicing and maintaining chillers, boilers, and electrical distribution equipment.

Cooper, G

2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

293

2008 world direct reduction statistics  

SciTech Connect

This supplement discusses total direct reduced iron (DRI) production for 2007 and 2008 by process. Total 2008 production by MIDREX(reg sign) direct reduction process plants was over 39.8 million tons. The total of all coal-based processes was 17.6 million tons. Statistics for world DRI production are also given by region for 2007 and 2008 and by year (1970-2009). Capacity utilization for 2008 by process is given. World DRI production by region and by process is given for 1998-2008 and world DRI shipments are given from the 1970s to 2008. A list of world direct reduction plants is included.

NONE

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Diesel Idling Reduction | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Diesel Idling Reduction Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Diesel Idling Reduction AgencyCompany...

295

Dry Barrier Mix in Reduction Cell Cathodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Dry Barrier Mix in Reduction Cell Cathodes ... successfully tested as a replacement for barrier bricks in several reduction cell technology types ...

296

Black carbon snow albedo reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black carbon snow albedo reduction Black carbon snow albedo reduction Title Black carbon snow albedo reduction Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hadley, Odelle L., and Thomas W. Kirchstetter Journal Nature Climate Change Volume 2 Pagination 437-440 Abstract Climate models indicate that the reduction of surface albedo caused by black-carbon contamination of snow contributes to global warming and near-worldwide melting of ice1, 2. In this study, we generated and characterized pure and black-carbon-laden snow in the laboratory and verified that black-carbon contamination appreciably reduces snow albedo at levels that have been found in natural settings1, 3, 4. Increasing the size of snow grains in our experiments decreased snow albedo and amplified the radiative perturbation of black carbon, which justifies the aging-related positive feedbacks that are included in climate models. Moreover, our data provide an extensive verification of the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation model1, which will be included in the next assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change5.

297

Poverty Reduction Strategies in Indonesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Poverty Reduction Strategies in Indonesia A Public Lecture presented by Aris Mundayat, University in fifteen districts/cities in nine provinces in Indonesia, as measured by the newly launched People in Indonesia. Thursday 29th March 2012 10:00 am Murdoch University Senate Room All Welcome Aris Mundayat

298

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emissions Reduction Emissions Reduction Credits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reduction Credits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reduction Credits Any state mobile emissions reduction credits program must allow credits for emissions reductions achieved by converting a vehicle to operate on an

299

Dynamic reduction, Version 1. 0  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the theoretical background of the EPRI Dynamic Reduction DYNRED V 1.0. EPRI initiated research under project RP763 to develop the original reduction program DYNEQU. This program was the first to be based on the concept of aggregating of coherent groups of synchronous generators into a single equivalent generator model. While technically advanced, DYNEQU proved difficult to use. Since then, the stability problems encountered in power system planning and operations have changed. The emphasis on first swing transient stability has been replaced by emphasis on inter-area oscillations and voltage stability. The method of identification of coherent generators used in DYNEQU is based on the comparison of rotor angle swings, in a linearized system model, following a fault. It has been shown that this method of coherency identification is good for first swing stability. For inter-area oscillation studies, this method of generator aggregation is less accurate. Far better, are identification methods based on the structure of the power system. Because of these changes in the requirements for reduced order power system models, a new dynamic reduction program (DYNRED) has been developed under EPRI project RP2447-1. It is coherency based, as is DYNEQU, but it has structurally based coherency identification methods in addition to the method used in DYNEQU. This report describes the techniques used in DYNRED, that is: Coherency Identification; Network Reduction; Method of Aggregation, Generator Aggregation, Excitation Aggregation, Primemover/Governor Aggregation. An example of the application of DYNRED to the reduction of a large interconnected power system model is also presented. DYNRED uses the special modeling and network solution techniques developed to enable systems having up to 12,000 bus to be studied. Dynamic data is completely compatible between MASS, PEALS, and the EPRI Extended Transient Midterm Stability Program (ETMSP).

Rogers, G.J.; Wong, D.Y.; Ottevangers, J.; Wang, L. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Multimedia Fate of Selenium and Boron at Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Particulate and Wet FGD Controls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the current regulatory climate in the United States, a number of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systemsas well as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systemswill be installed at new and existing coal-fired power plants to remove sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The multimedia fate of trace metals species in SCR/wet FGD systems is not well understood. Understanding and quantifying the amount of trace elements removed from the flue gas and distributed to the solid and aqueous streams is...

2008-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Evaluation of Alternative IGCC Plant Designs for High Availability and Near Zero Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the historical reliability and availability data of solids-fed integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants and describes how these data can be used to analyze design options meant to improve the availability of new IGCCs. It also looks at the technical and economic impacts of adding a Selective Catalytical Reduction (SCR) system to an IGCC. Adding an SCR will result in a coal-based power plant with an emissions profile that is very close to a natural gas fired combined...

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

302

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Air Conditioner Reduction Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conditioner Reduction Project to Reduce Vehicle Fuel Use by 30% Conditioner Reduction Project to Reduce Vehicle Fuel Use by 30% United States map depicting number of millions of gallons of cooling and dehumidification by state: Alabama 167, Alaska 1, Arizona 43, Arkansas 86, California 730, Colorado 76, Connecticut 61, Delaware 19, Florida 753, Georgia 251, Hawaii 68, Idaho 26, Illinois 242, Indiana 142, Iowa 68, Kansas 75, Kentucky 95, Louisiana 176, Maine 21, Maryland 118, Massachusetts 86, Michigan 186, Minnesota 86, Mississippi 85, Missouri 144, Montana 12, Nebraska 40, Nevada 61, New Hampshire 90, New Jersey 167, New Mexico 52, New York 273, North Carolina 187, North Dakota 12, Ohio 229, Oklahoma 109, Oregon 66, Pennsylvania 238, Rhode Island 15, South Carolina 127, South Dakota 17, Tennessee 179, Texas 735, Utah 43, Vermont 9, Virginia 187, Washington 64, West Virginia 37, Wisconsin 167, and Wyoming 7

303

Reduct based Q-learning: an introduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces an approach to Reinforcement Learning Algorithm by introducing reduct concept of rough set methodology using a variation of Q-Learning algorithm. Unlike the conventional Q-Learning, the proposed algorithm calculates the reduct from ... Keywords: Q-learning method, reduct and reduct based Q-learning, reinforcement learning, rough set

Punit Pandey; Deepshikha Pandey

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

NEHRP - National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Failures I by John Egan National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program. A research and implementation partnership. ...

