National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for reduction factors nitrogen

  1. Introduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoghdar, Vahid

    is attained in a post-catalyst homogeneous combustion zone.This process leads to substantial reduction of NOxIntroduction The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions is of great importance in practical emissions (typically NOx is produced exclusively from the gaseous (homogeneous) reaction path

  2. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  3. Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-05-27

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  4. Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-19

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  5. Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pence, Dallas T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Thomas R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1980-01-01

    Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

  6. Thermal signature reduction through liquid nitrogen and water injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guarnieri, Jason Antonio

    2005-02-17

    to the flow rate of exhaust gases, producing a small temperature reduction in the exhaust but no infrared shielding. Second, water was injected at a flow rate of 13% of the flow of exhaust gases, producing a greater temperature reduction and some shielding...

  7. Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  8. Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  9. NOx reduction aftertreatment system using nitrogen nonthermal plasma desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okubo, M.; Inoue, M.; Kuroki, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2005-08-01

    In the flue emission from an internal combustion system using diffusing combustion such as coal or oil fuel boiler, incinerator, or diesel engine, around 10% oxygen is usually included. It is difficult to reduce the NOx in the emission completely using catalysts or plasma alone because part of the NO is oxidized under an O{sub 2}-rich environment. In order to overcome these difficulties, we propose a new aftertreatment system of NOx included in the exhaust gas of the combustion system using nonthermal plasma (NTP) desorption and reduction. In this system, exchangeable adsorbent columns are equipped. As an initial step to realize such kind of aftertreatment system, the basic characteristics of the N{sub 2} NTP desorption and NOx reduction were examined experimentally using a pulse corona NTP reactor. After several adsorption/desorption processes, the amount of NOx adsorbed becomes equal to that of the NOx desorbed, that is, all the NO, was desorbed in a single desorption process. It is confirmed that the NOx complete reduction using N{sub 2} NTP desorption is possible not only for a simulated exhaust gas but for a real diesel engine gas. The effective specific energy density can be decreased down to 22 Wh/m{sup 3}.

  10. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  11. O2 Reduction on Graphite and Nitrogen-Doped Graphite: Experiment and Theory Reyimjan A. Sidik and Alfred B. Anderson*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    toward NOx reduction.7,8 Others are oxidation catalysts.9 In the case of NOx oxidation and O2 reductionO2 Reduction on Graphite and Nitrogen-Doped Graphite: Experiment and Theory Reyimjan A. Sidik for reduction of approximately 0.5 V (SHE) compared to the onset potential of 0.2 V observed for untreated

  12. Evaluation of Corona Reactors of Several Geometries for a Plasma Assisted Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herling, Darrell R.; Smith, Monty R.; Hemingway, Mark D.; Goulette, David; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2000-08-09

    Proposed vehicle emissions regulations for the near future have prompted automotive manufactures and component suppliers to focus heavily on developing more efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices to lower emissions from spark and compression ignition engines. One of the primary pollutants from lean-burn engines, especially from diesels, are oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Current three-way catalytic converters will not have adequate performance to meet future emission reduction requirements. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and engineers to develop efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. These devices must have very high conversion of NOx gases, be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity such as sulfur, and have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy. An effective technology for NOx control that is currently receiving a lot of attention is a non-thermal plasma system. This system is comprised of a two-stage corona generation device (plasma reactor) and reduction catalyst that reduces nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions to nitrogen.

  13. The Areal Reduction Factor (ARF) : a multifractal analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langousis, Andreas, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    The Areal Reduction Factor (ARF) [eta] is a key parameter in the design for hydrologic extremes. For a basin of area A, [eta](A, D, 7) is the ratio between the area-average rainfall intensity over a duration D with return ...

  14. Nitrogen-doped and simultaneously reduced graphene oxide with superior dispersion as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Cheol-Ho; Yun, Jin-Mun; Lee, Sungho; Jo, Seong Mu; Yoo, Sung Jong; Cho, Eun Ae; Khil, Myung-Seob; Joh, Han-Ik

    2014-11-15

    Nitrogen doped graphene oxide (Nr-GO) with properties suitable for electrocatalysts is easily synthesized using phenylhydrazine as a reductant at relatively low temperature. The reducing agent removes various oxygen functional groups bonded to graphene oxide and simultaneously dope the nitrogen atoms bonded with phenyl group all over the basal planes and edge sites of the graphene. The Nr-GO exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activities for oxygen reduction reaction compared to the commercial carbon black and graphene oxide due to the electronic modification of the graphene structure. In addition, Nr-GO shows excellent dispersibility in various solvent due to the dopant molecules.

  15. System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

    2014-04-08

    A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

  16. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Atul; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, Haroon; Mcguire, David; Post, Wilfred M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in global environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial carbon cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical carbon cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of global mean carbon uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s carbon sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial carbon sources and sinks.

  17. Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Lott, Stephen E. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Steven J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

  18. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Process for nitrogen oxides reduction with minimization of the production of other pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epperly, W.R.; O'Leary, J.H.; Sullivan, J.C.; Sprague, B.N.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a process for reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in an effluent while minimizing the production of other pollutants. It comprises: determining the condition of the effluent which exists at a location for introduction of a treatment agent; effecting a treatment regimen which comprises introducing a treatment agent comprising an ammonium salt of an organic acid having a carbon to nitrogen ratio of greater than 1:1 into the effluent to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration in the effluent under the determined effluent conditions while minimizing the production of other pollutants; monitoring the condition of the effluent until a significant alteration in the condition of the effluent is observed; and adjusting the treatment regimen by varying at least one of the following parameters: dilution and introduction rate of the hydrocarbon treatment agent; composition of the hydrocarbon treatment agent; and relative presence of the components of the hydrocarbon treatment agent.

  1. An examination of the role of plasma treatment for lean NOx reduction over sodium zeolite Y and gamma alumina Part 2. Formation of nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Steven; Panov, Alexander G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ebeling, Ana C.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, Mari Lou

    2002-03-15

    NOx reduction with NO2 as the NOx gas in the absence of plasma was compared to plasma treated lean NOx exhaust where NO is converted to NO2 in the plasma. Product nitrogen was measured to prove true chemical reduction of NOx to N2. With plasma treatment, NO as the NOx gas, and a NaY catalyst, the maximum conversion to nitrogen was 50% between 180-230?C. The activity decreased at higher and lower temperatures. At 130?C a complete nitrogen balance could be obtained, however between 164-227?C less than 20% of the NOx is converted to a nitrogen-containing compound or compounds not readily detected by GC or FTIR analysis. With plasma treatment, NO2 as the NOx gas, and a NaY catalyst, a complete nitrogen balance is obtained with a maximum conversion to nitrogen of 55% at 225?C. For gamma alumina, with plasma treatment and NO2 as the NOx gas, 59% of the NOx is converted to nitrogen at 340?C. A complete nitrogen balance was obtained at these conditions. As high as 80% NOx removal over gamma alumina was measured by a chemiluminescent NOx meter with plasma treatment and NO as the NOx gas. When NO is replaced with NO2 and the simulated exhaust gases are not plasma treated, the maximum NOx reduction activity of NaY and gamma alumina decreases to 26% and 10%, respectively. This is a large reduction in activity compared to similar conditions where the simulated exhaust was plasma treated. Therefore, in addition to NO2, other plasma-generated species are required to maximize NOx reduction.

  2. Process for nitrogen oxides reduction and minimization of the production of other pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epperly, W.R.; O'Leary, J.H.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes a process for reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in an effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel while minimizing the production of other pollutants. The process consists of: a. determining the condition of the effluent which exists at a location for introduction of a treatment agent; b. effecting a treatment regimen which comprises introducing a treatment agent into the effluent to treat the effluent to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration in the effluent under the determined effluent conditions while minimizing the production of other pollutants; c. monitoring the condition of the effluent until a significant alteration in the condition of the effluent is observed; d. adjusting the treatment regimen by varying at least one of the following parameters: (i) dilution and introduction rate of the treatment agent; (ii) components of the treatment agent; and (iii) relative presence of treatment agent components, to effect an adjusted treatment regimen, wherein the adjusted treatment regimen reduces the nitrogen oxides concentration in the effluent under the altered effluent condition while minimizing the production of other pollutants.

  3. Process for nitrogen oxides reduction with minimization of the production of other pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epperly, W.R.; O'Leary, J.H.; Sullivan, J.C.; Sprague, B.N.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes a process for reducing the concentration of nitrogen oxides in an effluent which is at a temperature below about 1450 {degrees}F while minimizing the production of other pollutants. The process comprising: determining the condition of the effluent which exists at a location for introduction of a treatment agent; effecting a treatment regimen which comprises introducing a treatment agent comprising a hydrocarbon into the effluent to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration in the effluent under the determined effluent conditions while minimizing the production of other pollutants; monitoring the condition of the effluent until a significant alteration in the condition of the effluent is observed; adjusting the treatment regimen by varying at least one of the following parameters: dilution and introduction rate of the hydrocarbon treatment agent; composition of the hydrocarbon treatment agent; and relative presence of the components of the hydrocarbon treatment agent, to effect an adjusted treatment regimen. Wherein the adjusted treatment regimen operates under conditions effective to reduce the nitrogen oxides concentration in the effluent under the altered effluent conditions.

  4. Nitrogen-doped carbon-supported cobalt-iron oxygen reduction catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang

    2014-04-29

    A Fe--Co hybrid catalyst for oxygen reaction reduction was prepared by a two part process. The first part involves reacting an ethyleneamine with a cobalt-containing precursor to form a cobalt-containing complex, combining the cobalt-containing complex with an electroconductive carbon supporting material, heating the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material under conditions suitable to convert the cobalt-containing complex and carbon supporting material into a cobalt-containing catalyst support. The second part of the process involves polymerizing an aniline in the presence of said cobalt-containing catalyst support and an iron-containing compound under conditions suitable to form a supported, cobalt-containing, iron-bound polyaniline species, and subjecting said supported, cobalt-containing, iron bound polyaniline species to conditions suitable for producing a Fe--Co hybrid catalyst.

  5. Nitrogen cycling in a changing world: Response of a California grassland to multiple global change factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carey, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    e.g. , plant growth, water and air quality, and habitat forand Nitrogen Leaching. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 177,restoration efforts, and air and water quality. This study

  6. Synergistic enhancement of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene with carbon nanospheres insertion for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Min; Xin, Huolin L.; Wang, Jie; Wu, Zexing; Wang, Deli

    2015-03-13

    A nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene/carbon black (NSGCB) nanocomposite for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was synthesized through a one-pot annealing of a precursor mixture containing graphene oxide, thiourea, and acidized carbon black (CB). The NSGCB showed excellent performance for the ORR with the onset and half-way potentials at 0.96 V and 0.81 V (vs. RHE), respectively. It is significantly improved over that of the catalysts derived from only graphene (0.90 V and 0.76 V) or carbon nanosphere (0.82 V and 0.74 V). The enhanced catalytic activity on the NSGCB electrode could be attributed to the synergistic effect of N/Smore »co-doping and the enlarged interlayer space resulted from the insertion of carbon nanosphere into the graphene sheets. The four-electron selectivity and the limiting current density of the NSGCB nanocomposite are comparable to that of the commercially Pt/C catalyst. Furthermore, the NSGCB nanocomposite was superior to Pt/C in terms of long-term durability and tolerance to methanol poisoning.« less

  7. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  8. Synergistic enhancement of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene with carbon nanospheres insertion for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Min [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xin, Huolin L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, Jie [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wu, Zexing [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang, Deli [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2015-01-01

    A nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene/carbon black (NSGCB) nanocomposite for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was synthesized through a one-pot annealing of a precursor mixture containing graphene oxide, thiourea, and acidized carbon black (CB). The NSGCB showed excellent performance for the ORR with the onset and half-way potentials at 0.96 V and 0.81 V (vs. RHE), respectively. It is significantly improved over that of the catalysts derived from only graphene (0.90 V and 0.76 V) or carbon nanosphere (0.82 V and 0.74 V). The enhanced catalytic activity on the NSGCB electrode could be attributed to the synergistic effect of N/S co-doping and the enlarged interlayer space resulted from the insertion of carbon nanosphere into the graphene sheets. The four-electron selectivity and the limiting current density of the NSGCB nanocomposite are comparable to that of the commercially Pt/C catalyst. Furthermore, the NSGCB nanocomposite was superior to Pt/C in terms of long-term durability and tolerance to methanol poisoning.

  9. Transformation of point rainfall to areal rainfall by estimating areal reduction factors, using radar data, for Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, Tarun Deep

    2005-08-29

    , 1958a, 1958b; Miller et al., 1973; Srikanthan, 1995). 2.1.1.1 Geographically Fixed Areal Reduction Factors Geographically fixed areal reduction factors (also known as Fixed Area) relate to rainfall at any arbitrary point. They are estimated from... based on the analysis of the areal reduction factors for rainfall processes aggregated both in space and time was also presented (Waymire et al., 1984; Sivapalan and Bl?schl, 1998; Bacchi and Ranzi, 1995). Prototype studies directed towards estimating...

  10. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  11. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1993-01-04

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

  12. Catalytic Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides by Methane over Pd(110) S. M. Vesecky, J. Paul, and D. W. Goodman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    the reduction of NOx species and the oxidation of CO and volatile organic compounds (VOC's) produced in mobile involves the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or NOx with NH3 4 Although this process is efficient concern. If too much methane is oxidized to CO2, the efficiency of the NOx reduction process will suffer

  13. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous butane-nitrogen mixtures in the gas phase 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Robert Buckner

    1955-01-01

    butane in summer resulting from lowered gasoline volatility and various increasing supply factors will create fuel purchasing opportunities. It was found that in-place propane switching capability among manufacturers could be adapted to absorb all...

  14. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  15. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  17. Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

    1992-06-10

    Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

  18. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  19. Energy Policy 34 (2006) 32183232 Beyond the learning curve: factors influencing cost reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    in photovoltaics Gregory F. NemetĂ Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall 3050 in the most impor- tant factors--plant size, module efficiency, and the cost of silicon. Ways in which¨ bler et al., 1999) and since then it has become a powerful and widely used model for projecting

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  2. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  3. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  4. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1996-05-14

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

  5. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1993-07-06

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  6. Reduction of Nup107 attenuates the growth factor signaling in the senescent cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sung Young; Kang, Hyun Tae; Choi, Hae Ri [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Chul, E-mail: scpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Aging and Apoptosis Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Decreased expression of Nup107 in aged cells and organs. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 results in impaired nuclear translocation of p-ERK. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 affects downstream effectors of ERK signaling. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 inhibits cell proliferation of oligodendroglioma cells. -- Abstract: Hypo-responsiveness to growth factors is a fundamental feature of cellular senescence. In this study, we found markedly decreased level of Nup107, a key scaffold protein in nuclear pore complex assembly, in senescent human diploid fibroblasts as well as in organs of aged mice. Depletion of Nup107 by specific siRNA in young human diploid fibroblasts prevented the effective nuclear translocation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, and decreased the expression of c-Fos in consequence. The disturbances in ERK signaling in Nup107 depleted cells closely mirror the similar changes in senescent cells. Knockdown of Nup107 in anaplastic oligodendroglioma cells caused cell death, rather than growth retardation, indicating a greater sensitivity to Nup107 depletion in cancer cells than in normal cells. These findings support the notion that Nup107 may contribute significantly to the regulation of cell fate in aged and transformed cells by modulating nuclear trafficking of signal molecules.

  7. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY LETTERS Chronic nitrogen additions suppress decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Templer, Pamela

    BIOGEOCHEMISTRY LETTERS Chronic nitrogen additions suppress decomposition and sequester soil carbon dioxide emis- sions, offsetting a substantial portion of greenhouse gas forcing of the climate system. Although a number of factors are responsible for this terrestrial carbon sink, atmospheric nitrogen

  8. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

    2013-03-19

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.

  9. CO2 reduction for Urban Goods Movement: is it possible to reach the factor 4 by 2050? GONZALEZ-FELIU, Jesus; AMBROSINI, Christian; ROUTHIER, Jean-Louis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    al., 2006). The green house gas reduction of 75%, i.e., the target imposed in France, takes the name. Keywords: urban goods movement, greenhouse gas, sustainability, factor 4. INTRODUCTION The main conclusion their greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. In these countries, the industrial greenhouse gas emissions are stabilised

  10. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  13. Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

    1989-01-01

    An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

  14. A new high performance AC to DC rectifier with input power factor correction and harmonic reduction capacity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Roberto

    1994-01-01

    been at my side sharing my glory and pains, always willing to lend a good ear and a good hand. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Page 1. 1 What Is Power Factor? I. 2 Cause of Low Power Factor-Diode Bridge Rectifier with Output Filter... 78 78 83 85 V CONCLUSION 86 V. I Conclusions V. 2 Suggestions for Future Work REFERENCES 86 88 89 APPENDIX 91 A. PSPICE SIMULATIONS 91 A. I Diode Bridge Rectifier Circuit A. 2 LC Low-Pass Filter Circuit A. 3 LC Series Resonant Circuit...

  15. Nodulation and effective nitrogen fixation of Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro) by Burkholderia tuberum, a nodulating and plant growth promoting beta-proteobacterium, are influenced by environmental factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    ethylene, which inhibits nod- ulation (Lee and LaRue 1992).CIAT899 only marginally nod- ulates siratro as suggested byby the large variety of Nod factors produced by CIAT899. R.

  16. Effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Acciarri; M. Antonello; B. Baibussinov; M. Baldo-Ceolin; P. Benetti; F. Calaprice; E. Calligarich; M. Cambiaghi; N. Canci; F. Carbonara; F. Cavanna; S. Centro; A. G. Cocco; F. Di Pompeo; G. Fiorillo; C. Galbiati; V. Gallo; L. Grandi; G. Meng; I. Modena; C. Montanari; O. Palamara; L. Pandola; F. Pietropaolo; G. L. Raselli; M. Roncadelli; M. Rossella; C. Rubbia; E. Segreto; A. M. Szelc; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli

    2008-04-08

    A dedicated test of the effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. A detector has been designed and assembled for this specific task and connected to a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Nitrogen into the liquid Argon. Purpose of the test is to detect the reduction of the Ar scintillation light emission as a function of the amount of the Nitrogen contaminant injected in the Argon volume. A wide concentration range, spanning from about 10^-1 ppm up to about 10^3 ppm, has been explored. Measurements have been done with electrons in the energy range of minimum ionizing particles (gamma-conversion from radioactive sources). Source spectra at different Nitrogen contaminations are analyzed, showing sensitive reduction of the scintillation yield at increasing concentrations. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Nitrogen in liquid Ar has been found to be k(N2)=0.11 micros^-1 ppm^-1. Direct PMT signals acquisition at high time resolution by fast Waveform recording allowed to extract with high precision the main characteristics of the scintillation light emission in pure and contaminated LAr. In particular, the decreasing behavior in lifetime and relative amplitude of the slow component is found to be appreciable from O(1 ppm) of Nitrogen concentrations.

  17. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aulich, Ted R. (Grand Forks, ND); Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Jiang, Junhua (Grand Forks, ND)

    2012-04-10

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia, at low temperature and pressure, preferably at ambient temperature and pressure, utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen or hydrogen equivalent. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be aqueous, non-aqueous, or solid.

  18. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-06-04

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

  19. Modeling nitrogen cycling in forested watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Garten, C.T.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Agreement calls for a 40% reduction of controllable phosphorus and nitrogen to the tidal Bay by the year 2000. To accomplish this goal the Chesapeake Bay Program needs accurate estimates of nutrient loadings, including atmospheric deposition, from various land uses. The literature was reviewed on forest nitrogen pools and fluxes, and nitrogen data from research catchments in the Chesapeake Basin were identified. The structure of a nitrogen module for forests is recommended for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model along with the possible functional forms for fluxes.

  20. Nitrogen spark denoxer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ng, Henry K. (Naperville, IL); Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

  1. ODD NITROGEN PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Harold S.

    2013-01-01

    of ozone towards reduction by NOx in the 25 to 32 km rangethe larger NOx injections ozone column reduction shows theon the predicted ozone reduction due to NOx increases and to

  2. Bioengineering nitrogen acquisition in rice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    gas prices caused the price of nitrogen fertilizer to nearly double.(7) Increased nitrogen use is also nitrogen application is not an ideal solution, partly from a cost perspective--in 2001, increased natural

  3. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-35 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    oxide by air staging, and reduction of nitric oxide with char. In circulating fluidized bed combustion reactions between gas and particles become important, e.g., reduction of nitric oxide with char, which or noncatalytic. For example, the reduction of nitric oxide with char #12;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18

  4. THE NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROVERSY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Harold S.

    2012-01-01

    OZONE-COLUMN REDUCTION FOR STA DA D NOx INPUT BY LIVERMOREof NOx perturbation, one could calculate ozone reductionscalculates a reduction of the ozone column by NOx injections

  5. Demand Reduction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  6. Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern Diesel Vehicles G.A. Bishop and D in NO2 and ozone in a number of cities in Europe. For instance, he shows a very strong correlation;Air Pollution XVI 248 The DPF is an extremely effective means to achieve particle reduction goals

  7. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  8. Involvement of peptides in nitrogen fixation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahlgren, Joy Annette

    1983-01-01

    molecular weight. 4 Effect of fixed nitrogen (Ca(NO&)z) on the nodula- tion (the number of nodules per plant), growth of nodules (mg per nodule), nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), and soyrhizin A con- tent in arginine equivalents. 22... solution and 0. 2 g of picric acid were mixed, the volume reduced to 10 approximately 20 ml by vacuum evaporation, and then centrifuged at 25, 000g for 20 min. Each of these samples was eluted from a column of 10 0 go e AG 248 e 1 . F o Rhitohiom 2~4 tc...

