Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Reducing home heating and cooling costs  

SciTech Connect

This report is in response to a request from the House Committee on Energy and Commerce that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake a neutral, unbiased analysis of the cost, safety, and health and environmental effects of the three major heating fuels: heating oil, natural gas, and electricity. The Committee also asked EIA to examine the role of conservation in the choice of heating and cooling fuel. To accommodate a wide audience, EIA decided to respond to the Committee`s request in the context of a report on reducing home heating and cooling costs. Accordingly, this report discusses ways to weatherize the home, compares the features of the three major heating and cooling fuels, and comments on the types of heating and cooling systems on the market. The report also includes a worksheet and supporting tables that will help in the selection of a heating and/or cooling system.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Actions You Can Take to Reduce Cooling Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fact Sheet Actions You Can Take to Reduce Cooling Costs Cooling costs can be a substantial part of your facility's annual utility bill. A number of energy savings opportunities...

3

Reducing Home Heating and Cooling Costs  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B1. Annual Cost of Oil Heat in Various Climates for a Range of Heating Oil Prices and System Efficiencies . . . . . 21 B2. Annual Cost of Gas Heat in...

4

Understanding and reducing energy and costs in industrial cooling systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial cooling remains one of the largest potential areas for electrical energy savings in industrial plants today. This is in spite of a relatively small amount of attention paid to it by energy auditors and rebate program designers. US DOE tool suites, for example, have long focused on combustion related systems and motor systems with a focus on pumps and compressors. A chilled water tool designed by UMass was available for some time but is no longer being supported by its designers or included in the government tool website. Even with the focus on motor systems, auditing programs like the DOE's Industrial Assessment Center program show dramatically less energy savings for electrical based systems than fossil fueled ones. This paper demonstrates the large amount of increased saving from a critical review of plant chilled water systems with both hardware and operational improvements. After showing several reasons why cooling systems are often ignored during plant energy surveys (their complexity, lack of data on operations etc.), three specific upgrades are considered which have become more reliable and cost effective in the recent past. These include chiller changeouts, right sizing of systems with load matching, and floating head pressures as a retrofit. Considerations of free cooling and improved cooling tower operations are shown as additional "big hitters”. It is made clear that with appropriate measurements and an understanding of the cooling system, significant savings can be obtained with reasonable paybacks and low risk.

Muller, M.R.; Muller, M.B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Thermal energy storage for space cooling. Technology for reducing on-peak electricity demand and cost  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off-peak hours when electricity rates are lower. In addition, some system configurations may result in lower first costs and/or lower operating costs. Cool storage systems of one type or another could potentially be cost-effectively applied in most buildings with a space cooling system. A survey of approximately 25 manufacturers providing cool storage systems or components identified several thousand current installations, but less than 1% of these were at Federal facilities. With the Federal sector representing nearly 4% of commercial building floor space and 5% of commercial building energy use, Federal utilization would appear to be lagging. Although current applications are relatively few, the estimated potential annual savings from using cool storage in the Federal sector is $50 million. There are many different types of cool storage systems representing different combinations of storage media, charging mechanisms, and discharging mechanisms. The basic media options are water, ice, and eutectic salts. Ice systems can be further broken down into ice harvesting, ice-on-coil, ice slurry, and encapsulated ice options. Ice-on-coil systems may be internal melt or external melt and may be charged and discharged with refrigerant or a single-phase coolant (typically a water/glycol mixture). Independent of the technology choice, cool storage systems can be designed to provide full storage or partial storage, with load-leveling and demand-limiting options for partial storage. Finally, storage systems can be operated on a chiller-priority or storage priority basis whenever the cooling load is less than the design conditions. The first section describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. The next three sections define the savings potential in the Federal sector, present application advice, and describe the performance experience of specific Federal users. A step-by-step methodology illustrating how to evaluate cool storage options is presented next, followed by a case study of a GSA building using cool storage. Latter sections list manufacturers, selected Federal users, and reference materials. Finally, the appendixes give Federal life-cycle costing procedures and results for a case study.

None

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings and paybacks from twelve to thirty months. The main operating cost of an Evaporative Roof Cooling System is water. One thousand gallons of water, completely evaporated, will produce over 700 tons of cooling capability. Water usage seldom averages over 100 gallons per 1000 ft^2 of roof area per day or 10 oz. of water per 100 ft^2 every six minutes. Roof Cooling Systems, when planned in new construction, return 1-1/2 times the investment the first year in equipment savings and operating costs. Roof sprays are a low cost cooling solution for warehouses, distribution centers and light manufacturing or assembly areas with light internal loads. See text "Flywheel Cooling."

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Oil Dependence Costs U.S. Petroleum Use, 1970-2010 Nearly 40% of the oil we use is imported, costing us roughly 300 billion annually. Increased domestic oil production from...

8

Quench cooling under reduced gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the quench cooling experiments performed with liquid O2 under different levels of gravity simulated with the magnetic gravity compensation. A copper disk is quenched from 270K to 90K. It is found that the cooling time in microgravity is very long in comparison with any other gravity level. This phenomenon is explained by the isolation effect of the gas surrounding the disk. The liquid subcooling is shown to drastically improuve the heat exchange thus reducing the cooling time (about 20 times). The effect of subcooling on the heat transfer is analyzed at different gravity levels. It is shown that such type of experiments cannot be used for the analysis of the critical heat flux (CHF) of the boiling crisis. The minimum heat flux (MHF) of boiling is analyzed instead.

Chatain, D; Nikolayev, V S; Beysens, D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Reducing Energy Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy expense is becoming increasingly dominant in the operating costs of high-performance computing (HPC) systems. At the same time, electricity prices vary significantly at...

10

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Title Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBL-19734 Year of Publication 1985 Authors Arasteh, Dariush K., Russell Johnson, Stephen E. Selkowitz, and Deborah J. Connell Conference Name 2nd Annual Symposium on Improving Building Energy Efficiency in Hot and Humid Climates Date Published 09/1985 Conference Location Texas A&M University Call Number LBL-19734 Abstract Fenestration performance in nonresidentialsbuildings in hot climates is often a large coolingsload liability. Proper fenestration design andsthe use of daylight-responsive dimming controls onselectric lights can, in addition to drasticallysreducing lighting energy, lower cooling loads,speak electrical demand, operating costs, chillerssizes, and first costs. Using the building energyssimulation programs DOE-2.1B and DOE-2.1C , wesfirst discuss lighting energy savings from daylighting.sThe effects of fenestration parametersson cooling loads, total energy use, peak demand,schiller sizes, and initial and operating costs aresalso discussed. The impact of daylighting, asscompared to electric lighting, on cooling requirementssis discussed as a function of glazingscharacteristics, location, and shading systems.

11

Seize Opportunities to Reduce Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specify for maximum energy savings Specify for maximum energy savings Windows must meet local energy code requirements. For even higher energy performance, consider ENERGY STAR windows, which are recommended for low-rise dwellings and are often suitable for mid-rise dwellings as well. For window and storm window options with superior performance in cold climates, check out the U.S. Department of Energy's highly insulating windows purchasing program (see next page). Seize Opportunities to Reduce Cost Government or utility incentives and financing may be available for energy efficiency in low-income housing. Check www.dsireusa.org for up-to-date information on incentive

12

Prime movers reduce energy costs  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial plants have found that reciprocating engines used to power generator sets and chiller systems are effective in reducing energy costs as part of a load management strategy, while meeting other plant energy needs. As the trend towards high electric utility costs continues, familiarity with basic analyses used to determine the economic viability of engine-driven systems is essential. A basic method to determine the economic viability of genset or chiller systems is to review the supplying utility`s rate structure, determine approximate costs to install and operate an engine-driven system, and calculate a simple equipment payback period. If the initial analysis shows that significant savings are possible and a quick payback is likely, a thorough analysis should be conducted to analyze a plant`s actual electric load profile. A load profile analysis takes into consideration average loads, peak loads, and peak duration. A detailed study should cover myriad considerations, including local air quality regulations and permitting, space availability, auxiliary system components, and financing options. A basic analysis takes relatively little time and can rule out the need for a detailed study.