2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

305

Flexible reference trace reduction for VM simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The unmanageably large size of reference traces has spurred the development of sophisticated trace reduction techniques. In this article we present two new algorithms for trace reduction: Safely Allowed Drop (SAD) and Optimal LRU Reduction ... Keywords: cache hierarchies, locality, reference traces, trace compression, trace reduction

Scott F. Kaplan; Yannis Smaragdakis; Paul R. Wilson

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction to Idle Reduction to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Benefits & Considerations Heavy-Duty Vehicles Medium-Duty Vehicles Light-Duty Vehicles School Buses Laws & Incentives Research & Development Related Links Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior Fleet Rightsizing System Efficiency Idle Reduction Photo of fleet trucks

307

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Incentives on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Incentives Cascade Sierra Solutions (CSS) provides comprehensive idle reduction solutions for commercial trucks and trailers. Financing, loans, and grant

308

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide T. Mill (ted.mill@sri.com; 650-859-3605) SRI, PS273 333 Ravenswood Menlo Park, CA 94025 D. Ross (dsross3@yahoo.com; 650-327-3842) U.S. Geological Survey, Bldg 15 MS 999 345 Middlefield Rd. Menlo Park, CA 94025 Introduction The United States currently meets 80% of its energy needs by burning fossil fuels to form CO 2 . The combustion-based production of CO 2 has evolved into a major environmental challenge that extends beyond national borders and the issue has become as politically charged as it is technologically demanding. Whereas CO 2 levels in the atmosphere had remained stable over the 10,000 years preceeding the industrial revolution, that event initiated rapid growth in CO 2 levels over the past 150 years (Stevens, 2000). The resulting accelerating accumulation of

309

Wind load reduction for heliostats  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Biological Sludge Reduction and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes research sponsored by EPRI and Advanced Biological Services (ABS). A series of experiments focused on the reduction and analysis of biological sludge in pulp mill wastewater. The first experiment involved optimization of the milling process through the alteration of the grinding gap and the number of times sludge was passed through the colloid mill in order to affect fractionation, dispersion, and lysis. For the second experiment, tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of ble...

2001-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

311

The reduction of packaging waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Source Selection Guide | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Source Selection Guide Source Selection Guide Source Selection Guide More Documents & Publications Source Selection Guide Source Selection Guide Source Selection...

313

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A vehicle may not idle at a loading zone, parking or service area, route terminal, or other off-street areas, except for the following situations:

314

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A motor vehicle engine may not operate for more than five consecutive minutes when the vehicle is not in motion, with the following exceptions:

315

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirements Effective May 1, 2014, a driver may not idle his or her motor vehicle for more than five minutes in a 60-minute period. This limit does not apply if

316

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Diesel vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating over 10,000 pounds may not idle for more than five minutes in any continuous 60 minute period.

317

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement The owner or operator of a diesel powered vehicle must limit the length of time their vehicle remains idle. The limit is based on the outside

318

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Motor vehicles may not idle unnecessarily for longer than five consecutive minutes during any 60-minute period. This includes heavy-duty diesel

319

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Diesel truck or bus engines may not idle for more than 15 consecutive minutes. Exemptions apply to diesel trucks or buses for which the Nevada

320

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A person that operates a diesel powered motor vehicle in certain counties and townships may not cause or allow the motor vehicle, when it is not in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A commercial vehicle or gasoline powered vehicle may not idle for more than five minutes during any 60-minute period. Exemptions are allowed for the

322

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emissions Reductions Emissions Reductions Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Reductions Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Reductions Grants The Carl Moyer Memorial Air Quality Standards Attainment Program (Program) provides incentives to cover the incremental cost of purchasing engines and

323

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A gasoline-fueled motor vehicle is not allowed to operate for more than three consecutive minutes when the vehicle is not in motion, with the

324

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A diesel- or gasoline-powered motor vehicle may not idle for more than three consecutive minutes, except under the following conditions: 1) to

325

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Motor vehicles licensed for commercial or public service may not idle for more than three minutes in commercial or residential urban areas, unless

326

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Idling of any unattended vehicle is prohibited in Utah. Violators are subject to a penalty of up to $750 and/or up to 90 days imprisonment.

327

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement On-road heavy-duty motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 8,500 pounds or greater may not idle for more than three consecutive

328

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Loans Idle Reduction Loans to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Loans on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Loans The Small Business Pollution Prevention Assistance Account Loan Program provides low interest rate loans to small businesses undertaking projects in Pennsylvania that reduce waste, pollution, or energy use, including the

329

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Petroleum Reduction Petroleum Reduction Initiative to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Petroleum Reduction Initiative on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Petroleum Reduction Initiative The Petroleum Savings and Independence Advisory Commission (Commission) was established to provide recommendations and monitor programs designed to

330

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A motor vehicle may not idle for more than five consecutive minutes. This regulation does not apply to: 1) vehicles being serviced, provided that

331

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement Vehicle operators may not idle any commercial diesel vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds for more than 10 minutes

332

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement School bus operators may not idle a school bus engine for more than three consecutive minutes except under the following conditions: uncontrollable

333

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reduction Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A commercial motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or more may not idle for more than 15 minutes in any 60-minute

334

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A vehicle may not idle for more than five minutes from April through October in cities and counties where the local government has signed a

335

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Requirement A driver may not idle a vehicle on a roadway outside a business or residential district when it is practical to stop and park the vehicle. A

336

sample abstract for 2005 WOCA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Release of Ammonia from SCR / SNCR Fly Ashes Release of Ammonia from SCR / SNCR Fly Ashes Carol Cardone, Ann Kim and Karl Schroeder U.S. Dept. of Energy, NETL, PO Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 KEYWORDS: fly ash, ammoniated fly ash, leaching Abstract One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the utilization of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NO x control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip (un-reacted NH

337

Global Threat Reduction Initiative | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Threat Reduction Initiative | National Nuclear Security Threat Reduction Initiative | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Global Threat Reduction Initiative Home > About Us > Our Programs > Nonproliferation > Global Threat Reduction Initiative Global Threat Reduction Initiative The mission of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is to reduce

338

Global Threat Reduction Initiative | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Threat Reduction Initiative | National Nuclear Security Threat Reduction Initiative | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Global Threat Reduction Initiative Home > About Us > Our Programs > Nonproliferation > Global Threat Reduction Initiative Global Threat Reduction Initiative The mission of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is to reduce

339

NOx Reduction through Efficiency Gain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benz Air Engineering and the CompuNOx system focus on a controls approach to minimize emissions without exposing steam generation plants to an unbearable financial burden. With minimal system changes we use thorough system analysis in conjunction with a novel control design to deliver a comprehensive boiler controls retrofit that provides reductions in emissions as well as substantial cost savings. Combining mechanical engineering expertise with substantial experience in control engineering in over 200 retrofits this system achieves astonishing results with short payback time, making CompuNOx a feasible solution for emission mandates and cost savings.

Benz, R.; Thompson, R.; Staedter, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Source Selection | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Source Selection Source Selection Source SelectionSource Selection Boards Source Evaluation Board (SEB) Monthly Status Reporting Requirement (pdf) Source Evaluation Board (SEB)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Evaluation of selected chemical processes for production of low-cost silicon (Phase II). Silicon Material Task Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project. Eighth quarterly progress report, July 1, 1977--September 30, 1977. [Zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride in fluidized bed of seed particles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported in the design of a large experimental facility for the preparation of high-purity silicon by the zinc vapor reduction of silicon tetrachloride in a fluidized bed of seed particles to form a free-flowing granular product. As of July 25, 1977, the capacity goal for the experimental facility was raised from 25 to 50 MT Si/year. Process flow diagrams and materials/energy flow sheets have been revised to conform to the higher capacity and a plant layout has been developed for locating the facility within an available structure. A unit-by-unit review of instrumentation and other requirements has been made, with the inclusion of those items in the flow diagrams and flow sheets. Alternative designs are presented for a silicon carbide-coated carbon-lined fluidized-bed reactor contained in hot-wall stainless steel, including alternative designs for zinc vaporizers based on detailed heat-transfer calculations. Conditions and equipment for the conversion of by-product chlorine to hypochlorite for use in the treatment of sewage effluent locally were defined. The logistics of 19 percent NaOH delivery and pick-up of 14 percent NaOCL was worked out and equipment suppliers were identified. Heat dissipation requirements for the fluidized bed, Zn/ZnCl/sub 2/ condenser, and SiCl/sub 4/ waste disposal sections were established. Resistivity and purity data were obtained for DuPont's silicon prepared by batchwise zinc reduction of SiCl/sub 4/. A preliminary safety review was made of the experimental facility. During the report period, the miniplant was operated to (1) provide 2.2 kg of product for JPL evaluation, (2) evaluate methods of product withdrawal, and (3) test three zinc vaporizer concepts. Results of the zinc vaporizer tests were consistent with concurrent heat-transfer calculations. An average value of approximately 450 Btu hr/sup -1/ ft/sup -2/ F/sup -1/ for heat transfer from graphite to boiling zinc (1 atm) was determined.