  9. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  10. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  11. Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

    1990-01-01

    ); and the bottom (figure 4). The purpose of this design was to provide flexsMity to modify the CC. Figure 5 shows a sectional view of the cydone combustor designed. The dimensions in this drawing were calculated based on a CGT feeding rate in the gasifier... TABLES OF THE STATISTICAL ANALYSES Primary Equivalence Ratio Overall Equivalence Ratio Delay Time between Stages Inlet Reynolds Number Combustion Temperature F/A Ratio in Gasifier D COMPUTER PROGRAM USED IN THE CAMAC SYSTEM E EXAMPLE . 162 163...

  12. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  13. Nitrogen control of chloroplast differentiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1998-05-01

    This project was directed toward understanding at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels of how photosynthetic organisms adapt to long-term nitrogen-deficiency conditions is quite incomplete even though limitation of this nutrient is the most commonly restricts plant growth and development. For our work on this problem, the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was grown in continuous cultures in which steady-state levels of nitrogen can be precisely controlled. N-limited cells exhibit the classical symptoms of deficiency of this nutrient, chlorosis and slow growth rates, and respond to nitrogen provision by rapid greening and chloroplast differentiation. We have addressed three aspects of this problem: (1) the regulation of pigment synthesis; (2) control of expression of nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins; (3) changes in metabolic and electron transport pathways that enable sustained CO{sub 2} fixation even though they cannot be readily converted into amino and nucleic acids. For the last, principle components are: (a) enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity intimately associated with photosynthates, and (b) the occurrence in thylakoids of a supplemental electron transport pathway that facilitates reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Together, these distinguishing features of N-limited cells are likely to enable cell survival, especially under conditions of high irradiance stress.

  14. Nitrogen fixation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontent ARMgovMeasurementsNitrogen ARM Data

  16. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA Related LinksOxides of Nitrogen Outreach Home

  17. Biomass Production and Nitrogen Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Peer Review WBS 4.2.2.10: Biomass Production and Nitrogen Recovery Date: March 23, 2015 Technology Area Review: Sustainability Principal Investigator: M. Cristina Negri...

  18. Nitrogen Accumulation and Changes in Nitrate Leaching After Four Years of Intensive Forest Culture on Marginal Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.M.; Gresham, C.A.

    2000-02-15

    Loblolly pine and sweetgum were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilizer application and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate-nitrogen in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for four years. Years 1 and 2, groundwater nitrate-nitrogen concentration exceeded drinking water standards. Years 3 and 4, groundwater nitrate-nitrogen concentration decreased where the greatest reduction occurred in soil moisture at the shallowest depths.

  19. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen addition on the yield and yield components of soybeans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambaudo, Sebastian Pedro

    1983-01-01

    this technique resulted in percentages of nitrogen fixed of 37, 27, and 13% for Coker 338, Cobb, and Dowling varieties. Estimates made using total nitrogen by difference were also variable due to variability in the yield data. Percentages of nitrogen fixed... were 20, 19, and 16% for Coker 338, Dowling, and Cobb using this method. A four variable regression model was developed which explained 68% of the variability in grain yield. These factors, in decreasing order of importance, were plant dry weight...

  20. Size-reduction of nanodiamonds via air oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaebel, T; Chen, J; Hemmer, P; Rabeau, J R

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the size reduction and effects on nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by air oxidation using a combined atomic force and confocal microscope. The average height reduction of individual crystals as measured by atomic force microscopy was 10.6 nm/h at 600 {\\deg}C air oxidation at atmospheric pressure. The oxidation process modified the surface including removal of non-diamond carbon and organic material which also led to a decrease in background fluorescence. During the course of the nanodiamond size reduction, we observed the annihilation of nitrogen-vacancy centres which provided important insight into the formation of colour centres in small crystals. In these unirradiated samples, the smallest nanodiamond still hosting a stable nitrogen-vacancy centre observed was 8 nm.

  1. Size-reduction of nanodiamonds via air oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Gaebel; C. Bradac; J. Chen; P. Hemmer; J. R. Rabeau

    2011-04-27

    Here we report the size reduction and effects on nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by air oxidation using a combined atomic force and confocal microscope. The average height reduction of individual crystals as measured by atomic force microscopy was 10.6 nm/h at 600 {\\deg}C air oxidation at atmospheric pressure. The oxidation process modified the surface including removal of non-diamond carbon and organic material which also led to a decrease in background fluorescence. During the course of the nanodiamond size reduction, we observed the annihilation of nitrogen-vacancy centres which provided important insight into the formation of colour centres in small crystals. In these unirradiated samples, the smallest nanodiamond still hosting a stable nitrogen-vacancy centre observed was 8 nm.

  2. Integrability Singular reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, George

    Motivation Integrability Singular reduction Integration of Singular quotients Summary References Singular reduction of Poisson manifolds and integrability Rui L. Fernandes1 Joint work with J.P. Ortega Fernandes Singular reduction and integrability #12;Motivation Integrability Singular reduction Integration

  3. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Above-and belowground responses to nitrogen addition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    November 2011 Ó Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Increased available soil nitrogen can increase biomass, lower treatments occurred in 2004 following a prescribed fire and in 2006 when pre- cipitation was double the long increased biomass and decreased species richness with nitrogen fertilization. Therefore, factors other than

  4. Kinetic modeling of nitric oxide removal from exhaust gases by Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenanda, Cariappa Mudappa

    1993-01-01

    Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction is one of the most promising techniques for the removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion exhaust gases. These techniques are based on the injection of certain compounds, such as cyanuric acid and ammonia...

  5. Nitrogen-doped graphene as transparent counter electrode for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guiqiang, E-mail: wgqiang123@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China)] [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China); Xing, Wei; Zhuo, Shuping [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? NG sheets are prepared through a hydrothermal reduction of graphite oxide. ? The transparent NG counter electrodes of DSCs are fabricated at room temperature. ? Transparent NG electrode exhibits excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of I{sub 3}{sup ?}. ? The DSC with NG electrode achieves a comparable efficiency to that of the Pt-based cell. ? The efficiency of rear illumination is about 85% that of front illumination. -- Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphene sheets are prepared through a hydrothermal reduction of graphite oxide in the presence of ammonia and applied to fabricate the transparent counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. The atomic percentage of nitrogen in doped graphene sample is about 2.5%, and the nitrogen bonds display pyridine and pyrrole-like configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies demonstrate a much higher electrocatalytic activity toward I{sup ?}/I{sub 3}{sup ?} redox reaction for nitrogen-doped graphene, as compared with pristine graphene. The dye-sensitized solar cell with this transparent nitrogen-doped graphene counter electrode shows conversion efficiencies of 6.12% and 5.23% corresponding to front-side and rear-side illumination, respectively. Meanwhile, the cell with a Pt counter electrode shows a conversion efficiency of 6.97% under the same experimental condition. These promising results highlight the potential application of nitrogen-doped graphene in cost-effective, transparent dye-sensitized solar cells.

  6. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  7. Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upadhyay, Jeetendra; Auvermann, Brent W.; Bush, K. Jack; Mukhtar, Saqib

    2008-02-11

    convert nitrogen into other chemical forms. Legume roots sustain rhizobia, the organisms capable of nitrogen fixation, a microbial process for con- verting nitrogen into ammonium (NH 4 ). Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are nitrogen- bearing compounds... acid gas can dissolve as the ammonium ion (NH 4 +), where it may react with Sources Transport / Transformation Removal Effects Photochemistry Chemical Transformations Cloud Processes Vertical Mixing Prevailing Winds Dry DepositionWet Deposition...

  8. What Happens to Nitrogen in Soils? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Hossner, L. R.

    2001-07-09

    35,000 tons of inert nitrogen gas (N 2 ). Most of the nitrogen found in soil originated as N 2 gas and nearly all the nitrogen in the atmosphere is N 2 gas. This inert nitrogen cannot be used by the plant until it is changed to ammonium (NH 4... + ) or nitrate (NO 3 - ) forms. Three important methods for changing nitrogen gas (N 2 ) to ammonium (NH 4 + ) are: a73 Free-living N 2 -fixing bacteria a73 N 2 -fixing bacteria in nodules on the roots of leguminous plants, and a73 Nitrogen fertilizer production...

  9. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  10. Mechanistic models of oceanic nitrogen fixation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monteiro, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Oceanic nitrogen fixation and biogeochemical interactions between the nitrogen, phosphorus and iron cycles have important implications for the control of primary production and carbon storage in the ocean. The biological ...

  11. Fermentation and Hydrogen Metabolism Affect Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Weimin; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that not only is uranium reduction under fermentation condition common among clostridia species, but also the strains differed in the extent of their capability and the pH of the culture significantly affected uranium(VI) reduction. In this study, using HPLC and GC techniques, metabolic properties of those clostridial strains active in uranium reduction under fermentation conditions have been characterized and their effects on capability variance of uranium reduction discussed. Then, the relationship between hydrogen metabolism and uranium reduction has been further explored and the important role played by hydrogenase in uranium(VI) and iron(III) reduction bymore »clostridia demonstrated. When hydrogen was provided as the headspace gas, uranium(VI) reduction occurred in the presence of whole cells of clostridia. This is in contrast to that of nitrogen as the headspace gas. Without clostridia cells, hydrogen alone could not result in uranium(VI) reduction. In alignment with this observation, it was also found that either copper(II) addition or iron depletion in the medium could compromise uranium reduction by clostridia. In the end, a comprehensive model was proposed to explain uranium reduction by clostridia and its relationship to the overall metabolism especially hydrogen (H 2 ) production. « less

  12. Study of fuel-nitrogen reactions in rich, premixed flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roby, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The formation and removal of nitrogen-containing species involved in fuel-nitrogen reactions have been studied in atmospheric-pressure fuel-rich hydrogen/oxygen/argon flames. The fuel-nitrogen reaction mechanism was investigated by addition of ammonia, nitric oxide, or hydrogen cyanide alone or with various hydrocarbons to a base flame. Profiles of stable nitrogen species and hydroxyl radical were measured in the post-flame gases. Results show that an initial rapid decay of nitric oxide added to a hydrogen/oxygen/argon flame to approximately 60% of its initial value occurs within 1.0 mm of the burner surface (0.5 msec). The primary reaction for removal of nitric oxide was found to be H + NO + M = HNO + M. The reaction of nitric oxide with various hydrocarbons to form hydrogen cyanide was found to be first order in both the initial hydrocarbon concentration and the initial nitric oxide concentration. A kinetic model was developed that only partially predicts the results obtained. Analysis showed that, by varying the heat of formation of imidogen within the limits of its uncertainty, agreement between the calculations and the data could be improved for nitric oxide and nitrogen. However, the amine, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide profiles were found not to be significantly affected. The significant discrepancy between the measured and calculated ammonia profiles is discussed in terms of the model predictions of both the ammonia formation and decay rates. The reaction: NM + H = N + H/sub 2/ is identified as a key rate-controlling step for removal of amine species in these flames. Evidence from the data and theoretical calculations suggests that the rate of this reaction at the current flame conditions may be as much as a factor of ten slower than the previously reported value.

  13. Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on secondary organic aerosol formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Y.; Unger, N.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; Knote, C.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Yu, P.

    2015-12-08

    Globally, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is mostly formed from emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, but it can be modified by human activities as demonstrated in recent research. Specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) have been shown to play a critical role in the chemical formation of low volatility compounds. We have updated the SOA scheme in the global NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) Community Atmospheric Model version 4 with chemistry (CAM4-chem) by implementing a 4-product volatility basis set (VBS) scheme, including NOx-dependent SOA yields and aging parameterizations. Small differences are found for themore »no-aging VBS and 2-product schemes; large increases in SOA production and the SOA-to-OA ratio are found for the aging scheme. The predicted organic aerosol amounts capture both the magnitude and distribution of US surface annual mean measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network by 50 %, and the simulated vertical profiles are within a factor of 2 compared to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements from 13 aircraft-based field campaigns across different regions and seasons. We then perform sensitivity experiments to examine how the SOA loading responds to a 50 % reduction in anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emissions in different regions. We find limited SOA reductions of 0.9–5.6, 6.4–12.0 and 0.9–2.8 % for global, southeast US and Amazon NOx perturbations, respectively. The fact that SOA formation is almost unaffected by changes in NOx can be largely attributed to a limited shift in chemical regime, to buffering in chemical pathways (low- and high-NOx pathways, O3 versus NO3-initiated oxidation) and to offsetting tendencies in the biogenic versus anthropogenic SOA responses.« less

  14. Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on Secondary Organic Aerosol formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Y.; Unger, N.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; Knote, C.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Yu, P.

    2015-08-28

    Globally, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is mostly formed from emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, but can be modified by human activities as demonstrated in recent research. Specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) have been shown to play a critical role in the chemical formation of low volatility compounds. We have updated the SOA scheme in the global NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 4 with chemistry (CAM4-chem) by implementing a 4-product Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme, including NOx-dependent SOA yields and aging parameterizations. The predicted organic aerosol amounts capture both the magnitude and distribution ofmore »US surface annual mean measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network by 50 %, and the simulated vertical profiles are within a factor of two compared to Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements from 13 aircraft-based field campaigns across different region and seasons. We then perform sensitivity experiments to examine how the SOA loading responds to a 50 % reduction in anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emissions in different regions. We find limited SOA reductions of 0.9 to 5.6, 6.4 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 2.8 % for global, the southeast US and the Amazon NOx perturbations, respectively. The fact that SOA formation is almost unaffected by changes in NOx can be largely attributed to buffering in chemical pathways (low- and high-NOx pathways, O3 versus NO3-initiated oxidation) and to offsetting tendencies in the biogenic versus anthropogenic SOA responses.« less

  15. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  16. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, H.L.

    1983-08-16

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

  17. Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: AchievementsTemperatures Year 6 -FINALEnergy,Pacificdouble-betaNitrogen

  18. Sandia Energy - Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Nitrogen Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Nitrogen Monitoring & Integrity Testing of SW Louisiana Caverns Home Carbon Capture & Storage News News & Events Research & Capabilities Systems...

  19. Multi-component Zirconia-Titania Mixed Oxides: Catalytic Materials with Unprecedented Performance in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3 after harsh hydrothermal ageing. Nathalie MARCOTTE1#, Bernard catalytic reduction. 1. Introduction. The abatement of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM% H2O, ~ 1050 K) is a prerequisite for deNOx catalysts of tomorrow in Diesel exhaust gas treatment

  20. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  1. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Foliar nitrogen dynamics and nitrogen resorption of a sandy shrub Salix gordejevii in northern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foliar nitrogen dynamics and nitrogen resorption of a sandy shrub Salix gordejevii in northern Key words: Nitrogen, resorption efficiency, resorption proficiency, Salix gordejevii, senescence, soil and senescing leaves and N resorption in Salix gordejevii Chang, a sandy shrub in northern China, were studied

  3. Statistical and Realistic Numerical Model Investigations of Anthropogenic and Climatic Factors that Influence Hypoxic Area Variability in the Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Yang

    2012-07-16

    was caused by the increased anthropogenic nitrogen loading of the Mississippi River; however, the nitrogen-area relationship is complicated by many other factors, such as wind, river discharge, and the ratio of Mississippi to Atchafalaya River flow...

  4. Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Xiqing; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Dai, Sheng; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-03-22

    We demonstrate a novel electrode material?nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NMC)?for vanadium redox flow batteries. Mesoporous carbon (MC) is prepared using a soft-template method and doped with nitrogen by heat-treating MC in NH3. NMC is characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The redox reaction of VO2+/VO2+ is characterized with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic kinetics of the redox couple VO2+/VO2+ is significantly enhanced on NMC electrode compared with MC and graphite electrodes. The reversibility of the redox couple VO2+/VO2+ is greatly improved on NMC (0.61 for NMC vs. 0.34 for graphite). Nitrogen doping facilitates the electron transfer on the electrode/electrolyte interface for both oxidation and reduction processes. NMC is a promising electrode material for redox flow batteries.

  5. Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R. Wilson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smaragdakis, Yannis

    reduction techniques. In this paper we present two new algorithms for trace re- duction | Safely AllowedTrace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R Drop SAD and Optimal LRU Reduction OLR. Both achieve high reduction factors and guarantee exact

  6. Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R. Wilson \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Scott

    reduction techniques. In this paper we present two new algorithms for trace re­ duction --- Safely AllowedTrace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R Drop (SAD) and Optimal LRU Reduction (OLR). Both achieve high reduction factors and guarantee exact

  7. Trace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R. Wilson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Scott

    reduction techniques. In this paper we present two new algorithms for trace re- duction | Safely AllowedTrace Reduction for Virtual Memory Simulations Scott F. Kaplan, Yannis Smaragdakis, and Paul R Drop (SAD) and Optimal LRU Reduction (OLR). Both achieve high reduction factors and guarantee exact

  8. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  9. Nitrogen-fixing nodules on plants such as alfalfa, pea and vetch arise from the root inner cortex and grow via a persistent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gage, Daniel J.

    recently become apparent that rhizobial Nod factors and rhizobial exopolysaccharides play key roles source of nitrogen [1]. Nodulation requires the action of a lipo-oligosaccharide signaling molecule, Nod factor. Nod factors from all rhizo- bial species have the same basic chemical structure, but factors from

  10. Correcting Nitrogen Deficiencies in Cotton with Urea-Based Products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingston, Stephen; Stichler, Charles

    1995-11-22

    Correcting nitrogen deficiency is important for cotton plant growth. This publication explains nitrogen requirements, the problems associated with nitrogen deficiency, and ways to correct deficiencies using urea as a source ...

  11. First 10 kg of Naked Germanium Detectors in Liquid Nitrogen installed in the GENIUS-Test-Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus; O. Chkvorez; I. V. Krivosheina; H. Strecker; C. Tomei

    2003-09-15

    The first four naked high purity Germanium detectors were installed successfully in liquid nitrogen in the GENIUS-Test-Facility (GENIUS-TF) in the GRAN SASSO Underground Laboratory on May 5, 2003. This is the first time ever that this novel technique aiming at extreme background reduction in search for rare decays is going to be tested underground. First operational parameters are presented.

  12. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  13. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dweikat, Ismail; Clemente, Thomas

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the completion of the proposed work, we will have: 1) identified novel alleles in wild sorghum germplasm that is useful to improve both cultivated grain and sweet sorghum; 2) been able to select individuals plants that exhibit high NUE within a breeding population on the basis of these markers; 3) acquired essential information necessary to examine the roles of GS and GOGAT, AlaT, along with impact of transcription factor Dof1, on N assimilation in sweet sorghum; and 4) The information learned will provide new opportunities for improving NUE in sorghum and other cereals.

  14. Nitrogen Fixation and Dentrification in Sediments of Eutrophic Mediterranean-Type Estuaries: Seasonal Patterns and Responses to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Tonya Lynn

    2012-01-01

    and mechanisms controlling sediment nitrogen fixation in aKane T & Fong P. 2007. Sediment nitrogen fixation in UpperKane T & Fong P. 2007. Sediment nitrogen fixation in Upper

  15. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  16. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines...

  17. The influence of organic carbon on oxygen dynamics and bacterial sulfate reduction in inland shrimp ponds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suplee, Michael Wayne

    1995-01-01

    Experiments conducted in saline aquaculture ponds demonstrated that organic matter was the primary factor influencing sediment sulfate reduction rates. Changes in sediment oxygen demand (SOD), sulfate reduction rates, and ...

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  19. Paperwork Reduction Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Paperwork Reduction Act requires that all federal websites request permission from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) before collecting information from 10 or more members of the public....

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus requirements for the bioremediation of oil in saltwater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strynar, Mark Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are two of the limiting factors in the bioremediation of oil in sea water, Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the maximal flux of NH4' and P and concentrations of NH4' and P required by microorganisms...

  1. Dissociation and excitation coefficients of nitrogen molecules and nitrogen monoxide generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S.; Na, Young H.; Choi, Eun H.; Cho, Guangsup [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The excitation coefficient ?{sub N2} is calculated for the excited metastable level of N{sub 2}(A{sub 3}?{sub u}{sup +}) in nitrogen molecules. In addition, the dissociation coefficient of nitrogen molecules is investigated by making use of the Boltzmann distribution of the electrons in atmospheric plasmas. The excitation and electron-impact dissociation coefficients of nitrogen molecules are analytically expressed in terms of the electron temperature T{sub e} for evaluations of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in atmospheric plasmas. As an application example of these coefficients, the nitrogen monoxide generation through a microwave torch is carried out for a development of medical tool. The nitrogen monoxide concentration from a microwave plasma-torch can be easily controlled by the nitrogen flow rate, mole fraction of the oxygen gas, and the microwave power. A simple analytic expression of the nitrogen monoxide concentration is obtained in terms of the oxygen molecular density and gas flow rate. The experimental data agree remarkably well with the theoretical results from the analytical expression. A microwave nitrogen-torch can easily provide an appropriate nitrogen monoxide concentration for the wound healings.

  2. Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C

    2007-01-01

    Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs ...

