Sample records for reduction scr selective

  1. Calibration and performance of a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) bench rig for NOx? emissions control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro Galnares, Sebastián (Castro Galnares Wright Paz)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory test rig was designed and built to easily test SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. Equipped with three 6 kW heaters, connections for liquid N2 and an assortment of test gases, and a connection with ...

  2. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  3. Modeling of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia using four modern catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Giriraj

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    values of the SCR process parameters, namely temperature, inlet oxygen concentration and inlet ammonia concentration. The NOx emission, its formation and control methods are discussed briefly and then the fundamentals of the SCR process are described...

  4. Development of the integrated environmental control model: Cost models of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) NO{sub x} control systems. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1994-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a process for the post-combustion removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gas of fossil-fuel-fired power plants. SCR is capable of NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of up to 80 or 90 percent. SCR technology has been applied for treatment of flue gases from a variety of emission sources, including natural gas- and oil-fired gas turbines, process steam boilers in refineries, and coal-fired power plants. SCR applications to coal-fired power plants have occurred in Japan and Germany. Full-scale SCR systems have not been applied to coal-fired power plants in the U.S., although there have been small-scale demonstration projects. Increasingly strict NO{sub x} control requirements are being imposed by various state and local regulatory agencies in the U.S. These requirements may lead to U.S. SCR applications, particularly for plants burning low sulfur coals (Robie et al.). Furthermore, implicit in Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment is a national NO{sub x} emission reduction of 2 million tons per year. Thus, there may be other incentives to adapt SCR technology more generally to U.S. coal-fired power plants with varying coal sulfur contents. However, concern remains over the applicability of SCR technology to U.S. plants burning high sulfur coals or coals with significantly different fly ash characteristics than those burned in Germany and Japan. There is also concern regarding the application of SCR to peaking units due to potential startup and shutdown problems (Lowe et al.). In this report, new capital cost models of two SCR systems are developed. These are {open_quotes}hot-side high-dust{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}tail-end low-dust{close_quotes} options. In a previous quarterly report, performance models for these two systems were developed.

  5. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  6. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based and pillared interlayer clay-based catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Hyuk Jin

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) and pillared interlayer clay-based (V2O5/Ti-PILC) monolithic honeycomb catalysts using a laboratory laminar-flow ...

  7. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jiashun Zhu; Quanhai Wang; Yaji Huang; Chengchung Chiu; Bruce Parker; Paul Chu; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0) concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH{sub 3} addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH{sub 3} reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia using Cu-ZSM-5 and Va-based honeycomb monolith catalysts: effect of H2 pretreatment, NH3-to-NO ratio, O2, and space velocity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Saurabh

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the steady-state performance of zeolite-based (Cu-ZSM-5) and vanadium-based honeycomb monolith catalysts was investigated in the selective catalytic reduction process (SCR) for NO removal using NH3. The aim ...

  9. Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    low and high flow valves - Electronic throttling DOC DPF LNT SCR LNT SCR DOC-DPF UV Optics * Catalyst System - DOC and DPF (SiC) were installed upstream of LNT-SCR - Model...

  10. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 4, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  11. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia using Cu-ZSM-5 and Va-based honeycomb monolith catalysts: effect of H2 pretreatment, NH3-to-NO ratio, O2, and space velocity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Saurabh

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the steady-state performance of zeolite-based (Cu-ZSM-5) and vanadium-based honeycomb monolith catalysts was investigated in the selective catalytic reduction process (SCR) for NO removal using NH3. The aim was to delineate the effect...

  12. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  14. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  15. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3] and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  16. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project was to demonstrate the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized-coal utility boilers using medium- to high-sulfur US coal. The prototype SCR facility, built in and around the ductwork of Plant Crist Unit 5, consisted of three large SCR reactor units (Reactors A, B, and C), each with a design capacity of 5,000 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of flue gas, and six smaller reactors (Reactors D through J), each with a design capacity of 400 scfm of flue gas. The three large reactors contained commercially available SCR catalysts as offered by SCR catalyst suppliers. These reactors were coupled with small-scale air preheaters to evaluate (1) the long-term effects of SCR reaction chemistry on air preheater deposit formation and (2) the impact of these deposits on the performance of air preheaters. The small reactors were used to test additional varieties of commercially available catalysts. The demonstration project was organized into three phases: (1) Permitting, Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) Preparation, and Preliminary Engineering; (2) Detail Design Engineering and Construction; and (3) Operation, Testing, Disposition, and Final Report Preparation. Section 2 discusses the planned and actual EMP monitoring for gaseous, aqueous, and solid streams over the course of the SCR demonstration project; Section 3 summarizes sampling and analytical methods and discusses exceptions from the methods specified in the EMP; Section 4 presents and discusses the gas stream monitoring results; Section 5 presents and discusses the aqueous stream monitoring results; Section 6 presents and discusses the solid stream monitoring results; Section 7 discusses EMP-related quality assurance/quality control activities performed during the demonstration project; Section 8 summarizes compliance monitoring reporting activities; and Section 9 presents conclusions based on the EMP monitoring results.

  17. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  18. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage...

  19. Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Stand-alone urea...

  20. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using...

  1. Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Richard Blint, Michael B. Viola and Steven J. Schmieg General Motors R&D Center Warren, MI 48090-9055 DEER 2009 Tuesday,...

  2. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based and pillared interlayer clay-based catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Hyuk Jin

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    % and NH3 > 87%) about 50°C. An increase in heating area decreased the reaction temperature of the maximum NO reduction from 350 to 300°C, and caused the active reaction temperature window (between 250 and 400°C) to shift toward 50°C lower reaction...

  3. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides of nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) commonly referred to as NO{sub x}, is one of the two chemical precursors that lead to ground-level ozone, a ubiquitous air pollutant in urban areas. A major source of NO{sub x} is generated by equipment and vehicles powered by diesel engines, which have a combustion exhaust that contains NO{sub x} in the presence of excess O{sub 2}. Catalytic abatement measures that are effective for gasoline-fueled engines such as the precious metal containing three-way catalytic converter (TWC) cannot be used to treat O2-laden exhaust containing NO{sub x}. Two catalytic technologies that have emerged as effective for NO{sub x} abatement are NO{sub x} storage and reduction (NSR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). NSR is similar to TWC but requires much larger quantities of expensive precious metals and sophisticated periodic switching operation, while SCR requires an on-board source of ammonia which serves as the chemical reductant of the NO{sub x}. The fact that NSR produces ammonia as a byproduct while SCR requires ammonia to work has led to interest in combining the two together to avoid the need for the cumbersome ammonia generation system. In this project a comprehensive study was carried out of the fundamental aspects and application feasibility of combined NSR/SCR. The project team, which included university, industry, and national lab researchers, investigated the kinetics and mechanistic features of the underlying chemistry in the lean NOx trap (LNT) wherein NSR was carried out, with particular focus on identifying the operating conditions such as temperature and catalytic properties which lead to the production of ammonia in the LNT. The performance features of SCR on both model and commercial catalysts focused on the synergy between the LNT and SCR converters in terms of utilizing the upstream-generated ammonia and alternative reductants such as propylene, representing the hydrocarbon component of diesel exhaust. First-principle models of the LNT and SCR converters, which utilized the mechanistic-based kinetics and realistic treatments of the flow and transport processes, in combination with bench-scale reactor experiments helped to identify the best designs for combining the NSR and SCR catalysts over a range of operating conditions encountered in practice. This included catalysts having multiple zones and layers and additives with the focus on determining the minimal precious metal component needed to meet emission abatement targets over a wide range of operating conditions. The findings from this study provide diesel vehicle and catalyst companies valuable information to develop more cost effective diesel emissions catalysts which helps to expand the use of more fuel efficient diesel power. The fundamental modeling and experimental tools and findings from this project can be applied to catalyst technologies used in the energy and chemical industries. Finally, the project also led to training of several doctoral students who were placed in research jobs in industry and academia.

  4. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NO x Using Cu-zeolite D. William Brookshear 1 , Todd J. Toops 2 , William Rohr 1 , Ke Nguyen 1 , and Bruce G....

  5. Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmieg, Steven J.; Oh, Se H.; Kim, Chang H.; Brown, David B.; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Kim, Do Heui

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple catalytic functions (NOx conversion, NO and NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage) of a commercial Cu-zeolite urea/NH3-SCR catalyst were assessed in a laboratory fixed-bed flow reactor system after differing degrees of hydrothermal aging. Catalysts were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), 27Al solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) / energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy to develop an understanding of the degradation mechanisms during catalyst aging. The catalytic reaction measurements of laboratory-aged catalysts were performed, which allows us to obtain a universal curve for predicting the degree of catalyst performance deterioration as a function of time at each aging temperature. Results show that as the aging temperature becomes higher, the zeolite structure collapses in a shorter period of time after an induction period. The decrease in SCR performance was explained by zeolite structure destruction and/or Cu agglomeration, as detected by XRD/27Al NMR and by TEM/EDX, respectively. Destruction of the zeolite structure and agglomeration of the active phase also results in a decrease in the NO/NH3 oxidation activity and the NH3 storage capacity of the catalyst. Selected laboratory aging conditions (16 h at 800oC) compare well with a 135,000 mile vehicle-aged catalyst for both performance and characterization criteria.

  6. Method to monitor HC-SCR catalyst NOx reduction performance for lean exhaust applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Sloane, Thompson M. (Oxford, MI); Hilden, David L. (Shelby Township, MI); Mulawa, Patricia A. (Clinton Township, MI); Lee, Jong H. (Rochester Hills, MI); Cheng, Shi-Wai S. (Troy, MI)

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for initiating a regeneration mode in selective catalytic reduction device utilizing hydrocarbons as a reductant includes monitoring a temperature within the aftertreatment system, monitoring a fuel dosing rate to the selective catalytic reduction device, monitoring an initial conversion efficiency, selecting a determined equation to estimate changes in a conversion efficiency of the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the monitored temperature and the monitored fuel dosing rate, estimating changes in the conversion efficiency based upon the determined equation and the initial conversion efficiency, and initiating a regeneration mode for the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the estimated changes in conversion efficiency.

  7. Predictable SCR co-benefits for mercury control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritchard, S. [Cormtech Inc. (USA)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program, performed in cooperation with Dominion Power and the Babcock and Wilcox Co., was executed at Dominion Power's Mount Storm power plant in Grant County, W. Va. The program was focused on both the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst capability to oxide mercury as well as the scrubber's capability to capture and retain the oxidized mercury. This article focuses on the SCR catalyst performance aspects. The Mount Storm site consists of three units totaling approximately 1,660 MW. All units are equipped with SCR systems for NOx control. A full-scale test to evaluate the effect of the SCR was performed on Unit 2, a 550 MWT-fired boiler firing a medium sulfur bituminous coal. This test program demonstrated that the presence of an SCR catalyst can significantly affect the mercury speciation profile. Observation showed that in the absence of an SCR catalyst, the extent of oxidation of element a mercury at the inlet of the flue gas desulfurization system was about 64%. The presence of a Cornertech SCR catalyst improved this oxidation to levels greater than 95% almost all of which was captured by the downstream wet FGD system. Cornertech's proprietary SCR Hg oxidation model was used to accurately predict the field results. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Mercury oxidation promoted by a selective catalytic reduction catalyst under simulated Powder River Basin coal combustion conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun W. Lee; Shannon D. Serre; Yongxin Zhao; Sung Jun Lee; Thomas W. Hastings [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A bench-scale reactor consisting of a natural gas burner and an electrically heated reactor housing a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst was constructed for studying elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation under SCR conditions. A low sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal combustion fly ash was injected into the entrained-flow reactor along with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and trace Hg{sup 0}. Concentrations of Hg{sup 0} and total mercury (Hg) upstream and downstream of the SCR catalyst were measured using a Hg monitor. The effects of HCl concentration, SCR operating temperature, catalyst space velocity, and feed rate of PRB fly ash on Hg0 oxidation were evaluated. It was observed that HCl provides the source of chlorine for Hg{sup 0} oxidation under simulated PRB coal-fired SCR conditions. The decrease in Hg mass balance closure across the catalyst with decreasing HCl concentration suggests that transient Hg capture on the SCR catalyst occurred during the short test exposure periods and that the outlet speciation observed may not be representative of steady-state operation at longer exposure times. Increasing the space velocity and operating temperature of the SCR led to less Hg{sup 0} oxidized. Introduction of PRB coal fly ash resulted in slightly decreased outlet oxidized mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) as a percentage of total inlet Hg and correspondingly resulted in an incremental increase in Hg capture. The injection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) for NOx reduction by SCR was found to have a strong effect to decrease Hg oxidation. The observations suggest that Hg{sup 0} oxidation may occur near the exit region of commercial SCR reactors. Passage of flue gas through SCR systems without NH{sub 3} injection, such as during the low-ozone season, may also impact Hg speciation and capture in the flue gas. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies ProgramOutfitted with SCR | Department of

  10. Selective catalytic reduction system and process using a pre-sulfated zirconia binder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process with a palladium catalyst for reducing NOx in a gas, using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system, the catalyst system comprising (ZrO2)SO4, palladium, and a pre-sulfated zirconia binder. The inclusion of a pre-sulfated zirconia binder substantially increases the durability of a Pd-based SCR catalyst system. A system for implementing the disclosed process is further provided.

  11. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  12. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

  13. Study of mercury oxidation by a selective catalytic reduction catalyst in a pilot-scale slipstream reactor at a utility boiler burning bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Bobby Chen; Jiang Wu; Hong Cui; John Smith; Chi-Kuan Chen; Paul Chu; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the cost-effective mercury control technologies in coal-fired power plants is the enhanced oxidation of elemental mercury in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) followed by the capture of the oxidized mercury in the wet scrubber. This paper is the first in a series of two in which the validation of the SCR slipstream test and Hg speciation variation in runs with or without SCR catalysts inside the SCR slipstream reactor under special gas additions (HCl, Cl{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 3}) are presented. Tests indicate that the use of a catalyst in a SCR slipstream reactor can achieve greater than 90% NO reduction efficiency with a NH{sub 3}/NO ratio of about 1. There is no evidence to show that the reactor material affects mercury speciation. Both SCR catalysts used in this study exhibited a catalytic effect on the elemental mercury oxidation but had no apparent adsorption effect. SCR catalyst 2 seemed more sensitive to the operational temperature. The spike gas tests indicated that HCl can promote Hg{sup 0} oxidation but not Cl{sub 2}. The effect of Cl{sub 2} on mercury oxidation may be inhibited by higher concentrations of SO{sub 2}, NO, or H{sub 2}O in real flue-gas atmospheres within the typical SCR temperature range (300-350{sup o}C). SO{sub 2} seemed to inhibit mercury oxidation; however, SO{sub 3} may have some effect on the promotion of mercury oxidation in runs with or without SCR catalysts. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Laboratory Product Speciation Studies of the LNT + in situ SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LNT+SCR system. deer10crocker.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR...

  15. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  16. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  17. PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

  18. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1994--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.P.; Cheng, L.S.; Hausladen, M.C.; Kikkinides, E.S.; Yang, R.T.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past quarter, progress has been made in four tasks as summarized below: Task 1: A delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillared clay was synthesized and carefully characterized. The chemical composition was measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The structural changes in the clay as well as the iron oxide particle sizes were characterized by X-ray diffraction techniques. Task 2: The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, i.e., NO reduction with NH{sub 3}) activities of the delaminated pillared clay were tested and compared with four other most active SCR catalysts: a commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst, a Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay, and two supported Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts (on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}). The delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillared clay exhibited the highest SCR activities. Catalyst stability test showed that the delaminated sample was also stable. Task 3: To further increase the SCR activity of the delaminated pillared clay, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} was doped as a promoter by incipient wetness. Task 4: Deactivation effects of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O on the SCR activities of the delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillared clay were studied, and compared with other SCR catalysts. The delaminated clay catalyst showed the least deactivation.

  19. Pilot-scale study of the effect of selective catalytic reduction catalyst on mercury speciation in Illinois and Powder River Basin coal combustion flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.W.; Srivastava, R.K.; Ghorishi, S.B.; Karwowski, J.; Hastings, T.H.; Hirschi, J.C. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl)) and one Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal with very low S and very low Cl were tested in a pilot-scale combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for controlling nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The SCR catalyst induced high oxidation of elemental Hg (Hg{sup 0}), decreasing the percentage of Hg{sup 0} at the outlet of the SCR to values <12% for the three Illinois coal tests. The PRB coal test indicated a low oxidation of Hg{sup 0} by the SCR catalyst, with the percentage of Hg{sup 0} decreasing from {approximately} 96% at the inlet of the reactor to {approximately} 80% at the outlet. The low Cl content of the PRB coal and corresponding low level of available flue gas Cl species were believed to be responsible for low SCR Hg oxidation for this coal type. The test results indicated a strong effect of coal type on the extent of Hg oxidation. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction. Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction. Abstract: Multiple catalytic functions...

  1. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

  2. Optimal SCR Control Using Data-Driven Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Sun, Yannan; Lian, Jianming; Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Parker, Gordon

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an optimal control solution for the urea injection for a heavy-duty diesel (HDD) selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The approach taken here is useful beyond SCR and could be applied to any system where a control strategy is desired and input-output data is available. For example, the strategy could also be used for the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) system. In this paper, we identify and validate a one-step ahead Kalman state-space estimator for downstream NOx using the bench reactor data of an SCR core sample. The test data was acquired using a 2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB production engine with a 2010 Cummins production aftertreatment system. We used a surrogate HDD federal test procedure (FTP), developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU), which simulates the representative transients of the standard FTP cycle, but has less engine speed/load points. The identified state-space model is then used to develop a tunable cost function that simultaneously minimizes NOx emissions and urea usage. The cost function is quadratic and univariate, thus the minimum can be computed analytically. We show the performance of the closed-loop controller in using a reduced-order discrete SCR simulator developed at MTU. Our experiments with the surrogate HDD-FTP data show that the strategy developed in this paper can be used to identify performance bounds for urea dose controllers.

  3. Development of a Durable Low-Temperature Urea-SCR Catalyst for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durable Low-Temperature Urea-SCR Catalyst for CIDI Engines Development of a Durable Low-Temperature Urea-SCR Catalyst for CIDI Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  4. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past quarter, progress was made in three tasks. The poisoning effects of alkali metals (as Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}0 and Cs{sub 2}O) on iron oxide pillared clay (Fe-Bentonite) catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3} were investigated. The effects of sulfur dioxide and water vapor on the performance of the high activity catalyst, that is, Ce-doped Fe-Bentonite pillared clay (Ce-Fe-Bentonite) were examined. In addition, an iron ion-exchanged titania pillared clay (Ti-PILC) was prepared and its catalytic activity for the SCR of NO with NH{sub 3} was studied, which showed a high activity and a high S0{sub 2} and H{sub 2}0 resistance at high temperatures (i.e., above 400{degree}C).

  5. Modeling of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide with ammonia using four modern catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Giriraj

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the steady-state performance of zeolite-based Cu-ZSM-5, vanadium based honeycomb monolith catalysts (V), vanadium-titanium based pillared inter layered clay catalyst (V-Ti PLIC) and vanadium-titanium-tungsten-based ...

  6. Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy Petroleum TechnologyEnergyImagingof AdvancedNOx Using

  7. On the mechanism of NO selective catalytic reduction by hydrocarbons over Cu-ZSM-5 via X-ray absorption spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.J. [AlliedSignal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States)] [AlliedSignal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Robota, H.J. [ASEC, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [ASEC, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1999-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An understanding of the catalytic mechanism of NO{sub x} reduction is critical for the development of next-generation high-fuel efficiency, low-emission vehicles. This paper compiles the investigations in recent years on the mechanism of NO selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by hydrocarbon over Cu-ZSM-5. The studies were focused on the oxidation state and coordination chemistry of the exchanged Cu as the active site during the catalytic reaction using X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) techniques, mainly XANES and EXAFS. Their experiment demonstrated the existence of a redox mechanism which involves cyclic switching of the oxidation states between Cu(II) and Cu(I) in an oxygen-rich gas mixture under elevated temperature. The authors also observed the coordination structural change of copper ion in ZSM-5 accompanying the change of oxidation state. A correlation between cuprous ion concentration and catalytic activity was found in NO SCR by propene. The impact of another two hydrocarbons, propane and methane, on the copper redox behavior also appears to correlate to catalytic activities in the respective mixtures. Discussions on the nature of the active sites and the mechanism of SCR are presented based on the XAS data analysis. The similarity and difference of the physical properties of copper ion between NO catalytic decomposition and NO SCR are also discussed.

  8. Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

  9. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.P.; Li, W.B.; Hausladen, M.C.; Kikkinides, E.S.; Yang, R.T.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last Quarterly Technical Progress Report the authors reported the synthesis and (partial characterization) and SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO) activity for a delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PILC). The SCR activity for this PILC was substantially higher than that of the commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst. During the past quarter, the authors first completed the characterization of the delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-PILC catalyst. Both physical characterization (micropore probing by adsorption and Moessbauer spectroscopy) and chemical characterization (by IR spectroscopy) were performed. Since the synthesis of this PILC sample was undertaken under a specific set of conditions and it is known that the PILC properties depend strongly on the synthesis conditions, they then proceeded to examine in a systematic manner the dependence of the catalytic properties of the PILC on its synthesis conditions. Four parameters in the synthesis were studied: Fe precursors, pH of the pillaring solution, concentration of the pillaring solution, and the starting clay. Finally, the effect of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} promoter on the SCR activity of the pillar clay was studied. Results are reported.