Blocher, J.M. Jr.; Browning, M.F.; Wilson, W.J.; Carmichael, D.C.

1977-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

342

Status of the Development and Assessment of Advanced NOx Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is an interim report summarizing the status of EPRI's advanced nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction catalyst development efforts in 2000. Concepts for that are more effective, lower cost, and may not have the problems associated with the standard vanadium pentoxide - titanium dioxide (V2O5-TiO2) NOx selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts that have been assessed under this program. The primary efforts in 2000 included further development of an ultra-high efficiency (UHE) catalyst, determining wheth...

2000-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

343

Program on Technology Innovation: Combustion Exhaust Gas Monitoring with Laser Absorption Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In current plant practice, the operator of a coal-fired boiler must typically rely on a limited number of point measurements of exhaust-gas oxygen and nitric oxides (NOX) to support combustion and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) control efforts with the goal of meeting emissions reduction mandates. As a possible alternative, tunable diode laser technology offers the potential for enabling a much richer set of measurements to be obtained using in situ, species-specific laser absorption sensors. This t...

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

344

Intramolecular Reduction of Oxyferryl Myoglobin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Intramolecular Reduction of Oxyferryl Iron in Horse Heart Myoglobin of Intramolecular Reduction of Oxyferryl Iron in Horse Heart Myoglobin Craig Fenwick, Stephen Marmor, K. Govindaraju, Ann M. English, James F. Wishart and Ji Sun J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3169-3170 (1994) Abstract: The observed rate constant (kobs), as determined by pulse radiolysis, for intramolecular electron transfer (ET) from a5RuII bound at His48 to the ferric heme of horse heart myoglobin was 0.059 ± 0.003 s-1 at 25 °C, pH 7.0. This value is essentially identical to that previously reported in the literature for sperm whale myoglobin. Following oxidation by H2O2 of the ferric heme to oxyferryl heme (FeIV=O), kobs for intramolecular ET from a5RuII(His48) to heme increased to 0.19 ± 0.02 s-1 at a driving force of 0.96 eV. However, at the same driving force, a rate

345

Quantum noise and stochastic reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In standard nonrelativistic quantum mechanics the expectation of the energy is a conserved quantity. It is possible to extend the dynamical law associated with the evolution of a quantum state consistently to include a nonlinear stochastic component, while respecting the conservation law. According to the dynamics thus obtained, referred to as the energy-based stochastic Schrodinger equation, an arbitrary initial state collapses spontaneously to one of the energy eigenstates, thus describing the phenomenon of quantum state reduction. In this article, two such models are investigated: one that achieves state reduction in infinite time, and the other in finite time. The properties of the associated energy expectation process and the energy variance process are worked out in detail. By use of a novel application of a nonlinear filtering method, closed-form solutions--algebraic in character and involving no integration--are obtained for both these models. In each case, the solution is expressed in terms of a random variable representing the terminal energy of the system, and an independent noise process. With these solutions at hand it is possible to simulate explicitly the dynamics of the quantum states of complicated physical systems.

Dorje C. Brody; Lane P. Hughston

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

346

Experimental research on comprehensive emission reduction of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comprehensively considering the factors of the reduction effect, the influence on ... Effects of reducer and slag concentrations in the iron-carbon nuggets coalescence in ... Simulation Calculation on Calciothermic Reduction of Titanium Dioxide.

347

Improved performance of NOx reduction by H2 and CO over a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst at low temperatures under lean-burn conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improved performance of NOx reduction by H2 and CO over a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst at low temperatures 4 June 2004; accepted 6 June 2004 Available online 28 July 2004 Abstract Selective reduction of NOx of lean-burn vehicle exhaust. Macleod and Lambert [9] found that Pd/Al2O3 promotes lean NOx reduction

Gulari, Erdogan

348

Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

An Approach for Measuring Reductions in Construction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. An Approach for Measuring Reductions in Construction Worker Illnesses and Injuries: Baseline Measures of Construction Industry ...

2001-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

350

Molecular Mechanisms of Uranium Reduction by Clostridia  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to elucidate systematically the molecular mechanisms involved in the reduction of uranium by Clostridia.

Francis, A.J.; Matin, A.C.; Gao, W.; Chidambaram, D.; Barak, Y.; Dodge, C.J.

2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

351

Earthquake Hazards Reduction Information at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 2013). Earthquakes (08/15/2011). Fifteen Named to Earthquake Hazards Reduction Advisory Committee (10/05/2010). Final ...

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

352

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems To support trends in the electric generating industry of moving from seasonal to year-round operation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for control of NOx and mercury, as well as extending the time between generating unit outages, Fossil Energy Research Corporation (FERCo) is developing technology to determine SCR catalyst activity and remaining life without requiring an outage to obtain and analyze catalyst samples. FERCo intends to use SCR catalyst performance results measured with their in situ device at Alabama Power’s Plant Gorgas during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons, along with EPRI’s CatReactTM catalyst management software, to demonstrate the value of real-time activity measurements with respect to the optimization of catalyst replacement strategy. Southern Company and the Electric Power Research Institute are co-funding the project.

353

Solar selective coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The definition, fabrication, and specification of solar selective absorber surfaces are discussed. Also, the nature of solar radiation and thermal radiation in relation to selective surfaces is considered. (WHK)

Mattox, D. M.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Project Title: VIscosity Reduction Date:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4t 3 4t 3 l I Project lnfonnatlon Project Title: VIscosity Reduction Date: 11-22-2010 DOE Code: 673()-()20-51141 Contractor Code: 8067-778 Project Lead: Frank Ingham Project Overview 1. The purpose of the project is to test a tool that temporarily reduces the viscosity of oil which allows it to be 1. Brief project description ~nclude pumped through pipelines easier. The test will require about 4 miles of line to pump the oil through after anything that could impact the treatment (hence the need to connect the 31oops together), a holding volume for recovery, then repeat. environmenJ] There will be tanks to hold the original volume, tanks to receive the volume after treatment and pumping 2. Legal location through the line, possible transfer between tanks, transport (trucking) of the oil to the site (by the COC) and

355

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Plains Co{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) activities have focused on developing information on deployment issues to support Task 5 activities by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) activities have focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) has included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) activities have focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

Edward N. Steadman

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Connecticut Yankee risk reduction initiative  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Risk Reduction Task Force, comprised of an interdisciplinary team of Connecticut Yankee (CY) and Northeast Utilities (NU) personnel, was formed to identify means of reducing the core-melt frequency (CMF) and the overall risk at CY. Currently, Connecticut Yankee is the only NU nuclear power plant with a CMF significantly above the corporate nuclear safety goal of < 10{sup {minus}4}/yr. It was the purpose of this task force to brainstorm ideas for design and/or procedural changes that would improve safety while allowing for operational flexibility, and also give consideration to licensing issues and design basis/deterministic concerns. The final recommendations by the task force include the installation of a tornado-protected, air-cooled diesel generator; reconfiguration of the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) flow path; addition of a diverse AFW pump; additional modifications to address tornado concerns; and repowering of several motor-operated valves.