  3. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Brears, Timothy (Durham, NC)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  4. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2005-03-08

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  5. Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skinn, Brian Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

  6. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Brears, Timothy (Durham, NC)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  7. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-12-22

    A method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon tubes involves preparing a solution of cyanamide and a suitable transition metal-containing salt in a solvent, evaporating the solvent to form a solid, and pyrolyzing the solid under an inert atmosphere under conditions suitable for the production of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes from the solid. Pyrolyzing for a shorter period of time followed by rapid cooling resulted in a tubes with a narrower average diameter.

  8. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Lam, Hon-Ming (Hong Kong, HK); Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun (Woodside, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

  9. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  10. Water Use Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides agencies with guidance and...

  11. Picturing wavepacket reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Jabs

    2015-03-18

    A coherent picture of the wavepacket-reduction process is proposed which is formulated in the framework of a deterministic and realist interpretation where the concepts of knowledge or information and of point particles do not appear. It is shown how the picture accounts for the experiments on interaction-free and delayed-choice measurements and those on interference with partial absorption.

  12. Functional and inflammatory alterations in the lung following exposure of rats to nitrogen mustard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R., E-mail: sunilvr@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Patel, Kinal J., E-mail: kinalv5@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Shen, Jianliang, E-mail: jianliangs@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Reimer, David, E-mail: reimerd@las.rutgers.edu [Laboratory Animal Services, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gow, Andrew J., E-mail: gow@rci.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard is a vesicant that causes damage to the respiratory tract. In these studies, we characterized the acute effects of nitrogen mustard on lung structure, inflammatory mediator expression, and pulmonary function, with the goal of identifying mediators potentially involved in toxicity. Treatment of rats (male Wistar, 200-225 g) with nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine hydrochloride, i.t., 0.25 mg/kg) resulted in marked histological changes in the respiratory tract, including necrotizing bronchiolitis, thickening of alveolar septa, and inflammation which was evident within 24 h. This was associated with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, confirming injury to alveolar epithelial regions of the lung. Nitrogen mustard administration also resulted in increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory proteins implicated in lung injury, in alveolar macrophages and alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Expression of connective tissue growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9, mediators regulating extracellular matrix turnover was also increased, suggesting that pathways leading to chronic lung disease are initiated early in the pathogenic process. Following nitrogen mustard exposure, alterations in lung mechanics and function were also observed. These included decreases in baseline static compliance, end-tidal volume and airway resistance, and a pronounced loss of methacholine responsiveness in resistance, tissue damping and elastance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that nitrogen mustard induces rapid structural and inflammatory changes in the lung which are associated with altered lung functioning. Understanding the nature of the injury induced by nitrogen mustard and related analogs may aid in the development of efficacious therapies for treatment of pulmonary injury resulting from exposure to vesicants.

  13. Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Shao, Yuyan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Engelhard, Mark H [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Congmin [ORNL; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); YANG, ZHENGUO [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lin, Yuehe [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an excellent performance of nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (N-MPC) for energy storage in vanadium redox flow batteries. Mesoporous carbon (MPC) is prepared using a soft-template method and doped with nitrogen by heat-treating MPC in NH{sub 3}. N-MPC is characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The redox reaction of [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is characterized with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic kinetics of the redox couple [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is significantly enhanced on N-MPC electrode compared with MPC and graphite electrodes. The reversibility of the redox couple [VO]{sup 2+}/[VO{sub 2}]{sup +} is greatly improved on N-MPC (0.61 for N-MPC vs. 0.34 for graphite), which is expected to increase the energystorage efficiency of redoxflowbatteries. Nitrogen doping facilitates the electron transfer on electrode/electrolyte interface for both oxidation and reduction processes. N-MPC is a promising material for redoxflowbatteries. This also opens up new and wider applications of nitrogen-doped carbon.

  14. NO.sub.x reduction method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Hoppie, Lyle O. (West Bloomfield, MI)

    1996-01-01

    A method of reducing oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.X) in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine includes producing oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air by an oxygen enrichment device. The oxygen enriched air may be provided to the intake of the internal combustion engine for mixing with fuel. In order to reduce the amount of NO.sub.X in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine, the molecular nitrogen in the nitrogen enriched air produced by the oxygen enrichment device is subjected to a corona or arc discharge so as to create a plasma and as a result, atomic nitrogen. The resulting atomic nitrogen then is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causing the oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen. In one embodiment of the present invention, the oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

  15. Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Emission Reduction Specialists

  16. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  17. Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumas, Laurent

    Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry Laurent reduction problems in the automotive industry. All the methods consist in improving classical genetic of a GA is reduced by a factor up to 7. 1 Introduction The topic of drag reduction in the automotive

  18. Forest Fuels ReductionForest Fuels Reduction Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    are the soil management and watershed implications from alternative fuels reduction approaches? 3. How do are the productivity and cost rates for alternative choices of equipment for mechanical fuels reduction; what of mechanical fuel reduction alternatives? What are the economic differences related to stand type

  19. Availability of Some Nitrogenous and Phosphatic Materials. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1922-01-01

    at this Station, some of which are reported in this bulletin. Some of these tests relate to the use of the materials as fertilizer, while others relate to their possible value to plants when occurring as soil minerals. These tests have been made from time... to ascertain the availability of the nitrogen in the wheat which was charred. The experiments were carried out in the usual manner. The charred wheat was ground, and a quantity used containing 0.1 gram of nitrogen to 5000 grams of soil. Acid phosphate...

  20. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  1. The effects of increased CO[sub 2] on the competitive ability of Lupinus arboreus, a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, A.M. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brooks (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Plant responses to increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] have been shown to be both species-specific and dependent on other environmental factors, potentially changing competitive interactions and altering community structure. The competitive response of a dominant nitrogen-fixing shrub to an introduced annual (Bromus diandrus) and a native perennial grass (Bromus carinatus) was measured under ambient and high CO[sub 2] and two nitrogen levels. These species coexist in a generally nitrogen-limited coastal grassland reserve besieged with alien species. The relative competitive ability of the lupin increased with CO[sub 2] for all treatments, with the largest difference occurring at low nitrogen in competition with the introduced annual. This study provides a global change perspective for those interested in conserving native Californian grassland species, as well as the first data on the competitive response of nitrogen-fixers to high CO[sub 2].

  2. Effect of additives on the reduction of nitrogen oxides using cyanuric acid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standridge, Brad Lee

    1994-01-01

    The addition of cyanuric acid to hot exhaust flows has been shown in the past to selectively remove much of the nitric oxide (NO) emitted from combustion sources. Known as the RapreNOx process, this approach to pollution control does not require a...

  3. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine...

  4. Global reactive nitrogen deposition from lightning NOx A. Shepon,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gildor, Hezi

    ., 2002]. The anthropogenic perturbation to the nitrogen cycle (i.e., the increased fossil fuel usage of lightning activity [Price and Rind, 1994; Reeve and Toumi, 1999], creating more available nitrogen compounds

  5. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Carbon and nitrogen fixation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capone, Douglas G.

    capable of fixing both dinitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2), deriving energy from oxygenicORIGINAL ARTICLE Carbon and nitrogen fixation and metabolite exchange in and between individual and was evenly allocated among vegetative cells, with the exception of the most remote vegetative cells between

  7. groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow aquifer, the Seymour Aquifer has the highest groundwater pollution potential of all the major aqui- fers in Texas drinking water standards. Potential sources of nitrate in groundwater include atmospheric deposi- tion

  8. Nonnegative matrix factorization with -divergence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cichocki, Andrzej

    Nonnegative matrix factorization with -divergence Andrzej Cichocki a , Hyekyoung Lee b , Yong of Science and Technology San 31 Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang 790-784, Korea Abstract Nonnegative matrix reduction, the goal of which is to decompose nonnegative data matrix X into a product of basis matrix

  9. Identifying Sources of Nitrogen to Hanalei Bay, Kauai, Utilizing the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    Identifying Sources of Nitrogen to Hanalei Bay, Kauai, Utilizing the Nitrogen Isotope Signature, Menlo Park, California 94025, and P.O. Box 681, Kilauea, Hawaii 96754 Sewage effluent, storm runoff of land derived nutrients into Hanalei Bay, Kauai. We determined the nitrogen isotopic signatures (15N

  10. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  11. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  13. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions and the vegetation feedbacks to climate in Earth system models.

  14. Nitrogen Deposition: A Component of Global Change Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norby, Richard J.

    1997-12-31

    The global cycles of carbon and nitrogen are being perturbed by human activities that increase the transfer from large pools of nonreactive forms of the elements to reactive forms that are essential to the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere. The cycles are closely linked at all scales, and global change analyses must consider carbon and nitrogen cycles together. The increasing amount of nitrogen originating from fossil fuel combustion and deposited to terrestrial ecosystems as nitrogen oxides could increase the capacity of ecosystems to sequester carbon thereby removing some of the excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and slowing the development of greenhouse warming. Several global and ecosystem models have calculated the amount of carbon sequestration that can be attributed to nitrogen deposition based on assumptions about the allocation of nitrogen among ecosystem components with different carbon-nitrogen ratios. They support the premise that nitrogen deposition is responsible for a an increasing terrestrial carbon sink since industrialization began, but there are large uncertainties related to the continued capacity of ecosystems to retain exogenous nitrogen. Whether terrestrial ecosystems continue to sequester additional carbon will depend in part on their response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, which is widely thought to be constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Ecosystem models generally support the conclusion that the responses of ecosystems to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide will be larger, and the range of possible responses will be wider, in ecosystems with increased nitrogen inputs originating as atmospheric deposition.

  15. Quantum Hall effect in HgTe quantum wells at nitrogen temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, D. A. Kvon, Z. D.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Weishäupl, S.; Krupko, Y.; Portal, J.-C.

    2014-09-29

    We report on the observation of quantized Hall plateaus in a system of two-dimensional Dirac fermions, implemented in a 6.6?nm HgTe quantum well at magnetic fields up to 34?T at nitrogen temperatures. The activation energies determined from the temperature dependence of the longitudinal resistivity are found to be almost equal for the filling factors ? of 1 and 2. This indicates that the large values of the g-factor (about 30–40) remain unchanged at very strong magnetic fields.

  16. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2004-11-23

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the invention may be used to engineer organisms to overexpress wild-type or mutant P-PII regulatory protein. Engineered plants that overexpress or underexpress P-PII regulatory protein may have increased nitrogen assimilation capacity. Engineered organisms may be used to produce P-PII proteins which, in turn, can be used for a variety of purposes including in vitro screening of herbicides. P-PII nucleotide sequences have additional uses as probes for isolating additional genomic clones having the promoters of P-PII gene. P-PII promoters are light- and/or sucrose-inducible and may be advantageously used in genetic engineering of plants.

  17. Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control; Prepared byNOx Removal Technologies. Volume 1. Selective Catalytic Reduction.

  18. 5, 755794, 2005 Reduction methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 755­794, 2005 Reduction methods for chemical schemes S. Szopa et al. Title Page Abstract Assessment of the reduction methods used to develop chemical schemes: building of a new chemical scheme for VOC oxidation suited to three-dimensional multiscale HOx-NOx-VOC chemistry simulations S. Szopa 1

  19. Environmental Sustainability Paper Usage / Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;carbon footprint and develop carbon reduction projects around IT and staff/student behaviour change is supported by the Environmental Sustainability Manager and is seen as a key link to the University's Carbon Management Programme (e.g. to produce a forecast of carbon reductions as required by the Carbon Trust

  20. THE EFFECTS OF INITIAL ABUNDANCES ON NITROGEN IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-12-20

    The dominant form of nitrogen provided to most solar system bodies is currently unknown, though available measurements show that the detected nitrogen in solar system rocks and ices is depleted with respect to solar abundances and the interstellar medium. We use a detailed chemical/physical model of the chemical evolution of a protoplanetary disk to explore the evolution and abundance of nitrogen-bearing molecules. Based on this model, we analyze how initial chemical abundances provided as either gas or ice during the early stages of disk formation influence which species become the dominant nitrogen bearers at later stages. We find that a disk with the majority of its initial nitrogen in either atomic or molecular nitrogen is later dominated by atomic and molecular nitrogen as well as NH{sub 3} and HCN ices, where the dominant species varies with disk radius. When nitrogen is initially in gaseous ammonia, it later becomes trapped in ammonia ice except in the outer disk where atomic nitrogen dominates. For a disk with the initial nitrogen in the form of ammonia ice, the nitrogen remains trapped in the ice as NH{sub 3} at later stages. The model in which most of the initial nitrogen is placed in atomic N best matches the ammonia abundances observed in comets. Furthermore, the initial state of nitrogen influences the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, which has been detected in protoplanetary disks. Strong N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is found to be indicative of an N{sub 2} abundance greater than n{sub N{sub 2}}/n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup ?6} in addition to tracing the CO snow line. Our models also indicate that NO is potentially detectable, with lower N gas abundances leading to higher NO abundances.

  1. Projection-based model reduction for contact problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balajewicz, Maciej; Farhat, Charbel

    2015-01-01

    Large scale finite element analysis requires model order reduction for computationally expensive applications such as optimization, parametric studies and control design. Although model reduction for nonlinear problems is an active area of research, a major hurdle is modeling and approximating contact problems. This manuscript introduces a projection-based model reduction approach for static and dynamic contact problems. In this approach, non-negative matrix factorization is utilized to optimally compress and strongly enforce positivity of contact forces in training simulation snapshots. Moreover, a greedy algorithm coupled with an error indicator is developed to efficiently construct parametrically robust low-order models. The proposed approach is successfully demonstrated for the model reduction of several two-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic obstacle and self contact problems.

  2. PROTOSOLAR AMMONIA AS THE UNIQUE SOURCE OF TITAN's NITROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandt, Kathleen E.; Mousis, Olivier; Gautier, Daniel

    2014-06-20

    The origin of Titan's nitrogen-rich atmosphere is thought to be ammonia ice, but this has not yet been confirmed. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether the building blocks of Titan formed within the Saturnian subnebula or in the colder protosolar nebula (PSN). Recent measurements of the nitrogen isotope ratio in cometary ammonia, combined with evolutionary constraints on the nitrogen isotopes in Titan's atmosphere provide firm evidence that the nitrogen in Titan's atmosphere must have originated as ammonia ice formed in the PSN under conditions similar to that of cometary formation. This result has important implications for the projected D/H ratio in cometary methane, nitrogen isotopic fractionation in the PSN and the source of nitrogen for Earth's atmosphere.

  3. DRAG REDUCTION WITH SUPERHYDROPHOBIC RIBLETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; D'Urso, Brian R [ORNL; Jenner, Elliot [University of Pittsburgh

    2012-01-01

    Samples combining riblets and superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated at University of Pittsburgh and their drag reduction properties are studied at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a commercial cone-and-plate rheometer. In parallel to the experiments, numerical simulations are performed in order to estimate the slip length at high rotational speed. For each sample, a drag reduction of at least 5% is observed in both laminar and turbulent regime. At low rotational speed, drag reduction up to 30% is observed with a 1 mm deep grooved sample. As the rotational speed increases, a secondary flow develops causing a slight decrease in drag reductions. However, drag reduction above 15% is still observed for the large grooved samples. In the turbulent regime, the 100 microns grooved sample becomes more efficient than the other samples in drag reduction and manages to sustain a drag reduction above 15%. Using the simulations, the slip length of the 100 micron grooved sample is estimated to be slightly above 100 micron in the turbulent regime.

  4. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauterbach, Jochen (Newark, DE); Snively, Christopher M. (Clarks Summit, PA); Vijay, Rohit (Annandale, NJ); Hendershot, Reed (Breinigsville, PA); Feist, Ben (Newark, DE)

    2010-10-12

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  5. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  6. Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

    2003-10-07

    A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

  7. Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|SensitiveApril 2, 2014ApplicationLanceStaffStanford Nitrogen

  8. Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

  9. Increasing Price of Nitrogen Nitrogen fertilizer is often the largest contributor to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    events; the distribution of more than 5,700 publications; and access to web-based guidance on deep and associated costs. Since 2007, the importance of deep-soil testing for nitrogen management has been-sampling methods and procedures. Economic and Environmental Impact The economic impact of deep-soil testing

  10. Lesson Title: Nitrogen Cycle Game Date: February 1, 2008 Author: Ryan Lenz Topic: Nitrogen Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    !" "Waste" is a relative term--some animals' waste is another's food. !" The sun is the driving force a nitrogen molecule as it is passed around the food chain. This lesson should be preceded or followed. Objectives: Students will understand that: !" Animal waste is recycled by other organisms, often bacteria

  11. Copper(II) imidazolate frameworks as highly efficient photocatalysts for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jingtian; Luo, Deliang; Yang, Chengju; He, Shiman; Chen, Shangchao; Lin, Jiawei; Zhu, Li; Li, Xin, E-mail: xinliscau@yahoo.com

    2013-07-15

    Three copper(II) imidazolate frameworks were synthesized by a hydrothermal (or precipitation) reaction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG). Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activities of the samples for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol and degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation were also investigated. The results show that the as-prepared samples exhibit better photocatalytic activities for the reduction of carbon dioxide into methanol with water and degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. The orthorhombic copper(II) imidazolate frameworks with a band gap of 2.49 eV and green (G) color has the best photocatalytic activity for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol, 1712.7 ?mol/g over 5 h, which is about three times as large as that of monoclinic copper(II) imidazolate frameworks with a band gap 2.70 eV and blue (J) color. The degradation kinetics of MB over three photocatalysts fitted well to the apparent first-order rate equation and the apparent rate constants for the degradation of MB over G, J and P (with pink color) are 0.0038, 0.0013 and 0.0016 min{sup ?1}, respectively. The synergistic effects of smallest band gap and orthorhombic crystal phase structure are the critical factors for the better photocatalytic activities of G. Moreover, three frameworks can also be stable up to 250 °C. The investigation of Cu-based zeolitic imidazolate frameworks maybe provide a design strategy for a new class of photocatalysts applied in degradation of contaminations, reduction of CO{sub 2}, and even water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen under visible light. - Graphical abstract: Carbon dioxide was reduced into methanol with water over copper(II) imidazolate frameworks under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Three copper(II) imidazolate frameworks were first applied in the photo-reduction of CO{sub 2}. • The photocatalytic activities of the frameworks depend on their band gap and phase structures. • The photocatalytic activity of orthorhombic frameworks is 3 times that of monoclinic frameworks. • The degradation kinetics of MB over three photocatalysts followed the first-order rate equation. • The largest yield for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol on green framworks was 1712.7 ?mol/g over 5 h.

  12. Absorption of Foliar-Applied Nitrogen by Cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oosterhuis, Derrick M

    2009-01-01

    on the epicuticular wax composition and ultrastructure ofleaf age, epicuticular wax, and nitrogen-15 absorption. Cropleaf cuticle and epicuticular wax as described by Oosterhuis

  13. Effects of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition on ocean biogeochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Keith

    nitrogen (ammonia and nitrate) sources include fossil fuel combustion [Hameed and Dignon, 1988], biomass burning, soil emissions and breakdown of urea from domestic animals [Warneck, 1988]. Jickells [2005

  14. Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen -...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen - implications for the intramolecular potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Raman spectroscopy in hot...

  15. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    SAE Paper 750173, 1975. L. , Fifteenth Symposium Combustion,The Combustion Institute, International Pittsburgh, on 64.chemistry of products of combustion: nitrogenous The

  16. Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in Snow-Covered Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    snow cover through shading, wind sheltering, and interception. Changes in snow cover associated and nitrogen cycling. Introduction Approximately 60% of the terrestrial earth surface experiences seasonal snow

  17. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP), Preliminary Report: Integrated NOx Emissions Savings from EE/RE Programs Statewide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; McKelvey, K.; Montgomery, C.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Liu, Z.; Gilman, D.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    2008-08-29

    should include the cumulative savings estimates from all projects projected through 2020 for both the annual and Ozone Season Day (OSD) NOx reductions. The NOx emissions reduction from all these programs were calculated using estimated emissions factors...

  18. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  19. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards

    2012-09-19

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. ���¢�������¢ Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. ���¢�������¢ Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  20. Stress reduction in tungsten films using nanostructured compliant layers Tansel Karabacak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Stress reduction in tungsten films using nanostructured compliant layers Tansel Karabacak-3590 (Received 14 January 2004; accepted 11 August 2004) The residual stress in thin films is a major limiting factor for obtaining high quality films. We present a strategy for stress reduction in sputter deposited

  1. Transformation of the Nitrogen Cycle: Recent Trends, Questions, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    production in some parts of the world is nitrogen-deficient, highlighting inequities in the distribution energy production by coal, natural gas, and petroleum combustion increased from 8543 million tons of oil. Martinelli,7 Sybil P. Seitzinger,8 Mark A. Sutton9 Humans continue to transform the global nitrogen cycle

  2. How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great Britain's forests? Protecting our forests from pollutant deposition is and has been a topical issue for some time. Nitrogen, as well as being an essential nutrient for trees, is one of the most important of these pollutants. This article

  3. Quantum optics with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yiwen Chu; Mikhail D. Lukin

    2015-04-22

    We review the electronic level structure of the nitrogen-vacancy in diamond and some common experimental techniques to study its optical properties at low temperatures. We then summarize several recent experiments and advances in using nitrogen-vacancy centers for quantum optics.