Swanson, J.E. [Caterpillar, Inc., Mossville, IL (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Photovoltaic Costs to Reducing Photovoltaic Costs to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Photovoltaic Costs on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Research & Development Competitive Awards Systems Integration Balance of Systems Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Photo of gloved hands pouring liquid from a glass bottle to glass beaker. Past Incubator awardee, Innovalight, is creating high-efficiency, low-cost

14

Definition: Reduced Restoration Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Restoration Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Restoration Cost The functions that provide this benefit lead to fewer outages andor help restore power quicker...

15

Definition: Reduced Electricity Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Electricity Cost Functions that provide this benefit could help alter customer usage patterns (demand response with price...

16

Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing  

SciTech Connect

BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing pumping system efficiency by reducing pumping costs through optimum pipe sizing.

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Reducing Energy Costs And Minimizing Capital Requirements: Case Studies of Thermal Energy Storage (TES)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large cooling systems typically represent substantial capital investments and incur high operating energy costs. Cooling loads tend to peak during times of year and times of day when high ambient temperatures create a maximum demand for power, and thus during those times when power has its highest cost or value. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) provides a means of de-coupling the generation of cooling from the provision of cooling to the peak cooling loads. In this manner, peak power demand is reduced, time-of day energy costs can be minimized, and real-time variations in power value can be used to the advantage of the energy consumer.

Andrepont, J. S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Daylighting in schools: Energy costs reduced, student performance improved  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ordinarily, architectural-engineering firms are only indirectly concerned with psychological and physical benefits to the occupants of the buildings they design. However, a firm in North Carolina, Innovative Design, is not ordinary. Their use of daylighting in schools yields considerable economic benefits: energy costs reduced up to 64%, cooling and electrical equipment costs reduced, long-term mechanical and lighting equipment maintenance costs reduced. But equally impressive are the benefits of daylighting on student performance. Students in schools using daylighting have higher achievement scores in reading and math tests. Further, as shown in a related study, because of additional vitamin D received by students via daylighting, they will have less dental decay--and grow taller. In the two performance reports which follow, authors Nicklas and Bailey analyze specific win-win benefits of daylighting. Their findings are startling.

Nicklas, M.H.; Bailey, G.B. [Innovative Design, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Engineering and cost analysis of a dry cooling system augmented with a thermal storage pond  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An engineering and cost study of the capacitive thermal storage pond added to a state-of-the-art dry cooling system is described. The purpose of the study was to assess the potential for reducing the cost of all-dry cooling for thermal electric power plants using a dry cooling system that includes a thermal storage pond. Using the modified BNW-I computer code, the effect of varying significant design parameters was investigated. The parametric study included studying the effects of varying turbine type, pond size, replacement energy costing, capacity penalty methodology, pond location with respect to the dry cooling tower, design temperature, and site location (meteorology). Incremental power production costs for dry cooling (i.e., the portion of the cost of bus-bar electricity from the plant which is attributable to the cost of building and operating the heat rejection system) with a thermal storage pond system were determined for meteorologies of both Wyodak, Wyoming and Phoenix, Arizona. For Wyodak the incremental cost of dry cooling with a thermal storage pond was 2.81 mills/kWh as compared to 2.55 mills/kWh for a system without a thermal storage pond. For Phoenix the incremental cost of dry cooling with a thermal storage pond was 3.66 mills/kWh as compared to 4.31 mills/kWh for a system without a thermal storage pond. If the use of a modified conventional turbine with the dry-cooled system is stipulated in order to stay with proven technology for large turbines, then results of this study show that in extremely hot climates the thermal storage pond can reduce the cost of dry cooling. If no cost penalty is assigned to high back pressure turbines and it can be used, then the thermal storage pond has no advantage in hot climates. However, collateral use of the pond for makeup or emergency cooling water storage may decreae the cost. (LCL)

Drost, M.K.; Allemann, R.T.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Reduce generating costs and eliminate brownouts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving the manoeuverability of a coal-fired plant to allow it to participate in primary frequency support will reduce generation cost and minimize brownouts. The challenge is to do so without compromising efficiency or emissions. This article describes an approach - activation of stored energy - that is cost-effective and applicable to both greenfield and brownfield installations. It requires a new control philosophy, plus the correct application of new level and flow measurement 'best practices'. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Nogaja, R.; Menezes, M. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

How to Reduce Energy Supply Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rising energy costs have many businesses looking for creative ways to reduce their energy usage and lower the costs of energy delivered to their facilities. This paper explores innovative renewable and alternative energy technologies that can help customers control their supply-side costs of energy. Specific topics include distributive wind power generation and solid fuel boilers. It identities factors to consider in determining whether these technologies are economically viable for customers and stresses the importance of fully researching alternatives before committing to major equipment investments.

Swanson, G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Description and cost analysis of a deluge dry/wet cooling system.  

SciTech Connect

The use of combined dry/wet cooling systems for large base-load power plants offers the potential for significant water savings as compared to evaporatively cooled power plants and significant cost savings in comparison to dry cooled power plants. The results of a detailed engineering and cost study of one type of dry/wet cooling system are described. In the ''deluge'' dry/wet cooling method, a finned-tube heat exchanger is designed to operate in the dry mode up to a given ambient temperature. To avoid the degradation of performance for higher ambient temperatures, water (the delugeate) is distributed over a portion of the heat exchanger surface to enhance the cooling process by evaporation. The deluge system used in this study is termed the HOETERV system. The HOETERV deluge system uses a horizontal-tube, vertical-plate-finned heat exchanger. The delugeate is distributed at the top of the heat exchanger and is allowed to fall by gravity in a thin film on the face of the plate fin. Ammonia is used as the indirect heat transfer medium between the turbine exhaust steam and the ambient air. Steam is condensed by boiling ammonia in a condenser/reboiler. The ammonia is condensed in the heat exchanger by inducing airflow over the plate fins. Various design parameters of the cooling system have been studied to evaluate their impact on the optimum cooling system design and the power-plant/utility-system interface. Annual water availability was the most significant design parameter. Others included site meteorology, heat exchanger configuration and air flow, number and size of towers, fan system design, and turbine operation. It was concluded from this study that the HOETERV deluge system of dry/wet cooling, using ammonia as an intermediate heat transfer medium, offers the potential for significant cost savings compared with all-dry cooling, while achieving substantially reduced water consumption as compared to an evaporatively cooled power plant. (LCL)

Wiles, L.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Braun, D.J.; Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.; Willingham, C.E.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Application of Building Precooling to Reduce Peak Cooling Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A building cooling control strategy was developed and tested for a 1.4 million square foot (130,000 square meter) office building located in Hoffman Estates, IL. The goal of the control strategy was to utilize building thermal mass to limit the peak cooling load for continued building operation in the event of the loss of one of the four central chiller units. The algorithm was first developed and evaluated through simulation and then evaluated through tests on two identical buildings. The east building utilized the existing building control strategy while the west building used the precooling strategy developed for this project. Consistent with simulation predictions, the precooling control strategy successfully limited the peak load to 75 % of the cooling capacity for the west building, while the east building operated at 100 % of capacity. Precooling of the building mass provided an economical alternative to the purchase of an additional chiller unit. The estimated cost of installing an additional chiller was approximately $500,000. Computer models developed for this project also showed that precooling based upon cooling cost minimization could result in savings of approximately $25,000 per month during the peak cooling season. The building model was validated with experimental results and could be used in the development of a cost minimization strategy.