Oswald, E.A.; Dube, D.A.; Becker, W.H.; Flannery, G.A.; Weyland, S.J. (Northeast Utilities Service Co., Hartford, CT (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for NEPA/309 Reviewers Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for NEPA/309 Reviewers The environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) provides a valuable opportunity for Federal agency NEPA/309 reviewers to incorporate pollution prevention and environmental impact reduction into actions (or projects). This Environmental Protection Agency guidance was prepared to assist NEPA/309 reviewers in incorporating pollution prevention into each step of the environmental review process, including scoping, mitigation, monitoring, and enforcement. POLLUTION PREVENTION - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REDUCTION CHECKLISTS FOR NEPA/309 REVIEWERS JANUARY 1995

360

Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for NEPA/309 Reviewers Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for NEPA/309 Reviewers The environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) provides a valuable opportunity for Federal agency NEPA/309 reviewers to incorporate pollution prevention and environmental impact reduction into actions (or projects). This Environmental Protection Agency guidance was prepared to assist NEPA/309 reviewers in incorporating pollution prevention into each step of the environmental review process, including scoping, mitigation, monitoring, and enforcement. POLLUTION PREVENTION - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REDUCTION CHECKLISTS FOR NEPA/309 REVIEWERS JANUARY 1995

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Application Guideline for Monitoring Ammonia with Tunable Diode Lasers on Coal-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuous ammonia monitors for coal-fired applications have been under development dating back to the 1990s. One potential use for NH3 process monitors is in support of selective catalytic (SCR) and selective non-catalytic (SNCR) NOx reduction systems that have been employed for NOx control. The primary analyzers being used in the utility industry are in situ tunable diode laser-based systems (TDL). Monitor applications can cover a range of potential needs ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Reduction of Lie-Jordan algebras: Classical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we present a unified algebraic framework to discuss the reduction of classical and quantum systems. The underlying algebraic structure is a Lie-Jordan algebra supplemented, in the quantum case, with a Banach structure. We discuss the reduction by symmetries, by constraints as well as the possible, non trivial, combinations of both. We finally introduce a new, general framework to perform the reduction of physical systems in an algebraic setup.

F. Falceto; L. Ferro; A. Ibort; G. Marmo

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

365

Salt Selected (FINAL)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WHY SALT WAS SELECTED AS A DISPOSAL MEDIUM WHY SALT WAS SELECTED AS A DISPOSAL MEDIUM Waste Isolation Pilot Plant U.S. Department Of Energy Government officials and scientists chose the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site through a selection process that started in the 1950s. At that time, the National Academy of Sciences conducted a nationwide search for geological formations stable enough to contain radioactive wastes for thousands of years. In 1955, after extensive

366

2008 present Publications (selection)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Mathias Wegner, Kiel Professor Stefan Michel, Lausanne Patent applications (selection) Media Cosmopolitan http://scentoflove.com/i/file/media/cosmopolitan_0710.pdf http://www.trendhunter.com

Wegner, Mathias

367

RISQ - Query Selection Criteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Figure 2 - RISQ Search. ... Selected Taxonomy Terms. Threat Analysis. ... To define a custom keyword: Enter the keyword in text form in the box to the left. ...

368

Baldrige Examiner Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Examiner SelectionWhat Do Examiners Do? ... leadership; strategic planning; customer service, human resource, and ... a board member does not meet ...

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

369

Harm Reduction Journal BioMed Central  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bundling occupational safety with harm reduction information as a feasible method for improving police receptiveness to syringe access programs: evidence from three U.S. cities

Corey S Davis; Leo Beletsky; Open Access

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Optimizing Anode Performance in DUBAL Reduction Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reduction in Gross Carbon consumption by 5% over the past 4 years was achieved through optimization of anode quality, modification of anode design and ...

371

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Laboratory Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

VALR Lab. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction Laboratory houses ADAM, our advanced thermal manikin, as well as a passenger compartment climate simulator, testing equipment...

372

ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

e.g. , reductions in landfill gas flaring),  or changes to landfills is +/?30%, the range for methane emissions from  natural gas 

Masanet, Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Idle Reduction Technology Demonstrations: Status Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is sponsoring 3 idle reduction demonstration projects for heavy-duty trucks. This report provides the status of the projects.

Proc, K.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum ...  

Platinum is the most efficient electrocatalyst for accelerating the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells. Under operating conditions, though, platinum catalysts ...

375

Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Petroleum Reduction Planning Tool Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, United States Department of Energy Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, Energy Efficiency, Fuels & Efficiency, Hydrogen, Transportation Phase: Prepare a Plan Topics: Analysis Tools, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Complexity/Ease of Use: Not Available Website: www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/prep/index.php OpenEI Keyword(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Tools Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/petroleum-reduction-planning-tool Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration & Implementation

376

REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES  

SciTech Connect

This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

377

Energy Use Reduction Pilot College of Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Engineering leadership are presented with the expectation of a realization in a reduction of energy usage equipment that consumes three to four times as much energy as a typical house. Observe behavior patterns to a reduction in energy usage. Building occupants include students, faculty and staff who spend a reasonable

Chinnam, Ratna Babu

378

On-The-Fly Path Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Path reduction is a well-known technique to alleviate the state-explosion problem incurred by explicit-state model checking, its key idea being to store states only at predetermined breaking points. This paper presents an adaptation of this technique ... Keywords: model checking, path reduction, state explosion, verification

Sebastian Biallas; Jörg Brauer; Dominique Gückel; Stefan Kowalewski

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

1975-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

380

Danish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Danish Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scenarios for 2020 and 2050 February 2008 Prepared by Ea Energy 54 2.9 ENERGY RESOURCES 55 3 DANISH GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION 58 3.1 GREENHOUSE GAS SOURCES 58 4 of 2007, Ea Energy Analyses and Risø DTU developed a number of greenhouse gas emissions reduction

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Domain reduction method for atomistic simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a quasi-static formulation of the method of multi-scale boundary conditions (MSBCs) is derived and applied to atomistic simulations of carbon nano-structures, namely single graphene sheets and multi-layered graphite. This domain reduction ... Keywords: atomistic simulation, carbon nano-structures, deformable boundary, domain reduction, graphite, multi-scale modeling, nano-indentation

Sergey N. Medyanik; Eduard G. Karpov; Wing Kam Liu

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts) Toxics Use Reduction Act (Massachusetts) Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional...

383

State Buildings Energy Reduction Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

State Buildings Energy Reduction Plan State Buildings Energy Reduction Plan Eligibility Institutional State Government Savings For Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization...

384

Reduction in Mercury Emissions with Lignite Coke W. Esser-Schmittmann, J. Wirling and U. Lenz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). Therefore, without cooling the flue gas, significant quantities of mercury will pass through the particulate, page 4824. Licata, A., et al, June 1994, "An Economic Alternative to Controlling Acid Gases, Mercury electrostatic precipitator combination. -Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction System to reduce nitrogen oxide

Columbia University

385

Plant Support Engineering: Utility Selective Leaching One-Time Inspection Needs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The selective leaching process involves the preferential removal of one of the alloying elements from an alloy material, resulting in a significant reduction in material strength. The most common examples are dezincification (the selective removal of zinc from brass alloys) and graphitization (the selective removal of iron from cast iron). Because selective leaching generally does not result in a change in the dimensions of a component and may occur without visible signs, it can be difficult to detect.