  10. JV 58-Effects of Biomass Combustion on SCR Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Joshua R. Strege; Donald P. McCollor; Jason D. Laumb; Lingbu Kong

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable slipstream selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor was installed at a biomass cofired utility boiler to examine the rates and mechanisms of catalyst deactivation when exposed to biomass combustion products. The catalyst was found to deactivate at a much faster rate than typically found in a coal-fired boiler, although this may have been the result of high ash loading rather than a general property of biomass combustion. Deactivation was mainly the result of alkali and alkaline-earth sulfate formation and growth in catalyst pores, apparently caused by alkaline-earth ash deposition on or near the pore sites. The high proportion of biomass in the fuel contributed to elevated levels of alkali and alkaline-earth material in the ash when compared to coal ash, and these higher levels provided more opportunity for sulfate formation. Based on laboratory tests, neither catalyst material nor ammonia contributed measurably to ash mass gains via sulfation. A model constructed using both field and laboratory data was able to predict catalyst deactivation of catalysts under subbituminous coal firing but performed poorly at predicting catalyst deactivation under cofiring conditions. Because of the typically higher-than coal levels of alkali and alkaline-earth elements present in biomass fuels that are available for sulfation at typical SCR temperatures, the use of SCR technology and biomass cofiring needs to be carefully evaluated prior to implementation.

  11. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Final technical report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, R.T.; Li, W.B.; Chen, J.P.; Hausladen, M.C.; Cheng, L.S.; Kikkinides, E.S.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The most advanced and proven technology for NO{sub x} control for stationary sources is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). In SCR, NO{sub x} is reduced by NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The commercial catalysts are based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2}, and the vanadium-based catalysts are patented by the Japanese (Mitsubishi). However, there are three main advantages for the vanadium-based SCR catalyst: (a) a tendency to be poisoned in the flue gas; (b) oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} by V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, this is a particularly severe problem due to the higher sulfur content of American coals compared with coals used in Japan (from Australia) and in Europe; (c) environmental problems involved in the disposal of the spent catalyst (due to the toxicity of vanadium). In order to overcome these problems, in addition to the undesirable dominance by the Japanese patent position, the authors have studied in this project a new type of catalyst for the SCR reaction; namely, pillared clays, which have adjustable, unique structures and acidity. Three types of catalysts were developed and tested for this reaction, i.e. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clays, delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clays, and ion-exchanged pillared clays. The project was divided into sixteen tasks, and will be reported as such.

  12. Ion-exchanged pillared clays: A new class of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons and by ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH{sub 3} is presently performed with vanadia-based catalysts for flue gas applications. Hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). SCR of NO by hydrocarbons can also find important applications for lean-burn (i.e., O{sub 2}-rich) gasoline and diesel engines where the noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective in the presence of excess oxygen. Pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) have been studied extensively for a number of catalyzed reactions. We have found high activities of PILCs for SCR of NO by NH{sub 3} (26.28). Pillared clays have considerable Bronsted acidity (27, 28), and the protons can be exchanged with metal cations. The Bronsted acidity of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, in particular, remains high after heat treatment at temperatures as high as 400{degrees}C (27-29). In this note, we report first results on the activities of cation-exchanged pillared clays for SCR of NO by both hydrocarbon and NH{sub 3}. 37 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  14. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  15. Urea SCR and DPF System for Diesel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerlambert.pdf More Documents & Publications Urea SCR and DPF System for Tier 2 Diesel...

  16. Urea SCR and DPF System for Diesel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company 2004deerhammerle.pdf More Documents & Publications Urea SCR and DPF System for Deisel Sport...

  17. Final Report of a CRADA Between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the General Motors Company (CRADA No. PNNL/271): “Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Kim, Chang H.; Oh, Se H.; Schmieg, Steven J.; Wiebenga, Michelle H.

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel engines can offer substantially higher fuel efficiency, good driving performance characteristics, and reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emission compared to stoichiometric gasoline engines. Despite the increasing public demand for higher fuel economy and reduced dependency on imported oil, however, meeting the stringent emission standards with affordable methods has been a major challenge for the wide application of these fuel-efficient engines in the US market. The selective catalytic reduction of NOx by urea (urea-SCR) is one of the most promising technologies for NOx emission control for diesel engine exhausts. To ensure successful NOx emission control in the urea-SCR technology, both a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a urea-SCR catalyst with high activity and durability are critical for the emission control system. Because the use of this technology for light-duty diesel vehicle applications is new, the relative lack of experience makes it especially challenging to satisfy the durability requirements. Of particular concern is being able to realistically simulate actual field aging of the catalyst systems under laboratory conditions, which is necessary both as a rapid assessment tool for verifying improved performance and certifiability of new catalyst formulations. In addition, it is imperative to develop a good understanding of deactivation mechanisms to help develop improved catalyst materials. In this CRADA program, General Motors Company and PNNL have investigated fresh, laboratory- and vehicle-aged DOC and SCR catalysts. The studies have led to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of catalysts used in the urea-SCR technology, and have improved the correlation between laboratory and vehicle aging for reduced development time and cost. This Final Report briefly highlights many of the technical accomplishments and documents the productivity of the program in terms of peer-reviewed scientific publications (2 total), reports (3 total including this Final Report), and presentations (5 total).

  18. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accelerated durability test method determined the potential impact of biodiesel ash impurities, including engine testing with multiple diesel particulate filter substrate types, as well as diesel oxidation catalyst and selective catalyst reduction catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of a DPF after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in thermal shock resistance. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher hydrocarbon slip and a reduction in NO2 formation. The SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging. The SCR catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF and exposed to B20 exhaust suffered a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. The results of this study suggest that long-term operation with B20 at the current specification limits for alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities will adversely impact the performance of DOC, DPF and SCR systems.

  19. PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Q. LONG; R.T. YANG

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by hydrocarbons was investigated on Pt doped MCM-41 and copper ion and/or cerium ion-exchanged Al-MCM-41 in the presence of excess oxygen. It was found that Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts reported in the literature, such as Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Pt/ZSM-5. For different hydrocarbons, the catalytic activity decreased according to the sequence of C{sub 3}H{sub 6} {approx} C{sub 2}H{sub 4} >> C{sub 3}H{sub 8} > CH{sub 4}. This catalyst was also stable in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. Cu exchanged Al-MCM-41 and cerium promoted Cu-Al-MCM-41 (i.e., Ce-Cu-Al-MCM-41) were also found to be active in this reaction. Higher NO{sub x} conversions to N2 were obtained on the Ce-Cu-Al-MCM-41 as compared with Cu-Al-MCM-41. The activity of Ce-Cu-Al-MCM-41 was approximately the same as that of Cu-ZSM-5; but the former had a wider temperature window. TPR results indicated that only isolated Cu{sup 2+} and Cu{sup +} ions were detected in the Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged Al-MCM-41 samples, which may play an important role in the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. After some cerium ions were introduced into Cu-Al-MCM-41, Cu{sup 2+} in the molecular sieve became more easily reducible by H{sub 2}. This may be related to the increase of catalytic activity of NO{sub x} reduction by ethylene.

  20. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu-SAPO-34 Catalysts for Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction. 1. Aqueous Solution Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    SAPO-34 molecular sieves are synthesized using various structure directing agents (SDAs). Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are prepared via aqueous solution ion exchange. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. During solution ion exchange, different SAPO-34 samples undergo different extent of structural damage via irreversible hydrolysis. Si content within the samples (i.e., Al-O-Si bond density) and framework stress are key factors that affect irreversible hydrolysis. Even using very dilute Cu acetate solutions, it is not possible to generate Cu-SAPO-34 samples with only isolated Cu2+ ions. Small amounts of CuOx species always coexist with isolated Cu2+ ions. Highly active and selective Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts for NH3-SCR are readily generated using this synthesis protocol, even for SAPO-34 samples that degrade substantially during solution ion exchange. High-temperature aging is found to improve the catalytic performance. This is likely due to reduction of intracrystalline mass-transfer limitations via formation of additional porosity in the highly defective SAPO-34 particles formed after ion exchange. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  1. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Annual technical report, September 30, 1993--September 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.P.; Hausladen, M.C.; Yang, R.T.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay catalyst was prepared for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH{sub 3} at above 300{degrees}C. The delaminated pillard clay was characterized by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) chemical analysis, XRD (X-ray diffraction) structure and line broadening analyses, micropore size probing, and Moessbauer analysis. These analyses showed that the catalyst contained fragmented Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clay forming {open_quotes}house-of-cards{close_quotes} structure with dispersed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles approximately 170 {angstrom} in size. The SCR activity of the delaminated pillard clay was higher than the commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5} + WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst, and also higher than the undelaminated pillard clay and supported Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, under conditions with SO{sub 2}. Infrared measurements of adsorbed NH{sub 3} showed strong Bronsted acidity which was caused possibly by interactions between Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and clay.

  2. Effect of Unburned Methyl Esters on the NOx Conversion of Fe-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Ratcliff, M.; Pedersen, D.; McCormick, R.; Cavataio, G.; Ura, J.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engine and flow reactor experiments were conducted to determine the impact of biodiesel relative to ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) on inhibition of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction over an Fe-zeolite catalyst. Fe-zeolite SCR catalysts have the ability to adsorb and store unburned hydrocarbons (HC) at temperatures below 300 C. These stored HCs inhibit or block NO{sub x}-ammonia reaction sites at low temperatures. Although biodiesel is not a hydrocarbon, similar effects are anticipated for unburned biodiesel and its organic combustion products. Flow reactor experiments indicate that in the absence of exposure to HC or B100, NO{sub x} conversion begins at between 100 and 200 C. When exposure to unburned fuel occurs at higher temperatures (250-400 C), the catalyst is able to adsorb a greater mass of biodiesel than of ULSD. Experiments show that when the catalyst is masked with ULSD, NO{sub x} conversion is inhibited until it is heated to 400 C. However, when masked with biodiesel, NO{sub x} conversion is observed to begin at temperatures as low as 200 C. Engine test results also show low-temperature recovery from HC storage. Engine tests indicate that, overall, the SCR system has a faster recovery from HC masking with biodiesel. This is at least partially due to a reduction in exhaust HCs, and thus total HC exposure with biodiesel.

  3. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    programs. deer08copan.pdf More Documents & Publications Strategies for Integrated Emission Control Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5...

  4. Iron oxide and chromia supported on titania-pillared clay for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, L.S.; Yang, R.T. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Ning Chen [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TiO{sub 2}-pillard clay (PILC) with high surface area, large pore volume, and large interlayer spacing was used as the support for mixed Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3}. The Fe/Cr ratio was varied at a fixed total amount of oxide dopant of 10% (wt). The Fe-Cr/TiO{sub 2}-PILC with Fe/Cr=3 showed the highest activity. Compared with commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts, the activity (on a per gram basis) of the doped pillared clay was approximately twice as high under H{sub 2}O- and SO{sub 2}-free conditions and was approximately 40% higher under conditions with H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In addition, its activity for SO{sub 2} oxidation was only 20%-25% of that of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts. TPD of NH{sub 3} on the Fe-Cr/TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalyst showed that both M=O and M-OH (M=Fe or Cr) were necessary for the SCR reaction. In situ IR spectra of NH{sub 3} showed that there was a higher Bronsted acidity than the Lewis acidity on the surface under reaction conditions and that there existed a direct correlation between the SCR activity and the Bronsted acidity among pillared clays with different Fe/Cr ratios. These results, along with the transient response to O{sub 2}, indicated that a similar mechanism to that on the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst was operative. The TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay used as the support also contributed to the high activity of the Fe-Cr catalyst. The TiO{sub 2} pillars combined with the tetrahedral SiO{sub 2} surfaces of the clay apparently gave rise to a high dispersion of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 52 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Characterization of Cu-SSZ-13 NH3 SCR Catalysts: an in situ FTIR...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Cu-SSZ-13 NH3 SCR Catalysts: an in situ FTIR Study. Abstract: The adsorption of CO and NO over Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite catalysts, highly active in the selective...

  6. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO[sub 2]-containing gas streams is highly attractive as it produces a saleable. Product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO[sub 2] with coke) and Claus plants(reaction of SO[sub 2] with H[sub 2]S over catalyst). This project win investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single-stage selective reduction SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified as a superior catalyst for SO[sub 2] reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because of its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650C). Kinetic and parametric studies of SO[sub 2] reduction planned over various CeO[sub 2]-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a simplified process, a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. A first apparent application is treatment of regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought Claus-alternative'' for coal-fired power plant applications.

  7. On the selection of dimension reduction techniques for scientific applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Y J; Kamath, C

    2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Many dimension reduction methods have been proposed to discover the intrinsic, lower dimensional structure of a high-dimensional dataset. However, determining critical features in datasets that consist of a large number of features is still a challenge. In this paper, through a series of carefully designed experiments on real-world datasets, we investigate the performance of different dimension reduction techniques, ranging from feature subset selection to methods that transform the features into a lower dimensional space. We also discuss methods that calculate the intrinsic dimensionality of a dataset in order to understand the reduced dimension. Using several evaluation strategies, we show how these different methods can provide useful insights into the data. These comparisons enable us to provide guidance to a user on the selection of a technique for their dataset.

  8. In-line localized monitoring of catalyst activity in selective catalytic NO.sub.x reduction systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muzio, Lawrence J. (Laguna Niguel, CA); Smith, Randall A. (Huntington Beach, CA)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Localized catalyst activity in an SCR unit for controlling emissions from a boiler, power plant, or any facility that generates NO.sub.x-containing flue gases is monitored by one or more modules that operate on-line without disrupting the normal operation of the facility. Each module is positioned over a designated lateral area of one of the catalyst beds in the SCR unit, and supplies ammonia, urea, or other suitable reductant to the catalyst in the designated area at a rate that produces an excess of the reductant over NO.sub.x on a molar basis through the designated area. Sampling probes upstream and downstream of the designated area draw samples of the gas stream for NO.sub.x analysis, and the catalyst activity is determined from the difference in NO.sub.x levels between the two probes.

  9. SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NOX IN OXYGEN RICH ENVIRONMENTS WITH PLASMA-ASSISTED CATALYSIS: CATALYST DEVELOPMENT AND MECHANISTIC STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peden, C; Barlow, S; Hoard, J; Kwak, J; *Balmer-Millar, M; *Panov, A; Schmieg, S; Szanyi, J; Tonkyn, R

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of NOx (NO and NO2) emissions from so-called ''lean-burn'' vehicle engines remains a challenge. In recent years, there have been a number of reports that show that a plasma device combined with a catalyst can reduce as high as 90% or more of NOx in simulated diesel and other ''lean-burn'' exhaust. In the case of propylene containing simulated diesel exhaust, the beneficial role of a plasma treatment is now thought to be due to oxidation of NO to NO2, and the formation of partially oxidized hydrocarbons that are more active for the catalytic reduction of NO2 than propylene. Thus, the overall system can be most usefully described as hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) enhanced by 'reforming' the exhaust with a non-thermal plasma (NTP) device. For plasma-enhanced catalysis, both zeolite- and alumina-based materials have shown high activity, albeit in somewhat different temperature ranges, when preceded by an NTP reactor. This paper will briefly describe our research efforts aimed at optimizing the catalyst materials for NTP-catalysis devices based, in part, on our continuing studies of the NTP- and catalytic-reaction mechanisms. Various alkali- and alkaline earth-cation-exchanged Y zeolites have been prepared, their material properties characterized, and they have been tested as catalytic materials for NOx reduction in laboratory NTP-catalysis reactors. Interestingly, NO2 formed in the plasma and not subsequently removed over these catalysts, will back-convert to NO, albeit to varying extents depending upon the nature of the cation. Besides this comparative reactivity, we will also discuss selected synthesis strategies for enhancing the performance of these zeolite-based catalyst materials. A particularly important result from our mechanistic studies is the observation that aldehydes, formed during the plasma treatment of simulated diesel exhaust, are the important species for the reduction of NOx to N2. Indeed, acetaldehyde has been found to be especially effective in the thermal reduction of both NO and NO2 over Ba- and Na-Y zeolite catalysts.

  10. Eliminating air heater plugging and corrosion caused by SCR/SNCR systems for NOx control on coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guffre, J. [Paragon Airheater Technologies (United States)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a typical coal-fired power plant the rotary regenerative air heater is responsible for 5-10% of the boiler's total efficiency. The three biggest threats to air heater performance deterioration are corrosion of the heat exchange surfaces, plugging, and air heater leakage through the seals. The article concentrates on the vastly increased level of corrosion and plugging issues associated with installing selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems for controlling nitrogen oxide emissions. Some injected ammonia in the SCR process reacts with SO{sub 2} to form ammonium sulphate and bisulphate (ABS) which is deposited on the air heater element surfaces. This can be overcome by applying coatings, using corrosion-resistant steels, reconfiguring the air heaters to a two layer design, improving air heater blowers, improving technologies for removing ammonia 'slip' before it enters the air heater, and using new catalysts that reduce the oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. 4 figs.

  11. Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements...

  12. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting ace025rappe2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR...

  13. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation ace025rappe2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR...

  14. Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aftertreatment Technologies Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies Work is undertaken to examine the feasibility of integrating SCR and DPF technologies...

  15. Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UreaAmmonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System Through the Use of CFD Analysis UreaAmmonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System...

  16. A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor and Engine Experimental Data A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor and Engine Experimental Data...

  17. Experimental Studies for DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Experimental Studies for DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD...

  18. FTIR and kinetic studies of the mechanism of Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T.

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of FTIR spectroscopic and kinetic studies of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide by ammonia were conducted on Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC) catalyst. It was found that No molecules were absorbed on the fresh Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalyst and then oxidized by O{sub 2} to adsorbed NO{sub 2} and nitrate species. These NO{sub x} adspecies could be reduced by NH{sub 3} at high temperatures. NH{sub 3} molecules could also be adsorbed on the Broensted acid and Lewis acid sites on the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalyst to generate, respectively, NH{sup +}{sub 4} ions and coordinated NH{sub 3} species. These NH{sub 3} adspecies were active in reacting with NO, NO + O{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, but the reaction rates of NH{sub 3} + NO + O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} were much higher than that of NNO + NH{sub 3}. However, under reaction conditions, the surface of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC was mainly covered by NH{sup +}{sub 4} ions and coordinated NH{sub 3}, and no NO{sub x} adspecies were detected. This is in agreement with the zero-order for the SCR reaction with respect to NH{sub 3}. A possible reaction scheme for the SCR reaction on Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC was proposed. NO reduction initially involved the reaction between NO{sub 2} and pairs of NH{sub 3} adspecies to form an active intermediate, which finally reacted with gaseous or weakly adsorbed NO to produce N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

  19. Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

  20. Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline...

  1. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. ace025rappe2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR...

  2. Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

  3. CBC Reduction in InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor with Selectively Implanted Collector Pedestal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    CBC Reduction in InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor with Selectively Implanted Collector-3812 Fax: (805) 893-8714 Email: yingda@ece.ucsb.edu The base-collector junction capacitance (Cbc) is a key with a collector pedestal under the HBT's intrinsic region by using selective ion implantation and MBE regrowth

  4. Influence of fuel sulfur on the selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, D.; Brown, N.J.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/ addition has been studied in a lean-burning oil fired laboratory combustion tunnel with pyridine and thiophene added to the fuel oil. Two distinct, but interrelated effects were observed. The conversion of a fixed amount of fuel nitrogen to NO in the flame increased as the fuel sulfur concentration increased. In the post-combustion gases, there was a shift in the temperature dependence of the reduction process when the sulfur combustion products were present. The extent of the NO reduction was not significantly altered, but the optimum temperature for reduction shifted to higher values as the sulfur concentration increased.

  5. Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  6. Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  7. 3rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and Direct Gas Dosing 3rd Generation SCR System Using Solid Ammonia Storage and Direct Gas Dosing SCR system provides direct...

  8. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    control systems Probe interaction of DPF-SCR couples to better understand the optimization of the coupled units Determine system limitations, define basic requirements for...

  9. Laboratory Product Speciation Studies of the LNT + in situ SCR...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and to use this knowledge to design optimized LNT-SCR systems in terms of catalyst architecture and operating strategies * Approach: U. Kentucky and Ford focusing on mechanistic...

  10. SCR Systems for Heavy Duty Trucks: Progress Towards Meeting Euro...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards in 2005 SCR Systems for Heavy Duty Trucks: Progress Towards Meeting Euro 4 Emission Standards in 2005 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: PUREM 2003deerfrank.pdf...