Kevin R. Keeney; James E. Braun, Ph.D.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Definition: Reduced Congestion Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Congestion Cost Transmission congestion is a phenomenon that occurs in electric power markets. It happens when scheduled market transactions (generation and load) result in power flow over a transmission element that exceeds the available capacity for that element. Since grid operators must ensure that physical overloads do not occur, they will dispatch generation so as to prevent them. The functions that provide this benefit provide lower cost energy, decrease loading on system elements, shift load to off-peak, or allow the grid operator to manage the flow of electricity around constrained interfaces (i.e. dynamic line capability or power flow control).[1] Related Terms power, transmission lines, load, element, electricity

25

Streamlining blade production would reduce turbine costs  

SciTech Connect

Gas turbine technology's overall future will see continuing increases in both size and higher operating temperatures, each contributing to improved energy conversion efficiency and reduced comparative capital outlay. Manufacturing technology will become even more relevant as blades acquire more sophisticated cooling or adopt the use of exotic refractory material such as crystal fibers and ceramics or both. The trend towards rising temperatures will continue. The incentives are high when it is realized that for every 100/sup 0/C increase in firing temperature there is a gain of approximately 18 percent in machine output and 2.7 percent increase in thermal efficiency.

Graham-Bryce, A.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.  

SciTech Connect

Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Low cost solar energy collection for cooling applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar energy collector designs utilizing thinfilm polymeric materials in the absorber and glazing are now under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The objective is dramatic cost reduction consistent with acceptable performance and life. Originally intended for low temperature applications (< 100/sup 0/F), these collectors now appear capable of high temperature applications including desiccant and absorption cooling (150/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/ F). The performance and economics of the thin-film collector are compared with those of conventional flat-plate designs in cooling applications.

Wilhelm, W.G.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Non-Hardware Costs to Reducing Non-Hardware Costs to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Systems Integration Balance of Systems Reducing Non-Hardware Costs Lowering Barriers Fostering Growth Reducing Non-Hardware Costs DOE supports efforts to dramatically reduce the non-hardware, balance of systems costs associated with solar energy systems. Representing as much as

30

Training reduces stuck pipe costs and incidents  

SciTech Connect

Properly administered initial and refresher stuck pipe training courses have dramatically reduced the cost and number of stuck pipe incidents for many companies worldwide. These training programs have improved operator and contractor crew awareness of stuck pipe risks and fostered a team commitment in averting such incidents. The success is evident in the achievements of the companies sponsoring such training. Preventing and minimizing stuck pipe is the most significant benefit of stuck pipe training, but crews also benefit from becoming more knowledgeable about the drilling program and equipment operation. The paper discusses stuck pipe costs, stuck pipe training, prevention of stuck pipes, well bore stability, geopressured formation, reactive formation, reactive formations, unconsolidated formations, mobile formations, fractured and faulted formations, differential sticking, 8 other causes of stuck pipe, and freeing stuck pipe.

Watson, B. (Global Marine Drilling Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Smith, R. (Randy Smith Drilling School, Lafayette, LA (United States))

1994-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

31

Energy (Cost) Savings by Zero Discharge in Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximum reuse of cooling tower blowdown by the incorporation of a sidestream softening system to recycle water can allow for significant savings in energy costs for industry. The system design parameters described in this paper are based upon calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and silica solubility equations for the resultant high ionic strength of a zero blowdown system. Operational aspects are highlighted in terms of deposition, corrosion, and biofouling potentials as well as currently-practiced, successful treatment procedures. The effects and history of corrosion and scale inhibitors, as well as other treatment chemicals, have been evaluated for numerous plants utilizing zero blowdown, and a summation of this knowledge is presented here. The cost analysis of conventional systems versus recycle systems is based upon a computer model's predictions for makeup waters of various qualities and costs.

Matson, J. V.; Gardiner, W. M.; Harris, T. G.; Puckorius, P. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Cooling Water Systems - Energy Savings/Lower Costs By Reusing Cooling Tower Blowdown  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reuse of cooling tower blow down cannot only provide energy conservation, but can provide water conservation and chemical conservation. To be effective, it is critical that the water treatment program be coordinated with the treatment of the blow down for reuse into the cooling tower system. Several plants have been built and operated with considerable difficulty regarding effective operation of the softener due to improper chemical selection. However, other plants have utilized the proper chemicals which not only improve the softener's performance and operation, but also effectively reduces the size of the softener. Thus, initial capital and operating savings are obtained. Detailed information is provided on guidelines and case histories of operating units.

Puckorius, P. R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Roof shading and wall glazing techniques for reducing peak building heating and cooling loads. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The roof shading device proved to be effective in reducing peak building cooling loads under both actual testing conditions and in selected computer simulations. The magnitude of cooling load reductions varied from case to case depending on individual circumstances. Key variables that had significant impacts on its thermal performance were the number of months of use annually, the thermal characteristics of the roof construction, hours of building use, and internal gains. Key variables that had significant impacts upon economic performance were the costs of fuel energy for heating and cooling, and heating and cooling equipment efficiency. In general, the more sensitive the building is to climate, the more effective the shading device will be. In the example case, the annual fuel savings ($.05 psf) were 6 to 10% of the estimated installation costs ($.50 to .75 psf). The Trombe wall installation at Roxborough High School proved to be effective in collecting and delivering significant amounts of solar heat energy. It was also effective in conserving heat energy by replacing obsolete windows which leaked large amounts of heat from the building. Cost values were computed for both solar energy contributions and for heat loss reductions by window replacement. Together they amount to an estimated three hundred and ninety dollars ($390.00) per year in equivalent electric fuel costs. When these savings are compared with installation cost figures it is apparent that the Trombe wall installation as designed and installed presents a potentially cost-effective method of saving fuel costs. The study results indicate that improved Trombe wall efficiency can be achieved by making design and construction changes to reduce or eliminate outside air leakage into the system and provide automatic fan control.

Ueland, M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden  

SciTech Connect

Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Detecting leaks to reduce energy costs  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how analyzing boilerhouse data in its manufacturing plants and applying algorithmic techniques is helping an automobile manufacturer run its utility operations more efficiently. Ford Motor Co., based in Dearborn, Michigan, is realizing significant energy savings, reducing capital expenditures, and minimizing wastewater disposal costs by diagnosing and quantifying leaks in its compressed air, steam/condensate, and process water systems by applying algorithms developed by Cleveland-based CEC Consultants Inc. These algorithms make use of readily available--and often already installed--instruments, such as vortex shedding meters, chart recorders, and data loggers, to compare how much utility use is needed for assembly and manufacturing equipment with how much is being generated.

Valenti, M.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Definition: Reduced Meter Reading Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Meter Reading Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Meter Reading Cost Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) equipment eliminates the need to send someone to...

37

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Reducing the Costs of Manufacturing Flow...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and power generation. * Design and material cost reductions are a means to reducing battery costs. * Is it possible to accelerate the knowledge building that comes from...

38

Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Cleanup - Efficiency delivered more than 6 million in cost savings, 3 million in annual savings Treatment Resin...

39

Survey on Cooling Costs and Related Factors for Apartments in an Urban Area of Osaka  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess cooling behaviors and cooling costs for 290 apartments in an urban area. 1) Cooling costs are strongly related to the number of air conditioners, the months of occupation, and the air conditioner usage frequency during sleep. Lifestyle and ecological interest do not decrease costs. 2) Target temperatures of air conditioning are strongly related to the air pollution outdoors, and to the frequency of window opening. Cooling temperatures are affected by the residents' constitution. 3) Both cooling temperature and air-conditioner use frequency are higher for residents worried more about dew, humidity, odors, and mold. 4) Air-conditioner use frequency is higher for residents who are annoyed by glances from outside and for those with a higher preference of outdoors. 5) South openings are related to the lower cooling costs and higher cooling temperatures, whereas west openings are related to higher cooling costs.

Umemiya, N.; Lin, X.; Inoue, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Cost analysis of an ammonia dry cooling system with a Chicago Bridge and Iron peak shaving system  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to determine the potential for reducing the cost associated with dry cooling by using an ammonia dry cooling system augmented with the Chicago Bridge and Iron (CP and I) peak shaving system. The cost analysis of an all-dry ammonia cooling system operating in conjunction with a peak shaving system is documented. The peak shaving system utilizes the excess cooling capability available at night to cool water to be used for supplemental cooling during the following day. The analysis consisted of determining the incremental cost of cooling for the CB and I system and comparing this cost to the incremental cost of cooling for both dry and wet/dry systems for a consistent set of design conditions and assumptions. The wet/dry systems were analyzed over a range of water usages. The basis of the comparisons was a cooling system designed for installations with a 650 mWe (gross) coal-fired power plant. From results of the study it was concluded that: the CB and I system shows a substantial economic advantage when compared with an all-dry cooling system; the CB and I system appears to be competitive with wet/dry cooling systems using about 2 to 3% water; and the CB and I system demonstrates a clear economic advantage when compared to both dry and wet/dry concepts for a winter peaking utility where the excess generation is assumed to displace both base-loaded coal-fired power generation and oil-fired gas turbine peaking units.