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

386

Energy efficient residential new construction: market transformation. Spectral selective glass. Final project report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report describes the following tasks associated with this project: cost and availability of spectrally selective glass (SSG); window labeling problem and field verification of glass; availability of SSG replacement glass and tempered glass; HVAC load reduction due to spectrally selective glass; and comsumer appreciation of spectrally selective glass. Also included in the report are four attachments: builder and HVAC subcontractor presentation, sample advertisements, spectrally selective glass demonstration model, and invitation to SCE Glass mini trade-show.

Hammon, Robert

2000-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

387

Selectable fragmentation warhead  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report discusses a selectable fragmentation warhead which is capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

388

Cost and schedule reduction for next-generation Candu  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AECL has developed a suite of technologies for Candu{sup R} reactors that enable the next step in the evolution of the Candu family of heavy-water-moderated fuel-channel reactors. These technologies have been combined in the design for the Advanced Candu Reactor TM1 (ACRTM), AECL's next generation Candu power plant. The ACR design builds extensively on the existing Candu experience base, but includes innovations, in design and in delivery technology, that provide very substantial reductions in capital cost and in project schedules. In this paper, main features of next generation design and delivery are summarized, to provide the background basis for the cost and schedule reductions that have been achieved. In particular the paper outlines the impact of the innovative design steps for ACR: - Selection of slightly enriched fuel bundle design; - Use of light water coolant in place of traditional Candu heavy water coolant; - Compact core design with unique reactor physics benefits; - Optimized coolant and turbine system conditions. In addition to the direct cost benefits arising from efficiency improvement, and from the reduction in heavy water, the next generation Candu configuration results in numerous additional indirect cost benefits, including: - Reduction in number and complexity of reactivity mechanisms; - Reduction in number of heavy water auxiliary systems; - Simplification in heat transport and its support systems; - Simplified human-machine interface. The paper also describes the ACR approach to design for constructability. The application of module assembly and open-top construction techniques, based on Candu and other worldwide experience, has been proven to generate savings in both schedule durations and overall project cost, by reducing premium on-site activities, and by improving efficiency of system and subsystem assembly. AECL's up-to-date experience in the use of 3-D CADDS and related engineering tools has also been proven to reduce both engineering and construction costs through more efficient work planning and use of materials, through reduced re-work and through more precise configuration management. Full-scale exploitation of AECL's electronic engineering and project management tools enables further reductions in cost. The Candu fuel-channel reactor type offers inherent manufacturing and construction advantages through the application of a simple, low-pressure low-temperature reactor vessel along with modular fuel channel technology. This leads to cost benefits and total project schedule benefits. As a result, the targets which AECL has set for replication units - overnight capital cost of $1000 US/kW and total project schedule (engineering/manufacturing/construction/commissioning) of 48 months, have been shown to be achievable for the reference NG Candu design. (authors)

Hopwood, J.M.; Yu, S.; Pakan, M.; Soulard, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Supplier Selection Management Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ADMP-002 Vendor Selection and Management Process 11_0203 1 of 9 ADMP-002 Vendor Selection and Management Process 11_0203 1 of 9 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: Vendor Selection and Management Process Document Number: ADMP-002 Rev. 11_0203 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: Q-001, Quality Manual Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): ADMF-009 Vendor Audit Plan, ADMF-010 Vendor Audit Checklist, ADMF-011 Vendor Audit Report, ADMF-015 Vendor Evaluation Record, ADMP-001 Procurement Process, ADMF-016 EOTA Vendor List, REG-003 Record Register ADMP-002 Vendor Selection and Management Process 11_0203 2 of 9 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change A Initial Release 08_1110 Added verbiage and reference for ADMF-016, EOTA Vendor List to process.

390

Science Accelerator : Your Selections  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Your Selections Back To Previous Page Selections - of First Page Previous Page Next Page Last Page Back To Previous Page You have 0 selections. Click the checkboxes clipping.addClipping on the results or alert results pages to add to your selections. Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site. U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Scientific and Technical Information Website Policies/Important Links Science Accelerator science.gov WorldWideScience.org Deep Web Technologies Email Results Use this form to email your search results * Email this to: * Your Name: Comments: URL only?: Number of results: 10 20 50 100 200 All Email Format: HTML TEXT * Required field Print Results

391

SOAJ Search : Your Selections  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Your Selections Back To Previous Page Selections - of First Page Previous Page Next Page Last Page Back To Previous Page You have 0 selections. Click the checkboxes clipping.addClipping on the results or alert results pages to add to your selections. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Website Policies/Important Links Science Accelerator science.gov WorldWideScience.org U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Email Results Use this form to email your search results * Email this to: * Your Name: Comments: URL only?: Number of results: 10 20 50 100 200 All Email Format: HTML TEXT * Required field Print Results Use this form to print results. The page of currently displayed results. The entire list of clipped results. The first

392

TAC KBP Entity Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A few terms related to Entity Selection tend to overlap in ... that you want to search for, and hit enter. The search will result in a list of documents that ...

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

393

Solar selective absorption coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

Solar selective absorption coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

395

Aspects of model selection in multivariate analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of data sets that involve large numbers of variables usually entails some type of model fitting and data reduction. In regression problems, a fitted model that is obtained by a selection process can be difficult to evaluate because of optimism induced by the choice mechanism. Problems in areas such as discriminant analysis, calibration, and the like often lead to similar difficulties. The preceeding sections reviewed some of the general ideas behind assessment of regression-type predictors and illustrated how they can be easily incorporated into a standard data analysis.

Picard, R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Municipal Energy Reduction Fund | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Municipal Energy Reduction Fund Municipal Energy Reduction Fund Municipal Energy Reduction Fund < Back Eligibility Local Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Other Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Insulation Buying & Making Electricity Energy Sources Maximum Rebate $400,000 Program Info Start Date 3/17/2010 State New Hampshire Program Type State Loan Program Rebate Amount $5,000 to $400,000 Provider New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority In March 2010, the New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority (CDFA) launched a revolving loan program to encourage the state's

397

Manager, International Chemical Threat Reduction Department, Sandia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Chemical Threat Reduction Department, Sandia International Chemical Threat Reduction Department, Sandia National Laboratories | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Who We Are > In The Spotlight > Nancy Jackson Manager, International Chemical Threat Reduction Department, Sandia National Laboratories

398

Manager, International Chemical Threat Reduction Department, Sandia  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

International Chemical Threat Reduction Department, Sandia International Chemical Threat Reduction Department, Sandia National Laboratories | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Who We Are > In The Spotlight > Nancy Jackson Manager, International Chemical Threat Reduction Department, Sandia National Laboratories

399

Energy Reduction Goals | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reduction Goals Reduction Goals Energy Reduction Goals < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Municipal Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Savings Category Other Program Info State Vermont Program Type Energy Efficiency Resource Standard Provider Vermont Energy Investment Corporation In June 1999, Vermont enacted legislation authorizing the Vermont Public Service Board (PSB) to establish a volumetric charge on all electric customers' bills to support energy efficiency programs and goals.* The subsequent year the PSB established Efficiency Vermont, a statewide "energy efficiency utility," and a funding mechanism to support it. Efficiency Vermont is currently administered by Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), an independent, non-profit corporation. Efficiency Vermont periodically establishes certain goals that constitute

400

Fundamental limits on NOx reduction by plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the gas-phase reaction mechanisms for removal of NO{sub x} in a plasma. The effect of oxygen content on the competition between the reduction and oxidation processes is discussed. The effect of the electron kinetic energy distribution on the radical production and subsequent chemistry is then discussed in order to predict the best performance that can be achieved for NO{sub x} reduction using the plasma alone. The fundamental limit on the minimum electrical energy consumption that will be required to implement NO{sub x} reduction in any type of plasma reactor is established.