  11. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by ammonia over Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Fe-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (PILC) catalysts were prepared and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by ammonia. They were also characterized for surface area, pore size distribution, and by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and FT-IR methods. The Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts showed high activities in the reduction of NO{sub x} by NH{sub 3} in the presence of excess oxygen. SO{sub 2} further increased the catalytic activities at above 350 C, whereas H{sub 2}O decreased the activity slightly. The catalysts were about twice as active as commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. Moreover, compared to the commercial catalyst, the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts had higher N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O product selectivities (e.g., 0--1% vs 9% N{sub 2}O at 400 C) and substantially lower activities (by 74--88%) for SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3} under the same reaction conditions. The activity was further increased to over three times that of the vanadia-based catalyst when Ce was added. The high activity and low N{sub 2}O selectivity for the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were attributed to their low activity in the oxidation of ammonia, as compared with vanadia catalysts. XRD patterns of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC were similar to those of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, showing no peaks due to iron oxide, even when the iron content reached 20.1%. The TPR results indicated that iron in the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts with lower iron contents existed in the form of isolated Fe{sup 3+} ions. The activities of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were consistent with their surface acidities, which were identified by FT-IR of the NH{sub 3}-adsorbed samples. The enhancement of activities by H{sub 2}O + SO{sub 2} was attributed to the increase of surface acidity resulting from the formation of surface sulfate species of iron.

  12. Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Performance Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Performance Investigates operating...

  13. Evaluation of 2010 Urea-SCR Technology for Hybrid Vehicles using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 Urea-SCR Technology for Hybrid Vehicles using PSAT System Simulations Evaluation of 2010 Urea-SCR Technology for Hybrid Vehicles using PSAT System Simulations Results of...

  14. NuSCR Quick Checker Reformation of Quick Checker for verifying NuSCR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FOD, FSM, TTS, SDT . 1 KNICS RPS(Reactor Protection System) BP (Bistable Process) g_VAR_OVER_PWR . . , . , . , . . 1 g_VAR_OVER_PWR FOD FSM history variable node . FSM . NuSCR . FSM . . . Timed history variable node TTS . TTS FSM . . 2 Waiting Trip k_VAR_OVER_PWR

  15. Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust Fluid, and Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies on the AFDC (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation covers new content available on the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center regarding diesel vehicles, diesel exhaust fluid, and selective catalytic reduction technologies.

  16. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts continued towards the synthesis of new pillared clay catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by ammonia. The possibility of utilizing hydrocarbons was also investigated.

  17. Sinia Renovables SCR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey JumpAirPowerSilcio SASindicatumManagement, 2009)SCR

  18. Influence of fuel sulfur on the selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, D.; Brown, N.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More intensive regulations of the emissions of nitrogen oxides from stationary combustion sources have prompted the innovation and characterization of new control technologies suitable for applications in utilities. One of the more recent and attractive abatement technologies is the Thermal DeNO/sub x/ process which has been described by Lyon and Longwell. This process removes NO by selectively reducing it with NH/sub 3/ added to the post-combustion gases containing excess oxygen. This process is thus independent of the NO formation mechanism and makes no distinction between thermal and fuel NO. The present study is concerned with characterizing the selective reduction process for light distillate oil fuel admixed with variable amounts of pyridene and thiophene in a laboratory scale combustion tunnel under a variety of experimental conditions. This paper reports on those aspects of the study concerned with the investigation of possible synergistic effects between the sulfur and selective reduction chemistry.

  19. Method and system for SCR optimization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lefebvre, Wesley Curt (Boston, MA); Kohn, Daniel W. (Cambridge, MA)

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are provided for controlling SCR performance in a boiler. The boiler includes one or more generally cross sectional areas. Each cross sectional area can be characterized by one or more profiles of one or more conditions affecting SCR performance and be associated with one or more adjustable desired profiles of the one or more conditions during the operation of the boiler. The performance of the boiler can be characterized by boiler performance parameters. A system in accordance with one or more embodiments of the invention can include a controller input for receiving a performance goal for the boiler corresponding to at least one of the boiler performance parameters and for receiving data values corresponding to boiler control variables and to the boiler performance parameters. The boiler control variables include one or more current profiles of the one or more conditions. The system also includes a system model that relates one or more profiles of the one or more conditions in the boiler to the boiler performance parameters. The system also includes an indirect controller that determines one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions to satisfy the performance goal for the boiler. The indirect controller uses the system model, the received data values and the received performance goal to determine the one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions. The system model also includes a controller output that outputs the one or more desired profiles of the one or more conditions.

  20. The selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia in the presence of oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruber, Karen Ann

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials. Aluminum pillared titanium phosphate and hydrous sodium titanium oxide were the support structures of interest. The efFect of phosphate, aluminum and sodium on catalytic activity was studied. The reaction conditions were a feed composition... titanium oxide support was found to be the most effective catalyst of this study which led to the conclusion that phosphate, aluminum and sodium decrease the activity of vanadia catalysts for the SCR of NO with NHs in the presence of oxygen. ACKi...

  1. Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    length 7.00 in V 2.9 L *DOC * 400 cpsi 5.66 in, length 3.80 in V 1.6 L SCR SCR Turbo DOC Injector SCR SCR Turbo DOC Injector Engine test conditions: * Engine speed: 1300 -...

  2. Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    emerging 2 NSRSCR Technology Goal: Reduce PGM & minimize fuel penalty in meeting NOx emission targets (adapted from Gandhi et al., US Patent, 2007) 3 Fundamental Issues for Dual...

  3. SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofittingFundAofSCE&G-4-EStandards in 2005

  4. Ammonia Sensor for SCR NOX Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM -AliciaBioenergy5.doc&#0; AmmendmentMotorSensor

  5. Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012Energy ReliabilityNewsEnergy Vehicle

  6. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Wallace J. (Boston Lake, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power controller device which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the "reset" input of a R-S flip flop, while an "0" crossing detector controls the "set" input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the "reset" and "set" inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations.

  7. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, W.J.

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A power controller device is disclosed which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the ``reset`` input of a R-S flip flop, while an ``0`` crossing detector controls the ``set`` input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the ``reset`` and ``set`` inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations. 9 figs.

  8. Adaptive PI control of NOx? emissions in a Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System using system identification models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, Chun Yang

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Urea SCR System has shown great potential for implementation on diesel vehicles wanting to meet the upcoming emission regulations by the EPA. The objective of this thesis is to develop an adaptive controller that is ...

  9. Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements James McCarthy, Jr. Eaton Corporation 2009 DOE DEER Conference Dearborn, MI August 5, 2009 2 2 2009 DOE DEER...

  10. Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    P-20 UreaAmmonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System Through the Use of CFD Analysis Gi-Heon Kim, Matthew Thornton National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  11. Experimental Studies for DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels John H. Johnson, P.I. Gordon G. Parker, Co-P.I. & Presenter Jeffrey D. Naber,...

  12. Experimental Studies for DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels John H. Johnson, P.I. Gordon G. Parker, Co-P.I. & Presenter Michigan...

  13. Experimental Studies for DPF and SCR Model, Control System, and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels John H. Johnson, P.I. Gordon G. Parker, Co-P.I. & Presenter Michigan...

  14. In-field results of SNCR/SCR hybrid on a group 1 boiler in the ozone transport region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J.M.; Urbas, J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric utilities within the Ozone Transport Region must prepare for seasonal and potentially piecemeal NO{sub x} reductions to meet Title 1 requirements. In order to achieve additional NO{sub x} reductions beyond the existing SNCR System in a manner, which allows maximum flexibility at minimum cost. GPU GENCO, in cooperation with the DOE, EPRI, PETC, and PERC, has chosen to field demonstrate a SNCR/SCR hybrid system. Commercially known as NO{sub x}OUT CASCADE, the system employs a urea based SNCR system to produce a managed level of ammonia slip, which in turn charges an in duct SCR element. The system is presently scheduled for initial operation in October 1997. This paper discusses the decision path associated with the project, including design and operating criteria, performance expectations, retrofit considerations, testing protocol, and current results.

  15. Experimental Studies for CPF and SCR Model, Control System, and OBD Development for Engines Using Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John; Naber, Jeffrey; Parker, Gordon; Yang, Song-Lin; Stevens, Andrews; Pihl, Josh

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The research carried out on this project developed experimentally validated Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) high?fidelity models that served as the basis for the reduced order models used for internal state estimation. The high?fidelity and reduced order/estimator codes were evaluated by the industrial partners with feedback to MTU that improved the codes. Ammonia, particulate matter (PM) mass retained, PM concentration, and NOX sensors were evaluated and used in conjunction with the estimator codes. The data collected from PM experiments were used to develop the PM kinetics using the high?fidelity DPF code for both NO2 assisted oxidation and thermal oxidation for Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (ULSF), and B10 and B20 biodiesel fuels. Nine SAE papers were presented and this technology transfer process should provide the basis for industry to improve the OBD and control of urea injection and fuel injection for active regeneration of the PM in the DPF using the computational techniques developed. This knowledge will provide industry the ability to reduce the emissions and fuel consumption from vehicles in the field. Four MS and three PhD Mechanical Engineering students were supported on this project and their thesis research provided them with expertise in experimental, modeling, and controls in aftertreatment systems.

  16. Selective reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia over vanadia on pillared titanium phosphate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Lawrence Joseph

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the catalyst. Shikada et al. (1981) compared AlzOz, SiOz, and SiO, ? TiOz (equimolar) supports for VzOs using a simulated flue gas containing 100 ppni SOz. The silica- titanium dioxide supported catalyst showed the highest NO conversions followed by those...SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE YVITH AMMONIA OVER VANADIA ON PILLARED TITANIUM PHOSPHATE A Thesis LAWRENCE JOSEPH CZARNECKI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

  17. Characterization of the selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, D.; Brown, N.J.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selective reduction of NO by NH/sub 3/ addition has been studied in a lean-burning oil-fired laboratory combustion tunnel as a function of equivalence ratio, NH/sub 3/ injection temperature, concentration of NH/sub 3/ added, and the source of NO. Ammonia breakthrough was found to depend strongly on the NH/sub 3/ addition temperature. The total concentration of nitrogen containing species other N/sub 2/, NO, and NH/sub 3/ was measured with a variety of techniques and was found to be less than 5 ppM over the range of conditions studied.

  18. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are synthesized using two methods: solid-state ion exchange (SSIE) and one-pot synthesis. SSIE is conducted by calcining SAPO-34/CuO mixtures at elevated temperatures. For the one-pot synthesis method, Cu-containing chemicals (CuO and CuSO4) are added during gel preparation. A high-temperature calcination step is also needed for this method. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. In Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE, Cu presents both as isolated Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuO. The former is highly active and selective in NH3-SCR, while the latter catalyzes a side reaction; notably, the non-selective oxidation of NH3 above 350 şC. Using the one-pot method followed by a high-temperature aging treatment, it is possible to form Cu SAPO-34 samples with predominately isolated Cu2+ ions at low Cu loadings. However at much higher Cu loadings, isolated Cu2+ ions that bind weakly with the CHA framework and CuO clusters also form. These Cu moieties are very active in catalyzing non-selective NH3 oxidation above 350 şC. Low-temperature reaction kinetics indicate that Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE have core-shell structures where Cu is enriched in the shell layers; while Cu is more evenly distributed within the one-pot samples. Reaction kinetics also suggest that at low temperatures, the local environment next to Cu2+ ion centers plays little role on the overall catalytic properties. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830. The authors also thank Shari Li (PNNL) for surface area/pore volume measurements, and Bruce W. Arey (PNNL) for SEM measurements. Discussions with Drs. A. Yezerets, K. Kamasamudram, J.H. Li, N. Currier and J.Y. Luo from Cummins, Inc. and H.Y. Chen and H. Hess from Johnson-Matthey are greatly appreciated.

  19. Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead of ContractingofReducing WasteReduction

  20. Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Presentation...

  1. ADEC II Universal SCR Retrofit System for On-road and Off-road...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ADEC II Universal SCR Retrofit System for On-road and Off-road Diesel Engines ADEC II Universal SCR Retrofit System for On-road and Off-road Diesel Engines Presentation given at...

  2. Evaluation of SCR and DOC/CPF Tech in Diesel Exhaust Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SCR and DOCCPF Tech in Diesel Exhaust Emission Control to Meet U.S. Tier 2 Bin 5 Evaluation of SCR and DOCCPF Tech in Diesel Exhaust Emission Control to Meet U.S. Tier 2 Bin 5...

  3. Low Emissions Potential of EGR-SCR-DPF and Advanced Fuel Formulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Potential of EGR-SCR-DPF and Advanced Fuel Formulation - A Progress Report Low Emissions Potential of EGR-SCR-DPF and Advanced Fuel Formulation - A Progress Report 2003...

  4. Keynote address: cellular reduction of nitroimidazole drugs: potential for selective chemotherapy and diagnosis of hypoxic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, J.D.; Lee, J.; Meeker, B.E.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitroimidazole drugs were initially developed as selective radiosensitizers of hypoxic cells and, consequently, as adjuvants to improve the local control probabilities of current radiotherapies. Misonidazole (MISO), the prototype radiosensitizing drug, was found in Phase I clinical studies to cause dose-limiting neurotoxicities (mainly peripheral neuropathies). MISO was also found to be cytotoxic in the absence of radiation and to covalently bind to cellular molecules, both processes demonstrating rates much higher in hypoxic compared with oxygenated cells. It is likely that neurotoxicity, cellular cytotoxicity and adduct formation results from reactions between reduction intermediates of MISO and cellular target molecules. Spin-offs from radiosensitizer research include the synthesis and characterization of more potent hypoxic cytotoxins and the exploitation of sensitizer-adducts as probes for measuring cellular and tissue oxygen levels. Current developments in hypoxic cell cytotoxin and hypoxic cell marker research are reviewed with specific examples from studies which characterize the cellular reduction of TF-MISO, (1-(2-nitro-1-imidazolyl)-3(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-2-propanol). 45 references.

  5. Earthquake risk reduction in the United States: An assessment of selected user needs and recommendations for the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Assessment was conducted to improve the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) by providing NEHRP agencies with information that supports their user-oriented setting of crosscutting priorities in the NEHRP strategic planning process. The primary objective of this Assessment was to take a ``snapshot`` evaluation of the needs of selected users throughout the major program elements of NEHRP. Secondary objectives were to conduct an assessment of the knowledge that exists (or is being developed by NEHRP) to support earthquake risk reduction, and to begin a process of evaluating how NEHRP is meeting user needs. An identification of NEHRP`s strengths also resulted from the effort, since those strengths demonstrate successful methods that may be useful to NEHRP in the future. These strengths are identified in the text, and many of them represent important achievements since the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act was passed in 1977.

  6. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides; Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.P.; Cheng, L.S.; Kikkinides, E.S.; Yang, R.T.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Work was done in three tasks during the first quarter. In Task 1, a new SCR reactor system has been built, complete with on-line GC and MS analyses. The GC is used to monitor the N{sub 2} product so the NO{sub x} > N{sub 2} conversion can be calculated. The MS is used to analyze the N{sub 2}0 concentration. In addition, a wet analytical technique has been established for SO{sub 3} analysis. The new SCR system and the SO{sub 3} analytical technique have been subjected to shakedown tests with success. Along with the existing SCR reactor system, there are now two systems that are being run independently. In Task 2, a procedure for the synthesis of stable Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} Pillared clay has been established. Inductive coupled plasma spectrometric analysis (ICP) has been used to analyze the chemical composition of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} Pillared clay. Preliminary results for the SCR activities of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillared clay are obtained in Task 3. The results show that the activities are near that of the commercial V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalysts. However, the SO{sub 2}-to-SO{sub 3} conversion is substantially lower with the pillared clay catalyst, which could be an important advantage.

  7. The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Model Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Cu-SSZ-13 (SiAl 2 12), Cu-ZSM-5 (SiAl 2 30) Cu-beta (SiAl 2 38), Cu-Y(SiAl 2 5.2) * Hydrothermal Aging 10% H 2 O in air, 800 o C,...

  8. Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this quarter, progress was made on the following tasks: TPD techniques were employed to study the reaction mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia over iron oxide pillared clay catalyst; and a sulfur dioxide resistant iron oxide/titanium oxide catalyst was developed.

  9. An experimental investigation of the urea-water decomposition and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxides with urea using V2O5-WO3-TiO2 catalyst. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johar, Jasmeet Singh

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two flow reactor studies, using an electrically heated laminar flow reactor over Vanadia based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) honeycomb catalyst, were performed at 1 atm pressure and various temperatures. The experiments were conducted ...

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 3, Appendices O--T. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 3 contains the following appendices: Appendix O, Second Series-Manual APH Tests; Appendix P, Third Series-Manual APH Tests; Appendix Q, ABB Analysis of Air Preheaters-Final Report; Appendix R, ABB Corrosion Analysis Study; Appendix S, SRI Waste Stream Impacts Study; and Appendix T, Economic Evaluation.

  11. An experimental investigation of the urea-water decomposition and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxides with urea using V2O5-WO3-TiO2 catalyst.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johar, Jasmeet Singh

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) stream. The decomposition experiments were conducted with a number of oxygen (O2) compositions (0, 1, 10, and 15%) over the temperature range of 227oC to 477oC. The study showed ammonia (NH3), carbon-dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) as the major...

  12. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher HC slip and a reduction in NO{sub 2} formation. The metal-zeolite SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000 mile equivalent aging. This catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF, showed a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle.

  13. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur recovery from SO{sub 2}-containing gas streams is highly attractive as it produces a saleable. Product and no waste to dispose of. However, commercially available schemes are complex and involve multi-stage reactors, such as, most notably in the Resox (reduction of SO{sub 2} with coke) and Claus plants(reaction of SO{sub 2} with H{sub 2}S over catalyst). This project win investigate a cerium oxide catalyst for the single-stage selective reduction SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as carbon monoxide. Cerium oxide has been identified as a superior catalyst for SO{sub 2} reduction by CO to elemental sulfur because of its high activity and high selectivity to sulfur over COS over a wide temperature range(400--650C). Kinetic and parametric studies of SO{sub 2} reduction planned over various CeO{sub 2}-formulations will provide the necessary basis for development of a simplified process, a single-stage elemental sulfur recovery scheme from variable concentration gas streams. A first apparent application is treatment of regenerator off-gases in power plants using regenerative flue gas desulfurization. Such a simple catalytic converter may offer the long-sought ``Claus-alternative`` for coal-fired power plant applications.

  14. Pillared clays as superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Second semiannual report, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, R.T.; Li, W.B.; Sirilumpen, M.; Tharapiwattananon, N.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the first six months of the program, the work has progressed as planned. We have constructed a reactor system and assembled all laboratory essentials for conducting the three-year project. First, the catalytic activities of the Cu(2+) ion exchanged alumina-pillared clay for the selective catalytic reduction of NO by ethylene were measured. The temperature range was 250-500{degrees}C. The activities of this catalyst were substantially higher than the catalyst that has been extensively studied in the literature, Cu-ZSM-5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the acidity of the catalyst. The second part of the work was an in-depth FTIR study of the NO decomposition mechanism on the catalyst. This was planned as the first and the key step to obtain an understanding of the reaction mechanism. Key surface intermediates were identified from the FTIR spectra, and a redox type Eley-Rideal mechanism was proposed for the NO decomposition on this catalyst. This report will be divided into two parts. In Part One, we report results on the catalytic activities of the Cu-alumina-pillared clay and a direct comparison with other known catalysts. In Part two, we focus on the FTIR study and from the results, we propose a NO decomposition mechanism on this new catalyst. Plans for the next six months include tests of different pillared clays as well as the catalytic mechanism. The micro reactor will continue to be the key equipment for measuring the catalytic activities. FTIR will continue to be the major technique for identifying surface species and hence understanding the reaction mechanism.

  15. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  16. SCR Potential and Issues for Heavy-Duty Applications in the United...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Detroit Diesel Corporation SCR Potential and Issues for Heavy Duty Applications in the USA Rakesh Aneja, Kuno Flathmann, Craig Savonen, Tim Tindall 02 September 2004 10 th Annual...

  17. Urea SCR and DPF System for Diesel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting Tier II Bin 5 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company 2003deerhammerle.pdf More Documents & Publications Urea SCR and DPF System...

  18. Urea SCR and DPF System for Deisel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting Tier II Bin 5 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company 2002deerhammerle.pdf More Documents & Publications Urea SCR and DPF System...

  19. Economic Comparison of LNT Versus Urea SCR for Light-Duty Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emission Control Technology Review Laboratory and Vehicle Demonstration of a "2nd-Generation" LNT+in-situ SCR Diesel NOx Emission Control Concept Development of Optimal...