Drost, M.K.; Johnson, B.M.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Reynolds Logistics Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on AddThis.com... July 23, 2011 Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs F ind out how Reynolds Logistics uses electric vehicles to offset petroleum

42

Program on Technology Innovation: Review of Advanced Cooling Tower Technologies with Reduced Cooled Water Temperature and Evaporatio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews current technologies and solutions for advanced cooling towers with reduced cooled water temperature and evaporation losses. This is the first report for the dew-point cooling tower fill development project, funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Program on Technology Innovation, Water Conservation program. It is prepared by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI).This review is based on a literature and patent survey; it summarizes advancements in cooling ...

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

43

Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar-powered electricity prices could soon approach those of power from coal or natural gas thanks to collaborative research with solar startup Ampulse Corporation at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Silicon wafers account for almost half the cost of today's solar photovoltaic panels, so reducing or eliminating wafer costs is essential to bringing prices down. Current crystalline silicon technology converts energy in a highly efficient manner; however, that technology is manufactured with processes that could stand some improvement. The industry needs a method that is less complex, creates less waste and uses less energy. First, half the refined silicon is lost as dust in the wafer-sawing process, driving module costs higher. Wafers are sawn off of large cylindrical ingots, or boules, of silicon. A typical 2-meter boule loses as many as 6,000 potential wafers during sawing. Second, the wafers produced are much thicker than necessary. To efficiently convert sunlight into electricity, the wafers need be only one-tenth the typical thickness. NREL, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Ampulse have partnered on an approach to eliminate this waste and dramatically lower the cost of the finished solar panels. By using a chemical vapor deposition process to grow the silicon on inexpensive foil, Ampulse is able to make the solar cells just thick enough to convert most of the solar energy into electricity. No more sawdust - and no more wasting refined silicon materials. NREL developed the technology to grow high-quality silicon and ORNL developed the metal foil that has the correct crystal structure to support that growth. Ampulse is installing a pilot manufacturing line in NREL's Process Development Integration Laboratory, where solar companies can work closely with lab scientists on integrated equipment to answer pressing questions related to their technology development, as well as rapidly overcoming R and D challenges and risk. NREL's program is focused on transformative innovation in the domestic PV industry. With knowledge and expertise acquired from the PDIL pilot production line tools, Ampulse plans to design a full-scale production line to accommodate long rolls of metal foil. The Ampulse process 'goes straight from pure silicon-containing gas to high-quality crystal silicon film,' said Brent Nelson, the operational manager for the Process Development Integration Laboratory. 'The advantage is you can make the wafer just as thin as you need it - 10 microns or less.' Most of today's solar cells are made out of wafer crystalline silicon, though thin-film cells made of more exotic elements such as copper, indium, gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium and others are making a strong push into the market. The advantage of silicon is its abundance, because it is derived from sand. Silicon's disadvantage is that purifying it into wafers suitable for solar cells can be expensive and energy intensive. Manufacturers add carbon and heat to sand to produce metallurgical-grade silicon, which is useful in other industries, but not yet suitable for making solar cells. So this metallurgical-grade silicon is then converted to pure trichlorosilane (SiCl3) or silane (SiH4) gas. Typically, the purified gas is then converted to create a silicon feedstock at 1,000 degrees Celsius. This feedstock is melted at 1,414 C and recrystallized into crystal ingots that are finally sawed into wafers. The Ampulse method differs in that it eliminates the last two steps in the traditional process and works directly with the silane gas growing only the needed silicon right onto a foil substrate. A team of NREL scientists had developed a way to use a process called hot-wire chemical vapor deposition to thicken silicon wafers with near perfect crystal structure. Using a hot tungsten filament much like the one found in an incandescent light bulb, the silane gas molecules are broken apart and deposited onto the wafer using the chemical vapor deposition technique at about 700 C - a much lower temperature than needed to make the wafer. The hot filament dec

Scanlon, B.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Automatic monitoring helps reduce lighting costs  

SciTech Connect

A Benton, Arkansas utility is using a dimmable ballast system to curb high-intensity-discharge (HID) lighting costs. The system also incorpoates a monitoring control system. This control automatically maintains minimum illumination levels.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

GEOCITY: a computer model for systems analysis of geothermal district heating and cooling costs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GEOCITY is a computer-simulation model developed to study the economics of district heating/cooling using geothermal energy. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating/cooling based on climate, population, resource characteristics, and financing conditions. The basis for our geothermal-energy cost analysis is the unit cost of energy which will recover all the costs of production. The calculation of the unit cost of energy is based on life-cycle costing and discounted-cash-flow analysis. A wide variation can be expected in the range of potential geothermal district heating and cooling costs. The range of costs is determined by the characteristics of the resource, the characteristics of the demand, and the distance separating the resource and the demand. GEOCITY is a useful tool for estimating costs for each of the main parts of the production process and for determining the sensitivity of these costs to several significant parameters under a consistent set of assumptions.

Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Definition: Reduced T&D Operations Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced T&D Operations Cost Automated or remote controlled operation of capacitor banks and feeder and line switches eliminates the...

48

New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Groundwater  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Groundwater Treatment New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Groundwater Treatment March 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis RICHLAND, Wash. - A new resin EM, the Richland Operations Office, and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company are using in contaminated groundwater treatment is expected to increase efficiency and reduce costs in the operation of pump-and-treat facilities along the Columbia River at the Hanford site. The higher performance resin, SIR-700, is expected to reduce DOE's estimated operation and maintenance costs over the lifetime of the 100-DX Groundwater Treatment Facility by approximately $20 million. In comparison to this expected cost savings, the construction cost for the treatment

49

Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs May 3, 2013 - 12:50pm Addthis The Energy Department is helping Alaska Native communities reduce their energy costs by investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency upgrades. | Photo courtesy of Western Community Energy. The Energy Department is helping Alaska Native communities reduce their energy costs by investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency upgrades. | Photo courtesy of Western Community Energy. Tracey A. LeBeau Director, Office of Indian Energy Policy & Programs What are the key facts? It's not uncommon for families in Alaska Native communities to spend nearly half of their monthly income on energy costs. To help these communities make smart energy choices, the Energy

50

The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, a fixed cooling concept is used in the design of evaporative heat rejection systems for process and power plants. In the fixed cooling mode, a plant is designed for maximum output at the design summer wet bulb temperature. The application of a floating cooling concept to evaporative heat rejection systems can have significant impact on improving plant performance. The floating cooling concept refers to the optimization of yearly plant output and energy consumption by taking advantage of seasonal wet bulb temperature fluctuations. The maximum plant output occurs at the average winter wet bulb temperature. Floating cooling is especially suited to base load power plants located in regions with large daily and seasonal wet bulb temperature variations. An example for a geothermal power plant is included in this paper.

Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10 19%. With the assumption of an annual increase...