  4. Materials Safety Liquid Nitrogen Safety! ! A Message from Rick Kelly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (special cryo- gen gloves or leather) and safety glasses with side shields. When dispensing liquid nitrogen from a pressurized dewar, or at any time that a splash may occur, a face shield should also be used as possible. Dispensing from Bulk Stor! age Tanks: Anyone who will be handling liquid nitrogen must complete

  5. Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb As gasoline prices at the pump continue to climb above $ 3.00/gallon, fertilizer prices, especially Nitrogen (N) are doing the same. As of spring 2008, the price of one ton of urea ammonium nitrate was $420, or $0.67 per lb N

  6. On-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    - equippedvehiclesarenotbelievedtobesignificant(1).Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission rates from light-duty gasoline vehicles have been shown to be rapidly decreasing across the United States, but total NOx emissions are decreasing at a slower rate dueOn-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from Three California Cities G A R Y

  7. Schematic structure of nitrogen-doped graphene showing carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Jian Ru

    method for graphene doping, and is compatible with current complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOSSchematic structure of nitrogen- doped graphene showing carbon (gray) and nitrogen (blue) NPG Asia Materials research highlight | doi:10.1038/asiamat.2010.204 Published online 13 December 2010 Graphene

  8. Mechanisms of plant species impacts on ecosystem nitrogen cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    in nitrification, denitrification and trace nitrogen gas losses. Plant species also impact herbivore behaviourREVIEW Mechanisms of plant species impacts on ecosystem nitrogen cycling J. M. H. Knops,1 * K. L. Bradley1 and D. A. Wedin2 1 School of Biological Sciences, 2 School of Natural Resource Sciences

  9. Microbial immobilization drives nitrogen cycling differences among plant species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    1840 Microbial immobilization drives nitrogen cycling differences among plant species Ramesh cycling. We examined four potential mechanisms of plant species effects on nitrogen (N) cycling. We found no species differences in gross ammonification suggesting there are no changes in the ecosystem N cycling

  10. Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, as the products of normal metabolism and those that have altered owing to disease, and are transported via

  11. THERMAL DIFFUSION OF HEAT PULSE IN SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    and result in better thermal protection and faster recovery from a heat pulse. KEYWORDS: Heat TransferTHERMAL DIFFUSION OF HEAT PULSE IN SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN H. M. Chang1 , J. J. Byun1 , J. H ABSTRACT Transient heat transfer caused by a heat pulse in subcooled liquid nitrogen is investigated

  12. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

  13. Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for NEPA309 Reviewers Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for NEPA309 Reviewers The...

  14. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  15. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Authors: Guo,...

  16. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues This brief details industrial steam generation systems best practices and...

  17. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  18. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  19. Toward Institutional Sustainability: A Nitrogen Footprint for the Marine Biological Maggie Notopoulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    impact on the environment. Many people have focused on improving their carbon footprint, or releaseToward Institutional Sustainability: A Nitrogen Footprint for the Marine Biological Laboratory is defined as the institution's nitrogen footprint. The Marine Biological Laboratory's nitrogen footprint

  20. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Dublin, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Pagnotto, Kristina M. (Cincinnati, OH)

    2007-07-31

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

  1. Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

  2. Origin of the unusually low nitrogen abundances in young populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekki, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    It is a longstanding problem that HII regions and very young stellar populations in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have the nitrogen abundances ([N/H]) by a factor of ~7 lower than the solar value. We here discuss a new scenario in which the observed unusually low nitrogen abundances can be closely associated with recent collision and subsequent accretion of HI high velocity clouds (HVCs) that surround the Galaxy and have low nitrogen abundances. We show that if the observed low [N/H] is limited to very young stars with ages less than ~10^7 yr, then the collision/accretion rate of the HVCs onto the LMC needs to be ~ 0.2 M_sun/yr (corresponding to the total HVC mass of 10^6-10^7 M_sun) to dilute the original interstellar medium (ISM) before star formation. The required accretion rate means that even if the typical mass of HVCs accreted onto the LMC is ~ 10^7 M_sun, the Galaxy needs to have ~2500 massive HVCs within the LMC's orbital radius with respect to the Galactic center. The required rather large number...

  3. Spectroscopic detection of nitrogen concentrations in sagebrush

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. MITCHELL; N. F. GLENN; T.T. SANKEY; D. R. DERRYBERRY; R. C. HRUSKA; M. O. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    The ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N) in semi-arid landscapes can yield information on nutritional status and improve our limited understanding of controls on canopy photosynthesis. We examined two spectroscopic methods for estimating sagebrush dried leaf and live shrub N content: first derivative reflectance (FDR) and continuum removal. Both methods used partial least squares (PLS) regression to select wavebands most significantly correlated with N concentrations in the samples. Sagebrush dried leaf spectra produced PLS models (R2 = 0.76–0.86) that could predict N concentrations within the dataset more accurately than PLS models generated from live shrub spectra (R2 = 0.41–0.63). Inclusion of wavelengths associated with leaf water in the FDR transformations appeared to improve regression results. Findings are encouraging and warrant further exploration into sagebrush reflectance spectra to characterize N concentrations.

  4. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  5. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sonny X.

    2003-12-15

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  6. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  7. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  8. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas...

  9. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more »i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  10. Fixed bed reduction of hematite under alternating reduction and oxidation cycles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Breault, Ronald W.; Monazam, Esmail R.

    2015-02-28

    The rate of the reduction reaction of a low cost natural hematite oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion was investigated in a fixed bed reactor where hematite samples of about 1 kg were exposed to a flowing stream of methane and argon. The investigation aims to develop understanding of the factors that govern the rate of reduction with in larger reactors as compared to mostly TGA investigations in the literature. Comparison of the experimental data with a model indicated that reaction between the methane and the iron oxide shows multi-step reactions. The analysis also shows that the conversion occurs withmore »a process that likely consumes all the oxygen close to the surface of the hematite particles and another process that is likely controlled by the diffusion of oxygen to the surface of the particles. Additional analysis shows that the thickness of the fast layer is on the order of 8 unit crystals. This is about 0.4% of the hematite; however, it comprises about 20 to 25% of the conversion for the 10 min reduction cycle.« less

  11. Nitrogen-doped cuprous oxide as a p-type hole-transporting layer in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitrogen-doped cuprous oxide as a p-type hole- transporting layer in thin-film solar cells Yun Seog-transparent tunnel junction to a back-contact. We fabricate Cu2O-based heterojunction thin-film solar cells-factor and power conversion efficiency of the solar cells. Cu2O:N thin-films may also be useful in other

  12. Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory ? 2012 p. 25 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 Annual eGrid for NOx Emissions West Zone North Zone Houston Zone South Zone Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs... of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh p. 26 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 OSD eGrid for NOx Emissions Unit: Tons of NOx/OSD p. 27 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 28 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p...

  13. 2008 world direct reduction statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This supplement discusses total direct reduced iron (DRI) production for 2007 and 2008 by process. Total 2008 production by MIDREX(reg sign) direct reduction process plants was over 39.8 million tons. The total of all coal-based processes was 17.6 million tons. Statistics for world DRI production are also given by region for 2007 and 2008 and by year (1970-2009). Capacity utilization for 2008 by process is given. World DRI production by region and by process is given for 1998-2008 and world DRI shipments are given from the 1970s to 2008. A list of world direct reduction plants is included.

  14. Water Use Reduction Case Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Case Studies Water Use Reduction Case Studies These case studies offer examples of water use reduction projects implemented...

  15. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    accounting process; evaluate the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry programs with CO2 reduction measures carbon dioxide (CO2 ) reduction. The calculation of CO2 reduction that can be made with the use climate. With these Guidelines, they can: report current and future CO2 reductions through a standardized

  16. METHANE AND NITROGEN ABUNDANCES ON PLUTO AND ERIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegler, S. C.; Cornelison, D. M.; Abernathy, M. R.; Bovyn, M. J.; Burt, J. A.; Evans, D. E.; Maleszewski, C. K.; Thompson, Z.; Grundy, W. M.; Romanishin, W.; Vilas, F. E-mail: David.Cornelison@nau.ed E-mail: wjr@nhn.ou.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present spectra of Eris from the MMT 6.5 m Telescope and Red Channel Spectrograph (5700-9800 A, 5 A pixel{sup -1}) on Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and of Pluto from the Steward Observatory 2.3 m Telescope and Boller and Chivens Spectrograph (7100-9400 A, 2 A pixel{sup -1}) on Kitt Peak, AZ. In addition, we present laboratory transmission spectra of methane-nitrogen and methane-argon ice mixtures. By anchoring our analysis in methane and nitrogen solubilities in one another as expressed in the phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich, and comparing methane bands in our Eris and Pluto spectra and methane bands in our laboratory spectra of methane and nitrogen ice mixtures, we find Eris' bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}10% and {approx}90% and Pluto's bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}3% and {approx}97%. Such abundances for Pluto are consistent with values reported in the literature. It appears that the bulk volatile composition of Eris is similar to the bulk volatile composition of Pluto. Both objects appear to be dominated by nitrogen ice. Our analysis also suggests, unlike previous work reported in the literature, that the methane and nitrogen stoichiometry is constant with depth into the surface of Eris. Finally, we point out that our Eris spectrum is also consistent with a laboratory ice mixture consisting of 40% methane and 60% argon. Although we cannot rule out an argon-rich surface, it seems more likely that nitrogen is the dominant species on Eris because the nitrogen ice 2.15 {mu}m band is seen in spectra of Pluto and Triton.

  17. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

    2011-07-12

    A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

  18. Algorithm FIRE -- Feynman Integral REduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Smirnov

    2008-08-02

    The recently developed algorithm FIRE performs the reduction of Feynman integrals to master integrals. It is based on a number of strategies, such as applying the Laporta algorithm, the s-bases algorithm, region-bases and integrating explicitly over loop momenta when possible. Currently it is being used in complicated three-loop calculations.

  19. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  20. tion Program on SIDS Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau, Don C.

    Continu R ing Ed i u s ca k tion Program on SIDS Reduction CURRICULUM FOR NURSES U.S. DEPARTMENT of Pediatrics, First Candle/SIDS Alliance, and the Association of SIDS and Infant Mortality Programs. FIRST and is conducting live training sessions for this program at nursing conferences across the country. The mission

  1. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198{trademark}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klien, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198{trademark} getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198{trademark} stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful.

  2. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198 getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198 stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  4. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  5. Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impactsand engineersAcquisition Office of

  6. Innershell Photoionization Studies of Neutral Atomic Nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stolte, W C; Lindle, D W; Sant'Anna, M M; Savin, D W

    2014-01-01

    Innershell ionization of a $1s$ electron by either photons or electrons is important for X-ray photoionized objects such as active galactic nuclei and electron-ionized sources such as supernova remnants. Modeling and interpreting observations of such objects requires accurate predictions for the charge state distribution (CSD) which results as the $1s$-hole system stabilizes. Due to the complexity of the complete stabilization process, few modern calculations exist and the community currently relies on 40-year-old atomic data. Here, we present a combined experimental and theoretical study for innershell photoionization of neutral atomic nitrogen for photon energies of $403-475$~eV. Results are reported for the total ion yield cross section, for the branching ratios for formation of N$^+$, N$^{2+}$, and N$^{3+}$, and for the average charge state. We find significant differences when comparing to the data currently available to the astrophysics community. For example, while the branching ratio to N$^{2+}$ is so...

  7. The effect of sources of nitrogen on nitrate formation and nitrogen uptake by cotton plants growing on Miller clay loam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcos, Zilmar Ziller

    1958-01-01

    LIB RARV A & M COLLEGE OF TEXAS THE EFFECT OF SOURCES OF NITROGEN ON NITRATE FORMATION AND NITROGEN UPTAKE HX COTTON PIANTS GROWXNG ON MILLER CIAY LOAN A Thesis ZXINAR ZXLLER NARCOS AAS Submitted, to the Graduate School of the Agricultural... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ 66 APPEEDIXt ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 73 Tables l. Treatments Used in the Study. 2 Nitrate Content (ppm) of Miller Clay (0-6 ') on the 10th of July as Affected. by Rate and Source of' Nitrogen, Avexage oi' Two Repli- Nitrate Content (ppm) of Miller...

  8. Optimization of row spacing and nitrogen fertilization for cotton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clawson, Ernest Leslie

    2004-09-30

    Ultra-narrow row (UNR) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a production system using high plant populations in reduced row spacings. The responses of this production system to nitrogen fertilizer have not been fully investigated. Evaluations...

  9. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  10. Substitutional Nitrogen in Nanodiamond and Bucky-Diamond Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Sternberg, Michael G.

    2005-09-15

    The inclusion of dopants (such as nitrogen) in diamond nanoparticles is expected to be important for use in future nanodevices, such as qubits for quantum computing. Although most commercial diamond nanoparticles contain a small fraction of nitrogen, it is still unclear whether it is located within the core or at the surface of the nanoparticle. Presented here are density functional tight binding simulations examining the configuration, potential energy surface, and electronic charge of substitutional nitrogen in nanodiamond and bucky-diamond particles. The results predict that nitrogen is likely to be positioned at the surface of both hydrogenated nanodiamond and (dehydrogenated) bucky-diamond, and that the coordination of the dopants within the particles is dependent upon the surface structure.

  11. Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tarun, M. C.; Iqbal, M. Zafar; McCluskey, M. D.

    2011-04-14

    Zinc oxide is a promising material for blue and UV solid-state lighting devices, among other applications. Nitrogen has been regarded as a potential p-type dopant for ZnO. However, recent calculations indicate that nitrogen is a deep acceptor. This paper presents experimental evidence that nitrogen is, in fact, a deep acceptor and therefore cannot produce p-type ZnO. A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission band near 1.7 eV, with an excitation onset of ~2.2 eV, was observed, in agreement with the deep-acceptor model of the nitrogen defect. Thus the deep-acceptor behavior can be explained by the low energy of the ZnO valence bandmore »relative to the vacuum level.« less

  12. The nitrogen cycle and ecohydrology of seasonally dry grasslands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parolari, Anthony Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses the coupling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes and, specifically, the organization of ecosystem traits with the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles. Observations from a factorial irrigation- ...

  13. Amplification of subnanosecond nitrogen laser pulses in UV dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Au, M.; Rayner, D.M.; Malatesta, V.; Hackett, P.A.

    1982-12-01

    The performance of a short pulse netrogen laser system have been improved by replacing the subatmospheric TE nitrogen laser amplifier with a XV xenon chloride excimer pumped dye amplifier. (AIP)

  14. The relationship between iron and nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium spp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, Phoebe Dreux

    2009-01-01

    Trichodesmium spp. are considered the dominant nitrogen (N) fixing cyanobacteria in tropical and subtropical oceans, regimes frequently characterized by low iron (Fe). Limited information exists about what levels of Fe ...

  15. Nitrogen chemistry in an urban bioretention system in Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Halle (Halle Caitlan)

    2013-01-01

    An investigation into the nitrogen chemistry of the anoxic layer of an urban constructed wetland in Singapore was conducted. This pilot-scale wetland treats stormwater runoff from the Balam Estate housing development for ...

  16. Effects of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on Nitrogen Losses from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Templer, Pamela

    of nitrogen losses via leachate were more than ten times greater, at the Arnold Arboretum compared to Harvard Forest. Nitrate that was lost via leachate at Harvard Forest came predominantly from atmospheric

  17. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  18. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

  19. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-07-15

    A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

  20. Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, J A

    1971-01-01

    Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

  1. Nitrogen isotope effects on glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abell, L.M.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1988-05-03

    The nitrogen isotope effect on the decarboxylation of glutamic acid by glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli has been measured by comparison of the isotopic composition of the amino nitrogen of the product ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid isolated after 10-20% reaction with that of the starting glutamic acid. At pH 4.7, 37 /sup 0/C, the isotope effect is k/sup 14//k/sup 15/ = 0.9855 +/- 0.0006 when compared to unprotonated glutamic acid. Interpretation of this result requires knowledge of the equilibrium nitrogen isotope effect for Schiff base formation. This equilibrium isotope effect is K/sup 14//K/sup 15/ - 0.9824 for the formation of the unprotonated Schiff base between unprotonated valine and salicylaldehyde. Analysis of the nitrogen isotope effect on decarboxylation of glutamic acid and of the previously measured carbon isotope effect on this same reaction shows that decarboxylation and Schiff base formation are jointly rate limiting. The enzyme-bound Schiff base between glutamate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate partitions approximately 2:1 between decarboxylation and return to the starting state. The nitrogen isotope effect also reveals that the Schiff base nitrogen is protonated in this intermediate.

  2. Method for oxygen reduction in a uranium-recovery process. [US DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.

    1981-11-04

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous iron and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

  3. Nitrate movement in soils and nitrogen uptake efficiency as affected by nitrogen source, time of application, and a nitrification inhibitor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Kenneth Phanon

    1976-01-01

    NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOILS AND NITROGEN UPTAKE EFFICIENCY AS AFFECTED BY NITROGEN SOURCEs TINE OF APPLICATIONs AIJD A NITRIFICATION INHIBITOR A Thesis by KENNETH PHAIJON BANKS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University..., Norwood silt loam (Typic Udifluvent) and Houston Black clay (Udic Pellustert) to determine the amount of N03-N leaching from various N fertilizer sources. Nitrate N movement, as affected by time of application, was determined for (NHq)2 Sop, urea...

  4. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickson, Cecil Herman

    1955-01-01

    100 0 2 000 3000 4000 LEGEND DALTON + BE ATT IE- B RI DGEMAN V AMAGAT ~ EX PER I MENTAL 5000 6000 7000 8000 PR E SSUR E, P SI A 50 GRAPH X COMPA RISON OF EX PER IMENTAL DATA WITH CALCULATED VALUES F OR THE 48. 6I% PROPANE MIXTURE AT 300 F I... Percent Propane Mixture at 300 F. Comparison of Experimental Data wI. th Calculated Values for the 48. 6$ Mole Percent Propane Mixture at 260 F, Comparison of Experimental Data with Calculated Values for the &8. 6$ Mole Percent Propane Mixture st 300...

  5. The determination of compressibility factors of gaseous propane-nitrogen mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Don

    1952-01-01

    ??IxTURE AS CALO:LATM& "RO? PRE BEAT I. - ~RIl, ), El AN &', gi)ATIOR OR STATE (liters por ~rr I ) RT(1 - o/vT3) (Cr. mole atm ). er liter v Bo(1 - b) (liters per r oIe) Ao(1 - a) vs v (p 8rrrp at?sos tpr ur*, atmos (Pv RT 0 0900 0 1050...

  6. EPA Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is accepting applications for the Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program to support pollution prevention/source reduction and/or resource conservation projects that reduce or eliminate pollution at the source.

  7. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis Jennifer Morris* , Mort Webster* and John Reilly* Abstract The electric power sector, which

  8. Active skin for turbulent drag reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mani, Raghavendran

    2002-01-01

    capitalizes on recent advances in active turbulent drag reduction and active material based actuation to develop an active or "smart" skin for turbulent drag reduction in realistic flight conditions. The skin operation principle is based on computational...

  9. Process for preparing a chemical compound enriched in isotope content. [nitrogen 15-enriched nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michaels, E.D.

    1981-02-25

    A process to prepare a chemical enriched in isotope content includes: a chemical exchange reaction between a first and second compound which yields an isotopically enriched first compound and an isotopically depleted second compound; the removal of a portion of the first compound as product and the removal of a portion of the second compound as spent material; the conversion of the remainder of the first compound to the second compound for reflux at the product end of the chemical exchange reaction region; the conversion of the remainder of the second compound to the first compound for reflux at the spent material end of the chemical exchange region; and the cycling of the additional chemicals produced by one conversion reaction to the other conversion reaction, for consumption therein. One of the conversion reactions is an oxidation reaction, and the energy that it yields is used to drive the other conversion reaction, a reduction. The reduction reaction is carried out in a solid polymer electrolyte electrolytic reactor. The overall process is energy efficient and yields no waste by-products. A particular embodiment of the process in the production of nitrogen-15-enriched nitric acid.

  10. Response of fine particulate matter to emission changes of oxides of nitrogen and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandra P. Tsimpidi; Vlassis A. Karydis; Spyros N. Pandis

    2008-11-15

    A three-dimensional chemical transport model (Particulate Matter Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) is used to investigate changes in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in response to 50% emissions changes of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during July 2001 and January 2002 in the eastern United States. The reduction of NOx emissions by 50% during the summer results in lower average oxidant levels and lowers PM2.5 (8% on average), mainly because of reductions of sulfate (9-11%), nitrate (45-58%), and ammonium (7-11%). The organic particulate matter (PM) slightly decreases in rural areas, whereas it increases in cities by a few percent when NOx is reduced. Reduction of NOx during winter causes an increase of the oxidant levels and a rather complicated response of the PM components, leading to small net changes. Sulfate increases (8-17%), nitrate decreases (18-42%), organic PM slightly increases, and ammonium either increases or decreases a little. The reduction of VOC emissions during the summer causes on average a small increase of the oxidant levels and a marginal increase in PM2.5. This small net change is due to increases in the inorganic components and decreases of the organic ones. Reduction of VOC emissions during winter results in a decrease of the oxidant levels and a 5-10% reduction of PM2.5 because of reductions in nitrate (4-19%), ammonium (4-10%), organic PM (12-14%), and small reductions in sulfate. Although sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) reduction is the single most effective approach for sulfate control, the coupled decrease of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions in both seasons is more effective in reducing total PM2.5 mass than the SO{sub 2} reduction alone. 34 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Combined SO sub 2 /NO sub x reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Markussen, J.M. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments and passage of state legislation leading to more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) regulations have fueled research and development efforts on technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  12. SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ______ Original Agreement ______ Amended Agreement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ______ Original Agreement ______ Amended Agreement By this agreement that it will not apply to salary subsequently earned by giving at least thirty days written notice of the date(ies), by completing an amended Salary Reduction Agreement. The total of the salary reduction

  13. ORIGIN OF THE UNUSUALLY LOW NITROGEN ABUNDANCES IN YOUNG POPULATIONS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    It is a longstanding problem that H II regions and very young stellar populations in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have nitrogen abundances ([N/H]) that are a factor of {approx}7 lower than the solar value. We here discuss a new scenario in which the observed unusually low nitrogen abundances can be closely associated with recent collisions and subsequent accretion of H I high velocity clouds (HVCs) that surround the Galaxy and have low nitrogen abundances. We show that if the observed low [N/H] is limited to very young stars with ages less than {approx}10{sup 7} yr, then the collision/accretion rate of the HVCs onto the LMC needs to be {approx}0.2 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} (corresponding to the total HVC mass of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub sun}) to dilute the original interstellar medium (ISM) before star formation. The required accretion rate means that even if the typical mass of HVCs accreted onto the LMC is {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun}, the Galaxy needs to have {approx}2500 massive HVCs within the LMC's orbital radius with respect to the Galactic center. The rather large number of required massive HVCs drives us to suggest that the HVCs are not likely to efficiently dilute the ISM of the LMC and consequently lower the [N/H]. We thus suggest the transfer of gas with low [N/H] from the Small Magellanic Cloud to the LMC as a promising scenario that can explain the observed low [N/H].