  20. Coverage Dependent Charge Reduction of Cationic Gold Clusters on Surfaces Prepared Using Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Priest, Thomas A.; Laskin, Julia

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ionic charge state of monodisperse cationic gold clusters on surfaces may be controlled by selecting the coverage of mass-selected ions soft landed onto a substrate. Polydisperse diphosphine-capped gold clusters were synthesized in solution by reduction of chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I) with borane tert-butylamine in the presence of 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane. The polydisperse gold clusters were introduced into the gas phase by electrospray ionization and mass selection was employed to select a multiply charged cationic cluster species (Au11L53+, m/z = 1409, L = 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) which was delivered to the surfaces of four different self-assembled monolayers on gold (SAMs) at coverages of 1011 and 1012 clusters/mm2. Employing the spatial profiling capabilities of in-situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) it is shown that, in addition to the chemical functionality of the monolayer (as demonstrated previously: ACS Nano, 2012, 6, 573) the coverage of cationic gold clusters on the surface may be used to control the distribution of ionic charge states of the soft-landed multiply charged clusters. In the case of a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol SAM (FSAM) almost complete retention of charge by the deposited Au11L53+ clusters was observed at a lower coverage of 1011 clusters/mm2. In contrast, at a higher coverage of 1012 clusters/mm2, pronounced reduction of charge to Au11L52+ and Au11L5+ was observed on the FSAM. When soft landed onto 16- and 11-mercaptohexadecanoic acid surfaces on gold (16,11-COOH-SAMs), the mass-selected Au11L53+ clusters exhibited partial reduction of charge to Au11L52+ at lower coverage and additional reduction of charge to both Au11L52+ and Au11L5+ at higher coverage. The reduction of charge was found to be more pronounced on the surface of the shorter (thinner) C11 than the longer (thicker) C16-COOH-SAM. On the surface of the 1-dodecanethiol (HSAM) monolayer, the most abundant charge state was found to be Au11L52+ at lower coverage and Au11L5+ at higher coverage, respectively. A coverage-dependent electron tunneling mechanism is proposed to account for the observed reduction of charge of mass-selected multiply charged gold clusters soft landed on SAMs. The results demonstrate that one of the critical parameters that influence the chemical and physical properties of supported metal clusters, ionic charge state, may be controlled by selecting the coverage of charged species soft landed onto surfaces.

  1. Components for Optimized SCR Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the WhiteNational|ofSeptember 3, 2013 Leotek:for Optimized SCR

  2. Two in One: SCR on Filter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenterMarch 4; RSVP byof EnergyofProjectin One: SCR

  3. Solid SCR Demonstration Truck Application | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2Cycleof EnergyEnergySCR

  4. TECHNICAL REPORT SCR-01-TR-703 c Siemens Corporate Research 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    TECHNICAL REPORT SCR-01-TR-703 c Siemens Corporate Research 2001 A Spectral Power Factorization Radu Balan and Justinian Rosca radu.balan,justinian.rosca@scr.siemens.com Siemens Corporate Research) #12;c Siemens Corporate Research 2001 2 and therefore the sum has the spectral power: Rx(z) = G2 1 P1

  5. Urea SCR and DPF System for Deisel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (C) 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 Space Velocity (hr -1 ) Turbo Out DOC in SCR in SCR out Space Velocity DEER Conference - August 25, 2002 11 Vehicle...

  6. Project process mapping : evaluation, selection, implementation, and assessment of energy cost reduction opportunities in Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Steven J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company X uses large amounts of electricity in its manufacturing operations. Electricity prices at selected plants in the company's Region 1 territory rose by over 350% between 2000 and 2011, in part due to increasing ...

  7. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  8. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  9. CO2 Reduction on Supported Ru/Al2O3 Catalysts: Cluster Size Dependence of Product Selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Kovarik, Libor; Szanyi, Janos

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic performance of a series of Ru/Al2O3 catalysts with Ru content in the 0.1-5% range was examined in the reduction of CO2 with H2. At low Ru loadings (?0.5 %) where the active metal phase is highly dispersed (mostly atomically) on the alumina support CO is formed with high selectivity. With increasing metal loading the selectivity toward CH4 formation increases, while that for CO production decreases. In the 0.1% Ru/Al2O3 catalyst Ru is mostly present in atomic dispersion as STEM images obtained from the fresh sample prior to catalytic testing reveal. STEM images recorded form this same sample following temperature programmed reaction test clearly show the agglomeration of small metal particles (and atoms) into 3D clusters. The clustering of the highly dispersed metal phase is responsible for the observed dramatic selectivity change during elevated temperature tests: dramatic decrease in CO, and large increase in CH4 selectivity. Apparent activation energies, estimated from the slopes of Arrhenius plots, of 82 kJ/mol and 62 kJ/mol for CO and CH4 formation were determined, respectively, regardless of Ru loading. These results suggest that the formation of CO and CH4 follow different reaction pathways, or proceed on active centers of different nature. Reactions with CO2/H2 and CO/H2 mixtures (under otherwise identical reaction conditions) reveal that the onset temperature of CO2 reduction is about 150 şC lower than of CO reduction. We thank Dr. Feng Gao for carrying out the H2 chemisorption measurements on all the Ru/Al2O3 catalysts discussed in this work. The catalyst preparation and catalytic measurements were supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project, while the TEM work was supported by the Chemical Imaging Initiative at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US Department of Energy by Battelle under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830. JHK also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2013 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea).

  10. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  11. Fe/SSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics andFTIR...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIRMssbauer Spectroscopic Study."Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental 164:407-419. doi:10.1016j.apcatb.2014.09.031 Authors:...

  12. SO2-induced stability of Ag-alumina catalysts in the SCR of NO...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peden.2009."SO2-induced stability of Ag-alumina catalysts in the SCR of NO with methane."Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental 88(1-2):98-105. Authors: X She M Flytzani-Stephanopoul...

  13. Urea SCR and DPF System for Diesel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sept 2, 2004 Urea SCR and DPF System for Diesel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting Tier 2 Bin 5 DOE and Ford Motor Company Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development Program...

  14. Urea SCR and DPF System for Diesel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    August 25, 2005 Urea SCR and DPF System for Diesel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting Tier 2 Bin 5 DOE and Ford Motor Company Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development Program...

  15. Urea SCR and DPF System for Tier 2 Diesel Light-Duty Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SCR Deflectormixer, long inlet cone Larger DOC, upstream injection with spray target Turbo & EGR modifications, post injection 2.01 Reduced tailpipe NOx PM: 2-5 mgmi Increased...

  16. Urea SCR and DPF System for Diesel Sport Utility Vehicle Meeting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Meeting Tier II Bin 5 Vehicle Results 8 DEER Conference - August 2003 aqueous urea DOC Turbo NOx sensor Spray Deflector Flow mixing plate SCR Catalyst DOC LDT Exhaust System 9...

  17. LNT or Urea SCR Technology: Which is the right technology for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications The BMW Approach to Tier2 Bin5 Laboratory and Vehicle Demonstration of a "2nd-Generation" LNT+in-situ SCR Diesel NOx Emission Control Concept...

  18. bectno-selcat | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Company Services, Pensacola, FL PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Reports Innovative Clean Coal Technologies (ICCT) Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology...

  19. Stripping ethanol from ethanol-blended fuels for use in NO.sub.x SCR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kass, Michael Delos (Oak Ridge, TN); Graves, Ronald Lee (Knoxville, TN); Storey, John Morse Elliot (Oak Ridge, TN); Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur (Andersonville, TN); Sluder, Charles Scott (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, John Foster (Powell, TN)

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to use diesel fuel alchohol micro emulsions (E-diesel) to provide a source of reductant to lower NO.sub.x emissions using selective catalytic reduction. Ethanol is stripped from the micro emulsion and entered into the exhaust gasses upstream of the reducing catalyst. The method allows diesel (and other lean-burn) engines to meet new, lower emission standards without having to carry separate fuel and reductant tanks.

  20. Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 184 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Central Region of the United States. This is the second of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Central Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  2. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report: I11IG002 InvestigationFuel830, at thePowerDPF |

  3. Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PMDepartment ofs o u t h e a s t e

  4. Deactivation Mechanism of Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton: ENERGY STAR ReferralServices »

  5. Development of HC-SCR System Using Diesel Fuel as a Reductant | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I ETechnologyEnergyHomogeneousof

  6. Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries withAbstractSystem |DepartmentDiesel

  7. Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisoryStandard |inHVACEnforcementEngaging Students in2 DOEEngineWaste

  8. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic| DepartmentDepartmentThe DoDSmallManagementTechnology

  9. Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

  10. SC(R) 3 : Towards Usability of Formal Methods Marsha Chechik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chechik, Marsha

    to a broad range of critical systems, including control systems for nuclear power plants [69], avionics against adopting formal methods in practice, especially outside the domain of safety­ critical systems systems [76, 28, 64, 61], space systems [24, 25], and military systems [42]. The SCR notation

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of CuSAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis."Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental 162:501-514. doi:10.1016j.apcatb.2014.07.029 Authors:...

  12. NuEditor -A Tool Suite for Specification and Verification of NuSCR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    requirements for embed- ded safety-critical systems such as a shutdown system for nuclear power plant. SCR. In nuclear power plant control systems, software safety became a critical issue as traditional RLL (Relay Lad, and Sungdeok Cha Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Korea Advanced Institute of Science

  13. The Different Impacts of SO2 and SO3 on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine; Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Cho, Sung June; Peden, Charles HF

    2010-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The different impacts of SO2 and SO3 on Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts were investigated by SCR performance tests and multiple characterization techniques including temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results indicate that a larger amount of highly dispersed CuSO4 formed in the zeolite catalysts (Z-CuSO4) upon SO3 poisoning, explaining the much more significant deactivation of the Cu/zeolite catalysts that were exposed to SO3 compared to poisoning by SO2. This paper provides the first demonstration that active sites of Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts involved in the storage and removal of sulfur can react with SO2 and SO3 in very different ways. In particular, the significant differences in the extent of sulfur uptake account for the considerably different impacts of SO2 and SO3 poisoning on the performance of Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts.

  14. The Different Impacts of SO2 and SO3 on Cu/zeolite SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Y.; Lambert, C; Kim, D; Kwak, J; Cho, S; Peden, C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The different impacts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} on Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts were investigated by SCR performance tests and multiple characterization techniques including temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results indicate that a larger amount of highly dispersed CuSO{sub 4} formed in the zeolite catalysts (Z-CuSO{sub 4}) upon SO{sub 3} poisoning, explaining the much more significant deactivation of the Cu/zeolite catalysts that were exposed to SO{sub 3} compared to poisoning by SO{sub 2}. This paper provides the first demonstration that active sites of Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts involved in the storage and removal of sulfur can react with SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} in very different ways. In particular, the significant differences in the extent of sulfur uptake account for the considerably different impacts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} poisoning on the performance of Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts.

  15. Final Report of a CRADA Between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Ford Motor Company (CRADA No. PNNL/265): “Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Tran, Diana N.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Cheng, Yisun; Lupescu, Jason; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Lambert, Christine; McCabe, Robert W.

    2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing NOx emissions and particulate matter (PM) are primary concerns for diesel vehicles required to meet current LEV II and future LEV III emission standards which require 90+% NOx conversion. Currently, urea SCR as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) are being used for emission control system components by Ford Motor Company for 2010 and beyond diesel vehicles. Because the use of this technology for vehicle applications is new, the relative lack of experience makes it especially challenging to satisfy durability requirements. Of particular concern is being able to realistically simulate actual field aging of the catalyst systems under laboratory conditions. This is necessary both as a rapid assessment tool for verifying improved performance and certifiability of new catalyst formulations, and to develop a good understanding of deactivation mechanisms that can be used to develop improved catalyst materials. In addition to NOx and PM, the hydrocarbon (HC) emission standards are expected to become much more stringent during the next few years. Meanwhile, the engine-out HC emissions are expected to increase and/or be more difficult to remove. Since HC can be removed only when the catalyst becomes warm enough for its oxidation, three-way catalyst (TWC) and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) formulations often contain proprietary zeolite materials to hold the HC produced during the cold start period until the catalyst reaches its operating temperature (e.g., >200°C). Unfortunately, much of trapped HC tends to be released before the catalyst reaches the operating temperature. Among materials effective for trapping HC during the catalyst warm-up period, siliceous zeolites are commonly used because of their high surface area and high stability under typical operating conditions. However, there has been little research on the physical properties of these materials related to the adsorption and release of various hydrocarbon species found in the engine exhaust. For these reasons, automakers and engine manufacturers have difficulty improving their catalytic converters for meeting the stringent HC emission standards. In this collaborative program, scientists and engineers in the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Ford Motor Company have investigated laboratory- and engine-aged SCR catalysts, containing mainly base metal zeolites. These studies are leading to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of SCR catalysts and improve the correlation between laboratory and engine aging, saving experimental time and cost. We have also studied materials effective for the temporary storage of HC species during the cold-start period. In particular, we have examined the adsorption and desorption of various HC species produced during the combustion with different fuels (e.g., gasoline, E85, diesel) over potential HC adsorber materials, and measured the kinetic parameters to update Ford’s HC adsorption model. Since this CRADA has now been completed, in this final report we will provide brief summaries of most of the work carried out on this CRADA over the last several years.

  16. Comparison of Wavelet and FFT Based Single Channel Speech Signal Noise Reduction Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    .Balan, Justinian.Rosca}@scr.siemens.com ABSTRACT This paper compares wavelet and short time Fourier transform based Ningping Fan, Radu Balan, Justinian Rosca Siemens Corporate Research Inc. {Ningping.Fan, Radu techniques for single channel speech signal noise reduction based on different transformation techniques

  17. Reduction of DNA contamination in RNA samples for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using selective precipitation by compaction agents.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, George

    Reduction of DNA contamination in RNA samples for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is DNA contamination, which can produce artifactually increased mRNA concentration. Current methods to eliminate contaminating DNA can compromise

  18. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

  19. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Lee, Jong H.; Tran, Diana N.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Cheng, Yisun; Lupescu, Jason; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Lambert, Christine; McCabe, Robert W.

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this collaborative program, scientists and engineers in the Institute for Integrated Catalysis at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and at Ford Motor Company have investigated laboratory- and engine-aged SCR catalysts, containing mainly base metal zeolites. These studies are leading to a better understanding of various aging factors that impact the long-term performance of SCR catalysts and improve the correlation between laboratory and engine aging, saving experimental time and cost. We have also studied materials effective for the temporary storage of HC species during the cold-start period. In particular, we have examined the adsorption and desorption of various HC species produced during the combustion with different fuels (e.g., gasoline, E85, diesel) over potential HC adsorber materials, and measured the kinetic parameters to update Ford’s HC adsorption model. Since this CRADA has now been completed, in this annual report we will provide very brief summaries of most of the work carried out on this CRADA over the last several years.

  20. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  1. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PHYSICA SCRIPTA Phys. Scr. 74 (2006) 6270 doi:10.1088/0031-8949/74/1/009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    .iop.org/PhysScr/74/62 Abstract The master equation approach, which has traditionally been used for the calculation a stationary external source. The first two factorial moments are calculated, including the covariance to as `zero power reactor noise', are due to the inherent statistical properties of the individual neutron

  2. Catalyst Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance * NO x Nitrogen and Oxygen containing compounds * ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory * SCR selective catalytic reduction * STEM Scanning...

  3. 5 Hz Catalytic Emissions FT-IR Monitoring during Lean-Rich Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst...

  4. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 7, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2014 375 Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction via the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benedetto, John J.

    , FEBRUARY 2014 375 Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction via the ENH-LTSA Method for Hyperspectral Image) and the high complexity of Local Tangent Space Alignment (LTSA) still exist in the nonlinear dimensionality reduction with LTSA for classification. Therefore, this paper pro- poses an innovative ENH-LTSA (Enhanced

  6. On-Road and In-Laboratory Testing to Demonstrate Effects of ULSD, B20 and B99 on a Retrofit Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.; Na, K.; Robertson, W.; Sahay, K.; Bogdanoff, M.; Weaver, C.; Carlson, R.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions changes for a 2005 International tractor operating on low-sulfur diesel and biodiesel in Santa Monica were measured to demonstrate performance and impacts of selective catalytic reduction.

  7. Mechanistic Investigation of Ethanol SCR of NOx over Ag/Al2O3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, William L [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan; Toops, Todd J [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2 wt.% Ag/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied for the ethanol selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} from 200 to 550 C and space velocities between 30,000 h{sup -1} and 140,000 h{sup -1}. Peak NO{sub x} conversions reached 85% at 400 C, and an activation energy was determined to be 57 kJ/mol with a feed of ethanol to NO{sub x} or HC{sub 1}/NO{sub x} = 3. Up to 80% of the NO is oxidized to NO{sub 2} at 250 C, but overall NO{sub x} conversion is only 15%. Interestingly, ethanol oxidation occurs at much lower temperatures than NO{sub x} reduction; at 250 C, ethanol oxidation is 80% when flowing ethanol + NO + O{sub 2}. This increased reactivity, compared to only 15% when flowing only ethanol + O{sub 2}, combined with the observation that NO is not oxidized to NO{sub 2} in the absence of ethanol illustrates a synergistic relationship between the reactants. To further investigate this chemistry, a series of DRIFTS experiments were performed. To form nitrates/nitrites on the catalysts it was necessary to include ethanol in the feed with NO. These nitrates/nitrites were readily formed when flowing NO{sub 2} over the catalyst. It is proposed that ethanol adsorbs through an ethoxy-intermediate that results in atomic hydrogen on the surface. This hydrogen aids the release of NO{sub 2} from Ag to the gas-phase which, can be subsequently adsorbed at {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sites away from Ag. The disappearance of these nitrates/nitrites at higher temperatures proceeds in parallel with the increase in NO{sub x} reduction reactivity between 300 and 350 C observed in the kinetic study. It is therefore proposed that the consumption of nitrates is involved in the rate determining step for this reaction.

  8. SCR Potential and Issues for Heavy-Duty Applications in the United...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Daimler Chrysler Detroit Diesel Corporation 2004deeraneja.pdf More Documents & Publications Aftertreatment Modeling...

  9. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  10. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  11. Light output function and assembly of the time-of-flight enhanced diagnostics neutron spectrometer plastic scintillators for background reduction by double kinematic selection at EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, X. Y.; Chen, Z. J.; Zhang, X.; Hu, Z. M.; Du, T. F.; Cui, Z. Q.; Xie, X. F.; Ge, L. J.; Yuan, X.; Li, X. Q.; Zhang, G. H.; Chen, J. X.; Fan, T. S., E-mail: tsfan@pku.edu.cn [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gorini, G.; Nocente, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ di Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” EURATOM-ENEA-CNR Association, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Hu, L. Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Lin, S. Y.; Wan, B. N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2.5 MeV neutron spectrometer TOFED (Time-Of-Flight Enhanced Diagnostics) has been constructed to perform advanced neutron emission spectroscopy diagnosis of deuterium plasmas on EAST. The instrument has a double-ring structure which, in combination with pulse shape digitization, allows for a dual kinematic selection in the time-of-flight/recoil proton energy (tof/E{sub p}) space, thus improving the spectrometer capability to resolve fast ion signatures in the neutron spectrum, in principle up to a factor ?100. The identification and separation of features from the energetic ions in the neutron spectrum depends on the detailed knowledge of the instrument response function, both in terms of the light output function of the scintillators and the effect of undesired multiple neutron scatterings in the instrument. This work presents the determination of the light output function of the TOFED plastic scintillator detectors and their geometrical assembly. Results from dedicated experiments with ?-ray sources and quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams are presented. Implications on the instrument capability to perform background suppression based on double kinematic selection are discussed.

  12. Effects of Hydrothermal Aging on NH3-SCR reaction over Cu/zeolites...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperatures, while that of Cu-SSZ-13 was not affected. When the zeolite framework aluminum species were probed using solid state 27Al-NMR, significant reduction in the...

  13. To appear in Proceedings, International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, York, England, March 26-27, 1995 1 Consistency Checking of SCR-Style Requirements Speci cations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    To appear in Proceedings, International Symposium on Requirements Engineering, York, England, March . Designed originally for use by engineers, the SCR method has been successfully applied to a variety ; a submarine communications system 12 ; and safety- critical components of two nuclear power plants

  14. A NEW REDUCTION OF THE BLANCO COSMOLOGY SURVEY: AN OPTICALLY SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER CATALOG AND A PUBLIC RELEASE OF OPTICAL DATA PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleem, L. E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Stalder, B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Busha, M. T.; Wechsler, R. H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Gladders, M. D.; High, F. W. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blanco Cosmology Survey is a four-band (griz) optical-imaging survey of ?80 deg{sup 2} of the southern sky. The survey consists of two fields centered approximately at (R.A., decl.) = (23{sup h}, –55°) and (5{sup h}30{sup m}, –53°) with imaging sufficient for the detection of L {sub *} galaxies at redshift z ? 1. In this paper, we present our reduction of the survey data and describe a new technique for the separation of stars and galaxies. We search the calibrated source catalogs for galaxy clusters at z ? 0.75 by identifying spatial over-densities of red-sequence galaxies and report the coordinates, redshifts, and optical richnesses, ?, for 764 galaxy clusters at z ? 0.75. This sample, >85% of which are new discoveries, has a median redshift of z = 0.52 and median richness ?(0.4 L {sub *}) = 16.4. Accompanying this paper we also release full survey data products including reduced images and calibrated source catalogs. These products are available at http://data.rcc.uchicago.edu/dataset/blanco-cosmology-survey.

  15. Dislocation reduction via selective-area growth of InN accompanied by lateral growth by rf-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamimura, Jumpei [Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 330-0012 (Japan); Kishino, Katsumi; Kikuchi, Akihiko [Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 330-0012 (Japan); Sophia Nanotechnology Research Center, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)

    2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the selective-area growth (SAG) of InN by rf-plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy using molybdenum (Mo)-mask-patterned sapphire (0001) substrates, which resulted in the formation of regularly arranged N-polar InN microcrystals. Transmission electron microscopy observation confirmed that the laterally grown side areas were nearly dislocation-free, although many threading dislocations (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}) were generated at the InN/sapphire interface and propagated into the center of the InN microcrystals along the crystal c-axis. The laterally grown InN microcrystals exhibited narrow near-IR emission spectra with a peak photon energy of 0.627 eV and a linewidth of 39 meV at room temperature.