52

Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Cleanup -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Cleanup - Efficiency delivered more than $6 million in cost savings, $3 million in annual savings Treatment Resin Reduces Costs, Materials in Hanford Groundwater Cleanup - Efficiency delivered more than $6 million in cost savings, $3 million in annual savings June 4, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov (509) 376-4171 Dee Millikin, CHPRC Dee_Millikin@rl.gov (509) 376-1297 RICHLAND, Wash. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company is using a treatment material that has delivered more than $6 million in cost savings to date and is delivering more than $3 million in annual cost savings and efficiencies in treatment

53

Reducing energy use comes at a costReducing energy use comes at a cost ----the EU casethe EU case  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

YOUR LOGO HERECGES Reducing energy use comes at a costReducing energy use comes at a costDeputy Director and Chief Economist Centre for Global Energy StudiesCentre for Global Energy Studies AthensAthens ---- 88thth May 2008May 2008 Nuclear Energy WorkshopNuclear Energy Workshop ---- National Research Centre

54

Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries September 9, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov Electricvehicles8331019248.jpg Electric vehicles lined up in Cascade Locks. Credit: Oregon Department of Transportation A better battery-one that is cheap and safe, but packs a lot of power-could lead to an electric vehicle that performs better than today's gasoline-powered cars, and costs about the same or less to consumers. Such a vehicle would reduce the United States' reliance on foreign oil and lower energy costs for the average American, so one of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) goals is to fund research that will revolutionize the performance of next-generation batteries. In honor of DOE's supercomputing month, we are highlighting some of the

55

Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs July 23, 2010 - 3:24pm Addthis Judith Mondre meets with members of the Mondre Energy team. | Photo courtesy of Judith Mondre Judith Mondre meets with members of the Mondre Energy team. | Photo courtesy of Judith Mondre Maya Payne Smart Former Writer for Energy Empowers, EERE What are the key facts? 70 street lights and 25 traffic signals to be replaced via Recovery Act. Town expects 10 percent reduction in energy costs. Judith Mondre spent the past two months learning the ins and outs of Upper Darby Township, Pa.'s energy usage. She's analyzed energy bills, observed town facilities and interviewed staff to put together a plan to help the municipality reduce its total energy usage.

56

Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs July 23, 2010 - 3:24pm Addthis Judith Mondre meets with members of the Mondre Energy team. | Photo courtesy of Judith Mondre Judith Mondre meets with members of the Mondre Energy team. | Photo courtesy of Judith Mondre Maya Payne Smart Former Writer for Energy Empowers, EERE What are the key facts? 70 street lights and 25 traffic signals to be replaced via Recovery Act. Town expects 10 percent reduction in energy costs. Judith Mondre spent the past two months learning the ins and outs of Upper Darby Township, Pa.'s energy usage. She's analyzed energy bills, observed town facilities and interviewed staff to put together a plan to help the municipality reduce its total energy usage.

57

Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs August 1, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis In support of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy to develop clean, domestic energy sources, the Energy Department today announced a $4.5 million investment in two projects-led by Minnesota-based 3M and the Colorado School of Mines-to lower the cost, improve the durability, and increase the efficiency of next-generation fuel cell systems. This investment is a part of the Energy Department's commitment to maintain American leadership in innovative clean energy technologies, give American businesses more options to cut energy costs, and reduce our reliance on imported oil. "Fuel cell technologies have an important role to play in diversifying

58

Reducing Enzyme Costs Increases Market Potential of Biofuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

research has led to improvements in sugar yields and dramatically reduced ethanol production costs. The importance of this research was recognized in 2004 by an R&D 100...

59

Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or less to consumers. Such a vehicle would reduce the United States' reliance on foreign oil and lower energy costs for the average American, so one of the Department of Energy's...

60

Reducing 'Search Cost' and Risk in Energy-efficiency Investments...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This paper asserts that these programs have been successful because they reduce the two market barriers of high "search cost" and high perceived risks. Attachment Size PDF 770.7...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Reducing residential cooling requirements through the use of electrochromic windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in a prototypical residential building under a variety of state switching control strategies. We used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling energy and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. A single-story ranch-style home located in the cooling-dominated locations of Miami, FL and Phoenix, AZ was simulated. Electrochromic control strategies analyzed were based on incident total solar radiation, space cooling load, and outside air temperature. Our results show that an electrochromic material with a high reflectance in the colored state provides the best performance for all control strategies. On the other hand, electrochromic switching using space cooling load provides the best performance for all the electrochromic materials. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategy varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); i.e., required cooling decreases as the setpoint range decreases; also, performance differences among electrochromics increases. The setpoint range of outside air temperature control of electrochromics must relate to the ambient weather conditions prevalent in a particular location. If the setpoint range is too large, electrochromic cooling performance is very poor. Electrochromics compare favorably to conventional low-E clear glazings that have high solar heat gain coefficients that are used with overhangs. However, low-E tinted glazings with low solar heat gain coefficients can outperform certain electrochromics. Overhangs should be considered as a design option for electrochromics whose state properties do not change significantly between bleached and colored states.

Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

SunShot Initiative: Reducing Non-Hardware Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Non-Hardware Costs Reducing Non-Hardware Costs DOE supports efforts to dramatically reduce the non-hardware, balance of systems costs associated with solar energy systems. Representing as much as 64% of the total installed system price, these "soft costs" include: Customer Acquisition Financing and Contracting Permitting, Interconnection, and Inspection Installation and Performance Operations and Maintenance. To meet SunShot goals, the industry must innovate new ways to automate and speed processes that make it easier for consumers, businesses, utilities, solar companies, and others to install solar projects. For example, novel software solutions now allow solar companies to design systems and provide accurate quotes using satellite images rather than conducting full site visits.

63

Definition: Reduced Ancillary Service Cost | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ancillary Service Cost Ancillary Service Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Ancillary Service Cost Ancillary services are necessary to ensure the reliable and efficient operation of the grid. The level of ancillary services required at any point in time is determined by the grid operator and/or energy market rules. Ancillary services, including spinning reserve and frequency regulation, could be reduced if generators could more closely follow load; peak load on the system was reduced; power factor, voltage, and VAR control were improved; or information available to grid operators were improved.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Related Terms ancillary service, frequency regulation, smart grid References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An in

64

Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past June 7, 2012 - 2:48pm Addthis Franklin County Courthouse (Before) 1 of 2 Franklin County Courthouse (Before) A court employee and news photographer survey the bomb damage in the Franklin County Courthouse's main courtroom in November 1969. Image: Courtesy of the Washington Missourian. Franklin County Courthouse (After) 2 of 2 Franklin County Courthouse (After) The fully restored main courtroom includes the original 1930s paint colors and reproduction lighting. Image: Sallie Glaize Franklin County, MO Chris Galm Marketing & Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy People across the country are looking for ways to make homes and buildings

65

Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation November 19, 2013 - 3:49pm Addthis A combination solid-state laser turret cutter and stamping machine cuts a thin steel plate that will be formed into lighting fixture housing. Wisconsin-based Eaton Corporation is developing a new manufacturing process that streamlines LED fixture designs. | Photo courtesy of Eaton Corporation A combination solid-state laser turret cutter and stamping machine cuts a thin steel plate that will be formed into lighting fixture housing. Wisconsin-based Eaton Corporation is developing a new manufacturing process that streamlines LED fixture designs. | Photo courtesy of Eaton Corporation A goniometer measures the photometric output distribution of an outdoor LED street light fixture. Researchers at Eaton are developing a new manufacturing process will enable LED chips to sit directly on heat sinks, improving heat transfer. | Photo courtesy of Eaton Corporation

66

Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs March 1, 2010 - 4:34am Addthis Using SiGen's new cutting process, less material is wasted in creating solar products like this, a breakthrough that is expected to help make solar power more affordable. | Photo courtesy SiGen Using SiGen's new cutting process, less material is wasted in creating solar products like this, a breakthrough that is expected to help make solar power more affordable. | Photo courtesy SiGen Joshua DeLung Silicon Genesis is a San Jose, Calif., company that is advancing the field of solar energy by developing a process that will virtually eliminate all waste when cutting materials needed to implement solar technology.