  14. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  15. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM while not affecting fuel consumption or engine performance compared to the baseline marine diesel. The results showed that a nominal 40% reduction in TPM was realized when switching from the marine diesel to the ULSD. A small reduction in NOx was also shown between the marine fuel and the ULSD. The implementation of the WIS showed that NOx was reduced significantly by between 11% and 17%, depending upon the operating condition. With the WIS, the TPM was reduced by a few percentage points, which was close to the confidence in measurement.

  16. A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevers, Michel

    A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty model reduction with controller reduction for the same PWR system. We show that closed-loop techniques to the design of a low-order con- troller for a realistic model of order 42 of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR

  17. Direct visualization of atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Geng; Lu, Jianchen; Du, Shixuan, E-mail: sxdu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: feng@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Gao, Hong-Jun [Institute of Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Xiao [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Berger, Reinhard; Feng, Xinliang, E-mail: sxdu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: feng@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Müllen, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-14

    We have fabricated atomically precise nitrogen-doped chevron-type graphene nanoribbons by using the on-surface synthesis technique combined with the nitrogen substitution of the precursors. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy indicate that the well-defined nanoribbons tend to align with the neighbors side-by-side with a band gap of 1.02?eV, which is in good agreement with the density functional theory calculation result. The influence of the high precursor coverage on the quality of the nanoribbons is also studied. We find that graphene nanoribbons with sufficient aspect ratios can only be fabricated at sub-monolayer precursor coverage. This work provides a way to construct atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons.

  18. Nitrogen-Doped 9-Cell Cavity Performance in a Test Cryomodule for LCLS-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonnella, Dan; Furuta, Fumio; Ge, Mingqi; Hall, Daniel; Ho, Vivian; Hoffstaetter, Georg; Liepe, Matthias; O'Connell, Tim; Posen, Sam; Quigley, Peter; Sears, James; Veshcherevich, Vadim; Grassellino, Anna; Romanenko, Alexander; Sergatskov, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    The superconducting RF linac for LCLS-II calls for 1.3 GHz 9-cell cavities with an average intrinsic quality factor Q0 of 2.7x10^10 at 2 K and 16 MV/m accelerating gradient. Two niobium 9-cell cavities, prepared with nitrogen-doping at Fermilab, were assembled into the Cornell Horizontal Test Cryomodule (HTC) to test cavity performance in a cryomodule that is very similar to a full LCLS-II cryomodule. The cavities met LCLS-II specifications with an average quench field of 17 MV/m and an average Q0 of 3x10^10. The sensitivity of the cavities' residual resistance to ambient magnetic field was determined to be 0.5 nOhm/mG during fast cool down. In two cool downs, a heater attached to one of the cavity beam tubes was used to induce large horizontal temperature gradients. Here we report on the results of these first tests of nitrogen-doped cavities in cryomodule, which provide critical information for the LCLS-II project.

  19. Which Idling Reduction Technologeis are the Best? | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Reduction Technologeis are the Best? Which Idling Reduction Technologeis are the Best? Benefits due to idling reduction depend on fuel and capital cost of equipment, idling...

  20. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and...

  1. SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies for NOx Reduction SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerhesser.pdf More...

  2. Penetration and air-emission-reduction benefits of solar technologies in the electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study of four solar energy technologies and the electric utility industry are reported. The purpose of the study was to estimate the penetration by federal region of four solar technologies - wind, biomass, phtovoltaics, and solar thermal - in terms of installed capacity and power generated. The penetration by these technologies occurs at the expense of coal and nuclear power. The displacement of coal plants implies a displacement of their air emissions, such as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter. The main conclusion of this study is that solar thermal, photovoltaics, and biomass fail to penetrate significantly by the end of this century in any federal region. Wind energy penetrates the electric utility industry in several regions during the 1990s. Displaced coal and nuclear generation are also estimated by region, as are the corresponding reductions in air emissions. The small-scale penetration by the solar technologies necessarily limits the amount of conventional fuels displaced and the reduction in air emissions. A moderate displacement of sulfur dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen is estimated to occur by the end of this century, and significant lowering of these emissions should occur in the early part of the next century.

  3. Method of manufacturing semiconductor having group II-group VI compounds doped with nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Price, Kent J.; Ma, Xianda; Makhratchev, Konstantin

    2005-02-08

    A method of making a semiconductor comprises depositing a group II-group VI compound onto a substrate in the presence of nitrogen using sputtering to produce a nitrogen-doped semiconductor. This method can be used for making a photovoltaic cell using sputtering to apply a back contact layer of group II-group VI compound to a substrate in the presence of nitrogen, the back coating layer being doped with nitrogen. A semiconductor comprising a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, and a photovoltaic cell comprising a substrate on which is deposited a layer of a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, are also included.

  4. Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohno, Kenichi; Joseph Heremans, F.; Bassett, Lee C.; Myers, Bryan A.; Toyli, David M.; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.; Palmstrom, Christopher J.; Awschalom, David D.

    2012-08-20

    We demonstrate nanometer-precision depth control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation near the surface of synthetic diamond using an in situ nitrogen delta-doping technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Despite their proximity to the surface, doped NV centers with depths (d) ranging from 5 to 100 nm display long spin coherence times, T{sub 2} > 100 {mu}s at d = 5 nm and T{sub 2} > 600 {mu}s at d {>=} 50 nm. The consistently long spin coherence observed in such shallow NV centers enables applications such as atomic-scale external spin sensing and hybrid quantum architectures.

  5. Quasimonoenergetic electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration in pure nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mo, M. Z.; Ali, A.; Fedosejevs, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Fourmaux, S.; Lassonde, P.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS-EMT, Universite du Quebec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2012-02-13

    Quasimonoenergetic electron beams with maximum energy >0.5 GeV and 2 mrad divergence have been generated in pure nitrogen gas via wakefield acceleration with 80 TW, 30 fs laser pulses. Long low energy tail features were typically observed due to continuous ionization injection. The measured peak electron energy decreased with the plasma density, agreeing with the predicted scaling for electrons. The experiments showed a threshold electron density of 3x10{sup 18}cm{sup -3} for self-trapping. Our experiments suggest that pure Nitrogen is a potential candidate gas to achieve GeV monoenergetic electrons using the ionization induced injection scheme for laser wakefield acceleration.

  6. Nitrogen solubility and protein utilization by dairy cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Majdoub, Abdesselam

    1977-01-01

    of solubility of dietary nitrogen were obtained by selecting from natural feedstuffs. Four complete diets of concentrates and sorghum silage were fed ad libi sum: a) 15. 34'I crude protein (CP) with 42. 26'X solubility (HP-HS); b) '15. 36K CP with 21. 82K... Mixtures. 23 Chemical Composition of the Concentrate Mixtures. 24 Sorghum Silage Analysis. 26 Chemical Composition of Complete Diets (Concentrate + Silage) 28 Effect of Protein Level and Nitrogen Solubility on Body Weight Changes, Daily DM, CP...

  7. Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. 't Hooft

    2009-03-20

    The requirement that physical phenomena associated with gravitational collapse should be duly reconciled with the postulates of quantum mechanics implies that at a Planckian scale our world is not 3+1 dimensional. Rather, the observable degrees of freedom can best be described as if they were Boolean variables defined on a two-dimensional lattice, evolving with time. This observation, deduced from not much more than unitarity, entropy and counting arguments, implies severe restrictions on possible models of quantum gravity. Using cellular automata as an example it is argued that this dimensional reduction implies more constraints than the freedom we have in constructing models. This is the main reason why so-far no completely consistent mathematical models of quantum black holes have been found. Essay dedicated to Abdus Salam.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  9. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  10. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  11. Continuous reduction of uranium tetrafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMint, A.L.; Maxey, A.W.

    1993-10-21

    Operation of a pilot-scale system for continuous metallothermic reduction of uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4} or green salt) has been initiated. This activity is in support of the development of a cost- effective process to produce uranium-iron (U-Fe) alloy feed for the Uranium-Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) program. To date, five runs have been made to reduce green salt (UF{sub 4}) with magnesium. During this quarter, three runs were made to perfect the feeding system, examine feed rates, and determine the need for a crust breaker/stirrer. No material was drawn off in any of the runs; both product metal and by-product salt were allowed to accumulate in the reactor.

  12. Human Factors @ UB Fall 2010 Human Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    . Outsourcing aviation maintenance: Hu- man factors implications, specifically for communications. C. Drury, K. Guy, C. Wenner. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 2010, 20, 124 ­ 143. #12;2 Human Factors

  13. Electron Spin Resonance Shift and Linewidth Broadening of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond as a Function of Electron Irradiation Dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwin Kim; Victor M. Acosta; Erik Bauch; Dmitry Budker; Philip R. Hemmer

    2012-08-09

    A high-nitrogen-concentration diamond sample was subject to 200-keV electron irradiation using a transmission electron microscope. The optical and spin-resonance properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers were investigated as a function of the irradiation dose up to 6.4\\times1021 e-/cm2. The microwave transition frequency of the NV- center was found to shift by up to 0.6% (17.1 MHz) and the linewidth broadened with increasing electron-irradiation dose. Unexpectedly, the measured magnetic sensitivity is best at the lowest irradiation dose, even though the NV concentration increases monotonically with increasing dose. This is in large part due to a sharp reduction in optically-detected spin contrast at higher doses.

  14. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  15. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Stanley D. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Nowak, Robert S. [University of Nevada, Reno

    2007-11-30

    Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypothesis include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production thorugh an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plan production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plan and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most processes responded slowly or in a lag fashion to N-deposition and with no significant response to crust disturbance. Therefore, the primary objectives of this renewal grant were to: (1) continue ongoing measurements of soil and plant parameters that assess primary treatment responses; (2) address the potential heterogeneity of soil properties and (3) initiate a new suite of measurements that will provide data necessary for scaling/modeling of whole-plot to ecosystem-level responses. Our experimental approach included soil plan-water interactions using TDR, neutron probe, and miniaturized soil matric potential and moisture sensors, plant ecophysiological and productivity responses to water and nitrogen treatments and remote sensing methodologies deployed on a radio control platform.

  16. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes Define: the process by which molecular nitrogen (N2) is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constabel, Peter

    -Rhizobium communication - roots release flavonoid signals (flavone), stimulate Rhizobium nod genes - nod genes are 'common' and 'host-specific' - nodD is the activator - nod factors: lipo-oligosaccharide signals - chitin

  17. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 NITROGEN #2NITROGEN #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    treatment SNCR 30 - 50 5 ­ 15 500 - 1100 SCR ~80 50 ­ 80 820 - 990 #12;HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE at 10001000--1300 K1300 K Inlet 500Inlet 500 ppmppm HCN, stagingHCN, staging withwith primaryprimary = 0.7,= 0Effect of air factor Typical NO and NTypical NO and N22OO profilesprofiles (850°C, air factor 1.2)(850°C, air

  18. Estimation of Annual Reductions of NOx Emissions in ERCOT for the HB3693 Electricity Savings Goals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diem, Art; Mulholland, Denise; Yarbrough, James; Baltazar, Juan Carlos; Im, Piljae; Haberl, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    reductions are small compared to the total emission reductions needed to bring the state?s non-attainment areas into attainment of the national ambient air quality standards for ozone, they can be a part of an overall strategy to reduce emissions.... In this step, plants that have a capacity factor of 0.8 or greater are considered to be baseload units and none of their generation would be affected by energy efficiency measures. In addition, plants that have a capacity factor of 0.2 or less are considered...

  19. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Stanley, D.; Nowak, Robert S.; Fenstermaker, Lynn, F.; Young, Michael,H.

    2007-11-30

    In order to anticipate the effects of global change on ecosystem function, it is essential that predictive relationships be established linking ecosystem function to global change scenarios. The Mojave Desert is of considerable interest with respect to global change. It contains the driest habitats in North America, and thus most closely approximates the world’s great arid deserts. In order to examine the effects of climate and land use changes, in 2001 we established a long-term manipulative global change experiment, called the Mojave Global Change Facility. Manipulations in this study include the potential effects of (1) increased summer rainfall (75 mm over three discrete 25 mm events), (2) increased nitrogen deposition (10 and 40 kg ha-1), and (3) the disturbance of biological N-fixing crusts . Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypotheses include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production through an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plant production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plant and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most processes responded slowly or in a lag fashion to N-deposition and with no significant response to crust disturbance. Therefore, the primary objectives of this renewal grant were to: (1) continue ongoing measurements of soil and plant parameters that assess primary treatment responses; (2) address the potential heterogeneity of soil properties and (3) initiate a new suite of measurements that will provide data necessary for scaling/modeling of whole-plot to ecosystem-level responses. Our experimental approach included soil plant-water interactions using TDR, neutron probe, and miniaturized soil matric potential and moisture sensors, plant ecophysiological and productivity responses to water and nitrogen treatments and remote sensing methodologies deployed on a radio control platform. We report here the most significant findings of our study.

  20. Deterministic coupling of delta-doped nitrogen vacancy centers to a nanobeam photonic crystal cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jonathan C.; Cui, Shanying; Zhang, Xingyu; Russell, Kasey J.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Bracher, David O.; Ohno, Kenichi; McLellan, Claire A.; Alemán, Benjamin; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania; Andrich, Paolo; Awschalom, David; Aharonovich, Igor

    2014-12-29

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center (NV) in diamond has generated significant interest as a platform for quantum information processing and sensing in the solid state. For most applications, high quality optical cavities are required to enhance the NV zero-phonon line (ZPL) emission. An outstanding challenge in maximizing the degree of NV-cavity coupling is the deterministic placement of NVs within the cavity. Here, we report photonic crystal nanobeam cavities coupled to NVs incorporated by a delta-doping technique that allows nanometer-scale vertical positioning of the emitters. We demonstrate cavities with Q up to ?24?000 and mode volume V???0.47(?/n){sup 3} as well as resonant enhancement of the ZPL of an NV ensemble with Purcell factor of ?20. Our fabrication technique provides a first step towards deterministic NV-cavity coupling using spatial control of the emitters.

  1. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  2. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  3. A Power Reduction Technique Through Dynamic Runtime Algorithm For CMOS VLSI Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadry, Syed Md. Jaffrey Al-

    2012-01-01

    Standby power reductionPower Reduction in 32 bit FullAdder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Reduction

  4. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  5. Nitrogen oxidizing in modeling of diesel engine operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulakov, V.; Merker, G.

    1995-12-31

    A computer model of diesel engine operation based on the interconnected calculation of diesel fuel spray and the processes in the combustion chamber is extended for the calculation of Nitrogen oxidizing. A number of chemical reactions with O{sub 2}, O, N{sub 2}, N, NO, OH, H, H{sub 2} are included in the model.

  6. Patterns of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Dynamics in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Tim

    Patterns of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Dynamics in Decomposing Foliar Litter in Canadian Group 1 Department of Geography and Centre for Climate and Global Change Research, McGill University, Montre´al, Quebec, Canada; 2 Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Victoria, British Columbia

  7. Fertilizer Facts: May 1996, Number 8 Nitrogen Fertilizer Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    moisture from air Anhydrous ammonia (AA) · Colorless gas · Sharp, pungent, noxious odor · 82% N · Gas at normal pressure · Liquid when pressurized for transport and storage · 265 psi minimum working pressure moisture · Clay soils trap ammonia better than sandy soils Nitrogen solutions and suspensions (NSOL

  8. Treatment of Chlorinated Solvents by Nitrogen-Fixing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Kung-Hui "Bella"

    ). Therefore, effective contaminant destruction approaches such as in-situ vadose zone bioremediation or above of ground- water contaminants including aliphatic, aromatic, and halogenated hydrocarbons (3 bioremediation for the treatment of chlorinated solvents at Savannah River (6, 7). At this site, nitrogen

  9. Recirculating Liquid Nitrogen System for Operation of Cryogenic Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    1 Recirculating Liquid Nitrogen System for Operation of Cryogenic Pumps IEPC-2011-217 Presented Abstract: Cryogenic pumps are attractive for electric propulsion test facilities due to their pumping speed cryogenerators to provide the cooling necessary for a ten-cryopump vacuum facility with a pumping rate on xenon

  10. The nitrogen specific uptake of three strains of Prochlorococcus 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Eli

    1999-01-01

    on ammonia, urea or nitrate and acclimated to either high (75 []Ein m?˛s?ą) or low light (5 []Ein m?˛s?ą), were starved overnight, spiked with a single nitrogen source, and disappearance of the addition was measured after a two-hour incubation period...

  11. An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    An Earth-system perspective of the global nitrogen cycle Nicolas Gruber & James N. Galloway cycle and climate are expected to become an increasingly important determinant of the Earth system with the cli- mate system in the presence of the ever-increasing human intervention in the Earth system1

  12. Preparation of high nitrogen compound and materials therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM); Hiskey, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-10-10

    The high-nitrogen compound of the formula ##STR00001## was prepared. Pyrolysis of the compound yields carbon nitrides C.sub.2N.sub.3 and C.sub.3N.sub.5. The carbon nitrides vary in their density, texture, and morphology.

  13. NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Thomas H.

    NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS by Haifeng Zhang DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS Haifeng Zhang Department of Chemical Engineering Doctor of Philosophy evidence of ring opening reactions was observed during the pyrolysis of pyrene. A simple model was devised

  14. NITROGEN LOADINGS FROM SEPTIC SYSTEMS IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waste Management Zone" (AMZ) as defined in the "Agricultural Inventory of the Lower Fraser Valley Data the data base (acquired from the B.C. Assessment Authority in 1993) in the Ministry of Health report#12;NITROGEN LOADINGS FROM SEPTIC SYSTEMS IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN DOE FRAP 1997-25 Prepared for

  15. Nitrogen Contamination in Elastic Neutron Scattering Songxue Chi,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynn, Jeffrey W.

    Nitrogen Contamination in Elastic Neutron Scattering Songxue Chi,ab Jeffrey W. Lynn,a* Ying Chen a neutron scattering measurement is a contribution to the background, especially in inelastic measurements of having N2 in the sample environment system during elastic neutron scattering measurements on a single

  16. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and for carbon sequestration (Jandl et al. 2007). Soil acidification and carbon sequestration are influ- encedORIGINAL PAPER Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen transformation patterns in forest carbon release under broadleaved forest floors may explain this difference. Spruce forest floor exhibited

  18. Partitioning of assimilated nitrogen in beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Analyses Soluble and insoluble nitrogen compounds were extracted in a methanol-water mixture as described of beech (F. sylvatica L.) were germinat- ed in the dark on peat moistened with water at 20°C and 98 [15N]NH+4(50% 15N atom excess). Two cultures (4 plants each) were harvested at regular inter- vals

  19. CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from fine roots in a deciduous forest Colleen2 Ecological Society of America, 2008 #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;+ [CO2] #12;+ Net primary production + [CO2] #12;+ Net primary production + [CO2] + C and N storage in biomass #12;+ Net primary production

  20. Satellite-observed US power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.

    2006-11-29

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  1. Metal Artifact Reduction in Computed Tomography /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Seemeen

    2014-01-01

    Monoenergetic imaging of dual-energy CT reduces artifactsartifact reduction by dual energy computed tomography usingimage re- construction for dual energy X-ray transmission

  2. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company...

  3. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operations Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations This document was used to determine facts and conditions...

  4. Dimension Reduction of Chemical Process Simulation Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truemper, Klaus

    transportation systems and the majority of electric power plants rely directly or indirectly on the combustion: dimension reduction, subgroup discovery, lazy learner, modeling combustion 1 Introduction Virtually all

  5. National Idling Reduction Network News - December 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ssprogramssblilp.htm Environmental Finance Center, University of Maryland Port of Baltimore Clean Diesel Program (including Locomotive Engine Idle Reduction Grant Sub- Program)...

  6. National Idling Reduction Network News - January 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ogramssblilp.htm Environmental Finance Center, University of Maryland Port of Baltimore Clean Diesel Program (including Locomotive Engine Idle Reduction Grant Sub- Program)...