  16. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ag, Fe, Cr, Y - Metal oxides - ZrO 2 , MoO 3 - Zeolites - Mordenite, Ferrierite, - Y, Beta Pioneering Science and Technology Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Minimal...

  18. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ag, Fe, Cr, Y - Metal oxides - ZrO 2 , MoO 3 - Zeolites - Mordenite, Ferrierite, - Y, Beta Pioneering Science and Technology Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Catalyst...

  19. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace027peden2011...

  20. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace027peden2012...

  1. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace027peden2010o...

  2. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. acep02peden...

  3. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  4. Use of experience curves to estimate the future cost of power plants with CO2 capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Antes, Matt; Berkenpas, Michael; Davison, John

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the combined cycle gas turbine—an experience curve analysis.reduction (SCR) systems, gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC)catalytic reduction (SCR) Gas turbine combined cycle (GTCC)

  5. Design of Heat Exchanger for Heat Recovery in CHP Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozman, T. A.; Kaur, B.; Lee, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    monoxide by 70 percent, hydrocarbons by 60 percent, and particulate matter by 25 percent (Emissions Control : CHP Technologies Gulf Coast CHP 2007) when used with the ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Reductions are also significant with the use... are used only in conjunction with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. 3. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) ? They have a great potential for reducing NOx emissions. 4. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) ? SCR cuts down high levels of NOx by reducing...

  6. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    peden16807.pdf More Documents & Publications Understanding the Deactivation Mechanisms of CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal...

  7. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 Project History * Initial CRADA signed and project initiated in February 2007 - Deactivation mechanisms of urea SCR...

  8. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 1 Project History * Initial CRADA signed and project initiated in February 2007 - Deactivation mechanisms of urea SCR...

  9. Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Selection Process Fellowships will be awarded based on academic excellence, relevance of candidate's research to the laboratory mission in fundamental nuclear...

  10. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings.

  11. Un-reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins Bruveris; David C. P. Ellis; Francois Gay-Balmaz; Darryl D. Holm

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a full geometric development of a new technique called un-reduction, for dealing with dynamics and optimal control problems posed on spaces that are unwieldy for numerical implementation. The technique, which was originally concieved for an application to image dynamics, uses Lagrangian reduction by symmetry in reverse. A deeper understanding of un-reduction leads to new developments in image matching which serve to illustrate the mathematical power of the technique.

  12. Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction by SCR coated DPF Advanced Technology Light Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements...

  13. Distributing Urea for the On-Road Vehicle Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Manufacturers Chose SCR for 2010 NOx Control? * What vehicle applications will use SCR Urea? * How much urea will be required for these applications? - NOx reduction needed * How...

  14. Combustion in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen Re-direct Destination: Improved operational characteristics such as improved fuel efficiency, reduction of NOx formation,...

  15. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  16. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and...

  17. Stochastic Dimensionality Reduction for K-means Clustering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutsidis, Christos; Mahoney, Michael W; Drineas, Petros

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the topic of dimensionality reduction methods for k-means clustering. Dimensionality reduction encompasses the union of two approaches; feature selection and feature extraction. First, feature selection selects a small subset of actual features from the data and then runs the clustering algorithm only on the selected features. Second, feature extraction constructs a small set of new artificial features and then runs the clustering algorithm only on the constructed features. Despite the significance of the problem as well as the wealth of heuristic methods addressing it there exist no provably accurate feature selection methods. On the other hand, two provably accurate feature extraction methods for k-means exist: the first one is randomized and is based on Random Projections; the other, is deterministic and it is based on the Singular Value Decomposition. This paper addresses this shortcoming by presenting the first provably accurate feature selection method for k-means clustering. We also present tw...

  18. Development and application of optimal design capability for coal gasification systems - Task 1 (Volume 1, 2 and 3). Topical report, July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a process for the post-combustion removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gas of fossil-fuel-fired power plants. SCR is capable of NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of up to 80 or 90 percent. SCR technology has been applied for treatment of flue gases from a variety of emission sources, including natural gas- and oil-fired gas turbines, process steam boilers in refineries, and coal-fired power plants. SCR applications to coal-fired power plants have occurred in Japan and Germany. Full-scale SCR systems have not been applied to coal-fired power plants in the U.S., although there have been small-scale demonstration projects. SCR has become increasingly widely applied in the U.S. to natural-gas fired gas turbine combined cycle systems. In the remainder of this section, we review the applicability of SCR, as well as the need for post-combustion NO{sub x} control, for several power generation systems.

  19. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  20. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Dynamometer Evaluation of...

  1. Catalyst for selective NO.sub.x reduction using hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Christopher L. (Naperville, IL); Neylon, Michael K. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A two phase catalyst is disclosed with one or more transition metals such as Cu, Co, Fe, Ag and Mo supported on a molecular sieve having a pore size not greater than 8 .ANG. along with a stabilizing oxide of one or more of the oxides of Zr, Mo, V, Nb or the rare earths coating the molecular sieve. A method of preparing the two phase catalyst and using same to remediate NO.sub.x in combustion gases is also described.

  2. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    synthesis and reactivity * What is the optimum catalyst composition? * Some optimization of catalyst synthesis * Studies of the reaction mechanism * Differences in rates of...

  3. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyand Sustained CoordinationWater10 DOE

  4. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyand Sustained CoordinationWater10 DOEHydrocarbons |

  5. Novel catalyst for selective NOx reduction using hydrocarbons - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire3627 Federal Register / Vol. 77,Cheaper Solar

  6. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of Energy Advisory BoardSecuringSee theEnergy3at

  7. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton:| Department ofengine

  8. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton:| Department ofengineDepartment of

  9. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton:| Department ofengineDepartment

  10. Degradation Mechanisms of Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton:| Department

  11. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  12. Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookshear, D. William [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nguyen, Ke [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Howe, Janet E [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR samples is present throughout the length of the catalysts with a higher concentration on the washcoat surface. In both the long-term engine-aged DPF and the accelerated Na-aged DPFs, there is significant Na ash present in the upstream channels; however, in the engine-aged sample lube oil-based ash is the predominant constituent.

  13. Forest Fuels ReductionForest Fuels Reduction Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    the initial fuels reduction treatments leave the site with regard to long-term forest vegetation and soil are the productivity and cost rates for alternative choices of equipment for mechanical fuels reduction; what reduction operations for existing markets and new markets? (eg. biomass energy) Research Rationale

  14. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Idling Reduction Network News Archives Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network News Archives The National Idling Reduction Network brings together trucking...

  16. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  17. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  18. Large Wind Property Tax Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2001, North Dakota established property tax reductions for commercial wind turbines constructed before 2011. Originally, the law reduced the taxable value of centrally-assessed* wind turbines...

  19. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Document states additional...

  20. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

  1. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)...

  2. Author Select

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR SEPARATION BYAbrasionAuthor Select Last Name

  3. Author Select

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR SEPARATION BYAbrasionAuthor Select Last

  4. CO2 Reduction on Supported Ru/Al2O3 Catalysts: Cluster Size Dependence...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Supported RuAl2O3 Catalysts: Cluster Size Dependence of Product Selectivity. CO2 Reduction on Supported RuAl2O3 Catalysts: Cluster Size Dependence of Product...

  5. Model-constrained optimization methods for reduction of parameterized large-scale systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bui-Thanh, Tan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most model reduction techniques employ a projection framework that utilizes a reduced-space basis. The basis is usually formed as the span of a set of solutions of the large-scale system, which are computed for selected ...

  6. Model-Constrained Optimization Methods for Reduction of Parameterized Large-Scale Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Bui-Thanh

    Most model reduction techniques employ a projection framework that utilizes a reduced-space basis. The basis is usually formed as the span of a set of solutions of the large-scale system, which are computed for selected ...

  7. Environmental Sustainability Paper Usage / Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;carbon footprint and develop carbon reduction projects around IT and staff/student behaviour change is supported by the Environmental Sustainability Manager and is seen as a key link to the University's Carbon Management Programme (e.g. to produce a forecast of carbon reductions as required by the Carbon Trust

  8. Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak, Derek

    Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategies in Canada: Policy or Window Dressing? Charles Plante, Upstream: Institute for a Healthy Society #12;Overview What is poverty? Current state of poverty in Saskatchewan What is a Comprehensive Poverty Reduction Strategy (CPRS)? Are CPRS effective at reducing

  9. Multi-leg One-loop Massive Amplitudes from Integrand Reduction via Laurent Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans van Deurzen; Gionata Luisoni; Pierpaolo Mastrolia; Edoardo Mirabella; Giovanni Ossola; Tiziano Peraro

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the application of a novel reduction technique for one-loop scattering amplitudes based on the combination of the integrand reduction and Laurent expansion. We describe the general features of its implementation in the computer code NINJA, and its interface to GoSam. We apply the new reduction to a series of selected processes involving massive particles, from six to eight legs.

  10. Development of Silica/Vanadia/ Titania Catalysts for Removal of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    mercury (Hg0) from simulated coal-combustion flue gas. Experiments were carried out in fixed-bed reactorsDevelopment of Silica/Vanadia/ Titania Catalysts for Removal of Elemental Mercury from Coal-Combustion the composition and microstructures of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalysts for Hg0 oxidation in coal-combustion

  11. Albritton Bell Tower - 39 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide (NO) with ammonia over vanadia-based (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) and pillared interlayer clay-based (V2O5/Ti-PILC) monolithic honeycomb catalysts using a laboratory laminar-flow reactor was investigated...

  12. Nevada State Energy Reduction Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As mandated by the Nevada statutes, the Nevada Energy Office prepared a state energy reduction plan which requires state agencies, departments, and other entities in the Executive Branch to reduce...

  13. NOx Reduction through Efficiency Gain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, R.; Thompson, R.; Staedter, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with a novel control design to deliver a comprehensive boiler controls retrofit that provides reductions in emissions as well as substantial cost savings. Combining mechanical engineering expertise with substantial experience in control engineering...

  14. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  15. High reduction transaxle for electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalns, Ilmars (Plymouth, MI)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A drivetrain (12) includes a transaxle assembly (16) for driving ground engaging wheels of a land vehicle powered by an AC motor. The transaxle includes a ratio change section having planetary gear sets (24, 26) and brake assemblies (28, 30). Sun gears (60, 62) of the gear sets are directly and continuously connected to an input drive shaft (38) driven by the motor. A first drive (78a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (78) of gear sets (24) with a ring gear (68) of gear set (26). A second drive (80a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (80) of gear set (26) with a sun gear (64) of a final speed reduction gear set (34) having a planetary gear carrier directly and continuously connected to a differential (22). Brakes (28, 30) are selectively engageable to respectively ground a ring gear 66 of gear set 24 and ring gear 68 of gear set 26.

  16. From Transformation-Based Dimensionality Reduction to Feature Mahdokht Masaeli masaeli.m@neu.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dy, Jennifer G.

    From Transformation-Based Dimensionality Reduction to Feature Selection Mahdokht Masaeli masaeli glenn.fung@siemens.com Computer Aided Diagnosis and Therapy, Siemens Medical Solutions, USA Jennifer G- duce dimensionality: feature selection and feature transformation. When one wishes to keep the original

  17. Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  18. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications. Facile and controllable electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide and its applications....

  19. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

  20. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

  1. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for the regeneration of sulfated NOx trap catalysts. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for...

  2. Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

  3. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  4. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  5. Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk Alexander Koller Joachim Niehren Programming partially. In this paper, we introduce beta reduction constraints to describe beta reduction steps between partially known lambda terms. We show that beta reduction constraints can be expressed in an extension

  6. Lead reduction in ambient air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.D.; Kiehn, O.A.; Wilburn, D.R.; Bowyer, R.C.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bureau of Mines evaluated the emission control methods, including the capital investments and operating cost, necessary for further reducing lead levels in ambient air at the Glover, Herculaneum, and Buick smelter-refineries in Missouri and the East Helena, MT, smelter. This report presents theoretically achievable lead emission reductions and estimated capital and operating costs.

  7. Dynamic reduction, Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, G.J.; Wong, D.Y.; Ottevangers, J.; Wang, L. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the theoretical background of the EPRI Dynamic Reduction DYNRED V 1.0. EPRI initiated research under project RP763 to develop the original reduction program DYNEQU. This program was the first to be based on the concept of aggregating of coherent groups of synchronous generators into a single equivalent generator model. While technically advanced, DYNEQU proved difficult to use. Since then, the stability problems encountered in power system planning and operations have changed. The emphasis on first swing transient stability has been replaced by emphasis on inter-area oscillations and voltage stability. The method of identification of coherent generators used in DYNEQU is based on the comparison of rotor angle swings, in a linearized system model, following a fault. It has been shown that this method of coherency identification is good for first swing stability. For inter-area oscillation studies, this method of generator aggregation is less accurate. Far better, are identification methods based on the structure of the power system. Because of these changes in the requirements for reduced order power system models, a new dynamic reduction program (DYNRED) has been developed under EPRI project RP2447-1. It is coherency based, as is DYNEQU, but it has structurally based coherency identification methods in addition to the method used in DYNEQU. This report describes the techniques used in DYNRED, that is: Coherency Identification; Network Reduction; Method of Aggregation, Generator Aggregation, Excitation Aggregation, Primemover/Governor Aggregation. An example of the application of DYNRED to the reduction of a large interconnected power system model is also presented. DYNRED uses the special modeling and network solution techniques developed to enable systems having up to 12,000 bus to be studied. Dynamic data is completely compatible between MASS, PEALS, and the EPRI Extended Transient Midterm Stability Program (ETMSP).

  8. Candidate Selection Instrument

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The candidate selection instrument is designed to take the guesswork out of selecting candidates for the various career development programs of interest. The instrument is straightforward and...

  9. Undergraduate Program Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Undergraduate Program Selection Process Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich...

  10. Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reduction Lean Gasoline SI Direct Injection Engine + TWC + LNT + SCR NH 3 LNT NH 3 Optimization HC Slip Control Lean Gasoline SI Direct Injection Engine + TWC + SCR NH 3 TWC NH 3...

  11. Stable reduction product of misonidazole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panicucci, R.; McClelland, R.A.; Rauth, A.M.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The predominant stable product (greater than 80%) of the anaerobic radiation chemical reduction (pH 7, formate, N/sub 2/O) of misonidazole (MISO) has been identified as the cyclic guanidinium ion MISO-DDI, a 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolium ion. This cation was prepared as its sulfate salt by the reaction of glyoxal and the appropriate N-substituted guanidinium sulfate. Its formation during MISO reduction was established by NMR spectral comparison and by derivatization as glyoxal bis-oxime, which was formed in 86% yield in fully reduced systems. The toxicity of pure MISO-DDI X sulfate was examined in vivo (C/sub 3/H mice) and in vitro (CHO cells). This product is less toxic than the parent MISO and free glyoxal. A reactive, short-lived, intermediate is suggested as the agent responsible for the toxicity of MISO under hypoxic conditions.

  12. Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p. 1 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT OF RENEWABLES October 2012 Jeff Haberl, Bahman Yazdani, Charles Culp Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University p. 2 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012... Do TCEQ: Vince Meiller, Bob Gifford ERCOT: Warren Lasher USEPA: Art Diem, Julie Rosenberg ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS p. 3 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 RENEWABLES Solar PV Solar Thermal Hydro Biomass Landfill Gas Geothermal p. 4...

  13. Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 9 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 10 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 WIND PROJECTS IN TEXAS Completed, Announced, and Retired Wind Projects in Texas, as of December 2011 p. 11 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012... Laboratory ? 2012 p. 24 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 25 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 Annual eGrid for NOx Emissions West Zone North Zone Houston Zone South Zone Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs...

  14. 7th Annual waste reduction, prevention, recycling and composting symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical papers from the Waste Reduction, Prevention, Recycling and Composting Symposium are presented. 21 of the 22 papers were selected for inclusion in the database. The majority of the papers focus on municipal wastes produced by the business sector; however, wastes generated in the residential and industrial sectors are also included. Topics addressed include workplace recycling, scrap tire and used oil recycling, employee education, construction and demolition waste reuse, composting, waste reduction, and market development for recycled products.

  15. Consequence analysis of aqueous ammonia spills using an improved liquid pool evaporation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghunathan, Vijay

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    of effective NOx emissions from utility boilers and combustion turbines nowadays (Pritchard et al. 1995). Its applications also include reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines, process gas streams like nitric acid plants. The flue gas emitted from... serves the purpose of a reducing medium and is replacing anhydrous ammonia in most of the Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units. This newly developed model can estimate the vaporization rate and net mass evaporating into the air from a...

  16. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    precursor, the necessary scrubbers to purify the resultingcatalytic reduction (SCR) scrubber system for reduction ofcan be reduced further using a scrubber for PEM fuel cell

  17. Alumina catalysts for reduction of NOx from methanol fueled diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Toshiro; Noda, Akira; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sato, Yoshio [Ministry of Transport of Japan, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NOx selective reducing catalysts are expected to be used for lean-burn gasoline engines and diesel engines as an effective NOx reduction measure. The authors are interested in the combination of methanol, as a reducing agent, and alumina catalyst, and have considered the NOx reduction method using effectively much unburned methanol. In this report, in order to investigate the effect of NOx reduction by the alumina catalyst, the experiment was carried out by feeding the actual exhaust gas from the methanol engine into the alumina catalyst. As a result, it was confirmed that, without addition of any other reducing agents into the exhaust gas, the alumina catalyst has activity to reduce NOx.

  18. "Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction: Is conservation the answer?" Paul van for the foreseeable future. #12;John Beddington's "Perfect Storm" Population Increase Poverty Reduction Food Security Globalisation Climate Change Health Water Security Poverty Alleviation Finance Urbanisation Population Energy

  19. Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes I.S. Walker, M.H. Sherman and W.W. Nazaroff or adequacy of the information in this report. #12;Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor Ozone Reductions Using

  20. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General analysis, and public education in global environmental change. It seeks to provide leadership;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium

  1. Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination A Bioprophylactic Concept Karin/Repro, Uppsala 2013 #12;Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination. A Bioprophylactic Concept. Abstract Pesticides and their residues frequently contaminate surface waters and groundwater so

  2. Extracellular Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Extracellular Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of...

  3. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

  4. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  5. Systematic evaluation of monometallic catalytic materials for lean-burn NOx reduction using combinatorial methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    of the major reasons for this lack of progress has been the absence of a systematic and organized data base, Box 951592, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA Available online 2 November 2004 Abstract A library of about of the lack of progress in this approach, efforts were directed towards developing SCR-based technologies

  6. A Compressed Air Reduction Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawks, K. D.

    A COMPRESSED AIR REDUCTION PROGRAM K. Dwight Hawks General Motors Corporation - Ruick-Oldsmobi1e-Cadillac Group Warren, Michigan ABSTRACT The reascn for implementing this program was to assist the plant in Quantifying some of its leaks... in the equipme~t throuqhout the plant and to provide direction as to which leaks are yenerat~ng high uti 1ity costs. The direction is very beneficial in lIlaking maintenance aware of prolill,Pls within equipment .IS \\Iell as notifying them as to whf're thei...

  7. Relative trajectory data reduction analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Kenneth William

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REDATIVE TRAJECTORY DATA RFDUCTION ANA1. YS1S A Thesis KENNE'Ill Vi. GRANT Subrnitl ed to the Gratluate College of 'J exas ASM University in pa) &ial full'illment of the reouir ament for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1969 Major... Trajectory Data Reduction Analysis. (August 1969) Kenneth W. Grant, B. A. , University of California at Riverside Directed by: Dr. Rudolph Freund Knowledge of missile/drone intercept parameters is extremely important in the analysis of ordnance system...

  8. Optical Broadband Angular Selectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yichen

    Light selection based purely on the angle of propagation is a long-standing scientific challenge. In angularly selective systems, however, the transmission of light usually also depends on the light frequency. We tailored ...

  9. Graduate Program Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selection Process Graduate Program Selection Process Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in...

  10. A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevers, Michel

    A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty model reduction with controller reduction for the same PWR system. We show that closed-loop techniques to the design of a low-order con- troller for a realistic model of order 42 of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR

  11. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Abstract: Water reduction under two visible...

  12. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and...

  13. Tree SelectionTree Selection Why is selection important?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was planned ­ 200 years ago - to give owner and future generations a view of Mississippi River through grove;Tree Selection Style III Process Plan - for the future Purpose - planting goal Ponder - site There are lists from different locations. Utility company Local tree board Native trees #12;Utility Company

  14. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  16. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  17. Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. 't Hooft

    2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirement that physical phenomena associated with gravitational collapse should be duly reconciled with the postulates of quantum mechanics implies that at a Planckian scale our world is not 3+1 dimensional. Rather, the observable degrees of freedom can best be described as if they were Boolean variables defined on a two-dimensional lattice, evolving with time. This observation, deduced from not much more than unitarity, entropy and counting arguments, implies severe restrictions on possible models of quantum gravity. Using cellular automata as an example it is argued that this dimensional reduction implies more constraints than the freedom we have in constructing models. This is the main reason why so-far no completely consistent mathematical models of quantum black holes have been found. Essay dedicated to Abdus Salam.