67

Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past Reducing Energy Costs and Rebuilding the Past June 7, 2012 - 2:48pm Addthis Franklin County Courthouse (Before) 1 of 2 Franklin County Courthouse (Before) A court employee and news photographer survey the bomb damage in the Franklin County Courthouse's main courtroom in November 1969. Image: Courtesy of the Washington Missourian. Franklin County Courthouse (After) 2 of 2 Franklin County Courthouse (After) The fully restored main courtroom includes the original 1930s paint colors and reproduction lighting. Image: Sallie Glaize Franklin County, MO Chris Galm Marketing & Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy People across the country are looking for ways to make homes and buildings

68

Reducing air conditioning waste by signalling it is cool outside  

SciTech Connect

This experiment looked at the effects on residential energy consumption of providing homeowners with (1) a signalling device that indicated a conservation opportunity and (2) information feedback about their rate of energy use. The signalling device operated when the outside temperature was below 68F and the air conditioner was on. Homeowners were told that the signalling device indicated when they could cool their house effectively by opening the windows and turning off their air conditioner. Forty households were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: signalling device only, feedback only, both, neither. The results showed a significant 15.7% decrease in energy use for those households with the signalling devices. Neither the feedback nor interaction effect was significant. The advantages and disadvantages of having people in the control cycle were discussed. 4 references, 1 table.

Becker, L.J.; Seligman, C.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Implementing Energy Efficiency in Wastewater to Reduce Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the industrial world creating a quality product at minimum cost is the goal. In this environment all expenses are scrutinized, when they are part of the manufacturing process. However, even at the most conscientious facility the wastewater system is often overlooked, just plain accepted as is. At many locations facility personnel are completely unaware of utility costs but more importantly they are not aware of their energy consumption. The Wisconsin Focus on Energy Industrial Program has surveyed and assessed many municipal and industrial wastewater systems across the state, identified opportunities to save energy and assisted in implementing energy efficiency modifications without adversely impacting the quality of the treatment system or the manufacturing process. In many instances not only did the energy efficiency modification result in reduced energy consumption and costs, it also reduced maintenance and down time while improving effluent quality. Most of the opportunities that were implemented were installed while the manufacturing operations remained in operation.

Cantwell, J. C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

10 Strategic Steps to Reducing Your Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If your company is looking at energy management as part of its overall strategy to reduce costs and improve profits, it is not alone. While energy prices have increased at a shocking rate, so has interest in environmental responsibility. Progressive organizations are exploring ways to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gases. Some are even creating new positions for these issues, placing someone in charge of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The CSR's job is to help a company be more socially responsible and reduce harmful emissions. Energy management can accomplish both conservation and emission goals- plus, it lowers utility costs and strengthens your bottom line! In the past, reasonably priced energy made it difficult to justify new conservation projects. It was hard to meet the standard criteria of 2-3 years payback. However, natural gas prices have tripled in the last five years from $2 to over $6 per Dekatherm (Dth). Electric prices also have increased dramatically-by more than 100% in some parts of the country. These increased energy costs have made conservation projects more desirable. A natural gas improvement project that had a six-year payback five years ago may have less than a two-year payback today. New technologies also have helped drive down the payback of projects and opened up new areas for potential savings. The following paper looks at how the new market offers opportunities to reduce overall energy costs.

Swanson, G. A.; Haley, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

EFFECT OF REDUCED U-235 PRICE ON FUEL CYCLE COSTS  

SciTech Connect

A study was made to determine the effect of changes in natural uranium cost and in separative work charges on fuel cycle costs in nuclear power plants. Reactors considered were a Dresden-type boiling water reactor (BWR) and a Yankee- type pressurized water reactor (PWR), with net power ratings of 100, 300, and 500 Mwe. Fuel cycle costs were calculated for these reactors, using either enriched uranium or U/sup 235/-thorium as the fuel material. The price schedule for uranium was based on a feed material cost of /kg uranium as UF/sub 6/ and separative work costs of /kg uranium (Schedule B) and /kg uranium (Schedule C). The present AEC price schedule for enriched uranium was also used for purposes of a reference case. The results indicate that a reduction in present enriched uranium price to that given by Schedule B would reduce fuel cycle costs for the BWR plants by 0.4 to 0.5 mill/kwh for the enriched-uranium cycle, and 0.4 to 0.7 mill/kwh for the thorium cycle. Reductions in fuel cycle costs for the PWR plants were 0.5 to 0.7 and 0.4 to 0.75 mill/kwh, respectively, for the same situations. (auth)

Bennett, L.L.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The Potential of Vegetation in Reducing Summer Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential of trees and other vegetation to reduce building cooling loads has been recorded in a number of studies but the meso- and microclimate changes producing such savings are not well understood. This paper describes a preliminary ...

Y. J. Huang; H. Akbari; H. Taha; A. H. Rosenfeld

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Consumer thermal energy storage costs for residential hot water, space heating and space cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost of household thermal energy storage (TES) in four utility service areas that are representative for hot water, space heating, and space cooling systems in the United States is presented. There are two major sections of the report: Section 2.0 is a technology characterization of commercially available and developmental/conceptual TES systems; Section 3.0 is an evaluation of the consumer cost of the three TES systems based on typical designs in four utility service areas.

None

1976-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

Estimating the Market Penetration of Residential Cool Storage Technology Using Economic Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study estimated the market penetration for residential cool storage technology using economic cost modeling. Residential cool storage units produce and store chill during off-peak periods of the day to be used during times of peak electric power needs. This paper provides projections of unit sales expected in 5-year intervals for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, Such projections help to determine the maximum amount o f energy that could be displaced by this technology in the future. This study also found that price incentives offered to households must be varied dramatically by region for residential cool storage systems to be economically competitive relative to conventional systems. Under the most likely scenario, this analysis estimated that residential cool storage units will eventually capture about one-half of the central air conditioning (A/C) market.

Weijo, R. O.; and Brown, D. R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Estimating the market penetration of residential cool storage technology using economic cost modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study estimated the market penetration for residential cool storage technology using economic cost modeling. Residential cool storage units produce and store chill during off-peak periods of the day to be used during times of peak electric power needs. This paper provides projections of unit sales expected in 5-year intervals for the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. Such projections help to determine the maximum amount of energy that could be displaced by this technology in the future. This study also found that price incentives offered to households must be varied dramatically by region for residential cool storage systems to be economically competitive relative to conventional systems. Under the most likely scenario, this analysis estimated that residential cool storage units will eventually capture about one-half of the central air conditioning (A/C) market. 14 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

Weijo, R.O.; Brown, D.R.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on an experimental residential retrofit incorporating thermal storage, and extensive subsequent modeling, a commercial design was developed and implemented to use hot thermal storage to significantly reduce electric demand and utility energy costs during the cooling season as well as the heating season. To achieve air conditioning savings, the system separates dehumidification from sensible cooling; dehumidifies by desiccant absorption, using heat from storage to dry the desiccant; and then cools at an elevated temperature improving overall system efficiency. Efficient heat for desiccant regeneration is provided by a selective-energy system coupled with thermal storage. The selective-energy system incorporates diesel cogeneration, solar energy and off-peak electric resistance heating. Estimated energy and first cost savings, as compared with an all-electric VAV HVAC system, are: 30 to 50% in ductwork size and cost; 30% in fan energy; 25% in air handling equipment; 20 to 40% in utility energy for refrigeration; 10 to 20% in refrigeration equipment; and space savings due to smaller ductwork and equipment.

Meckler, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% oncommissioning project costs and savings. Commissioning isproportional to total project cost. The nature of activities

Mills, Evan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Reducing the cost of top-drive installation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To equip an older jackup, the Offshore Mercury, with a completely workable and reliable top drive at minimum cost and without sacrificing performance, Sonat Offshore Drilling installed a power-swivel drilling system that did not require heightening or strengthening the derrick. An electronic crown protection system was installed to allow the driller use of all available reduced crown clearance, thereby increasing drilling safety by reducing the probability of accidentally running the traveling block into the crown. In addition, they modified the DC-DC drilling power equipment to create a completely functional and low-cost alternative to installing additional AC power-generating capacity and an SCR system. When planning a cost-effective top-drive installation on the Offshore Mercury, they recognized that the rig did not fit the average jackup profile: It has a DC-DC electric power drilling system and only a 140-ft (43-m) derrick, rather than the more common SCR system and 147-ft (45-m) derrick. From costs studies made up to the middle of 1991, they believed they could save a significant amount if it were possible to install and use a top drive in a 147-ft (45-m) or even a 140-ft (43-m) derrick without having to extend and strengthen the derrick. This paper reviews the design of this system and the effectiveness of its performance.