Penetrante, B. M., LLNL

1997-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

H.Y. Sohn

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

AMMONIA-FREE NOx CONTROL SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a novel NOx control system that has the potential to drastically reduce cost, and enhance performance, operation and safety of power plant NOx control. The new system optimizes the burner and the furnace to achieve very low NOx levels and to provide an adequate amount of CO, and uses the CO for reducing NO both in-furnace and over a downstream AFSCR (ammonia-free selective catalytic reduction) reactor. The AF-SCR combines the advantages of the highly successful SCR technology for power plants and the TWC (three-way catalytic converter) widely used on automobiles. Like the SCR, it works in oxidizing environment of combustion flue gas and uses only base metal catalysts. Like the TWC, the AF-SCR removes NO and excess CO simultaneously without using any external reagent, such as ammonia. This new process has been studied in a development program jointed funded by the US Department of Energy and Foster Wheeler. The report outlines the experimental catalyst work performed on a bench-scale reactor, including test procedure, operating conditions, and results of various catalyst formulations. Several candidate catalysts, prepared with readily available transition metal oxides and common substrate materials, have shown over 80-90% removal for both NO and CO in oxidizing gas mixtures and at elevated temperatures. A detailed combustion study of a 400 MWe coal-fired boiler, applying computational fluid dynamics techniques to model boiler and burner design, has been carried out to investigate ways to optimize the combustion process for the lowest NOx formation and optimum CO/NO ratios. Results of this boiler and burner optimization work are reported. The paper further discusses catalyst scale-up considerations and the conceptual design of a 400 MWe size AF-SCR reactor, as well as economics analysis indicating large cost savings of the ammonia-free NOx control process over the current SCR technology.

Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Spectrally selective glazings  

SciTech Connect

Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

NONE

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

THE INFLUENCE OF FUEL SULFUR ON THE SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NO BY NH3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No. KVB-15500-717B, 1978. Wendt, J.O. , Morcomb, J.T. andsulfur combustion chemistry. Wendt et al 9 and De Soete 10in agreement with the results of Wendt et al 9 Wendt et al

Lucas, Donald

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Power Plant Evaluation of the Effect of Selective Catalytic Reduction in Mercury  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was a joint effort between EPRI, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

407

Chemical reduction of a diimide based porous polymer for selective uptake of carbon dioxide versus methanew  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from natural gas and landfill gas streams, composed mostly of methane, is an important problem. The presence of CO2 in natural gas significantly lowers the energy density of the gas stream and can lead accommodate large quantities of gas and is easily regenerated.3 Separations with porous materials

408

CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF THE SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NO by NH3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

post combustion gases of propane/air in a laboratory scalepost combustion gases of propane/air in a laboratory scaleThe combustion products of propane and air are diluted by

Brown, N.J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Evaluation of Selective Catalytic Reduction System Operation in Vicinity of Ammonium Bisulfate Formation Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, U.S. coal-fired generation increasingly has been forced to switch from high-capacity-factor “base loaded” operation to various modes of flexible operation, including load-following and low-load operation. The main driver of this trend is lower natural gas prices, which in a number of instances make gas-fired plants a lower-cost option with dispatch priority. Another factor in some regions is the burgeoning deployment of renewable generation, which is dispatched as ...

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

410

CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Transportation, Industry Topics: GHG inventory, Co-benefits assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.epa.gov/chp/basic/calculator.html Country: United States UN Region: Northern America CHP Emissions Reduction Estimator Screenshot References: http://www.epa.gov/chp/basic/calculator.html "This Emissions Estimator provides the amount of reduced emissions in terms of pounds of CO2, SO2, and NOX based on input from the User regarding the CHP technology being used. In turn the User will be provided with

411

Lattice Reduction: a Toolbox for the Cryptanalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

], circulated around 1979) and the lattice reduc­ tion algorithm reached a final form in the paper [LLL82 reduction techniques, almost by inspection. This fact, which may be due to the apparent technicality

Stern, Jacques

412

Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

Jacoby, Henry D.

413

Intramolecular Oxyferryl Heme Reduction in Myoglobin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ACS Publications Abstract: The kinetics of oxyferryl (FeIVO) heme reduction in horse heart myoglobin (Mb) by a4LRuII (a NH3; L NH3, pyridine, isonicotinamide) bound at the...

414

National Idling Reduction Network News - December 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Credit for New Qualified Hybrid Motor Vehicles, and for Other Purposes"), includes a tax credit of up to 3,500 for idle reduction technology, including the installation of...

415

Multiresolution histogram analysis for color reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique for color reduction is presented, based on the analysis of the histograms of an image at different resolutions. Given an input image, lower resolution images are generated by using a scaling down interpolation method. Then, peaks and ...

Giuliana Ramella; Gabriella Sanniti Di Baja

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Fuel Effects on Catalyst Life and Deactivation Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides case studies and catalyst performance supplemental data to aid EPRI members in the management of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) installations, particularly as related to the firing of both PRB and bituminous coals. The report discusses the primary deactivation mechanisms, along with analytical techniques to help members identify the primary modes of deactivation in their specific catalyst fleet. In addition, it offers benchmark data about the deactivation rates expected dependin...

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

417

Maximizing Wastewater Reduction for the Process Industries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study provides an overview of water and wastewater management practices in the U.S. process industries. The focus is on the chemical and petroleum industries and their methods for maximizing wastewater reduction and zero discharge. However, it also covers end-of-pipe treatment, since water reduction and zero discharge practices have evolved from end-of-pipe treatment practices. The resulting report is a comprehensive reference developed to help utilities and energy service providers understand and f...

1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

418

Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Source Selection Guide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Source Selection Source Selection Overview This chapter provides guidance to the acquisition team on conducting source selection in accordance with Part 15 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Background The mid 1990's was a time of significant change in many areas of procurement, particularly in the introduction of new tools and processes that help the procurement professional better meet the needs of demanding customers. The passage of the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act in 1994 and the Federal Acquisition Reform Act in 1995 , coupled with Government-wide and Department of Energy (DOE) contract reform efforts not only changed traditional procurement processes but also changed the role of the procurement professional. No longer are procurement

420

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves Agency/Company /Organization: Northwest Power and Conservation Council Sector: Energy Focus Area: Conventional Energy, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Industry, Transportation, Forestry, Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Dataset, Publications Website: www.nwcouncil.org/energy/grac/20090130_Supply%20Curves_NWPCC_FINAL.pdf Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves Screenshot References: Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves[1] Background "The ECL supply curve model includes data on potential emission reductions for approximately 60 separate technology options. It allows the examination of multiple scenarios involving the inclusion or exclusion of technology

422

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Benefits and Considerations  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Benefits and Considerations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Benefits and Considerations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Benefits and Considerations on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Benefits and Considerations on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Benefits and Considerations on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Benefits and Considerations on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Benefits and Considerations on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Benefits & Considerations Heavy-Duty Vehicles Medium-Duty Vehicles Light-Duty Vehicles

423

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Technology Weight Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Idle Reduction Idle Reduction Technology Weight Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Technology Weight Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Technology Weight Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Technology Weight Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Technology Weight Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Technology Weight Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idle Reduction Technology Weight Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Idle Reduction Technology Weight Exemption