  18. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  19. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  20. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  1. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paviet-Hartmann, P. [Idaho National Laboratory, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Riddle, C. [Idaho National Laboratory, Material and Fuel Complex, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6150 (United States); Campbell, K. [University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89144 (United States); Mausolf, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Batelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most widely used reductant to partition plutonium from uranium in the Purex process was ferrous sulfamate, other alternates were proposed such as hydrazine-stabilized ferrous nitrate or uranous nitrate, platinum catalyzed hydrogen, and hydrazine, hydroxylamine salts. New candidates to replace hydrazine or hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) are pursued worldwide. They may improve the performance of the industrial Purex process towards different operations such as de-extraction of plutonium and reduction of the amount of hydrazine which will limit the formation of hydrazoic acid. When looking at future recycling technologies using hydroxamic ligands, neither acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) nor formohydroxamic acid (FHA) seem promising because they hydrolyze to give hydroxylamine and the parent carboxylic acid. Hydroxyethylhydrazine, HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 3} (HEH) is a promising non-salt-forming reductant of Np and Pu ions because it is selective to neptunium and plutonium ions at room temperature and at relatively low acidity, it could serve as a replacement of HAN or AHA for the development of a novel used nuclear fuel recycling process.

  2. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 The documents...

  3. Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 NOXTECH NOXTECH PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYSIS SYSTEM FOR NOx REDUCTION BY NOXTECH With the Support & Cooperation of DOE Noxtech, Inc. *Delaware Corporation registered to do business...

  4. CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - On-board idle reduction technologies * Bergstrom battery electric AC * Airtronic diesel-fired heater * Objectives - Quantify truck cabin heat transfer - Identify potential...

  5. RMOTC to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RMOTC to Test Oil Viscosity Reduction Technology The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) announces that the "Teapot Dome" oil field in Wyoming is hosting a series of...

  6. Metal Artifact Reduction in Computed Tomography /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Seemeen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monoenergetic imaging of dual-energy CT reduces artifactsartifact reduction by dual energy computed tomography usingimage re- construction for dual energy X-ray transmission

  7. Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    provides a valuable opportunity for Federal agency NEPA309 reviewers to incorporate pollution prevention and environmental impact reduction into actions (or projects). This...

  8. Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for HDD to provide a pathway to the next generation of emissions control systems CRADA with PACCAR, working closely with DAF Trucks Highly evolving field of work (mostly...

  9. Biodiesel + SCR Retrofit Testing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyand SustainedBio-Oil Deployment in the 2015 Project+

  10. SCR & DPF RETROFITS FOR MOBILE DIESEL ENGINES

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3.56 0.01 0.27 3.56 0.90 795 Composite Baseline 3.01 0.01 0.20 2.99 0.76 760 Baseline Emission Tests (Engine is equipped with DPF) Emissions (gbhp.hr) NMHC+NOx PM CO NOx NO2...

  11. SCR Performance Optimization Through Advancements in Aftertreatment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofittingFundAofSCE&G-4-E WholesalePackaging

  12. Validated SCR Concept Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59CapabilityVulnerabilities|VWD-0006 -

  13. SCR Tech LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to:RoscommonSBY Solutions Jump to: navigation, search Name:Solar

  14. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  15. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  16. NOx reduction methods and apparatuses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, M. Lou; Maupin, Gary D.

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A NO.sub.x reduction method includes treating a first gas containing NO.sub.x, producing a second gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second gas to N.sub.2, and producing a third gas containing less NO.sub.x than the first gas, substantially all of the third gas NO.sub.x being NO. The method also includes treating the third gas, producing a fourth gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the fourth gas to N.sub.2, and producing a fifth gas containing less NO.sub.x than the third gas, substantially all of the fifth gas NO.sub.x being NO. Treating the first and/or third gas can include treatment with a plasma. Reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second and/or fourth gas can include reducing with a catalyst. The method can further include controlling energy consumption of the plasmas independent of each other.

  17. Fischer-Tropsch electrochemical CO[sub 2] reduction to fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, M.; Vercauteren, M.E.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation was directed toward the rational selection of cathode electrocatalysts compatible with promoting carbon dioxide reduction at practical rates to commercially significant fuels and chemicals. Work performed identified electrocatalyst sites, incorporated into gas-diffusion electrodes, demonstrating high activity toward promoting both CO[sub 2] reduction to adsorbed CO and subsequent electron transfer leading to final reaction products. The feature of electrocatalysis identified was in its apparent ability to maintain a high coverage of adsorbed CO intermediate species at reaction sites available for further reduction to products. Carbon dioxide reduction proceeded at significantly lower overpotentials and higher rates and faradaic efficiencies than previously found to this time at unit-activity copper.

  18. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  19. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  20. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on Energy and Water Development U.S. House of Representatives The Honorable Lamar Alexander Ranking Member SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  1. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on Energy and Water Development U.S. House of Representatives The Honorable Lamar Alexander SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR)...

  2. SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SOURCE SELECTION INFORMATION - SEE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (FAR) 2.101 AND 3.104 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 (enter date here, centered revised template...

  3. Selecting and Applying Interfacings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selecting and using interfacing correctly is an important component of garment construction. The various types of interfacing are described and methods of applying them are discussed in detail....

  4. Donor-dependent Extent of Uranium Reduction for Bioremediation of Contaminated Sediment Microcosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Ravel, Bruce [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bioremediation of uranium was investigated in microcosm experiments containing contaminated sediments from Oak Ridge, Tennessee to explore the importance of electron donor selection for uranium reduction rate and extent. In these experiments, all of the electron donors, including ethanol, glucose, methanol, and methanol with added humic acids, stimulated the reduction and immobilization of aqueous uranium by the indigenous microbial community. Uranium loss from solution began after the completion of nitrate reduction but essentially concurrent with sulfate reduction. When electron donor concentrations were normalized for their equivalent electron donor potential yield, the rates of uranium reduction were nearly equivalent for all treatments (0.55-0.95 {micro}mol L{sup -1} d{sup -1}). Uranium reduction with methanol proceeded after a 15-d longer lag time relative to that of ethanol or glucose. Significant differences were not found with the inclusion of humic acids. The extent of U reduction in sediment slurries measured by XANES at various time periods after the start of the experiment increased in the order of ethanol (5-7% reduced at 77 and 153 d), glucose (49% reduced at 53 d), and methanol (93% reduced at 90 d). The microbial diversity of ethanol- and methanol-amended microcosms in their late stage of U reduction was analyzed with 16S rRNA gene amplification. Members of the Geobacteraceae were found in all microcosms as well as other potential uranium-reducing organisms, such as Clostridium and Desulfosporosinus. The effectiveness of methanol relative to ethanol at reducing aqueous and sediment-hosted uranium suggests that bioremediation strategies that encourage fermentative poising of the subsurface to a lower redox potential may be more effective for long-term uranium immobilization as compared with selecting an electron donor that is efficiently metabolized by known uranium-reducing microorganisms.

  5. Donor-dependent Extent of Uranium Reduction for Bioremediation of Contaminated Sediment Microcosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, Andrew S.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Ravel, Bruce; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brandt, Craig C.; (ORNL); (NIST)

    2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Bioremediation of uranium was investigated in microcosm experiments containing contaminated sediments from Oak Ridge, Tennessee to explore the importance of electron donor selection for uranium reduction rate and extent. In these experiments, all of the electron donors, including ethanol, glucose, methanol, and methanol with added humic acids, stimulated the reduction and immobilization of aqueous uranium by the indigenous microbial community. Uranium loss from solution began after the completion of nitrate reduction but essentially concurrent with sulfate reduction. When electron donor concentrations were normalized for their equivalent electron donor potential yield, the rates of uranium reduction were nearly equivalent for all treatments (0.55-0.95 {micro}mol L{sup -1} d{sup -1}). Uranium reduction with methanol proceeded after a 15-d longer lag time relative to that of ethanol or glucose. Significant differences were not found with the inclusion of humic acids. The extent of U reduction in sediment slurries measured by XANES at various time periods after the start of the experiment increased in the order of ethanol (5-7% reduced at 77 and 153 d), glucose (49% reduced at 53 d), and methanol (93% reduced at 90 d). The microbial diversity of ethanol- and methanol-amended microcosms in their late stage of U reduction was analyzed with 16S rRNA gene amplification. Members of the Geobacteraceae were found in all microcosms as well as other potential uranium-reducing organisms, such as Clostridium and Desulfosporosinus. The effectiveness of methanol relative to ethanol at reducing aqueous and sediment-hosted uranium suggests that bioremediation strategies that encourage fermentative poising of the subsurface to a lower redox potential may be more effective for long-term uranium immobilization as compared with selecting an electron donor that is efficiently metabolized by known uranium-reducing microorganisms.

  6. Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI); Den, Ling (Sterling Heights, MI); Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Lee, Jong-Hwan (Rochester Hills, MI)

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

  7. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  8. Selective spectroscopic methods for water analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaidya, B.

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation explores in large part the development of a few types of spectroscopic methods in the analysis of water. Methods for the determination of some of the most important properties of water like pH, metal ion content, and chemical oxygen demand are investigated in detail. This report contains a general introduction to the subject and the conclusions. Four chapters and an appendix have been processed separately. They are: chromogenic and fluorogenic crown ether compounds for the selective extraction and determination of Hg(II); selective determination of cadmium in water using a chromogenic crown ether in a mixed micellar solution; reduction of chloride interference in chemical oxygen demand determination without using mercury salts; structural orientation patterns for a series of anthraquinone sulfonates adsorbed at an aminophenol thiolate monolayer chemisorbed at gold; and the role of chemically modified surfaces in the construction of miniaturized analytical instrumentation.

  9. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

  10. Selectable fragmentation warhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, C.S.; Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a selectable fragmentation warhead which is capable of producing a predetermined number of fragments from a metal plate, and accelerating the fragments toward a target. A first explosive located adjacent to the plate is detonated at selected number of points by laser-driven slapper detonators. In one embodiment, a smoother-disk and a second explosive, located adjacent to the first explosive, serve to increase acceleration of the fragments toward a target. The ability to produce a selected number of fragments allows for effective destruction of a chosen target.

  11. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  12. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  13. Highway noise reduction by barrier walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Murray F

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    's Variables 3. Noise Reduction and Noise Reduction Factor 4. Relationship Between Noise Attenuation and d 5. Rettinger's Variables 6. Relationship of Sound-Level Reduction and v 7. Basic Principles in Sound-Transmission Loss 8. The Mass Law Relationship... that the barrier wall is acoustically opaque (i. e. , impermeable to sound waves). Purcell (8) found that the noise transmission loss of a wall was a measure of the ratio of the acoustical energy transmitted through the wall to the acoustical energy incident...

  14. Kinetics of the reduction of methyl viologen with hydrogen on a colloidal Pt catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maier, V.E.; Shafirovich, V.Ya.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of H/sub 2/ on a Pt catalyst under the influence of one-electron reductors is part of the photocatalytic process of decomposition of H/sub 2/O into H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. As a model reaction we selected the reduction of methyl viologen. The bonding constant for hydrogen on colloidal Pt, as well as the effective rate constant of the heterolytic splitting of H/sub 2/ on the same Pt catalyst are determined. A mathematical description of the reduction of methyl viologen with hydrogen is suggested.

  15. SELECTING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SECURITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    April 2004 SELECTING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SECURITY PRODUCTS Shirley Radack, Editor Computer Security Division Information Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards and Technology Information technology security prod ucts are essential to better secure infor mation technology (IT) systems

  16. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  17. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  18. Spectrally selective glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  19. D-Area Sulfate Reduction Studty Comprehensive Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M

    2005-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume emanates from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), due to the contaminated runoff the basin receives from the D-Area coal pile. A Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP) (WSRC 2001) was implemented to evaluate the potential for the sulfate reduction remediation of the DCPRB acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume. The following studies, implemented as part of the TSWP, are documented herein: Bacteria Population and Organic Selection Laboratory Testing; DTT-1 Trench Evaluation; DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 1; and DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 2. Evaluation of sulfate reduction applicability actually began with a literature search and feasibility report in mid 2001, which fed into the TSWP. Physical completion of TSWP work occurred in late 2004 with the completion of the DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 2. The following are the primary conclusions drawn based upon this 3-year effort: (1) Pure soybean oil provides a long-term, indirect, SRB carbon source that floats on top of the water table (by indirect it means that the soybean oil must be degraded by other microbes prior to utilization by SRB) for the promotion of sulfate reduction remediation. Soybean oil produces no known SRB inhibitory response and therefore large quantities can be injected. (2) Sodium lactate provides a short-term, immediately available, direct, SRB carbon source that is miscible with the groundwater and therefore flows with the groundwater until it has been completely utilized for the promotion of sulfate reduction remediation. Lactate at elevated concentrations (greater than 6 g/L) does produce a SRB inhibitory response and therefore small quantities must be injected frequently. (3) The use of limestone to buffer the contaminated groundwater facilitates sulfate reduction remediation through the injection of organic substrate. Additionally conclusions and recommendations are made in Sections 8 and 9 regarding continuation of this study, the potential for an interim action, and the final remediation once discharge to the DCPRB has been discontinued.

  20. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alaska Housing Finance Corporation (AHFC) offers interest rate reductions to home buyers purchasing new and existing homes with 5 Star and 5 Star Plus energy ratings. All homes constructed on...

  1. Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golfinopoulos, Theodore

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

  2. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (TSR), ABD-WFM-006, Revision 2.1 Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), ABD-WFM-006, Revision 2.1 The...

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Act requires the Department of the Environment to publish and update an inventory of statewide greenhouse gas emissions for calendar year 2006 and requires...

  4. INVARIANTS OF IDEALS HAVING PRINCIPAL REDUCTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-40-82T23:59:59.000Z

    The integer r denotes the reduction number of I. In defining k, we are using the ..... H1,... ,Hs ? Q such that T2 n ? T1G = F1H1 + ..... Math. J. 27 (1978), 929–934.

  5. Solid Waste Reduction, Recovery, and Recycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute expresses the strong support of the State of Wisconsin for the reduction of the amount of solid waste generated, the reuse, recycling and composting of solid waste, and resource...

  6. Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

  7. Large Drag Reduction over Superhydrophobic Riblets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbier, Charlotte; D'Urso, Brian

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Riblets and superhydrophobic surfaces are two demonstrated passive drag reduction techniques. We describe a method to fabricate surfaces that combine both of these techniques in order to increase drag reduction properties. Samples have been tested with a cone-and-plate rheometer system, and have demonstrated significant drag reduction even in the transitional-turbulent regime. Direct Numerical Simulations have been performed in order to estimate the equivalent slip length at higher rotational speed. The sample with 100~$\\mu$m deep grooves has been performing very well, showing drag reduction varying from 15 to 20 $\\%$ over the whole range of flow conditions tested, and its slip length was estimated to be over 100 $\\mu$m.

  8. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  9. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, George E. (West Chicago, IL); Dawson, John W. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t.sub.max -t.sub.min) of a series of paired time signals t.sub.1 and t.sub.2 varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t.sub.1 .ltoreq.t.sub.2 and t.sub.1 +t.sub.2 equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t.sub.min) of the first signal t.sub.1 closer to t.sub.max and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20-800.

  10. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t[sub max]--t[sub min]) of a series of paired time signals t[sub 1] and t[sub 2] varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t[sub 1][<=]t[sub 2] and t[sub 1]+t[sub 2] equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t[sub min]) of the first signal t[sub 1] closer to t[sub max] and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20--800. 6 figs.

  11. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1981-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

  12. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

  13. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2001-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  14. Power Tower Technology Roadmap and cost reduction plan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, Thomas R.; Gary, Jesse A. (U.S. Department of Energy); Kolb, Gregory J.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies continue to mature and are being deployed worldwide. Power towers will likely play an essential role in the future development of CSP due to their potential to provide dispatchable solar electricity at a low cost. This Power Tower Technology Roadmap has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the current technology, the improvement opportunities that exist for the technology, and the specific activities needed to reach the DOE programmatic target of providing competitively-priced electricity in the intermediate and baseload power markets by 2020. As a first step in developing this roadmap, a Power Tower Roadmap Workshop that included the tower industry, national laboratories, and DOE was held in March 2010. A number of technology improvement opportunities (TIOs) were identified at this workshop and separated into four categories associated with power tower subsystems: solar collector field, solar receiver, thermal energy storage, and power block/balance of plant. In this roadmap, the TIOs associated with power tower technologies are identified along with their respective impacts on the cost of delivered electricity. In addition, development timelines and estimated budgets to achieve cost reduction goals are presented. The roadmap does not present a single path for achieving these goals, but rather provides a process for evaluating a set of options from which DOE and industry can select to accelerate power tower R&D, cost reductions, and commercial deployment.

  15. Selected Topics in Column Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 2, 2002 ... Page 1. Selected Topics in Column Generation. Marco E. Lübbecke ... is an ever recurring concept in our “selected topics.” OR/MS Subject ...

  16. Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aging, etc. deer09devarakonda.pdf More Documents & Publications The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and...

  17. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF THE SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NO by NH3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, N.J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    16 A. CombustorK) measured along the combustor test section centerline as aTable I, Dilution factors for various combustor operating

  19. Expediting Model Selection for Support Vector Machines Based on Data Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ou, Yu-Yen

    Science and Information Engineering, National Taiwan University, 2002. [3] D. Michie, D. J. Spiegelhalter to consturct a SVM for the shuttle dataset in the the Statlog collection [3], then the complete grid search RAM. As the shuttle dataset, containing 43500 training samples, is not considered as a large case

  20. Experiments on the reduction of nitric oxide from exhaust gases by selective non-catalytic reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narney, John Kenneth

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The simulated exhaust gas contained varying amounts of N2, 02, H20, CO, and NO and the reactor conditions were varied with regard to temperature, residence time, and mixing. The results of these experiments show that the effect of oxygen concentration and NH3...

  1. Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    portion of the tower and 2 spray-scrubber sections in the bottom. The NOx-laden fumes enter the bottom

  2. Chemical reduction of a diimide based porous polymer for selective uptake of carbon dioxide versus methanew

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A diimide based porous organic polymer (POP) post-synthetically reduced with lithium metal demonstrates).12 This amorphous material was shown to be permanently porous and robust, maintaining these properties even when a local-dipole­quadrupole interaction with guest CO2; no such interaction is expected with CH4 guests.12

  3. Kinetic modeling of nitric oxide removal from exhaust gases by Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenanda, Cariappa Mudappa

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as an additive. The thermal DeNOx process was studied using the detailed chemical mechanism developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For the RAPRENOx process, a chemical mechanism has been developed to match the available experimental data. The influence...

  4. Scale-selective turbulence reduction in H-mode plasmas in the TJ-II stellarator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Happel, T.; Conway, G. D.; Stroth, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Association Euratom-IPP, 85748 Garching (Germany); Estrada, T.; Blanco, E.; Hidalgo, C.; Collaboration: TJ-II Team

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wavenumber spectra of density turbulence in L- and H-mode plasmas have been measured in the TJ-II stellarator by means of Doppler reflectometry. A pronounced suppression of the density fluctuation level is observed in H-mode close to the radial position of maximum radial electric field (E{sub r}) shear. Furthermore, intermediate scale density turbulence is reduced preferentially. This effect can be interpreted within the framework of vortex stretching feeding energy through Reynolds stress into zonal flows, while shear decorrelation of turbulent structures might not play a central role in TJ-II. Moreover, it is shown that in both L- and H-mode, the phase velocity of density fluctuations does not depend on the structure scale.

  5. A "loop entropy reduction" phage-display selection for folded amino acid sequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    ,1,3,4 MICHELLE SCALLEY-KIM,2,3 ALEX WATTERS,2,3 AND DAVID BAKER1 1 Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA 2 Molecular Baker, Department of Biochemistry, Univer- sity of Washington, J 567 Health Sciences Building, Box 37

  6. CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES OF THE SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF NO by NH3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, N.J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    post combustion gases of propane/air in a laboratory scalepost combustion gases of propane/air in a laboratory scaleThe combustion products of propane and air are diluted by

  7. Catalyst for selective NO.sub.x reduction using hydrocarbons - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess StoriesFebruaryMetal nanoparticles supported on the surface

  8. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of Energy Advisory BoardSecuringSeecatalysis: Catalyst

  9. NH3-Selective Catalytic Reduction over Ag/Al2O3 Catalysts | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, NewThisAbandonedDepartment ofDepartment

  10. Solar selective surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Buskirk, O.R.

    1982-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Postformable solar selective coatings are disclosed for use on substrates such as aluminum. The coatings use a finely divided black inherently selective spinel pigment such as Co3O4, CuCr2O4 or CuxCo3-xO4 where X is 0.03 to 0.3 and preferably 0.10 to 0.30. The binders are soluble copolymers of vinylidene fluoride or blends thereof or vinylidene fluoride with a copolymer of methyl methacrylate.

  11. Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Diesel Emission Reduction Research Low Temperature Combustion and Diesel Emission Reduction Research Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

  12. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Agency...

  13. California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Customer Load Reductions during...

  14. Biomineralization Associated with Microbial Reduction of Fe3...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Associated with Microbial Reduction of Fe3+ and Oxidation of Fe2+ in Solid Minerals . Biomineralization Associated with Microbial Reduction of Fe3+ and Oxidation of Fe2+...