Hock, C.J. (Sonat Offshore Drilling Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) of waste heat operated vapour absorption air conditioning system (VARS) incorporated in a building cogeneration system is presented and discussed. The life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) based on present worth cost (PWC) method, which covers the initial costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, replacement costs and salvage values is the useful tool to merit various cooling and power generation systems for building applications. A life cycle of 23 years was used to calculate the PWC of the system for annual operating hours of 8760 and the same is compared with the electric based vapour compression chiller (VCRS) of same capacity. The life cycle cost (LCC) of waste heat operated absorption chiller is estimated to be US $ 1.5 million which is about 71.5 % low compared to electric powered conventional vapour compression chiller. From the analysis it was found that the initial cost of VARS system was 125 % higher than that of VCRS, while the PWC of operating cost of VARS was 78.2 % lower compared to VCRS. The result shows that the waste heat operated VARS would be preferable from the view point of operating cost and green house gas emission reduction.

Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Reducing Electricity Cost Through Virtual Machine Placement in High Performance Computing Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the data centers' energy consumptions, energy prices, and peak power prices, it becomes clear that we can two components: (1) the cost of energy consumed (energy price: $ per KWh), and (2) the cost. Unfortunately, these works did not consider energy prices, peak power costs, or any cooling issues

Bianchini, Ricardo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Groundwater  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The new resin was installed at the 100-DX Groundwater Treatment Facility, where it operated over one year without a single resin change. The new resin was installed at the 100-DX Groundwater Treatment Facility, where it operated over one year without a single resin change. The new resin was installed at the 100-DX Groundwater Treatment Facility, where it operated over one year without a single resin change. An operator tests the resin at a 100K Area pump-andtreat system to determine how much hexavelent chromium contamination it has gathered from the groundwater. An operator tests the resin at a 100K Area pump-andtreat system to determine how much hexavelent chromium contamination it has gathered from the groundwater. ResinTech SIR-700 is being implemented at groundwater treatment systems along the Columbia River to increase efficiency and reduce costs. ResinTech SIR-700 is being implemented at groundwater treatment systems

82

Integrated Chiller System Reduce Building Operation and Maintenance Costs in Cold Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although water-cooled chillers are more energy efficient than air-cooled chillers, a majority of chilled water systems use air-cooled chillers. In cold weather climates, air-cooled chillers are capable of functioning in low ambient temperatures with few operational concerns, where as water-cooled chiller systems must be equipped to prevent cooling tower freezing. The integrated chiller system attempts to take advantage of each chiller's strengths and eliminate any cold weather operational concerns. An integrated chiller system includes a cooling tower and air-cooled condenser. During the summer, both the cooling tower and air condenser can be operated. In cold weather, the cooling tower is drained and the air condenser is used to dissipate the heat of the cooling system. The integrated chiller system eliminates the water storage tank and frequent charging and discharging of the cooling tower system. It reduces the size of the mechanical room and simplifies the operation of the system. The integrated chiller system is most suitable in climates where the mechanical cooling is required on a short-term basis during cold weather periods. This paper presents the system configuration, system design, optimal control, and energy impact. An example is used to demonstrate the design concepts of the integrated chiller systems.

Sheets, N.; Liu, M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Residential heating and cooling energy cost implications associated with window type: Revision  

SciTech Connect

We present a comparative study in which residential heating and cooling energy costs are analyzed as a function of window glazing type, with a particular emphasis on the performance of windows having low-emittance coatings. The DOE-2.1B energy analysis simulation program was used to generate a data base of the heating and cooling energy requirements of a prototypical single-family ranch-style house. Algebraic expressions derived by multiple regression techniques permitted a direct comparison of those parameters that characterize window performance: orientation, size, conductance, and solar transmission properties. We use these equations to discuss the energy implications of conventional double- and triple-pane window designs and newer designs in which number and type of substrate, low-emittance coating type and location and gas fill are varied. Results are presented for the heating-dominated climate of Madison, WI, and cooling-dominated locations of Lake Charles, LA, and Phoenix, AZ. The analysis shows the potential for substantial savings but suggests that both heating and cooling energy should be examined when evaluating the performance of different fenestration systems. Coating and substrate properties and the location of the coating in the glazing system are shown to have moderate effects as a function of orientation and climate. In addition, with the low-conductance glazing units, the window frame becomes a contributor to overall residential energy efficiency. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Residential heating and cooling energy cost implications associated with window type  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study is presented in which residential heating and cooling energy costs are analyzed as a function of window glazing type, with a particular emphasis on the performance of windows having low-emittance coatings. The DOE-2.1B energy analysis simulation program was used to generate a data base of the heating and cooling energy requirements of a prototypical single-family ranch-style house. Algebraic expressions derived by multiple regression techniques permitted a direct comparison of those parameters that characterize window performance: orientation, size, conductance, and solar transmission properties. These equations are used to discuss the energy implications of conventional double- and triple-pane window designs and newer designs in which number and type of substrate, low-emittance coating type and location and gas fill are varied. Results are presented for the heating-dominated climate of Madison, WI, and cooling-dominated locations of Lake Charles, LA, and Phoenix, AZ. The analysis shows the potential for substantial savings but suggests that both heating and cooling energy should be examined when evaluating the performance of different fenestration systems. Coating and substrate properties and the location of the coating in the glazing system are shown to have moderate effects as a function of orientation and climate. In addition, with the low-conductance glazing units, the window frame becomes a contributor to overall residential energy efficiency.

Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Why Pressure Reducing Valves (PVR's) are costing you money  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Throughout many manufacturing facilities, colleges, commercial sites or industrial complexes, pressure reducing valves (PRV's) provide a cheap, reliable method to produce low pressure steam from a high pressure source in order to meet a process requirement or heating load. This simple method of expanding steam in a PRV creates no work and supplies the same heat content available in the high pressure steam at a more manageable low pressure. What if you could produce the same low pressure steam while saving hundreds of thousands of dollars on your electric bill and taking only a minimal hit in the available heat content? Why let steam down and get no benefit from it, when putting it through a low pressure steam turbine coupled to a generator would produce the heat you need for process with the byproduct of onsite electrical generation. This paper analyzes the costs, concerns and benefits of replacing a pressure reducing valve with a Steam Turbine Generator set including illustrations of what the marginal fuel increase would be in order to take advantage of the added benefits of clean, cheap and reliable onsite power production.

Downing, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE: PROSPECTS FOR REDUCING ITS COST  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel cost of 1.25 mills/kwh would make nuclear power competitive with conventional power in lowcost coal areas if capital and operating costs can be brought to within about 10 percent of those of coal-fired plants. Substantial decreases in fuel fabrication cost are anticipated by 1970: other costs in the fuel cycle are expccted to remain about the same as at present. Unit costs and irradiation levels that would be needed to give a fuel cost of 1.25 mills/kwh are believed to be attainable by 1970. (auth)

Albrecht, W.L.

1959-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

87

Cost-effective control systems for solar heating and cooling applications. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A methodology has been defined to arrive at control recommendations for a variety of climate control system designs, applications and regions, and the results are presented in two parts. Part I consists of a literature and market-place survey, involving control strategies, functions, sensors, actuators, and the controllers themselves. Part II represents the bulk of the study effort - an attempt to simulate and evaluate system performance for several representative residential and commercial heating and cooling designs and thus to derive improved performance techniques within cost-effective control systems. (MHR)

Pejsa, J. H.; Bassett, W. W.; Wenzler, S. A.; Nguyen, K. H.; Olson, T. J.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Evaluation of Strobe Lights for Reducing Fish Impingement at Cooling Water Intakes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents results of a two-year effort that examined the effectiveness for reducing impingement of freshwater fish at cooling water intake structures at two of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) power plants. This research project also was supported by a Water Quality Cooperative Grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Research results advance our understanding on the utility of strobe lights as a fish protection technology for meeting Clean Water Act 316(b) requirements.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

Performance Evaluation of Behavioral Deterrents for Reducing Impingement at Cooling Water Intakes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents results of an examination into the effectiveness of behavioral fish deterrents (light and sound) for reducing impingement of freshwater fish at a cooling water intake structure (CWIS) located at an Alabama Power Company (APC) power plant. This research project also was supported and performed by APC. Research results advance our understanding of the effectiveness of strobe lights and sound as a fish protection technology for meeting Clean Water Act §316(b) requirements.