424

Y-12 Respirator Flow Cycle Time Reduction Project  

SciTech Connect

In mid-July 2000, a Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) project was initiated by senior management to improve the flow and overall efficiency of the respirator distribution process at Y-12. A cross-functional team was formed to evaluate the current process and to propose necessary changes for improvement. Specifically, the team was challenged to make improvements that would eliminate production work stoppages due to the unavailability of respirators in Y-12 Stores. Prior to the team initiation, plant back orders for a specific model respirator were averaging above 600 and have been as high as 750+. The Cycle Time Reduction team segmented the respirator flow into detailed steps, with the focus and emphasis primarily being on the movement of dirty respirators out of work areas, transportation to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Laundry, and return back to Y-12 Stores inventory. The team selected a popular model respirator, size large, to track improvements. Despite a 30 percent increase in respirator usage for the same period of time in the previous year, the team has reduced the back orders by 89% with a steady trend downward. Summary of accomplishments: A 47 percent reduction in the average cycle time for dirty respirators to be laundered and stocked for reuse at the Y-12 Complex; A 73 percent reduction in the average cycle time for dirty respirators to be laundered and stocked for reuse specifically for major users: Enriched Uranium Operations (EUO) and Facilities Maintenance Organization (FMO); Development of a performance measure for tracking back orders; An 89 percent reduction in the number of laundered respirators on back order; Implementation of a tracking method to account for respirator loss; Achievement of an annual cost savings/avoidance of $800K with a one-time cost of $20K; Implementation of a routine pick-up schedule for EUO (major user of respirators); Elimination of activities no longer determined to be needed; Elimination of routine complaint calls to Stores requesting respirators; and Recommendation of improvements at the supplier (ORNL Laundry and Quality groups).

Hawk, C.T.; Rogers, P.E.

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

D-Area Sulfate Reduction Studty Comprehensive Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume emanates from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), due to the contaminated runoff the basin receives from the D-Area coal pile. A Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP) (WSRC 2001) was implemented to evaluate the potential for the sulfate reduction remediation of the DCPRB acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume. The following studies, implemented as part of the TSWP, are documented herein: Bacteria Population and Organic Selection Laboratory Testing; DTT-1 Trench Evaluation; DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 1; and DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 2. Evaluation of sulfate reduction applicability actually began with a literature search and feasibility report in mid 2001, which fed into the TSWP. Physical completion of TSWP work occurred in late 2004 with the completion of the DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 2. The following are the primary conclusions drawn based upon this 3-year effort: (1) Pure soybean oil provides a long-term, indirect, SRB carbon source that floats on top of the water table (by indirect it means that the soybean oil must be degraded by other microbes prior to utilization by SRB) for the promotion of sulfate reduction remediation. Soybean oil produces no known SRB inhibitory response and therefore large quantities can be injected. (2) Sodium lactate provides a short-term, immediately available, direct, SRB carbon source that is miscible with the groundwater and therefore flows with the groundwater until it has been completely utilized for the promotion of sulfate reduction remediation. Lactate at elevated concentrations (greater than 6 g/L) does produce a SRB inhibitory response and therefore small quantities must be injected frequently. (3) The use of limestone to buffer the contaminated groundwater facilitates sulfate reduction remediation through the injection of organic substrate. Additionally conclusions and recommendations are made in Sections 8 and 9 regarding continuation of this study, the potential for an interim action, and the final remediation once discharge to the DCPRB has been discontinued.

Phifer, M

2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

426

Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI); Den, Ling (Sterling Heights, MI); Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Lee, Jong-Hwan (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

427

Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

428

Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Industrial Carbon Capture Project SelectionsSeptember 2, 2010These projects have been selected for negotiation of awards; final award amounts may vary.

429

Generic selections of subexpressions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tools for computer languages need position information: compilers for providing better error messages, structure editors for mapping between structural and textual views, and debuggers for navigating through a term, for instance. Manually adding position ... Keywords: datatype-generic programming, haskell, selections

Martijn Van Steenbergen; José Pedro Magalhães; Johan Jeuring

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Multi-Site Energy Reduction Through Teamwork  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Teams have been established at seven BASF locations to facilitate implementation of the findings from the 2003 and 2004 Energy Audits conducted at these Sites. These Teams were charged with implementation, progress tracking, and management reporting. The Teams are comprised of engineers, technicians, and operators with various backgrounds and responsibilities. The diversity of the Teams was a factor in their success through the willingness to challenge various conditions. The Teams addressed hundreds of Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) to set priorities and create implementation schedules. Many of the ECOs were implemented with little or no cost to BASF. The final Energy Audit of 2004 was conducted in July and the Energy Team for that Site was still able to implement a 7% energy reduction as compared to 2003. The combined results from these seven Energy Teams represent a 5.8% reduction in energy consumption, for these facilities, within BASF in 2004, as compared to 2003, a total savings of slightly more than $4,900k. The “top ten” items implemented were: 1. Cogeneration load following 2. Creation of a 60 psig steam header between blocks to utilize waste steam 3. Elimination of WWTP steam 4. Incinerator process control 5. Flare switched to stand-by 6. Acid water specification 7. Nitrogen consumption reduction 8. Compressed air optimization 9. Boiler minimum fire set-point reduction 10. Leak reduction

Theising, T

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

SciTech Connect

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2001-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

432

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

433

Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology January 12, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative technology that could potentially help some coal-based power generation facilities comply with anticipated new mercury emissions standards was successfully demonstrated in a recently concluded milestone project at a Michigan power plant. Under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), WE Energies demonstrated the TOXECON(TM) process in a $52.9million project at the Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Mich. TOXECON is a relatively cost-effective option for achieving significant reductions in mercury emissions and increasing the

435

Cleanup of plutonium oxide reduction black salts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes pyrochemical processes employed to convert direc oxide reduction (DOR) black salts into discardable white salt and plutonium metal. The DOR process utilizes calcium metal as the reductant in a molten calcium chloride solvent salt to convert plutonium oxide to plutonium metal. An insoluble plutonium-rich dispersion called black salt sometimes forms between the metal phase and the salt phase. Black salts accumulated for processing were treated by one of two methods. One method utilized a scrub alloy of 70 wt % magnesium/30 wt % zinc. The other method utilized a pool of plutonium metal to agglomerate the metal phase. The two processes were similar in that calcium metal reductant and calcium chloride solvent salt were used in both cases. Four runs were performed by each method, and each method produced greater than 93% conversion of the black salt.

Giebel, R.E.; Wing, R.O.

1986-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

436

Lithiation of Silica through Partial Reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We demonstrate the reversible lithiation of SiO{sub 2} up to 2/3 Li per Si, and propose a mechanism for it based on molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations. Our calculations show that neither interstitial Li (no reduction), nor the formation of Li{sub 2}O clusters and Si-Si bonds (full reduction) are energetically favorable. Rather, two Li effectively break a Si-O bond and become stabilized by oxygen, thus partially reducing the SiO{sub 2} anode: this leads to increased anode capacity when the reduction occurs at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. The resulting Li{sub x}SiO{sub 2} (x < 2/3) compounds have band-gaps in the range of 2.0-3.4 eV.

Ban, C.; Kappes, B. B.; Xu, Q.; Engtrakul, C.; Ciobanu, C. V.; Dillon, A. C.; Zhao, Y.