  15. Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron. Evidence for Localization of Reaction Upon Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Granular Iron....

  16. Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile Route to Synthesis of Soluble Graphene Nanosheets. Polyelectrolyte-Induced Reduction of Exfoliated Graphite Oxide: A Facile...

  17. Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and Light Vehicles Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and...

  18. Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  19. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report...

  20. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous...

  1. DOE Program Resources and Tools for Petroleum Reduction in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Petroleum Reduction in the Transportation Sector Webinar Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: DOE Program Resources and Tools for Petroleum Reduction in the...

  2. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving...

  3. Sulfur Isotopes as Indicators of Amended Bacterial Sulfate Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Amended Bacterial Sulfate Reduction Processes Influencing Field Scale Uranium Bioremediation. Sulfur Isotopes as Indicators of Amended Bacterial Sulfate Reduction Processes...

  4. Theoretical Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity ofUltrathin Platinum Nanowires. Theoretical Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity...

  5. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique...

  6. Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Bimetallic and Ternary Alloys for Improved Oxygen Reduction Catalysis . Abstract: The research described in...

  7. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Status and Cost Reduction Prospects EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects Presentation given by technology manager David Howell at the EV...

  8. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US...

  9. CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  10. Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off-Road Equipment Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off-Road Equipment Poster presentation at the 2007...

  11. Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI...

  12. EPA Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    accepting applications for the Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program to support pollution preventionsource reduction andor resource conservation projects that reduce or...

  13. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum...

  14. assess viscosity reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    frequency distributions of load reduction Vander Zanden, Jake 11 ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS University of California eScholarship...

  15. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  16. Effect of bacterium Oceanospirillum on the corrosion potential and oxygen reduction of AISI 4340 steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popova, Snezana N.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . In view of the electrochemical nature of metallic corrosion, it is reasonable to study MIC utilizing electrochemical techniques(1 ? 6). An excellent technical review of electrochemical techniques applied to microbiologically influenced corrosion... on a metal surface will interfere with the electrochemical reactions (hydrogen and oxygen reduction) which control the corrosion rates. Most confirmed cases of microbial corrosion are localized and include: pitting, selective leaching and stress...

  17. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  18. Bolt Manufacture: Process Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    file · Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 3 D P i ti· 3-D Printing · Light Engineered Net Shaping (LENS Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 20 #12;3D Printing Process (Soligen) ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 21 #12;3D Printing Head (Soligen)3D Printing

  19. Waste reduction at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, W.E.; Lee, R.A.; Reynolds, R.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation for the production and research of nuclear materials for national defense and peace time applications and has been operating a full nuclear fuel cycle since the early 1950s. Wastes generated include high level radioactive, transuranic, low level radioactive, hazardous, mixed, sanitary, and aqueous wastes. Much progress has been made during the last several years to reduce these wastes including management systems, characterization, and technology programs. The reduction of wastes generated and the proper handling of the wastes have always been a part of the Site's operation. This paper summarizes the current status and future plans with respect to waste reduction to waste reduction and reviews some specific examples of successful activities.

  20. Waste reduction at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, W.E.; Lee, R.A.; Reynolds, R.W.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation for the production and research of nuclear materials for national defense and peace time applications and has been operating a full nuclear fuel cycle since the early 1950s. Wastes generated include high level radioactive, transuranic, low level radioactive, hazardous, mixed, sanitary, and aqueous wastes. Much progress has been made during the last several years to reduce these wastes including management systems, characterization, and technology programs. The reduction of wastes generated and the proper handling of the wastes have always been a part of the Site`s operation. This paper summarizes the current status and future plans with respect to waste reduction to waste reduction and reviews some specific examples of successful activities.

  1. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

  2. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  3. Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

  4. Australia's Humanitarian Action Policy and Disaster Risk Reduction Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botea, Adi

    to get more information Disaster Risk Reduction Team Disaster Prevention and Risk Reduction Section GrantAustralia's Humanitarian Action Policy and Disaster Risk Reduction Policy A Commitment: · Disaster risk reduction is integrated into the Australian aid program · Capacity of partner governments

  5. THE ECONOMIC PAYOFF FOR GLOBAL WARMING EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr. Sam; V. Shelton; Laura A. Schaefer

    efficiency technology, such as residential electric heat pump water heaters, can cause carbon reduction to

  6. Haul truck selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, D.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Haul truck selection involves the consideration of a vast amount of information before the final decision is made. This judgment should not be made simply on the choice of power train, because to go for mechanical or electric drive has always been a case of horses for courses. Some sites are just better suited to electric drive. It could, for instance, be argued that coming out of deep mines with long haul roads is an ideal application for electric drive, but negotiating steep down gradients fully laden would favor mechanical drive. Engine selection on the other hand is easier to define but normally is the direct responsibility of the customer, with the truck manufacturer acting as impartial adviser. Understandably each will offer engines it believes to be well matched to the truck and to the site application requirements. Long term mine planning with careful attention to future equipment requirements is the key to all equipment purchases. This paper discusses the various considerations.

  7. Selecting a Consulting Forester

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ER-038 5-06 Selecting a Consulting Forester Eric L. Taylor, Extension Specialist, and C. Darwin Foster, Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader for Forestry, The Texas A&M University System A consulting forester is an independent... forest management experience does the for- ester have and in what capacity? ? In what professional or forestry-related organizations is the forester an active member? Recognized professional organizations include the Association of Consulting...

  8. Dissimilatory Metal Reduction by Anaeromyxobacter Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qingzhong Wu; Cornell Gayle; Frank Löffler; Sanford, Robert

    2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent findings suggest that Anaeromyxobacter populations play relevant roles in metal and radionuclide reduction and immobilization at contaminated DOE sites. This research effort will characterize Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C as well as other Anaeromyxobacter isolates in hand, and assess their contribution towards metal detoxification and plume stabilization under environmentally relevant conditions.

  9. 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton University Reports Contents 2 Key Achievements 7 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Campus Energy was established in 2008, the University has invested $5.3 million in energy-savings projects, resulting in annual of a 5.2-megawatt solar collector field. · Audit the remaining 20 of the top 50 energy- consuming

  10. Cyclone reduction of taconite. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-latif, M.A.; Hou, X.; Kumar, P. [College of Mines and Earth Resources, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone reactor system for the partial reduction and melting of taconite concentrate fines has been engineered, designed and operated. A non-transferred arc plasma torch was employed as a heat source. Taconite fines, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were fed axially into the reactor, while the plasma gas was introduced tangentially into the cyclone. The average reactor temperature was maintained at above 1400{degrees}C, and reduction experiments were performed under various conditions. The influence of the following parameters on the reduction of taconite was investigated experimentally; carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inlet feed ratio, carbon monoxide inlet partial pressure, and average reactor temperature. The interactions of the graphite lining with carbon dioxide and taconite were also studied. An attempt was made to characterize the flow behavior of the molten product within the cyclone. The results suggest that the system may approach a plug flow reactor, with little back mixing. Finally, a fundamental mathematical model was developed. The model describes the flow dynamics of gases and solid particles in a cyclone reactor, energy exchange, mass transfer, and the chemical kinetics associated with cyclone smelting of taconite concentrate fines. The influence of the various parameters on the reduction and melting of taconite particles was evaluated theoretically.

  11. Timelike reduction and T-duality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scuro, Sante Rodolfo

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expressions for the Killing sailors in Anti-de Sitter spacetime of odd dimension with respect to the field reparametrization in the bosonic sector. In addition, we perform Kaluza-Klein reduction along the time direction of D = 10 type IIB theory to D = 9. Then...

  12. Genome of Geobacter sulfurreducens: Metal Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    and in the generation of electricity. G. sulfurreducens, a member of the - Proteobacteria and of the family GeobacterGenome of Geobacter sulfurreducens: Metal Reduction in Subsurface Environments B. A. Methe´,1 * K. Utterback,1 S. E. Van Aken,1 D. R. Lovley,2 C. M. Fraser1 The complete genome sequence of Geobacter

  13. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  14. Task Performance is Prioritized Over Energy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Task Performance is Prioritized Over Energy Reduction Ravi Balasubramanian*, Member, IEEE, Robert requirements were increased. These results indicated that task performance may be prioritized over energy main results: (1) More trials were required for a brief contact task to find a low-energy strategy when

  15. Can fermions save large N dimensional reduction?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Michael I. Buchoff; Aleksey Cherman; Roxanne P. Springer

    2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores whether Eguchi-Kawai reduction for gauge theories with adjoint fermions is valid. The Eguchi-Kawai reduction relates gauge theories in different numbers of dimensions in the large $N$ limit provided that certain conditions are met. In principle, this relation opens up the possibility of learning about the dynamics of 4D gauge theories through techniques only available in lower dimensions. Dimensional reduction can be understood as a special case of large $N$ equivalence between theories related by an orbifold projection. In this work, we focus on the simplest case of dimensional reduction, relating a 4D gauge theory to a 3D gauge theory via an orbifold projection. A necessary condition for the large N equivalence between the 4D and 3D theories to hold is that certain discrete symmetries in the two theories must not be broken spontaneously. In pure 4D Yang-Mills theory, these symmetries break spontaneously as the size of one of the spacetime dimensions shrinks. An analysis of the effect of adjoint fermions on the relevant symmetries of the 4D theory shows that the fermions help stabilize the symmetries. We consider the same problem from the point of view of the lower dimensional 3D theory and find that, surprisingly, adjoint fermions are not generally enough to stabilize the necessary symmetries of the 3D theory. In fact, a rich phase diagram arises, with a complicated pattern of symmetry breaking. We discuss the possible causes and consequences of this finding.

  16. Timelike reduction and T-duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scuro, Sante Rodolfo

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expressions for the Killing sailors in Anti-de Sitter spacetime of odd dimension with respect to the field reparametrization in the bosonic sector. In addition, we perform Kaluza-Klein reduction along the time direction of D = 10 type IIB theory to D = 9. Then...

  17. Equimultiplicity, reduction, and blowing up.pdf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reduction of .1 if lJn = Jm1 for some integer n; or, eguivalently, if J is contained in the ...... 5/955; so if q is a minimal prime divisor of mR, and Rq is flat over S, then.

  18. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P{sup +} from PH{sub 3}. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P{sup +}, As{sup +}, and B{sup +} without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices. 6 figs.

  19. Selective ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ion source is described wherein selected ions maybe extracted to the exclusion of unwanted ion species of higher ionization potential. Also described is a method of producing selected ions from a compound, such as P.sup.+ from PH.sub.3. The invention comprises a plasma chamber, an electron source, a means for introducing a gas to be ionized by electrons from the electron source, means for limiting electron energy from the electron source to a value between the ionization energy of the selected ion species and the greater ionization energy of an unwanted ion specie, and means for extracting the target ion specie from the plasma chamber. In one embodiment, the electrons are generated in a plasma cathode chamber immediately adjacent to the plasma chamber. A small extractor draws the electrons from the plasma cathode chamber into the relatively positive plasma chamber. The energy of the electrons extracted in this manner is easily controlled. The invention is particularly useful for doping silicon with P.sup.+, AS.sup.+, and B.sup.+ without the problematic presence of hydrogen, helium, water, or carbon oxide ions. Doped silicon is important for manufacture of semiconductors and semiconductor devices.

  20. Exploring the Genome and Proteome of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB2 for its Protein Complexes Involved in Metal Reduction and Dechlorination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, Christina Harzman, John K. Davis, Rachel Hutcheson, Joan B. Broderick, Terence L. Marsh, James M. Tiedje.

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Desulfitobacteria are of interest to DOE mission because of their ability to reduce many electron acceptors including Fe(III), U(VI), Cr(VI), As(V), Mn(IV), Se(VI), NO3- and well as CO2, sulfite, fumarate and humates, their ability to colonize more stressful environments because they form spores, fix nitrogen and they have the more protective Gram positive cell walls. Furthermore at least some of them reductively dechlorinate aromatic and aliphatic pollutants. Importantly, most of the metals and the organochlorine reductions are coupled to ATP production and support growth providing for the organism's natural selection at DOE's contaminant sites. This work was undertaken to gain insight into the genetic and metabolic pathways involved in dissimilatory metal reduction and reductive dechlorination, (ii) to discern the commonalities among these electron-accepting processes, (iii) to identify multi-protein complexes catalyzing these functions and (iv) to elucidate the coordination in expression of these pathways and processes.

  1. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  2. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  3. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. The effort in this quarter has concentrated on installing the CFBC Facility and for conducting cold fluidization operations tests in the CFBC facility. The assembly of the ash recirculation pipe duct from the cyclones back to the bed area of the combustor, including the upper and lower loop seals was completed. The electric bed pre-heater was installed to heat the fluidizing air as it enters the wind box. The induced draft fan along with its machine base and power supply was received and installed. The flue gas duct from secondary cyclone outlet to induced draft fan inlet was received and installed, as well as the induced fan flue gas discharge duct. Pressure testing from the forced draft fan to the outlet of the induced fan was completed. In related research a pilot-scale halogen addition test was conducted in the empty slipstream reactor (without (Selective Catalytic Reduction) SCR catalyst loading) and the SCR slipstream reactor with two commercial SCR catalysts. The greatest benefits of conducting slipstream tests can be flexible control and isolation of specific factors. This facility is currently used in full-scale utility and will be combined into 0.6MW CFBC in the future. This work attempts to first investigate performance of the SCR catalyst in the flue gas atmosphere when burning Powder River Basin (PRB), including the impact of PRB coal flue gas composition on the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) under SCR conditions. Secondly, the impacts of hydrogen halogens (Hydrogen fluoride (HF), Hydrogen chloride (HCl), Hydrogen Bromide (HBr) and Hydrogen Iodine (HI)) on Hg(0) oxidation and their mechanisms can be explored.

  4. 10.1177/0270467605279324BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / October 2005Imboela / POVERTY REDUCTION IN ZAMBIA Poverty Reduction in Zambia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    10.1177/0270467605279324BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / October 2005Imboela / POVERTY REDUCTION IN ZAMBIA Poverty Reduction in Zambia: A Conceptual Analysis of the Zambian Poverty Reduction Poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) present a recipient country's program of intent for the utiliza

  5. SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

  6. Manganese sulfide formation via concomitant microbial manganese oxide and thiosulfate reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Moore, Dean A.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Reed, Samantha B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced {gamma}-MnS (rambergite) nanoparticles during the concurrent reduction of MnO{sub 2} and thiosulfate coupled to H{sub 2} oxidation. To investigate effect of direct microbial reduction of MnO{sub 2} on MnS formation, two MR-1 mutants defective in outer membrane c-type cytochromes ({Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA and {Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA/{Delta}mtrF) were also used and it was determined that direct reduction of MnO{sub 2} was dominant relative to chemical reduction by biogenic sulfide generated from thiosulfate reduction. Although bicarbonate was excluded from the medium, incubations of strain MR-1 with lactate as the electron donor produced MnCO{sub 3} (rhodochrosite) as well as MnS in nearly equivalent amounts as estimated by micro X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) analysis. It was concluded that carbonate released from lactate metabolism promoted MnCO{sub 3} formation and that Mn(II) mineralogy was strongly affected by carbonate ions even in the presence of abundant sulfide and weakly alkaline conditions expected to favor the precipitation of MnS. Formation of MnS, as determined by a combination of micro-XRD, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction analyses was consistent with equilibrium speciation modeling predictions. Biogenic manganese sulfide may be a manganese sink in the Mn biogeochemical cycle in select environments such as deep anoxic marine basins within the Baltic Sea.

  7. Technetium reduction in sediments of a shallow aquifer exhibiting dissimilatory iron reduction potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    mechanisms, constraints on Tc solubility, and the oxidation state, and speciation of sediment reduction of medical and defense nuclear waste. During spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, 99 Tc(IV)O2 is solubilized

  8. Novel reactions of a neutral organic reductant : reductive coupling and nanoparticle synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mork, Anna Jolene

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently developed bis-pyridinylidene neutral organic electron donor captured our interest as a potential source of new chemistries for reductive coupling and the synthesis of group IV nanoparticles. This super electron ...

  9. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection

  10. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection

  11. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection32.1

  12. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection32.1

  13. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection32.150.1

  14. Source Selection Guide

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 Source Selection32.150.1

  15. PDSF Selected Announcements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize832 2.860Selected Announcements PDSF

  16. Graduate Program Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heat PumpJorgeAtlGrad. StudentsSelection Process

  17. Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

    A joint research effort is being conducted on ways to produce cost-effective pulping catalysts from lignin. This project addresses improving selectivities and reducing the levels of sulfur chemicals used in pulping. Improved selectivity means...

  18. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  19. Multi-Site Energy Reduction Through Teamwork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tutterow, V.; Walters, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-Site Energy Reduction Through Teamwork Thomas R. Theising Energy/Waste Management and Procurement Manager BASF Corporation Freeport, Texas ABSTRACT Energy Teams were established at seven locations in Tennessee, Texas... to the business. The completion of an energy audit will leave a laundry list of ideas to be considered. The energy management process, at the Site level, begins at this point. At BASF, we have found the most successful method of evaluating...

  20. Dimensional reduction without continuous extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut, Lebanon and I.H.E.S. F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)] [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut, Lebanon and I.H.E.S. F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Froehlich, J.; Schubnel, B. [ETHZ, Mathematics and Physics Departments, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [ETHZ, Mathematics and Physics Departments, Zuerich (Switzerland); Wyler, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a novel approach to dimensional reduction in classical field theory. Inspired by ideas from noncommutative geometry, we introduce extended algebras of differential forms over space-time, generalized exterior derivatives, and generalized connections associated with the 'geometry' of space-times with discrete extra dimensions. We apply our formalism to theories of gauge- and gravitational fields and find natural geometrical origins for an axion- and a dilaton field, as well as a Higgs field.

  1. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Chandre

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac-Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed.

  2. Radiological Threat Reduction | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations:Radiological Threat Reduction SHARE

  3. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  4. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  5. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  6. Reduction potentials of vesicle-bound viologens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabin Lei; Hurst, J.K. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton (United States))

    1991-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamic reduction potentials have been determined by using spectroelectrochemical and cyclic voltammetric methods for a homologous series of amphiphilic ciologens (N-methyl-N{prime}-alkyl-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium ions, C{sub n}MV{sup 2+}) in a variety of media, including dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP), dioctadecylimethylammonium, and phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles. In general, potentials for both one-electron steps, i.e., C{sub n}MV{sup 2+} + e{sup {minus}} {yields} C{sub n}MV{sup +} and C{sub n}MV{sup +} + e{sup {minus}} {yields} C{sub n}MV{sup 0}, were insensitive to the alkyl chain length, which was varied over the range n = 6{minus}20. The single exception was a large decrease ({approximately}100 mV) in the first reduction potential for DHP-bound viologens when the chain length was increased from n = 10 to n = 12; this effect was attributed to a change in binding topography. The magnitudes of the reduction potentials were highly dependent upon the vesicle charge; the pattern observed indicated that interfacial electrostatic interactions between the surfactant headgroups and bipyridinium rings were the dominant factors determining the potentials. As discussed in the text, the data allow resolution of several heretofore puzzling observations concerning viologen reactivities in microphase suspensions.

  7. Self-Reduction Rate of a Microtubule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hiramatsu; Tetsuo Matsui; Kazuhiko Sakakibara

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate and study a quantum field theory of a microtubule, a basic element of living cells. Following the quantum theory of consciousness by Hameroff and Penrose, we let the system to reduce to one of the classical states without measurement if certain conditions are satisfied(self-reductions), and calculate the self-reduction time $\\tau_N$ (the mean interval between two successive self-reductions) of a cluster consisting of more than $N$ neighboring tubulins (basic units composing a microtubule). $\\tau_N$ is interpreted there as an instance of the stream of consciousness. We analyze the dependence of $\\tau_N$ upon $N$ and the initial conditions, etc. For relatively large electron hopping amplitude, $\\tau_N$ obeys a power law $\\tau_N \\sim N^b$, which can be explained by the percolation theory. For sufficiently small values of the electron hopping amplitude, $\\tau_N$ obeys an exponential law, $\\tau_N \\sim \\exp(c' N)$. By using this law, we estimate the condition for $\\tau_N $ to take realistic values $\\tau_N$ \\raisebox{-0.5ex}{$\\stackrel{>}{\\sim}$} $10^{-1}$ sec as $N$ \\raisebox{-0.5ex} {$\\stackrel{>}{\\sim}$} 1000.

  8. Manganese sulfide formation via concomitant microbial manganese oxide and thiosulfate reduction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Moore, Dean A.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Reed, Samantha B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced ?-MnS (rambergite) nanoparticles under the concurrent reduction of synthetic MnO2 and thiosulfate coupled to H2 oxidation. Using two MR-1 mutants defective in outer membrane c-type cytochromes (?mtrC/?omcA and ?mtrC/?omcA/?mtrF) to eliminate the direct reduction pathway for solid electron acceptors, it was determined that respiratory reduction of MnO2 was dominant relative to chemical reduction by biogenic sulfide generated from bacterial thiosulfate reduction. Although bicarbonate was excluded from the medium, incubations of MR-1 using lactate as the sole electron donor produced MnCO3 (rhodochrosite) as well as MnS in nearly equivalent amounts as estimated by micro X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) analysis. It was concluded that carbonate released from lactate metabolism promoted MnCO3 formation and that Mn(II) mineralogy was strongly affected by carbonate ions even in the presence of abundant sulfide and weakly alkaline conditions that favor the precipitation of MnS. Formation of the biogenic MnS, as determined by a combination of micro-XRD, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction analyses was consistent with equilibrium speciation modeling predictions. Although biogenic MnS likely only forms and is stable over a relatively narrow range of conditions, it may be a significant sink for Mn in anoxic marine basins and terrestrial subsurface sediments where Mn and sulfur compounds are undergoing concurrent reduction.