  7. National Idling Reduction Network News - November 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    essprogramssblilp.htm Environmental Finance Center, University of Maryland Port of Baltimore Clean Diesel Program (including Locomotive Engine Idle Reduction Grant Sub-Program)...

  8. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 The documents...

  9. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    go to http:www.transportation.anl.govenginesidlingtools.html. The idling reduction Web pages of DOE's Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center website have also...

  10. National Idling Reduction Network News - June 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3, 2011 http:www07.grants.govsearchsearch.do? &modeVIEW&oppId101073 San Diego Air Pollution Control District (California) Goods Movement Emission Reduction Program:...

  11. National Idling Reduction Network News - July 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3, 2011 http:www07.grants.govsearchsearch.do ?&modeVIEW&oppId101073 San Diego Air Pollution Control District (California) Goods Movement Emission Reduction Program:...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Past Newsletters The National Idling Reduction Network News is currently sent as an HTML newsletter and issues starting with the May 2014 newsletter can be searched via the...

  13. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and References report. The documents were examined and used to develop the final report. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)Technical...

  14. The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Transcription Factor Encyclopedia. Genome Biology 2012 13:Factor Encyclopedia. Gen- ome Biology 2012, 13:000. where ‘Biology 2012, 13:R24 http://genomebiology.com/2012/13/3/R24 SOFTWARE Open Access The Transcription Factor Encyclopedia

  15. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature characteristics. These favorable emissions characteristics were obtained while maintaining performance and fuel economy. These aggressive emissions and performance results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. This systems approach benefits substantially from an integrated experimental and analytical approach to technology development, which is one of DDCs core competencies Also, DDC is uniquely positioned to undertake such a systems technology development approach, given its vertically integrated commercial structure within the DaimlerChrysler organization. State-of-the-art analytical tools were developed targeting specific LEADER program objectives and were applied to guide system enhancements and to provide testing directions, resulting in a shortened and efficient development cycle. Application examples include ammonia/NO{sub x} distribution improvement and urea injection controls development, and were key contributors to significantly reduce engine out as well as tailpipe out emissions. Successful cooperation between DDC and Engelhard Corporation, the major subcontractor for the LEADER program and provider of state-of-the-art technologies on various catalysts, was another contributing factor to ensure that both passenger car and LD truck applications achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. Significant technical challenges, which highlight barriers of commercialization of diesel technology for passenger cars and LD truck applications, are presented at the end of this report.

  16. Annealing Behavior of Ion-implanted Nitrogen in D9 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arunkumar, J.; David, C.; Nair, K. G. M.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Magudapathy, P.; Kennedy, John

    2011-07-15

    Nitrogen isotope N{sup 15} was implanted at the sub-surface of D9 steel. The resonance nuclear reaction analysis was used to probe the implanted nitrogen as a function of depth. The as-implanted D9 sample was isochronally annealed and by observing the broadening of nitrogen depth profile at various annealing junctures, activation energy for nitrogen diffusion in steel was deduced.

  17. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  18. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  19. NOx reduction methods and apparatuses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, M. Lou; Maupin, Gary D.

    2004-10-26

    A NO.sub.x reduction method includes treating a first gas containing NO.sub.x, producing a second gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second gas to N.sub.2, and producing a third gas containing less NO.sub.x than the first gas, substantially all of the third gas NO.sub.x being NO. The method also includes treating the third gas, producing a fourth gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the fourth gas to N.sub.2, and producing a fifth gas containing less NO.sub.x than the third gas, substantially all of the fifth gas NO.sub.x being NO. Treating the first and/or third gas can include treatment with a plasma. Reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second and/or fourth gas can include reducing with a catalyst. The method can further include controlling energy consumption of the plasmas independent of each other.

  20. Per-plant eco-physiological responses of maize to varied nitrogen availability at low and high plant densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boomsma, Christopher R; Vyn, Tony J

    2009-01-01

    and low nitrogen availability. Agron. J. 2009; forthcoming.the impacts of nitrogen (N) availability on intra-specificgenotypes to varied N availability at both low and high

  1. The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Bioenergy Sorghum Yield and Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilahi-Sebess, Szilvia

    2012-07-16

    Sorghum: its uses and origins, and current place in the US economy???? 3 Sorghum as a potential biofuel crop???...................................................... 4 Ethanol production and ethanol yield?????????????????????.. 5... yield against applied nitrogen rate by harvest???? ................................................... 36 5 Regression of tissue nitrogen concentration of the above ground sorghum biomass against applied nitrogen rate by year and location...

  2. Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides and indoor air. Oxides of nitrogen (NOy) are also globally distributed, because NO formed in combustion processes is oxidized to NO2, HNO3, N2O5 and a variety of other nitrogen oxides during transport. Deposition

  3. Methods of detection and identificationoc carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhalivyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2013-11-12

    Methods for detecting and identifying carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials are disclosed. The methods may comprise detection of photo-nuclear reaction products of nitrogen and carbon to detect and identify the carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials.

  4. Blackbox Stencil Interpolation Method For Model Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    Reservoir Simulation Computational intensive Large geological uncertainty Legacy or commercial code-space-parameter principal component analysis [8] K. Willcox et al., Balanced model reduction via the proper orthogonalBlackbox Stencil Interpolation Method For Model Reduction Han Chen Advisors: Qiqi Wang, Karen

  5. Coarse graining and control theory model reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    Coarse graining and control theory model reduction David E. Reynolds 1 ABSTRACT: We explain a method, inspired by control the- ory model reduction and interpolation theory, that rigorously applicable to nonequilibrium systems. KEY WORDS: coarse graining; control theory; model reduc- tion; Hankel

  6. Coarse graining and control theory model reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    Coarse graining and control theory model reduction David E. Reynolds 1 ABSTRACT: We explain a method, inspired by control the­ ory model reduction and interpolation theory, that rigorously applicable to nonequilibrium systems. KEY WORDS: coarse graining; control theory; model reduc­ tion; Hankel

  7. NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The hydrocarbon-SCR that was developed using ethanol and E85 as the reductant showed high NOx reduction, no need for thawing, use of existing infrastructure, and reduced system cost making it a viable alternative to urea-based SCR

  8. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

  10. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, W.A.

    1998-08-18

    A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

  11. Efficient boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitney, R Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael W

    2015-03-24

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  12. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

  13. Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in high-reflectivity optical coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Deborah

    Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in high-reflectivity optical coatings Garrett D. Cole1,2 *, Wei and sensitivity are dictated by the excess mechanical damping of the high-reflectivity coatings that comprise at best been reduced by a factor of two. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm in optical coating technology

  14. A Framework for Energy and Transient Power Reduction during Behavioral Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    that for two voltage levels, three operating frequencies, switching activity of 0.5 and power profiling factor) peak power differential reductions in the range of 60 - 97%. Further, the impact of switching The low power circuit design is a three dimensional problem involving area, performance and power trade

  15. Control of work function of graphene by plasma assisted nitrogen doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akada, Keishi; Terasawa, Tomo-o; Imamura, Gaku; Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro, E-mail: saiki@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-03-31

    Nitrogen doping is expected to provide several intriguing properties to graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment to defect-free and defective highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples causes doping of nitrogen atom into the graphene layer. Nitrogen atoms are initially doped at a graphitic site (inside the graphene) for the defect-free HOPG, while doping to a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site (edge of the graphene) is dominant for the defective HOPG. The work function of graphene correlates strongly with the site and amount of doped nitrogen. Nitrogen atoms doped at a graphitic site lower the work function, while nitrogen atoms at a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site increase the work function. Control of plasma treatment time and the amount of initial defect could change the work function of graphite from 4.3?eV to 5.4?eV, which would open a way to tailor the nature of graphene for various industrial applications.

  16. Nitrogen Production in Starburst Galaxies Detected by GALEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan P. Mallery; Lisa Kewley; R. Michael Rich; Samir Salim; Stephane Charlot; Christy Tremonti; Mark Seibert; Todd Small; Ted Wyder; Tom A. Barlow; Karl Forster; Peter G. Friedman; D. Christopher Martin; Patrick Morrissey; Susan G. Neff; David Schiminovich; Luciana Bianchi; Jose Donas; Timothy Heckman; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Bruno Milliard; Alex S. Szalay; Barry Y. Welsh; Suk Young Yi

    2007-06-29

    We investigate the production of nitrogen in star forming galaxies with ultraviolet (UV) radiation detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Satellite (GALEX). We use a sample of 8,745 GALEX emission line galaxies matched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic sample. We derive both gas-phase oxygen and nitrogen abundances for the sample, and apply stellar population synthesis models to derive stellar masses and star formation histories of the galaxies. We compare oxygen abundances derived using three different diagnostics. We derive the specific star formation rates of the galaxies by modeling the 7-band GALEX+SDSS photometry. We find that galaxies that have log SFR/M$_*$ > -10.0 typically have values of log N/O ~0.05 dex less than galaxies with log SFR/M$_*$ < -10.0 and similar oxygen abundances.

  17. Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

  18. Relation of Soil Nitrogen, Nitrification and Ammonification to Pot Experiments. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1921-01-01

    STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL. Preddent BULLETIN NO. 283 NOVEMBER, 192 1 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Relation of Soil Nitrogen, Nitrification and Ammonification to Pot Experiments B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOR COLLEGE...: ASBUG M. S* ~ssiAanf Chemist S: LOXANITZ, 'B. S., ';4ssisfani Chemist J. B. SMITH, B. S., Assistant Chemlst HORTICULTURE H. NESS, M. S., Chief W. S. HOTCHKISS, Horticulturist ANIMAL INDUSTRY J. M. JONES, A. M., Chief; Sheep and Goat Invest rgat...

  19. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  20. Nitrogen-doped zirconia: A comparison with cation stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jong-Sook . E-mail: jong-sook.lee@fkf.mpg.de; Lerch, Martin; Maier, Joachim

    2006-01-15

    The conductivity behavior of nitrogen-doped zirconia is compared with that of zirconia doped with lower-valent cations and discussed in the framework of defect-defect interactions. While nominally introducing the same number of vacancies as yttrium, nitrogen dopants introduced in the anion sublattice of zirconia lead to substantially different defect kinetics and energetics. Compared to the equivalent yttrium doping nitrogen doping in the Y-Zr-O-N system substantially increases the activation energy and correspondingly decreases the conductivity at temperatures below 500{sup -}bar C in the vacancy range below 4mol%. The comparison of N-doped zirconia and zirconia systems doped with size-matched cation stabilizers, such as Sc, Yb and Y, shows that elastically driven vacancy-vacancy ordering interactions can phenomenologically account for the temperature- and composition-dependence. It is striking that materials with superior high-temperature conductivities due to weak dopant-vacancy interactions undergo severe deterioration at low temperature due to the strong vacancy-ordering. The analysis also explains qualitatively similar effects of Y co-doping in Yb-, Sc-, and N-doped zirconia. Small amount of Y in N-doped zirconia as well as in Sc-doped zirconia appears to hinder the formation of the long-range ordered phase and thus enhance the conductivity substantially.

  1. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  2. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  3. Characterization of nitrogen- and phosphorus-regulated cell-surface proteins in the marine coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landry, Dori M.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism of microalgae. Canadian Bulletin ofin many species of microalgae and, possibly, the major route

  4. Plasma cleaning: A new possible treatment for niobium superconducting cavity after nitrogen doping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ziqin; Xie, Datao; Lin, Lin; Zhou, Kui; Zhao, Jifei; Yang, Deyu; Tan, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen doping treatment with the subsequent electropolishing (EP) of the niobium superconducting cavity can significantly increase the cavity's quality factor up to a factor of 3. But the process of the EP removal may reintroduce hydrogen in the cavity surface, which may influence the cavity's radio frequency performance. Plasma cleaning study on niobium samples with gas mixtures of argon and oxgen intended to remove contaminations (hydrocarbons and micronicdust particles) from cavity surface to avoid field emission, was performed in Peking University. The niobium samples have been analyzed using the time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to measure the depth profiles of H, C, O, F, P and Nb. The measuring results show that the plasma cleaning with gas mixtures of argon and oxgen and conditions of about 20Pa and 100W can remarkably reduce the contents of impurity elements in the depth of about 30 nm without introducing hydrogen in the cavity surface. So plasma cleaning has been proposed t...

  5. Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk Alexander Koller Joachim Niehren Programming Systems Lab Dept. of Computational Linguistics Universit¨at des Saarlandes, Saarbr¨ucken, Germany www.ps.uni-sb.de/~{bodirsky,erk

  6. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...

  7. Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

  8. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2011, DOE announced $42.4 million in funding over three years for the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems...

  9. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EBINAR&utmcampaignCH+Robinson+follo wup+2&utmmediumemail DieselProgress Nickel Supercapacitors as Part of an Idle-Reduction Strategy http:www.dpna- digital.comdpna...

  10. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  11. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  12. Pt monolayer shell on nitrided alloy core — A path to highly stable oxygen reduction catalyst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Jue; Kuttiyiel, Kurian A.; Sasaki, Kotaro; Su, Dong; Yang, Tae -Hyun; Park, Gu -Gon; Zhang, Chengxu; Chen, Guangyu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-07-22

    The inadequate activity and stability of Pt as a cathode catalyst under the severe operation conditions are the critical problems facing the application of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Here we report on a novel route to synthesize highly active and stable oxygen reduction catalysts by depositing Pt monolayer on a nitrided alloy core. The prepared PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst retains 89% of the initial electrochemical surface area after 50,000 cycles between potentials 0.6 and 1.0 V. By correlating electron energy-loss spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses with electrochemical measurements, we found that the significant improvement of stability of themore »PtMLPdNiN/C catalyst is caused by nitrogen doping while reducing the total precious metal loading.« less

  13. Human Factors Related to a Virtual Reality Surgical Simulator: The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowden, Richard

    and therefore, reductions in patient intervention costs (Banta, 1993). #12; Human Factors Related to a Virtual Training System in the light of feedback from surgeons. Initial work to produce finite element models are displayed. The training system has been well received by the surgeons and represents a new and potentially

  14. The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, S.M.; Habash, D.Z.

    2009-07-02

    Glutamine synthetase assimilates ammonium into amino acids, thus it is a key enzyme for nitrogen metabolism. The cytosolic isoenzymes of glutamine synthetase assimilate ammonium derived from primary nitrogen uptake and from various internal nitrogen recycling pathways. In this way, cytosolic glutamine synthetase is crucial for the remobilization of protein-derived nitrogen. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase is encoded by a small family of genes that are well conserved across plant species. Members of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene family are regulated in response to plant nitrogen status, as well as to environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability and biotic/abiotic stresses. The complex regulation of cytosolic glutamine synthetase at the transcriptional to post-translational levels is key to the establishment of a specific physiological role for each isoenzyme. The diverse physiological roles of cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoenzymes are important in relation to current agricultural and ecological issues.

  15. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System New Diesel Emissions...

  16. Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the...

  17. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company...

  18. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  19. Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine 2003 DEER Converence...

  20. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  1. Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Noxtech, Inc. 2002deerslone.pdf More...

  2. Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions...

  3. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction...

  4. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of...

  5. Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI...

  6. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2011 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. apr11networknews.pdf More...

  7. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2010 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. apr10networknews.pdf More...

  8. National Idling Reduction Network News - October 2009 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. oct09networknews.pdf More...

  9. National Idling Reduction Network News - December 2009 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. dec09networknews.pdf More...

  10. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  11. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US...

  12. Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Emission Credit Brokers 2002deersloan.pdf More Documents...

  13. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving...

  14. Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on iron (hydr)oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on iron (hydr)oxide reduction and microbial community development May 14, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Aquatic and terrestrial environments are...

  15. 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Global Threat Reduction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Global Threat Reduction Initiative Office 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Global Threat Reduction Initiative Office The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments...

  16. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Simplification of Diesel Emission Control System Packaging...

  17. CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  18. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report...

  19. Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and Light Vehicles Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and...

  20. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF MICROBIAL TECHNETIUM REDUCTION FINAL REPORT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TECHNETIUM REDUCTION FINAL REPORT Microbial Tc(VII) reduction is an attractive alternative strategy for bioremediation of technetium-contaminated subsurface environments....

  1. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

  2. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Status and Cost Reduction Prospects EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects Presentation given by technology manager David Howell at the EV...

  3. Utilizing Nitrogen Vacancy Centers to measure oscillating magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam Zaman Chaudhry

    2014-04-11

    We show how nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers can be used to determine the amplitude, phase and frequency of unknown weak monochromatic and multichromatic oscillating magnetic fields using only the periodic dynamical decoupling (PDD) and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequences. The effect of decoherence on the measurement of the magnetic field parameters is explicitly analyzed, and we take into account the fact that different pulse sequences suppress decoherence to different extents. Since the sensitivity increases with increasing sensing time while it decreases due to decoherence, we use the Fisher information matrix in order to optimize the number of pulses that should be used.

  4. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID); Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tuggle, Dale G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes.

  5. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, J.D.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1997-09-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes. 15 figs.

  6. Quantum measurement of hyperfine interaction in nitrogen-vacancy center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilhyun Bang; Wen Yang; L. J. Sham

    2012-05-23

    We propose an efficient quantum measurement protocol for the hyperfine interaction between the electron spin and the $^{15}$N nuclear spin of a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center. In this protocol, a sequence of quantum operations of successively increasing duration is utilized to estimate the hyperfine interaction with successively higher precision approaching the quantum metrology limit. This protocol does not need the preparation of the nuclear spin state. In the presence of realistic operation errors and electron spin decoherence, the overall precision of our protocol still surpasses the standard quantum limit.

  7. Observation of nitrogen vacancy photoluminescence from an optically levitated nanodiamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neukirch, Levi P; Quidant, Romain; Novotny, Lukas; Vamivakas, A Nick

    2013-01-01

    We present the first evidence of nitrogen vacancy (NV) photoluminescence from a nanodiamond suspended in a free-space optical dipole trap at atmospheric pressure. The photoluminescence rates are shown to decrease with increasing trap laser power, but are inconsistent with a thermal quenching process. For a continuous-wave trap, the neutral charge state (NV$^0$) appears to be suppressed. Chopping the trap laser yields higher total count rates and results in a mixture of both NV$^0$ and the negative charge state (NV$^-$).

  8. Observation of nitrogen vacancy photoluminescence from an optically levitated nanodiamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi P. Neukirch; Jan Gieseler; Romain Quidant; Lukas Novotny; A. Nick Vamivakas

    2013-08-07

    We present the first evidence of nitrogen vacancy (NV) photoluminescence from a nanodiamond suspended in a free-space optical dipole trap at atmospheric pressure. The photoluminescence rates are shown to decrease with increasing trap laser power, but are inconsistent with a thermal quenching process. For a continuous-wave trap, the neutral charge state (NV$^0$) appears to be suppressed. Chopping the trap laser yields higher total count rates and results in a mixture of both NV$^0$ and the negative charge state (NV$^-$).

  9. Alignment of the diamond nitrogen vacancy center by strain engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karin, Todd [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Dunham, Scott [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fu, Kai-Mei [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a sensitive probe of magnetic field and a promising qubit candidate for quantum information processing. The performance of many NV-based devices improves by aligning the NV(s) parallel to a single crystallographic direction. Using ab initio theoretical techniques, we show that NV orientation can be controlled by high-temperature annealing in the presence of strain under currently accessible experimental conditions. We find that (89?±?7)% of NVs align along the [111] crystallographic direction under 2% compressive biaxial strain (perpendicular to [111]) and an annealing temperature of 970?°C.

  10. Technological modifications in the nitrogen oxides tradable permit program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linn, J.

    2008-07-01

    Tradable permit programs allow firms greater flexibility in reducing emissions than command-and-control regulations and encourage firms to use low cost abatement options, including small-scale modifications to capital equipment. This paper shows that firms have extensively modified capital equipment in the Nitrogen Oxides Budget Trading Program, which covers power plants in the eastern United States. The empirical strategy uses geographic and temporal features of the program to estimate counterfactual emissions, finding that modifications have reduced emission rates by approximately 10-15 percent. The modifications would not have occurred under command-and-control regulation and have reduced regulatory costs.

  11. Drag reduction in coal log pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.

    1996-12-31

    It is well-known that solutions of dissolved long-chain macromolecules produce lower friction or drag losses than with the solvent alone. In coal log pipeline (CLP), water is the conveying medium. Synthetic polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) have been dissolved in water and tested for their extent of drag reduction as a function of concentration and other variables. Lab-scale experimental results for CLP indicate substantial drag reduction at low concentration levels of polymer. But, the macromolecules exhibit degradation under mechanical shear stresses. The large molecules break into smaller units. This degradation effect causes a loss of drag reduction. However, high levels of drag reduction can be maintained as follows: (1) by injecting polymer into the CLP at several locations along the pipeline, (2) by injecting polymer of different particle sizes, (3) by using more robust types of polymers, or (4) by using polymer-fiber mixtures. This report presents the value of drag-reducing agents in terms of pumping power net cost savings. In addition, this report outlines the environmental impact of drag reduction polymers, and end-of-pipeline water treatment processes. For an operating CLP, hundreds of miles in length, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) as a drag reducing agent provides significant pumping power cost savings at a minimal materials cost.