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

437

Data Reduction and Analysis Graphical Organizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopic surveys are undergoing a rapid expansion in their data collecting capabilities, reaching the level of hundreds of spectra per pointing. An efficient use of such huge amounts of information requires a high degree of interconnection between the various tools involved in preparing the observations, reducing the data, and carrying out the data analysis. DRAGO (Data Reduction and Analysis Graphical Organizer) attempts to easy the process, by integrating in a global framework the main data handling components: from reduction pipelines, to data organization, plotting, and browsing tools, to storing the data reduction results in a database for further analysis. DRAGO allows the use of the astronomer own's preferred tools, by "plugging them in" in an environment which handles transparently the communications between them. See http://cosmos.mi.iasf.cnr.it/pandora .

L. Paioro; B. M. Garilli; M. Scodeggio; P. Franzetti

2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

438

RMOTC to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) announces that the "Teapot Dome" oil field in Wyoming is hosting a series of tests funded by STWA, Inc. ("STWA") to determine the performance of its Applied Oil Technology (AOT(tm)) in reducing crude oil's viscosity to lower transportation costs for pipeline operators. The testing is managed by RMOTC, and conducted at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, also known as the Teapot Dome oil field. RMOTC is providing the infrastructure and technical expertise to support companies such as STWA in their efforts to validate new technologies and bring those products and

439

Alternative Fuels Data Center: School District Emissions Reduction Policies  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

School District School District Emissions Reduction Policies to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: School District Emissions Reduction Policies on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: School District Emissions Reduction Policies on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: School District Emissions Reduction Policies on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: School District Emissions Reduction Policies on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: School District Emissions Reduction Policies on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: School District Emissions Reduction Policies on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type School District Emissions Reduction Policies

440

Dynamic Reduction of a CH4/Air Chemical Mechanism Appropriate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamic Reduction of a CH4Air Chemical Mechanism Appropriate for Investigating Vortex Flame Interactions Title Dynamic Reduction of a CH4Air Chemical Mechanism Appropriate for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Stripping Ethanol from Ethanol-Blended Diesel Fuels for Reductant ...  

Stripping Ethanol from Ethanol-Blended Diesel Fuels for Reductant Use in N0x Catalytic Reduction Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity.

442

South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

443

Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

444

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Developmen...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction...

445

Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6 | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6 Share Description Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of...

446

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry Title Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction...

447

Magnesium Components Achieve Weight Reduction and Fuel Savings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cast mag- nesium can achieve consider- able weight reduction advantages over both steel and aluminum. Furthermore, this favorable weight reduction potential can enable...

448

Nevada State Energy Reduction Plan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nevada State Energy Reduction Plan Nevada State Energy Reduction Plan Eligibility State Government Savings For Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial...

449

DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report - December...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Burden Reduction Report - December 18, 2012 DOE Retrospective Review Plan and Burden Reduction Report - December 18, 2012 DOE EO 13563 December 2012 Update Report and Burden...

450

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control: NOx Reduction Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NOx Reduction Technologies NOx reduction technologies can be grouped into two broad categories: combustion modifications and post-combustion processes. Some of the more important...

451

Information Collection Requests/Paper Reduction Act | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Information Collection RequestsPaper Reduction Act Information Collection RequestsPaper Reduction Act Training Presentation on the on Information Collection and the Paper...

452

Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China Title Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of...

453

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Commercial Vehicle Idle Reduction  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Commercial Vehicle Commercial Vehicle Idle Reduction Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Commercial Vehicle Idle Reduction Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Commercial Vehicle Idle Reduction Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Commercial Vehicle Idle Reduction Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Commercial Vehicle Idle Reduction Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Commercial Vehicle Idle Reduction Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Commercial Vehicle Idle Reduction Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Commercial Vehicle Idle Reduction Requirement

454

Selected State Legislation and  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and and Selected State Legislation and Regulation in the Annual Energy Outlook Energy Information Administration/Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 156 Appendix A: Handling of Federal and Selected State Legislation and Regulation in the Annual Energy Outlook Legislation Brief Description AEO Handling Basis Residential Sector A. National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 Requires Secretary of Energy to set minimum efficiency standards for 10 appliance categories. Included for categories represented in the AEO residential sector forecast. a. Room Air Conditioners Current standard of 9.8 EER Federal Register Notice of Final Rulemaking. b. Other Air Conditioners (<5.4 tons) Current standard 10 SEET for central air conditioners and heat

455

Selected State Legislation and  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and and Selected State Legislation and Regulation in the Annual Energy Outlook U. S. Energy Information Administration/Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 173 Appendix A: Handling of Federal and Selected State Legislation and Regulation in the Annual Energy Outlook Legislation Brief Description AEO Handling Ba sis Residential Sector A. National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 Requires Secretary of Energy to set minimum efficiency standards for 10 appliance categories. Included for categories represented in the AEO residential sector forecast. a. Room Air Conditioners Current standard of 9.8 EER Federal Register Notice of Final Rulemaking. b. Other Air Conditioners (<5.4 tons) Current standard 10 SEET for central air conditioners and heat

456

Microsoft Word - Site Selection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Selection Selection One of the very first tasks of General Leslie Groves and the Manhattan Project in early 1943 was to locate and acquire sites in the United States where uranium and plutonium could be produced, as well as a site where the atomic bomb actually would be constructed. Production of uranium and plutonium required vast amounts of power. Thus, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Hanford, Washington, were chosen because of proximity to major rivers. Oak Ridge could draw on the power of the hydroelectric plants on the Tennessee River. Hanford could use the power from the Columbia River. The cold waters of the Columbia also could be used to cool the plutonium production reactors at Hanford. A third site, with

457

Glove Selection Guideline  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glove Selection Guideline Glove Selection Guideline Skin contact is a potential source of exposure to toxic materials; it is important that the proper steps be taken to prevent such contact. Most accidents involving hands and arms can be classified under four main hazard categories: chemicals, abrasions, cutting, and heat. There are gloves available that can protect workers from any of these individual hazards or any combination thereof. Gloves should be replaced periodically, depending on frequency of use and permeability to the substance(s) handled. Gloves overtly contaminated should be rinsed and then carefully removed after use. Gloves should also be worn whenever it is necessary to handle rough or sharp-edged objects, and very hot or very cold materials. The type of glove materials to be used in these situations include leather, welder’s gloves,

458

Ion-Selective Membrane Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...R.A. Durst, Ion-Selective Electrodes, Special Publication 314, National Bureau of Standards, 1969...

459

Chiller Selection: CFC Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This CFC Update examines the decision factors used in selecting the most cost-effective chiller. The growing concern with emissions contributing to ozone depletion, global warming, and air pollution must be considered. Recent chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) phaseout schedules are causing some building owners to consider gas-fired chillers in place of electric chillers. The gas-fired chillers provide cooling without using ozone-depleting refrigerants, and also reduce electric d...

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

460

TEMPLATE FOR EES DIRECTORATE QUARTERLY HIGHLIGHTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 2012 June 2012 New Insights into Silver/Alumina Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of Nitrogen Oxide (NO X ) by Ethanol for Lean Gasoline Engine Emissions Control Lean gasoline engines provide significant efficiency advantages over their stoichiometrically operated counterparts, but have yet not been able to meet United States (U.S.) emissions regulations for NO X . Silver/alumina catalysts for the SCR of NO X by ethanol could provide a low cost solution for NO X reduction in lean gasoline engine exhaust that does not require precious metals or urea. Researchers at ORNL/FEERC performed experiments on a commercially relevant silver/alumina catalyst to quantify its performance and determine the mechanism for the reaction between NO and ethanol. Using E100 (100% ethanol) as the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduction scr selective" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.