  9. Program selects proppants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M.C.A.

    1984-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory-measured proppant flow data must be adjusted prudently to give correct in situ fracture proppant flow capacity data. These in situ data determine the actual performance of the proppant. The well data, fracture geometry, fracture proppant flow capacity, gas price, and proppant cost all determine the selection of an appropriate proppant. For closure stress below 8,000 psi, the choice of either sand or intermediate proppant is affected by all these factors. Thus, intermediate proppant in a well with low closure stress can be more beneficial than sand. A well with closure stress nearing 7,000 psi can use sand and be profitable. Above 8,000 psi closure stress, most experts agree that only intermediate or high strength proppant can be used.

  10. Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Mult-Pollutant Control Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel P. Connell; James E. Locke

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-megawatt (MW) Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/induct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. Testing was conducted through ports located at the inlet and outlet of the SCR reactor to evaluate the performance of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system, as well as through ports located at the air heater outlet and baghouse outlet or stack to determine pollutant removal efficiencies across the Turbosorp{reg_sign} scrubber and baghouse. Data from the unit's stack continuous emission monitor (CEM) were also used for determining attainment of the performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions and SO{sub 2} removal efficiency.

  11. DEFORMATION-BASED NONLINEAR DIMENSION REDUCTION: APPLICATIONS TO NUCLEAR MORPHOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Geoffrey J.

    DEFORMATION-BASED NONLINEAR DIMENSION REDUCTION: APPLICATIONS TO NUCLEAR MORPHOMETRY Gustavo K, contrary to common intuition, the most likely nuclear shape configuration is not symmetric. Index Terms-- Nuclear shape analysis, nonlinear, dimension reduction, image registration. 1. INTRODUCTION Under

  12. Competitive Energy Reduction (CER) Campaign at the University of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    1 Competitive Energy Reduction (CER) Campaign at the University of Texas Scientists and Engineers Reduction Campaign at the University of Texas Energy Reduced by Enlisting Volunteers and Promoting .................................................................................................................................................10 Appendix A ­ Lab Energy Audit Checklist

  13. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 · www.nrel.gov Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap

  14. Radiation-Induced Reduction of Ceria in Single and Polycrystalline...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation-Induced Reduction of Ceria in Single and Polycrystalline Thin Films. Radiation-Induced Reduction of Ceria in Single and Polycrystalline Thin Films. Abstract: Ceria (CeO2)...

  15. Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

  16. Nickel-catalysed reductive aldol cyclisation: scope and mechanistic insight 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fordyce, Euan Alexander Fraser

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly diastereoselective nickel-catalysed reductive aldol cyclisation is described. Using Ni(acac)2 as a precatalyst and diethylzinc as a stoichiometric reductant, various ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds tethered through an amide or ester...

  17. Integrated Assessment of the Energy Savings and Emissions-Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of the Energy Savings and Emissions-Reduction Potential of CHP, June 1999 Integrated Assessment of the Energy Savings and Emissions-Reduction Potential of CHP, June 1999...

  18. Identify Petroleum Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As defined by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction strategies for Federal vehicles and equipment are based on the three driving principles of petroleum reduction: Reduce vehicle miles traveled Improve fuel efficiency Use alternative fuels.

  19. arteries dose reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    artery Price, Paul A. 8 a 50% reduction in Prlr gene dose, provides strong evidence for PRL being the mediator Geosciences Websites Summary: a 50% reduction in Prlr gene dose,...

  20. RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag reduction using superhydrophobic sanded Teflon surfaces Dong Song · Robert J- phobic surfaces with random surface microstructure. These superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated was found to produce the largest pressure drop reduction. 1 Introduction Superhydrophobic surfaces can

  1. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  2. Global recycling services for short and long term risk reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arslan, M.; Grygiel, J.M.; Drevon, C.; Lelievre, F.; Lesage, M.; Vincent, O. [AREVA, 33 rue Lafayette, F-75009 Paris (France)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New schemes are being developed by AREVA in order to provide global solutions for safe and non-proliferating management of used fuels, thereby significantly contributing to overall risks reduction and sustainable nuclear development. Utilities are thereby provided with a service through which they will be able to send their used fuels and only get returned vitrified and compacted waste, the only waste remaining after reprocessing. This waste is stable, standard and has demonstrated capability for very long term interim storage. They are provided as well with associated facilities and all necessary services for storage in a demonstrated safely manner. Recycled fuels, in particular MOX, would be used either in existing LWRs or in a very limited number of full MOX reactors (like the EPR reactor), located in selected countries, that will recycle MOX so as to downgrade the isotopic quality of the Pu inventories in a significant manner. Reprocessed uranium also can be recycled. These schemes, on top of offering demonstrated operational advantages and a responsible approach, result into optimized economics for all shareholders of the scheme, as part of reactor financing (under Opex or Capex form) will be secured thanks to the value of the recycled flows. It also increases fuel cost predictability as recycled fuel is not subject to market fluctuations as much and allows, in a limited span of time, for clear risk mitigation. (authors)

  3. Heterobimetallic complexes for CO reduction: Final report, March 1, 1985--January 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stille, J.K.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was to synthesize certain homogeneous heterobimetallic catalysts, containing both an early and a late transition metal, that would reduce carbon monoxide selectively under mild reaction conditions. Because there are a number of examples of heterogeneous catalysts which are mixed metal oxides or mixed alloy catalysts that reduce carbon monoxide under relatively mild conditions more selectively than a catalyst composed only of one metal, heterobimetallic catalyst synthesis was emphasized. Complexes containing combinations of early (Mo, W) and late (Co, Fe, Ru) transition metals that could be expected to activate carbon monoxide most effectively were primary targets. The late transition metals were selected because they are the most efficient in heterogeneous catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch and other carbon monoxide reductions. As models for reactions occurring in the reduction of CO, some key reactions of certain dinuclear palladium complexes were observed. The reaction of the dimer containing a hydride and a methyl on adjacent palladiums with CO gives an acyl complex that eliminates acetaldehyde. Iron-tungsten complexes bridged by a phosphino cyclopentadienyl ligand, and containing hydride and carbonyl were prepared. A new method of synthesizing homo- and heterodinuclear complexes containing two bridging cyclopentadienyl ligands was developed. 82 refs.

  4. Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J. [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

  5. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (adapted from ref. 1). Technology Approximate Reduction (%) Approximate Emissions (lb/MMBtu) Standard Burners Base Case 0.14 Low-NOx Burners (LNB) 60% 0.06 Ultra-Low-NOx- Burners (ULNB) 80 – 95% 0.007 – 0.03 Flue Gas Recirculation 55% 0..., and oxidizer switching. Fuel switching is simply replacing a more polluting fuel with a less polluting fuel. For example, fuel oils generally contain some organically-bound nitrogen that produces fuel NOx. Natural gas does not normally contain any...

  6. Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

  7. Process simulation of aluminum reduction cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabsh, I. [CompuSIM Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dupuis, M. [GeniSim, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada); Gomes, A. [Alcan Aluminio do Brasil S.A., Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program was developed to model the dynamic behavior of an aluminum reduction cell. The program simulates the physical process by solving the heat and mass balance equations that characterize the behavior of eleven chemical species in the system. It also models operational events (such as metal tapping, anode change, etc.) and the process control logic including various alumina feeding policies and anode effect quenching. The program is a PC based Windows{reg_sign} application that takes full advantage of the Windows user interface. This paper describes the implementation of the process model and the control logic. Various results using the simulation are compared to measured data.

  8. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    ELECTRICAL COST REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used... to replace pressure reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between...

  9. Steam Pressure Reduction Opportunities and Issues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, J.; Griffin, B.; Wright, A. L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM PRESSURE REDUCTION, OPPORTUNITIES, AND ISSUES Jan Berry, CEM U.S. DOE BestPractices Steam Coordinator Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6070 berryjb@ornl.gov Phone: 865-241-1939 Bob Griffin, PE Energy... Solutions Manager Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. P.O. Box 650, Scarborough, ON Canada, M1K 5E3 robert.griffin@enbridge.com Phone: 416-495-5298 Fax: 416-495-5331 Anthony L. Wright, Ph.D. U.S. DOE BestPractices Coordinator Oak Ridge National...

  10. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the public's awareness increased, industry began looking for new strategies to curb NOx emissions. The strategies for reducing NOx are discussed next. Table 1 shows a summary of common NOx control technologies [1]. Table 1 NOx reduction technologies... for NOx Control, in Industrial Combustion Technologies, ed. by M.A. Lukasiewicz, American Society of Metals, Warren, PA, pp. 345-350, 1986. 7. A. Garg, Trimming NOx, Chem Eng., Vol. 99, No. 11, pp. 122-124, 1992. 8. C.E. Baukal, Industrial Combustion...

  11. Paperwork Reduction Act Submission (OMB 83-I)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHA Administrative Judge issuedEnergy1ofPAPERWORK REDUCTION ACTPA

  12. National Idling Reduction Network News - October 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum |Energy November 2013 National Idling Reduction

  13. National Idling Reduction Network News - October 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum |Energy November 2013 National Idling Reduction0

  14. Technology Evaluation for Conditioning of Hanford Tank Waste Using Solids Segregation and Size Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restivo, Michael L.; Stone, M. E.; Herman, D. T.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Duignan, Mark R.; Smith, Gary L.; Wells, Beric E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory team performed a literature search on current and proposed technologies for solids segregation and size reduction of particles in the slurry feed from the Hanford Tank Farm. The team also investigated technology research performed on waste tank slurries, both real and simulated, and reviewed academic theory applicable to solids segregation and size reduction. This review included text book applications and theory, commercial applications suitable for a nuclear environment, research of commercial technologies suitable for a nuclear environment, and those technologies installed in a nuclear environment, including technologies implemented at Department of Energy facilities. Information on each technology is provided in this report along with the advantages and disadvantages of the technologies for this application. Any technology selected would require testing to verify the ability to meet the High-Level Waste Feed Waste Acceptance Criteria to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Pretreatment Facility.

  15. Studies on the reduction kinetics of hematite iron ore pellets with noncoking coals for sponge iron plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, M.; Mohapatra, P.; Patel, S.K. [National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present investigation, fired pellets were made by mixing hematite iron ore fines of -100, -16+18, and -8+10 mesh size in different ratios and studies on their reduction kinetics in Lakhanpur, Orient OC-2 and Belpahar coals were carried out at temperatures ranging from 850{sup o}C to 1000{sup o}C with a view toward promoting the massive utilization of fines in ironmaking. The rate of reduction in all the fired iron ore pellets increased markedly with an increase in temperature up to 1000{sup o}C, and it was more intense in the first 30min. The values of activation energy, calculated from integral and differential approaches, for the reduction of fired pellets (prepared from iron ore fines of -100 mesh size) in coals were found to be in the range 131-148 and 130-181 kJ mol{sup -1} (for =0.2 to 0.8), indicating the process is controlled by a carbon gasification reaction. The addition of selected larger size particles in the matrix of -100 mesh size fines up to the extent studied decreased the activation energy and slightly increased the reduction rates of resultant fired pellets. In comparison to coal, the reduction of fired pellets in char was characterized by significantly lower reduction rates and higher activation energy.

  16. Termination and Reduction Checking for HigherOrder Logic Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pientka, Brigitte

    Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher­Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax­directed termination and reduction checker for higher­order logic programs and output of well­moded predicates. These reduction con­ straints are exploited during termination checking

  17. Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pientka, Brigitte

    Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax-directed termination and reduction checker for higher-order logic programs and output of well-moded predicates. These reduction con- straints are exploited during termination checking

  18. Turbulent drag reduction through oscillating discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Daniel J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The changes of a turbulent channel flow subjected to oscillations of wall flush-mounted rigid discs are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number is $R_\\tau$=$180$, based on the friction velocity of the stationary-wall case and the half channel height. The primary effect of the wall forcing is the sustained reduction of wall-shear stress, which reaches a maximum of 20%. A parametric study on the disc diameter, maximum tip velocity, and oscillation period is presented, with the aim to identify the optimal parameters which guarantee maximum drag reduction and maximum net energy saving, computed by taking into account the power spent to actuate the discs. This may be positive and reaches 6%. The Rosenblat viscous pump flow is used to predict the power spent for disc motion in the turbulent channel flow and to estimate localized and transient regions over the disc surface subjected to the turbulent regenerative braking effect, for which the wall turbulence exerts work on the discs. The...

  19. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew [Sellafield Ltd, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  20. Extragalactic database. VII Reduction of astrophysical parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Paturel; H. Andernach; L. Bottinelli; H. Di Nella; N. Durand; R. Garnier; L. Gouguenheim; P. Lanoix; M. C. Marthinet; C. Petit; J. Rousseau; G. Theureau; I. Vauglin

    1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic database (LEDA) gives a free access to the main astrophysical parameters for more than 100,000 galaxies. The most common names are compiled allowing users to recover quickly any galaxy. All these measured astrophysical parameters are first reduced to a common system according to well defined reduction formulae leading to mean homogeneized parameters. Further, these parameters are also transformed into corrected parameters from widely accepted models. For instance, raw 21-cm line widths are transformed into mean standard widths after correction for instrumental effect and then into maximum velocity rotation properly corrected for inclination and non-circular velocity. This paper presents the reduction formulae for each parameter: coordinates, morphological type and luminosity class, diameter and axis ratio, apparent magnitude (UBV, IR, HI) and colors, maximum velocity rotation and central velocity dispersion, radial velocity, mean surface brightness, distance modulus and absolute magnitude, and group membership. For each of these parameters intermediate quantities are given: galactic extinction, inclination, K-correction etc.. All these parameters are available from direct connexion to LEDA (telnet lmc.univ-lyon1.fr, login: leda, no passwd OR http://www-obs.univ-lyon1.fr/leda ) and distributed on a standard CD-ROM (PGC-ROM 1996) by the Observatoire de Lyon via the CNRS (mail to petit@obs.univ-lyon1.fr).

  1. Multiprocessor switch with selective pairing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). Each paired microprocessor or processor cores that provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability connect with a system components such as a memory "nest" (or memory hierarchy), an optional system controller, and optional interrupt controller, optional I/O or peripheral devices, etc. The memory nest is attached to a selective pairing facility via a switch or a bus

  2. Los Alamos National Laboratory selects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    selects small businesses for nuclear waste services February 16, 2012 Subcontract worth up to 200 million over five years LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, February 16, 2012-Los Alamos...

  3. UESC Best Practices Subcontractor Selection

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Best Practices Subcontractor Selection Presented by: Patricia Nardone FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR May 7 - 8, 2014 Virginia Beach, VA Main Approaches * Utility...

  4. Personalized medicine: selected Web resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stimson, Nancy F

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Genomic and Personalized Medicine. 1 st ed. Amsterdam, thePersonalized medicine: selected Web resources Nancy F.Keywords: personalized medicine; personalized health care;

  5. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  6. Ex Ante Selection of Disputes for Litigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While selection effects have important implications for empirical studies of the litigation process, existing theories of case selection are incomplete. Existing theories focus on "ex post selection" - selection resulting from choices made...

  7. Face crack reduction strategy for particulate filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion. A control module initiates combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater and selectively adjusts oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter. A method comprises providing a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and at least one portion; initiating combustion of PM in the PM filter using a heater; selectively adjusting oxygen levels of the exhaust gas to adjust a temperature of combustion adjacent to the at least one portion of the PM filter.

  8. Method for oxygen reduction in a uranium-recovery process. [US DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.

    1981-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous iron and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

  9. Performing a local reduction operation on a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Faraj, Daniel A.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel computer including compute nodes, each including two reduction processing cores, a network write processing core, and a network read processing core, each processing core assigned an input buffer. Copying, in interleaved chunks by the reduction processing cores, contents of the reduction processing cores' input buffers to an interleaved buffer in shared memory; copying, by one of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network write processing core's input buffer to shared memory; copying, by another of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network read processing core's input buffer to shared memory; and locally reducing in parallel by the reduction processing cores: the contents of the reduction processing core's input buffer; every other interleaved chunk of the interleaved buffer; the copied contents of the network write processing core's input buffer; and the copied contents of the network read processing core's input buffer.

  10. Performing a local reduction operation on a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocksome, Michael A; Faraj, Daniel A

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel computer including compute nodes, each including two reduction processing cores, a network write processing core, and a network read processing core, each processing core assigned an input buffer. Copying, in interleaved chunks by the reduction processing cores, contents of the reduction processing cores' input buffers to an interleaved buffer in shared memory; copying, by one of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network write processing core's input buffer to shared memory; copying, by another of the reduction processing cores, contents of the network read processing core's input buffer to shared memory; and locally reducing in parallel by the reduction processing cores: the contents of the reduction processing core's input buffer; every other interleaved chunk of the interleaved buffer; the copied contents of the network write processing core's input buffer; and the copied contents of the network read processing core's input buffer.

  11. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental control technology. Final technical monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block. A second phase of the lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG) was also conducted simultaneously on the Pilot System this month. This month the ECTC was off-line from 6/9 through 6/19 to complete a Facility retrofit project. During this brief outage, modifications were made to the ECTC Flue Gas Handling System to enhance the facility capabilities, and to prepare for future High Velocity Wet FGD Testing. On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the low temperature performance testing resumed this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the new SCR catalysts.

  12. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and a simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). At the end of the month, a series of Duct Injection tests began in a study to determine the efficiencies of alkaline injection for removing trace elements (mercury). On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, low temperature performance testing continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the SCR reactor. This report describes the status of the facilities and test activities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  13. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  14. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  15. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; ? Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750°C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

  16. Guidance on site selection for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    harvestingbrash materialfollowingtimber harvestingto supply biomass for heat and power generation. A numberGuidance on site selection for brash removal Forest Research, May 2009 The Research Agency SELECTION FOR BRASH REMOVAL | Forest Research | May 09 #12;Brash Removal Background Interest is growingin

  17. Characterizing Commercial Sites Selected for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as solar thermal absorption chillers, building energy management systems, and advanced lighting. The twoCharacterizing Commercial Sites Selected for Energy Efficiency Monitoring This report presents data of Commercial Sites Selected for Energy Efficiency Monitoring Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office

  18. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES Site Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    IMPROVE STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES SOP 126 Site Selection Date Last Modified Modified by: 09 References none #12;SOP 126: Site Selection 3 1.0 PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY This standard operating procedure field conditions, and for ease of operation and maintenance. IMPROVE aerosol samplers are generally

  19. Hybrid membranes for selective carbon dioxide separation from fuel gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Luebke; Christina Myers; Henry Pennline [United States Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of hybrid membranes as a CO{sub 2} capture technology for integrated gasification combined cycle applications was evaluated. Commercial {gamma}-alumina supports were modified with a variety of trichlorosilanes intended to enhance the surface adsorption of CO{sub 2}. The resulting hybrids were characterized using X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and tested for performance in the separation of He and CO{sub 2}. The silanization temperature was determined to be important because membranes fabricated at 273 K had substantially different performance properties than those fabricated at room temperature. Specifically, the permeances of membranes modified with alkyltrichlorosilanes at reduced temperatures were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of membranes fabricated at room temperature, and the selectivities of these low-temperature silanized membranes were relatively similar to those expected from Knudsen diffusion. Supports modified with silanes containing one of a variety of functionalities were tested for CO{sub 2}/He selectivity. Membranes modified with 2-acetoxyethyl, 2-carbomethoxyethyl, and 3-aminopropyl groups exhibited CO{sub 2} selectivity, with the highest values approaching 7 for 2-carbomethoxyethyl-silated membranes at 50{sup o}C. Temperature dependences resulted in selectivity maxima for the 2-acetoxyethyl and 2-carbomethoxyethyl membranes. Mixed-gas selectivities were slightly higher than pure-gas selectivities because of a decrease in He permeance with a relatively minor reduction in CO{sub 2} permeance. Transport in the selective membranes is believed to occur by a combination of activated and solution diffusion for He and a combination of activated and surface diffusion for CO{sub 2}. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Srinivasan, Shiva (Greer, SC); Lynch, John Joseph (Wilmington, NC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Kim, Kwanwoo (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Crothers, Sarah (Greenville, SC); Singh, Kapil Kumar (Rexford, NY)

    2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction are provided. A combustion chamber may include a first premixer and a second premixer. Each premixer may include at least one fuel injector, at least one air inlet duct, and at least one vane pack for at least partially mixing the air from the air inlet duct or ducts and fuel from the fuel injector or injectors. Each vane pack may include a plurality of fuel orifices through which at least a portion of the fuel and at least a portion of the air may pass. The vane pack or packs of the first premixer may be positioned at a first axial position and the vane pack or packs of the second premixer may be positioned at a second axial position axially staggered with respect to the first axial position.