  12. Porosity reduction in Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Porosity and grain density were determined for different lithologies from throughout a 1.2-km thick section of the Monterey and Sisquoc formations in the Santa Maria basin area, California. Porosity reduction by physical and chemical compaction in the predominantly siliceous sediment is controlled largely by the bulk sediment composition and silica phase transformations. Physical compaction of sediment grains from increasing overburden pressure is responsible for most of the gradual porosity reduction with increasing burial depth in opal-A siliceous ooze and diatomite. The porous, incompressible diatom frustule maintains a high porosity relative to clayey and calcareous sediment. Therefore, a positive correlation exists between porosity and biogenic silica (diatom) content of the sediment. During the opal-A to opal-CT silica phase transformation, solution of the porous diatom frustule and precipitation of cryptocrystalline opal-CT results in a porosity reduction that roughly correlates with the biogenic silica content of the sediment. Local porosity reduction occurs in pore-filling dolomite and chert nodules. Dry bulk density as well as porosity reduction tend to increase with sediment depth. Dolomite and organic matter have the most significant influence on the bulk density because of their respective high and low density. The maximum burial depth of the uplifted and eroded section is estimated by overlapping the porosity-depth relation of average deep-sea siliceous ooze.

  13. Annulation strategies for the synthesis of azulenes and polycyclic nitrogen heterocycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crombie, Aimee Lynn, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Highly convergent annulation strategies have been developed for the synthesis of azulenes and polycyclic nitrogen heterocycles. Specifically, substituted azulenes have been synthesized via a ring expansion-annulation ...

  14. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01

    2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

  15. Patterns of Nitrogen Utilization in Deep-Sea Syntrophic Consortia (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wiegel, Detlef

    2011-04-26

    Victoria Orphan from Caltech discusses "Patterns of nitrogen utilization in deep-sea syntrophic consortia" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  16. Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A.; D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W.; Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M.; Klusek, Z.

    2014-06-21

    We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 5–10 × 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

  17. Charge state and time resolved plasma composition of a pulsed zirconium arc in a nitrogen environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Johanna; Anders, Andre; Hultman, Lars; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2004-01-01

    of a pulsed cathodic arc plasma was investigated atof a growing film in arc plasma deposition. In the presencea titanium cathodic arc plasma at varying nitrogen pressure,

  18. Soil type, crop and irrigation technique affect nitrogen leaching to groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letey, John; Vaughan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Addressing Nitrates in Groundwater. Report to theSources and Loading to Groundwater, Technical Report 2,nitrogen leaching to groundwater by John Letey and Peter

  19. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    million yearly after upgrading the steam system in its ammonia plant in Verdigris, Oklahoma. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption...

  20. Terra nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to reduce energy use. * Although Terra Nitrogen actively managed its energy use, the Save Energy Now assessment provided new insights into additional energy savings...

  1. Reduction in maximum time uncertainty of paired time signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Theodosiou, G.E.; Dawson, J.W.

    1981-02-11

    Reduction in the maximum time uncertainty (t/sub max/ - t/sub min/) of a series of paired time signals t/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ varying between two input terminals and representative of a series of single events where t/sub 1/ less than or equal to t/sub 2/ and t/sub 1/ + t/sub 2/ equals a constant, is carried out with a circuit utilizing a combination of OR and AND gates as signal selecting means and one or more time delays to increase the minimum value (t/sub min/) of the first signal t/sub 1/ closer to t/sub max/ and thereby reduce the difference. The circuit may utilize a plurality of stages to reduce the uncertainty by factors of 20 to 800.

  2. Alternative SO sub 2 and NO sub x emission reduction technologies for stationary sources: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmel, T.E. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (USA)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Emission control of acid rain precursors is currently the subject of intense debate on Capitol Hill. Numerous bills have been introduced which call for substantial reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from operating utility and industrial boilers. The primary focus of the debates is on the cost, applicability and potential market impacts of emissions control options available to achieve the desired reductions. These topics are also the focus of a report in preparation for the 1990 Assessment of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). This paper summarizes some of the abatement technology information for utility boilers contained in the NAPAP report. First the major provisions in the proposed acid rain legislation are summarized and the emission reduction options potentially applicable to the utility boiler population discussed. This is followed by discussion of the retrofit issues for utility boilers and a synopsis of the applicability and cost of retrofit emission control options. Since the focus of the current proposed legislation is on near-term reduction requirements for utility boilers, this paper emphasizes retrofit control options. 1 ref., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Examining the coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles in Southern Appalachian streams: Understanding the role of dissolved organic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Brian D [Duke University; Bernhardt, Emily [Duke University; Roberts, Brian [Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Although regional and global models of nitrogen (N) cycling typically focus on nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is the dominant form of nitrogen export from many watersheds and thus the dominant form of dissolved N in many streams. Our understanding of the processes controlling DON export from temperate forests is poor. In pristine systems, where biological N limitation is common, N contained in recalcitrant organic matter (OM) can dominate watershed N losses. This recalcitrant OM often has moderately constrained carbon:nitrogen (C:N) molar ratios ({approx}25-55) and therefore, greater DON losses should be observed in sites where there is greater total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss. In regions where anthropogenic N pollution is high, it has been suggested that increased inorganic N availability can reduce biological demand for organic N and therefore increase watershed DON losses. This would result in a positive correlation between inorganic and organic N concentrations across sites with varying N availability. In four repeated synoptic surveys of stream water chemistry from forested watersheds along an N loading gradient in the southern Appalachians, we found surprisingly little correlation between DON and DOC concentrations. Further, we found that DON concentrations were always significantly correlated with watershed N loading and stream water [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] but that the direction of this relationship was negative in three of the four surveys. The C:N molar ratio of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streams draining watersheds with high N deposition was very high relative to other freshwaters. This finding, together with results from bioavailability assays in which we directly manipulated C and N availabilities, suggests that heterotrophic demand for labile C can increase as a result of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) loading, and that heterotrophs can preferentially remove N-rich molecules from DOM. These results are inconsistent with the two prevailing hypotheses that dominate interpretations of watershed DON loss. Therefore, we propose a new hypothesis, the indirect carbon control hypothesis, which recognizes that heterotrophic demand for N-rich DOM can keep stream water DON concentrations low when N is not limiting and heterotrophic demand for labile C is high.

  4. Theory of nitrogen doping of carbon nanoribbons: Edge effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Jie; Turnbull, Joseph; Lu, Wenchang; Oak Ridge National Lab.; Boguslawski, Piotr; Univ. of Warsaw; Bernholc, J.; Oak Ridge National Lab.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen doping of a carbon nanoribbon is profoundly affected by its one-dimensional character, symmetry, and interaction with edge states. Using state-of-the-art ab initio calculations, including hybrid exact-exchange density functional theory, we find that, for N-doped zigzag ribbons, the electronic properties are strongly dependent upon sublattice effects due to the non-equivalence of the two sublattices. For armchair ribbons, N-doping effects are different depending upon the ribbon family: for families 2 and 0, the N-induced levels are in the conduction band, while for family 1 the N levels are in the gap. In zigzag nanoribbons, nitrogen close to the edge is amore »deep center, while in armchair nanoribbons its behavior is close to an effective-mass-like donor with the ionization energy dependent on the value of the band gap. In chiral nanoribbons, we find strong dependence of the impurity level and formation energy upon the edge position of the dopant, while such site-specificity is not manifested in the magnitude of the magnetization.« less

  5. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  6. Estimation of Nitric and Nitrous Nitrogen in Soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

    1931-01-01

    . The use of both reagents was abandoned, after considerable work, which will not be detailed. The use of 2 cc. of strong caustic soda in the preliminary distillation love the ammonia as insufficient, giving high results in the lent reduction.... This was probably due to the incomplete decom- 2 of organic compounds which yield ammonia. The use of 10 to of strong caustic soda (1.43 sp. gr.), followed by distillation to the ammonia, then by reduction 01 the nitrates, and distilla- the ammonia produced from...

  7. Interaction of root nodule size and oxygen pressure on the rate of nitrogen fixation by cowpea and peanut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, D.; Weaver, R.W.

    1987-04-01

    Size and anatomical features of nodules influence the rate of O/sub 2/ diffusion into nodules. Availability of oxygen can be a limiting factor in nitrogen fixation. Larger nodules have thicker cortices and low surface to volume ratio leading to lower rates of gaseous diffusion. Increased oxygen pressure in the environment alters the rate of nitrogen fixation but the rate of change may depend on the nodule size. This was investigated by measuring /sup 15/N/sub 2/ incorporation into nodules. Root nodules from 38 day old cowpea and peanut plants were collected and sorted into size groups having diameters of >3 mm, 2-3 mm, and just below 2 mm. Samples of each size group were enclosed in tubes and exposed to various combination of oxygen (8-28%) and /sup 15/N/sub 2/. With higher O/sub 2/ pressure all nodules showed increased N/sub 2/ fixation but the largest nodules showed the maximum increase. Specific activity of larger nodules was higher for N/sub 2/ fixation. For the sizes of nodules examined the largest nodules did not reflect any of the disadvantages of the large size but the benefits of higher rates of O/sub 2/ entry was evident.

  8. Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Presentation: North East States for Coordinated Air Use Management

  9. Utilizing an encroachment probability benefit-cost model to estimate accident reduction factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Carolyn A

    1997-01-01

    Improving safety on Texas roadways is a major public concern. Over the years, the Texas Department of Transportation and other highway agencies have become interested in reducing society's accident cost while maximizing returns on accident...

  10. NONNEGATIVE RANK FACTORIZATION VIA RANK REDUCTION BO DONG, MATTHEW M. LIN, AND MOODY T. CHU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning, 116024. (dongbod- lut

  11. Factors that Most Influence Success or Failure in Illicit Crop Reduction and Drug Supply Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Listerman, Jeffrey Sloan

    2014-12-31

    Several interrelated drivers of illicit crop cultivation appear remarkably consistent across virtually all illegal crop producing regions: insurgency or armed conflict, insufficient state authority and weak territorial ...

  12. EA-1472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Holcolm Station, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation Finnety County, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), to analyze the potential impacts of the commercial application of the Low-NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction at Sunflower’s Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station), located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The Holcomb Station would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NOx control technologies.

  13. "Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit." "Ecosystem services are the benefits people capture for the foreseeable future. #12;John Beddington's "Perfect Storm" Population Increase Poverty Reduction Food Security

  14. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  15. Can fermions save large N dimensional reduction?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Michael I. Buchoff; Aleksey Cherman; Roxanne P. Springer

    2009-08-21

    This paper explores whether Eguchi-Kawai reduction for gauge theories with adjoint fermions is valid. The Eguchi-Kawai reduction relates gauge theories in different numbers of dimensions in the large $N$ limit provided that certain conditions are met. In principle, this relation opens up the possibility of learning about the dynamics of 4D gauge theories through techniques only available in lower dimensions. Dimensional reduction can be understood as a special case of large $N$ equivalence between theories related by an orbifold projection. In this work, we focus on the simplest case of dimensional reduction, relating a 4D gauge theory to a 3D gauge theory via an orbifold projection. A necessary condition for the large N equivalence between the 4D and 3D theories to hold is that certain discrete symmetries in the two theories must not be broken spontaneously. In pure 4D Yang-Mills theory, these symmetries break spontaneously as the size of one of the spacetime dimensions shrinks. An analysis of the effect of adjoint fermions on the relevant symmetries of the 4D theory shows that the fermions help stabilize the symmetries. We consider the same problem from the point of view of the lower dimensional 3D theory and find that, surprisingly, adjoint fermions are not generally enough to stabilize the necessary symmetries of the 3D theory. In fact, a rich phase diagram arises, with a complicated pattern of symmetry breaking. We discuss the possible causes and consequences of this finding.

  16. Harm reduction: lessons learned from tobacco control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as the psychoactive effects of the sub- stance. How do harm reduction efforts fare when exposed to the harsh realities, it is possible (often unconsciously) to modify subsequent smoking behaviour to titrate the amount of nicotine be modified, both consciously and unconsciously, to achieve this. Therefore, offer- ing lower strength drugs

  17. Water Reduction Methods for Strawberry Irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Water Reduction Methods for Strawberry Irrigation Thomas Moore Raya Nedelcheva Joseph Vu Tony Mai #12;Abstract We took a look at the irrigation methods of strawberry farmers in the Pajaro Valley and ways that they could reduce the amount of water that it takes to produce their strawberries. In many

  18. Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U.S. Department of Energy Residential Building Envelopes Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy ResearchOzone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes I.S. Walker, M.H. Sherman and W.W. Nazaroff

  19. University of Alberta MULTISPECTRAL REDUCTION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowman,John C.

    University of Alberta MULTISPECTRAL REDUCTION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE by Malcolm Roberts Sciences c Malcolm Roberts Fall 2011 Edmonton, Alberta Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private

  20. Timelike reduction and T-duality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scuro, Sante Rodolfo

    1999-01-01

    expressions for the Killing sailors in Anti-de Sitter spacetime of odd dimension with respect to the field reparametrization in the bosonic sector. In addition, we perform Kaluza-Klein reduction along the time direction of D = 10 type IIB theory to D = 9. Then...

  1. BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT TWU & 2110

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ­ TWU & 2110 By THIS AGREEMENT made between of this Agreement), the employee's basic monthly salary will be reduced by the amount indicated below, allocated so that it will not apply to salary subsequently earned. Standard SRA Deduction for 2015: The Amount

  2. BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT Faculty & Administrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ­ Faculty & Administrators By THIS AGREEMENT made is subsequent to the execution of this Agreement), the employee's basic monthly salary will be reduced party may terminate this Agreement as of the end of the month so that it will not apply to salary

  3. Generalized Elitzur's Theorem and Dimensional Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian D. Batista; Zohar Nussinov

    2005-03-10

    We extend Elitzur's theorem to systems with symmetries intermediate between global and local. In general, our theorem formalizes the idea of {\\it dimensional reduction}. We apply the results of this generalization to many systems that are of current interest. These include liquid crystalline phases of Quantum Hall systems, orbital systems, geometrically frustrated spin lattices, Bose metals, and models of superconducting arrays.

  4. Waste reduction through consumer education. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, E.Z.

    1996-05-01

    The Waste Reduction through Consumer Education research project was conducted to determine how environmental educational strategies influence purchasing behavior in the supermarket. The objectives were to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate consumer education strategies for waste reduction. The amount of waste generated by packaging size and form, with an adjustment for local recyclability of waste, was determined for 14 product categories identified as having more waste generating and less waste generating product choices (a total of 484 products). Using supermarket scan data and shopper identification numbers, the research tracked the purchases of shoppers in groups receiving different education treatments for 9 months. Statistical tests applied to the purchase data assessed patterns of change between the groups by treatment period. Analysis of the data revealed few meaningful statistical differences between study groups or changes in behavior over time. Findings suggest that broad brush consumer education about waste reduction is not effective in changing purchasing behaviors in the short term. However, it may help create a general awareness of the issues surrounding excess packaging and consumer responsibility. The study concludes that the answer to waste reduction in the future may be a combination of voluntary initiatives by manufacturers and retailers, governmental intervention, and better-informed consumers.

  5. Reduction of Economic Inequality in Combinatorial Domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koolen, Marijn

    for assessing the fairness of a mechanism is the level of economic equality it can ensure. If it producesReduction of Economic Inequality in Combinatorial Domains Ulle Endriss Institute for Logic economic inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index, are widely used in the social sciences

  6. Selective hydrocracking of heavy straight run naphtha bottoms for T90 reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsing, L.H.; Nelson, R.G. [Texaco Research and Development, Port Arthur, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Refiners are being presented with a major challenge to meet proposed stringent specifications for reformulated gasoline to lower auto exhaustive emissions. Among the specifications proposed to be regulated by EPA, the T90 boiling point of gasoline is found to have a great influence on hydrocarbon emissions. T90 reduction of naphtha streams by hydrocracking has been identified as a processing scheme to upgrade the heavy naphtha fraction before blending with other refining streams. In this paper, a commercially available catalyst was evaluated for the T90 reduction of the heavy fraction of heavy straight run naphtha with an ASTM D-86 boiling range of 275-386F (HSRN). The catalyst was found to be effective in lowering the T90 of HSRN from 344F to 300F under reaction conditions of 2 LHSV/1000 psig/650 F or 4 LHSV/1000 psig/695 F. The product yield shift by hydrocracking was from C9-C11 hydrocarbons to C4-C6 components, particularly C4 and C5 isoparaffins. Both RON and MON of the liquid products were increased significantly from 36 and 42 up to 78 and 74, respectively. The increase of octane numbers is a function of hydrocracking severity. The liquid product yield was about 75 vol% with a T90 of 300F. The liquid product sulfur and nitrogen contents were less than 30 and 0.15 wppm, respectively.

  7. Nitrogen oxide removal using diesel fuel and a catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Hsiao, Mark (San Jose, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernie M. (San Ramon, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Brusasco, Ray (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, such as diesel fuel, are added to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x in the presence of a amphoteric catalyst support material. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbons.

  8. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  9. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  10. Impact of Benthic Algae on Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in a Temperate, Coastal Lagoon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    Impact of Benthic Algae on Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in a Temperate, Coastal Lagoon Anna Christina-released to the water column on short time scales (minutes-hours). Benthic algae thus clearly influence benthic Introduction: Impact of benthic algae on dissolved organic nitrogen dynamics in temperate, coastal lagoons

  11. COMPARISON OF FIVE ORGANIC WASTES REGARDING THEIR BEHAVIOUR DURING1 COMPOSTING: PART 2, NITROGEN DYNAMIC2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 COMPARISON OF FIVE ORGANIC WASTES REGARDING THEIR BEHAVIOUR DURING1 COMPOSTING: PART 2, NITROGEN nitrogen dynamic during composting. For each waste, three3 composting simulations were performed applied were comprised between 100 and 1100 L/h. The initial waste and the5 compost were characterized

  12. Late Quaternary variability of sedimentary nitrogen isotopes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Late Quaternary variability of sedimentary nitrogen isotopes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean), Late Quaternary variability of sedimentary nitrogen isotopes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean) in the water columns of the Arabian Sea (AS) and the eastern North and South Pacific oceans (ENP; ESP) holds

  13. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Livengood, C. David (Lockport, IL)

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  14. Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influences plant water relations and often pref- erentially

  15. Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental samples from 2012 and 2013, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jeff Heikoop; Heather Throckmorton

    2015-05-15

    Dataset includes nitrate concentrations for polygonal active layer samples, snowmelt; ammonium concentrations for active layer samples; nitrate isotopes for active layer samples, snowmelt, permafrost; ammonium isotopes for active layer samples; and nitrogen isotopes for soils and dissolved organic nitrogen extracted from soil pore waters.

  16. Hydrogen adsorption on Graphene and Nitrogen Doped Graphene Monolayers: A First Principles Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Hydrogen adsorption on Graphene and Nitrogen Doped Graphene Monolayers: A First Principles Study Abstract This study examines the properties of graphene and nitrogen doped graphene by way of first principles spin-polarized Density Functional Theory calculations. Why graphene is so unique comes from

  17. Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental samples from 2012 and 2013, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jeff Heikoop; Heather Throckmorton

    Dataset includes nitrate concentrations for polygonal active layer samples, snowmelt; ammonium concentrations for active layer samples; nitrate isotopes for active layer samples, snowmelt, permafrost; ammonium isotopes for active layer samples; and nitrogen isotopes for soils and dissolved organic nitrogen extracted from soil pore waters.

  18. Organic nitrogen in aerosols and precipitation at Barbados and Miami: Implications regarding sources, transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansell, Dennis

    Organic nitrogen in aerosols and precipitation at Barbados and Miami: Implications regarding time series sites: Barbados and Miami. WSON total deposition rates ranged from 17.9 mmol m-2 yr-1 to 49), Organic nitrogen in aerosols and precipitation at Barbados and Miami: Implications regarding sources

  19. Device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhilavyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Laptev, Valery Dmitrievich; Pakhomov, Nikolay Ivanovich; Shvedunov, Vasily Ivanovich; Rykalin, Vladimir Ivanovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2014-03-25

    A device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials is described. In particular, the device performs the detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials by photo-nuclear detection. The device may comprise a race-track microtron, a breaking target, and a water-filled Cherenkov radiation counter.

  20. Nitrogen isotope dynamics of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela Robert C. Thunell,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    Nitrogen isotope dynamics of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela Robert C. Thunell,1 Daniel M. Sigman,2 of Venezuela. Water column denitrification occurring in the basin has only a very small isotopic imprint-Karger, Y. Astor, and R. Varela (2004), Nitrogen isotope dynamics of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, Global

  1. Nitrogen removal via nitrite in a sequencing batch reactor treating sanitary landfill leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite in a sequencing batch reactor treating sanitary landfill leachate, for the automation of a bench-scale SBR treating leachate generated in old landfills. Attention was given confirm the effectiveness of the nitrite route for nitrogen removal optimisation in leachate treatment

  2. Variation in the availability and utilization of dissolved organic nitrogen by the smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    Variation in the availability and utilization of dissolved organic nitrogen by the smooth cordgrass to be an important source of nitrogen (N) for S. alterniflora, however, little is known about the availability in the availability and utilization of DON, (2) investigate seasonal variation in DON availability, (3) determine

  3. Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest, the availability of light and nitrogen (N) limits the rate of woody plant growth in the forest understory and N to the availability of these resources could affect the species composition of forest communities. While many studies

  4. Anti-reflection coating for nitrogen-vacancy optical measurements T. K. Yeung,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Anti-reflection coating for nitrogen-vacancy optical measurements in diamond T. K. Yeung,1,2 D. Le-reflection (AR) coatings for optical excitation and fluorescence measurements of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color. These AR coatings improve NV-diamond optical measurements by reducing optical reflection at the diamond

  5. Effects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Effects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal Three components of global change, elevated CO2 , nitrogen addition, and decreased plant species increasing more in pathogen load. Elevated CO2 increased pathogen load of C3 grasses, perhaps by decreasing

  6. Nonlinear root-derived carbon sequestration across a gradient of nitrogen and phosphorous deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Nonlinear root-derived carbon sequestration across a gradient of nitrogen and phosphorous sequestration of plant-carbon (C) inputs to soil may mitigate rising atmo- spheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and related climate change but how this sequestration will respond to anthropogenic nitrogen (N

  7. Examining the transport of ammonia emissions across landscapes using nitrogen isotope ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    fertilizer application, during periods of low or no fertilization, vehicle NH3 emissions can be a substantialExamining the transport of ammonia emissions across landscapes using nitrogen isotope ratios J 2014 Keywords: Ammonia Emissions Isotope Nitrogen Ammonium a b s t r a c t The proportion of reactive

  8. Uptake of salmon-derived nitrogen by mosses and liverworts in coastal British Columbia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reimchen, Thomas E.

    Uptake of salmon-derived nitrogen by mosses and liverworts in coastal British Columbia C. E of salmon-derived nitrogen by mosses and liverworts in coastal British Columbia. Á/ Oikos 108: 85Á/98 to the salmon stream. These data suggest an important contribution of salmon-derived nutrients to the non

  9. Investigation of nitrogen dilution effects on the laminar burning velocity and flame stability of syngas fuel at atmospheric condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prathap, C.; Ray, Anjan; Ravi, M.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-10-15

    The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of dilution with nitrogen on the laminar burning velocity and flame stability of syngas fuel (50% H{sub 2}-50% CO by volume)-air (21% O{sub 2}-79% N{sub 2} by volume) mixtures. The syngas fuel composition considered in this work comprised x% N{sub 2} by volume and (100-x)% an equimolar mixture of CO and H{sub 2}. The proportion x (i.e., %N{sub 2}) was varied from 0 to 60% while the H{sub 2}/CO ratio was always kept as unity. Spherically expanding flames were generated by centrally igniting homogeneous fuel-air gas mixtures in a 40-L cylindrical combustion chamber fitted with optical windows. Shadowgraphy technique with a high-speed imaging camera was used to record the propagating spherical flames. Unstretched burning velocity was calculated following the Karlovitz theory for weakly stretched flames. Also, Markstein length was calculated to investigate the flame stability conditions for the fuel-air mixtures under consideration. Experiments were conducted for syngas fuel with different nitrogen proportions (0-60%) at 0.1 MPa (absolute), 302{+-}3K, and equivalence ratios ranging from 0.6 to 3.5. All the measurements were compared with the numerical predictions obtained using RUN-1DL and PREMIX with a contemporary chemical kinetic scheme. Dilution with nitrogen in different proportions in syngas resulted in (a) decrease in laminar burning velocity due to reduction in heat release and increase in heat capacity of unburned gas mixture and hence the flame temperature, (b) shift in occurrence of peak laminar burning velocity from {phi}=2.0 for 0% N{sub 2} dilution to {phi}=1.4 for 60% N{sub 2} dilution, (c) augmentation of the coupled effect of flame stretch and preferential diffusion on laminar burning velocity, and (d) shift in the equivalence ratio for transition from stable to unstable flames from {phi}=0.6 for 0% N{sub 2} dilution to {phi}=1.0 for 60% N{sub 2} dilution. The present work also indicated that if the fuel mole fraction in the wide range of fuel-air mixtures investigated is less than 22%, then those fuel mixtures are in the unstable regime with regard to preferential diffusion. (author)

  10. Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

    2007-01-01

    including issues of technology and cost un- certainties, areon NO x Control Technologies and Cost Effectiveness forand other factors on technology cost trends (hence, the

  11. Enhancement of a laminar premixed methane/oxygen/nitrogen flame speed using femtosecond-laser-induced plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Xin; Peng Jiangbo; Yi Yachao; Zhao Yongpeng; Chen Deying; Yu Junhua [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Tunable Laser, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Institute of Opto-electronics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Yang Peng; Sun Rui [Institute of Combustion Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-07-05

    We first investigate the effects of femtosecond-laser-induced plasma on the flame speed of a laminar premixed methane/oxygen/nitrogen flame with a wide range of the equivalence ratios (0.8-1.05) at atmospheric pressure. It is experimentally found that the flame speed increases 20.5% at equivalence ratios 1.05. The self-emission spectra from the flame and the plasma are studied and an efficient production of active radicals under the action of femtosecond (fs)-laser pulses has been observed. Based on the experimental data obtained, the presence of oxygen atom and hydrocarbon radicals is suggested to be a key factor enhancing flame speed.

  12. Production and characterization of a nitrogen-implanted Fe standard to calibrate PIGE measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, C. L.; Silva, T. F.; Added, N.; Santos, H. C.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2014-11-11

    Three calibration standard was produced by ion implantation of nitrogen in samples of Armco iron (99.7% iron). The samples was irradiated with nitrogen ion beams at several different energies (between 4 keV and 40 keV), and the ion doses were adjusted to obtain an uniform depth profile, using simulations with SRIM code. Two standards, one thick and other a foil (1.62mg/cm{sup 2}), was irradiated at same time with total nominal dose of 6.6×10{sup ?16} atoms/cm{sup 2} distributed in a region of 100 nm in depth, with an average concentration of 9.0% nitrogen in iron. The third sample uses the same profile, but with a small dose, 1.1×10{sup ?16} atoms/cm{sup 2} and average concentration of 1.5% nitrogen. The characterization of the implanted samples was done using RBS and NRA techniques to quantification of nitrogen.

  13. On the relationship between stratospheric aerosols and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, M.J.; Langford, A.O.; O'Leary, T.J.; Arpag, K.; Miller, H.L.; Proffitt, M.H.; Sanders, R.W.; Solomon, S. (Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1993-06-18

    The authors report measurements of stratospheric column abundances of nitrogen dioxide above the Colorado mountains during Jan, Feb, and Mar 1992, following the arrival of the aerosol loading injected by Mt. Pinatubo. The column abundance data was correlated with concurrent lidar measurements which provided vertical aerosol profiles at the same site. Chemical reactions within polar stratospheric clouds have been shown to play a major role in ozone chemistry in the polar regions, and one could ask whether such clouds at mid latitudes could play a similar role. The sulfur dioxide loading due to the volcanic eruption provides an abrupt increase in sulfuric acid aerosol surface area in mid latitude areas, providing a convenient test of this question. Column NO[sub 2] densities are observed to fall, but also found to saturate at a certain stratospheric aerosol density.

  14. Adsorption configurations of two nitrogen atoms on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rani, Babita, E-mail: babitabaghla15@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147 002 and Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160 014 (India); Jindal, V. K.; Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160 014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We present calculations for different possible configurations of two nitrogen adatoms on graphene using the code VASP, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Two N atoms adsorbed on the graphene sheet can share a bond in two ways. They take positions either just above two adjacent carbon atoms or they form a bridge across opposite bonds of a hexagon in the graphene sheet. Both these configurations result into structural distortion of the sheet. Another stable configuration involving two N atoms consists of an N{sub 2} molecule which is physisorbed at a distance 3.69 Ĺ on the graphene sheet. Two N atoms can also be adsorbed on alternate bridge sites of neighbouring hexagons of graphene. This configuration again leads to distortion of the sheet in perpendicular direction.

  15. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ying; Shao, Yuyan; Matson, Dean W.; Li, Jinghong; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-05

    Chemical doping with foreign atoms is an effective method to intrinsically modify the properties of host materials. Among them, nitrogen (N) doping plays a critical role in regulating the electronic properties of carbon materials. Recently, graphene as a true 2-dimensional carbon material has shown fascinating applications in bioelectronics and biosensors. In this paper, we report a facile strategy to prepare N-doped graphene by using plasma treatment of pristine graphene synthesized via chemical method. Meanwhile, a possible schematic diagram has been proposed to detail the structure of N-doped graphene. By controlling the exposure time, N percentage in host grapheme can be regulated ranging from 0.11% to 1.35%. Moreover, the as prepared N-doped graphene has displayed high electrocatalytic activity to hydrogen peroxide and further been used for glucose biosensing with concentration as low as 0.01 mM in the presence of interferences.

  16. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  17. A measurement of the absorption of liquid argon scintillation light by dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James Poyner

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume ...

  18. Geomicrobiology of nitrogen in a coastal aquifer : isotopic and molecular methods to examine nitrification and denitrification in groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Daniel Richard

    2010-01-01

    Excess nitrogen input is deleterious to coastal waters, resulting in deterioration of the water quality, increases in harmful algal blooms and disease in commercial fish stocks. A significant portion of this nitrogen enters ...

  19. Novel reactions of a neutral organic reductant : reductive coupling and nanoparticle synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mork, Anna Jolene

    2012-01-01

    A recently developed bis-pyridinylidene neutral organic electron donor captured our interest as a potential source of new chemistries for reductive coupling and the synthesis of group IV nanoparticles. This super electron ...

  20. Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millhone, J.

    2007-01-01

    transportation arteries and thus are capable of measuring impacts from mobile sources as well as stationary sources. Monitoring is performed to measure the criteria pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, lead, particulate matter.... Monitoring is performed to measure the criteria pollutants (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, lead, particulate matter, and ozone) as well as meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, wind direction variance, temperature, net...

  1. The MX Factor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MX Factor Test films played a strategic-planning role in the debates of the late 1970s and early 1980s about where and how to deploy the MX intercontinental ballistic missile...

  2. Power Factor Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viljoen, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    and disadvantages of various locations in the electrical network are described including the cost of installation and network capacity improvement. Sizing of capacitors is also covered. Finally, some case studies involving power factor improvement are presented...

  3. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Before PF 100142 0.70 or 70% After PF 100105 0.95 or 95% PB References: B.C. Hydro. Power Factor. The GEM Series. October 1989. Commonwealth Sprague Capacitor, Inc....

  4. Electromagetic proton form factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Y Hussein

    2006-10-31

    The electromagnetic form factors are crucial to our understanding of the proton internal structure, and thus provide a strong constraint of the distributions of the charge and magnetization current within the proton. We adopted the quark-parton model for calculating and understanding the charge structure of the proton interms of the electromagnetic form factors. A remarkable agreement with the available experimental evidence is found.

  5. Optimizing Power Factor Correction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, R. K.; Burmeister, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    FACTOR CORRECTION Robert K. Phillips and Louis C. Burmeister, Mechanical Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS The optimal investment for power factor correcting capacitors for Kansas Power and Light Company large power contract customers... consumer of electricity were made for demands of 200, 400, 800, 1,600, 3,200, and 6,400 k\\~ and monthly energy consumption periods of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, and 500 hours for several capacitor purchase and installation costs. The results...

  6. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  7. NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-05-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center’s constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant reduction is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling cycle. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. Although this particular project was able to maximize the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling because of its geographic location, similar strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the United States.

  8. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  9. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    flue gases into the flame is a proven technique for reducing NOx emissions (see Figure 6). There are two common ways to recirculate combustion exhaust products through a flame – flue gas recirculation (FGR) and internal flue gas recirculation... reduces NOx. Garg (1992) estimated NOx reductions of up to 50% using flue gas recirculation [7]. combustor burner fuel recirculated combustion products air ID fan to atmosphere Figure 7. Schematic of flue gas recirculation [8]. Internal flue gas...

  10. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  11. Denksport: Oxidations, oxidations and reductions too

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -(+)-tartrate as a ligand Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation Shi epoxidation #12;HSO5 -O OO O O O O O O O O OH O O SO3 - + OH- - OH- O O O O O O O O SO3 - O O O O O O O SO4 2- R3R1 R2 R3R1 R2 O #12;Reductions O OH B Me H O 8 F OH

  12. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Chandre

    2014-12-16

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac-Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed.

  13. Response of Free-Living Nitrogen-Fixing Microorganisms to Land Use Change in the Amazon Rainforest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohannan, Brendan

    ) of this greenhouse gas annually (1, 2). To absorb this enormous amount of CO2, a sig- nificant input of nitrogen (NResponse of Free-Living Nitrogen-Fixing Microorganisms to Land Use Change in the Amazon Rainforest-living nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (di- azotrophs) respond to deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using

  14. MFV Reductions of MSSM Parameter Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. AbdusSalam; C. P. Burgess; F. Quevedo

    2015-02-09

    The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours a relatively lighter TeV-scale pseudoscalar Higgs boson and $\\tan \\beta \\sim 10$ with multi-TeV sparticles.

  15. Reduction of dimension for nonlinear dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heather A. Harrington; Robert A. Van Gorder

    2015-08-24

    We consider reduction of dimension for nonlinear dynamical systems. We demonstrate that in some cases, one can reduce a nonlinear system of equations into a single equation for one of the state variables, and this can be useful for computing the solution when using a variety of analytical approaches. In the case where this reduction is possible, we employ differential elimination to obtain the reduced system. While analytical, the approach is algorithmic, and is implemented in symbolic software such as {\\sc MAPLE} or {\\sc SageMath}. In other cases, the reduction cannot be performed strictly in terms of differential operators, and one obtains integro-differential operators, which may still be useful. In either case, one can use the reduced equation to both approximate solutions for the state variables and perform chaos diagnostics more efficiently than could be done for the original higher-dimensional system, as well as to construct Lyapunov functions which help in the large-time study of the state variables. A number of chaotic and hyperchaotic dynamical systems are used as examples in order to motivate the approach.

  16. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  17. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

  18. A strategy for oligonucleotide microarray probe reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antipova, Alena A.

    Background: One of the factors limiting the number of genes that can be analyzed on high-density oligonucleotide arrays is that each transcript is probed by multiple oligonucleotide probes. To reduce the number of probes ...

  19. Final report : CO2 reduction using biomimetic photocatalytic nanodevices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Robert M.; Shelnutt, John Allen; Medforth, Craig John (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Song, Yujiang; Wang, Zhongchun; Miller, James Edward; Wang, Haorong

    2009-11-01

    Nobel Prize winner Richard Smalley was an avid champion for the cause of energy research. Calling it 'the single most important problem facing humanity today,' Smalley promoted the development of nanotechnology as a means to harness solar energy. Using nanotechnology to create solar fuels (i.e., fuels created from sunlight, CO{sub 2}, and water) is an especially intriguing idea, as it impacts not only energy production and storage, but also climate change. Solar irradiation is the only sustainable energy source of a magnitude sufficient to meet projections for global energy demand. Biofuels meet the definition of a solar fuel. Unfortunately, the efficiency of photosynthesis will need to be improved by an estimated factor of ten before biofuels can fully replace fossil fuels. Additionally, biological organisms produce an array of hydrocarbon products requiring further processing before they are usable for most applications. Alternately, 'bio-inspired' nanostructured photocatalytic devices that efficiently harvest sunlight and use that energy to reduce CO{sub 2} into a single useful product or chemical intermediate can be envisioned. Of course, producing such a device is very challenging as it must be robust and multifunctional, i.e. capable of promoting and coupling the multi-electron, multi-photon water oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction processes. Herein, we summarize some of the recent and most significant work towards creating light harvesting nanodevices that reduce CO{sub 2} to CO (a key chemical intermediate) that are based on key functionalities inspired by nature. We report the growth of Co(III)TPPCl nanofibers (20-100 nm in diameter) on gas diffusion layers via an evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method. Remarkably, as-fabricated electrodes demonstrate light-enhanced activity for CO{sub 2} reduction to CO as evidenced by cyclic voltammograms and electrolysis with/without light irradiation. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to observe such a light-enhanced CO{sub 2} reduction reaction based on nanostructured cobalt(III) porphyrin catalysts. Additionally, gas chromatography (GC) verifies that light irradiation can improve CO production by up to 31.3% during 2 hours of electrolysis. In addition, a variety of novel porphyrin nano- or micro-structures were also prepared including nanospheres, nanotubes, and micro-crosses.

  20. Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Thomas B. (San Antonio, TX); Behring, II, Kendricks A. (Torrance, CA)

    2004-06-22

    Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, the model equation can be solved for the nitrogen concentration.

  1. The nature of fluctuations in a double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu Xin; Yan Jianhua; Yu Liang; Cen, Kefa; Cheron, Bruno

    2007-09-24

    The dynamic behavior of the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet is investigated by combined means of the fast Fourier transform, correlation function, and Wigner distribution. The restrike mode is identified as the fluctuation behavior in an argon-nitrogen plasma jet. The Fourier spectra exhibit two characteristic frequencies of 150 Hz and 4.1 kHz, which indicates that the nature of fluctuations in the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma can be ascribed to the power supply undulation and both arc roots motion on the anode channels. It is further found that the double anode torch could inhibit and reduce the restrike phenomenon.

  2. Economic Optimum Rates and Returns from Nitrogen Fertilization of Coastal Bermudagrass for Hay in East Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matocha, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    for hay, the optimum nitrogen rate is 357 pounds per acre, with a total profit of $70.50 per acre from fertili~er.~ NI' l SOURC E DIFFERENCE The difference in profit per acre attributable to nitrogen source is primarily a result of forage production... differences. The 340 pounds of nitrogen per acre yielded 6.75 tons of forage when applied as urea and 7.25 tons when ammonium l~xam~le formula for figuring profit per acre: Ib. N per acre X cost per Ib. N X dollar return per dollar fertilizer = profit per...

  3. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    CSEM WP 167 Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel94720-5180 www.ucei.org Greenhouse Gas Reductions under LowLCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  4. Friction and Wear Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains Friction and Wear Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review...

  5. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Evaluation of CSI catalyst for NOx...

  6. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 · www.nrel.gov Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap

  7. Optimal Deployment of Emissions Reduction Technologies for Construction Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quadrifoglio, Luca

    Optimal Deployment of Emissions Reduction Technologies for Construction Equipment Muhammad Ehsanul The objective of this research was to develop a multiob- jective optimization model to deploy emissions reduction technologies for nonroad construction equipment to re- duce emissions in a cost

  8. Identify Petroleum Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As defined by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction strategies for Federal vehicles and equipment are based on the three driving principles of petroleum reduction: Reduce vehicle miles traveled Improve fuel efficiency Use alternative fuels.

  9. Does Dimensionality Reduction improve the Quality of Motion Interpolation? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bitzer, Sebastian; Klanke, Stefan; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2009-01-01

    In recent years nonlinear dimensionality reduction has frequently been suggested for the modelling of high-dimensional motion data. While it is intuitively plausible to use dimensionality reduction to recover low ...

  10. Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

  11. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings.

  12. Multi-factor authentication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  13. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  14. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  15. Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions Surface-immobilized heterogeneous organometallic compounds have varying activity compared to homogeneous analogues -...

  16. Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum...

  17. Combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} reduction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Markussen, J.M. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments and passage of state legislation leading to more stringent nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) regulations have fueled research and development efforts on technologies for the combined control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The integrated removal of both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, in a single system can offer significant advantages over the use of several separate processes, including such factors as reduced system complexity, better operability, and lower costs. This paper reviews the status of a number of integrated flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems that have reached a significant stage of development, focusing on post-combustion processes that have been tested or are ready for testing at the pilot scale or larger. A brief process description, a summary of the development status and performance achieved to date, pending commercialization issues, and process economics (when available) are given for each technology.

  18. Nitrogen isotopes as indicators of NOx source contributions to atmospheric nitrate deposition across the Midwestern and Northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.M. Elliott; C. Kendall; S.D. Wanke; D.A. Burns; E.W. Boyer; K. Harlin; D.J. Bain; T.J. Butler

    2007-11-15

    Global inputs of NOx are dominated by fossil fuel combustion from both stationary and vehicular sources and far exceed natural NOx sources. However, elucidating NOx sources to any given location remains a difficult challenge, despite the need for this information to develop sound regulatory and mitigation strategies. We present results from a regional-scale study of nitrogen isotopes (15N) in wet nitrate deposition across 33 sites in the midwestern and northeastern U.S. We demonstrate that spatial variations in 15N are strongly correlated with NOx emissions from surrounding stationary sources and additionally that 15N is more strongly correlated with surrounding stationary source NOx emissions than pH, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, or NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Although emission inventories indicate that vehicle emissions are the dominant NOx source in the eastern U.S., our results suggest that wet NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition at sites in this study is strongly associated with NOx emissions from power plants. This suggests that large areas of the landscape potentially receive atmospheric NOy deposition inputs in excess of what one would infer from existing monitoring data alone. Moreover, we determined that spatial patterns in 15N values are a robust indicator of stationary NOx contributions to wet NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition and hence a valuable complement to existing tools for assessing relationships between NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition, regional emission inventories, and for evaluating progress toward NOx reduction goals. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Empirical Dynamical System Reduction I: Global Nonlinear Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda, Rick

    Empirical Dynamical System Reduction I: Global Nonlinear Transformations Michael Kirby and Rick (CNLKL) for the data reduction and semi­analytical remodeling of dynamical systems. The unconstrained­Lo`eve (CNLKL) 12 5. Reduction and Semi­analytic Remodeling of Dynamical Systems 17 6. Summary and Directions

  20. Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pientka, Brigitte

    Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax-directed termination and reduction checker for higher-order logic programs and output of well-moded predicates. These reduction con- straints are exploited during termination checking