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

90

Improve Performance and Reduce Cost of Any Lithium-Ion Battery  

TM Microstructured components for high-performance lithium batteries www.porouspower.com Symmetrix™ - Improve Performance & Reduce Cost of Any ...

91

Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs February 19, 2009 - 1:39pm Addthis Water heating can account for a significant portion of your energy costs. Purchasing a new ENERGY STAR® water heater is just one way to save on your water heating bills. The Energy Savers Tips site lists other strategies you can use to cut your water heating costs. How do you reduce your water heating costs? E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Energy Savers Guide: Tips on Saving Money and Energy at Home How Do You Save on Lighting Costs? Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs

92

Reducing the Manufacturing Cost of Tubular SOFC Technology  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has made great strides in advancing tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology towards commercialization by the year 2001. In 1993, Westinghouse initiated a program to develop a `MWe Class` (1-3 MWe) pressurized SOFC (PSOFC) gas turbine (GT) combined cycle power system for distributed power applications because of its: (1) ultra high efficiency (approx. 63% net AC/LHV CH{sub 4}), (2) its compatibility with a factory packaged, minimum site work philosophy, and (3) its cost effectiveness. Since then two cost studies on this market entry product performed by consultants to the U.S. Department of Energy have confirmed Westinghouse cost studies that fully installed costs of under $1300/kWe can be achieved in the early commercialization years for such small PSOFC/GT power systems. The paper will present the results of these cost studies in the areas of cell manufacturing cost, PSOFC generator manufacturing cost, balance-of-plant (BOP) cost, and system installation cost. In addition, cost of electricity calculations will be presented.

George, R.A.; Bessette, N.F.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

FUEL CELLS IN SHIPPING: HIGHER CAPITAL COSTS AND REDUCED FLEXIBILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: The paper discusses some main economic characteristics of fuel cell power production technology applied to shipping. Whenever competitive fuel cell systems enter the market, they are likely to have higher capital costs and lower operating costs than systems based on traditional combustion technology. Implications of the difference are investigated with respect to investment flexibility by the use of a real options model of ship investment, lay-up and scrapping decisions under freight rate uncertainty. A higher capital share of total expected costs can represent a significant opportunity cost in uncertain markets. The paper highlights the significance of accounting properly for value of flexibility prior to investment in new technology.

Sigbjørn Sødal

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Reduce Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operating Costs with an Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project Energy costs are a school district's second highest expenditure after personnel. Public schools currently spend more than $8 billion per year for energy. School ener- gy expenditures rose, on average, 20 percent per year between 2000 and 2002-and the costs continue to rise. Natural gas prices alone increased 14 percent annually between 2003 and 2006. Improving a school's energy efficiency doesn't have to cost millions. In fact, schools can cut their energy expenses by 5 to 20 percent simply by efficiently managing and operating physical plants. This holds true regardless of the age of a school building. A smart O&M program can improve an existing school's energy performance An O&M program can be a simple initiative or a

95

Cost-reduced Cable Delivery for the 21st Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the issue of cost-effective optical fibre cable delivery within current projections of fibre build. The implications are generally valid for fibre to the home (FTTH), but additional considerations will apply. The challenge lies in ...

A. J. Mayhew; D. J. Stockton

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The Costs of Reducing Electricity Sector CO2 Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a high-level analysis of some of the critical challenges associated with cutting United States electricity-sector CO2 emissions and an order of magnitude feeling for what it will cost to meet emission-reduction targets now under consideration. Three basic strategies to limit emissions are illustrated to give readers a basic understanding of the tradeoff between CO2 reductions and additional cost inherent in several generation choices. Regional power market system simulations are then...

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

97

Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-499  

SciTech Connect

Under this CRADA NREL will support Creare's project for the Department of Energy entitled 'Improved Battery Pack Thermal Management to Reduce Cost and Increase Energy Density' which involves the development of an air-flow based cooling product that increases energy density, safety, and reliability of hybrid electric vehicle battery packs.

Smith, K.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant  

SciTech Connect

Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

Faletti, D.W.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

Faletti, D.W.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating/Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can systems. A promising application of DR fluids is in district heating/ cooling systems (DHCs)9

Raghavan, Srinivasa

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Opportunities for reducing product costs in indirect liquefaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The MITRE indirect liquefaction simulation model for the advanced configuration that includes Shell gasification and slurry-phase F-T synthesis was downsized to coincide with the Bechtel/Amoco conceptual plant with a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per stream day. Then the kinetic parameters used by Bechtel/Amoco in the slurry F-T model were substituted in the model. This resulted in the same per pass conversion and in the same number of reactors as estimated in the Bechtel basecase. The total capital cost for this plant was estimated to be $2982 million using the MITRE model. This agrees well with the preliminary Bechtel/Amoco capital cost of $2961 million for the same size plant(3). Once the WM simulation of the basecase plant was shown to be in agreement with the Bechtel/Amoco case, the analysis of further potential cost reductions beyond the basecase could be investigated. This analysis only investigated the potential cost reductions that could result from improvements in the F-T area of the conceptual plant. This is the area that is impacted by the research and development underway in the indirect program. The cost impact of the following potential improvements were investigated using the MITRE simulation model: Doubling the baseline catalyst activity; doubling the catalyst loading; and doubling the superficial gas velocity.

Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.; ElSawy, A. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Projected cost-effectiveness of alternative residential space cooling systems in the Sacramento area  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities around the country are seeking to evaluate new demand-side management (DSM) programs and technologies on an equal basis with supply-side resources. In evaluating future demand and supply resources, utilities need to consider uncertainties inherent in prediction. In this paper, five residential space cooling technologies (high efficiency heat pumps, some coupled with utility direct load control or with thermal energy storage), are defined and computer simulation of their performance are described. Cost-effectiveness of the five alternatives are then evaluated, and the relative uncertainty of the data inputs are tested by using the Monte Carlo technique of probability analysis. This comparative analysis comprises an initial screening of potential DSM technologies, and provides a framework and direction for more detailed analysis of these technologies in the future.

Kallett, R.H. (Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Box 15830, Sacramento, CA (US))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Advances in Energy Efficiency, Capital Cost, and Installation Schedules for Large Capacity Cooling Applications Using a Packaged Chiller Plant Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling equipment, whether used to meet air-conditioning or process cooling loads, represents a large consumer of energy. Even more to the point, cooling loads and the associated cooling equipment energy consumption tend to be at maximum levels during periods of high ambient air temperatures. It is precisely at those times that the general demand for energy is at its peak and therefore the price or value of energy is also at its highest level. Cooling loads often drive the peak electric power demand of energy users and thus affect not only the level of consumption of high cost energy, but also affect the peak power demand. Together, the energy and demand costs equate to very high unit costs for operating cooling equipment. Accordingly, it is of interest to minimize cooling energy use and costs by maximizing the energy efficiency of cooling equipment installations. A relatively new approach has been developed and is being increasingly used to maximize chiller plant efficiency. The approach involves the use of a standardized, pre-engineered, shop-fabricated approach to entire chiller plant installations. Compared to the traditional, piece-meal approach to chiller plants that utilize individual component specification, procurement and installation, the "packaged" or modular chiller plant approach often delivers substantially improved energy efficiencies. Also, the packaged plant approach achieves further benefits for large cooling system owners and operators. These additional benefits include: 1) dramatic reductions in unit capital costs of installed chiller plant capacity on a dollar per ton basis, 2) marked improvements in total procurement and installation schedules, 3) significantly smaller space requirements, and 4) enhanced control over total system quality and performance. The capacities and performance characteristics of available chiller plant modules are described, including both electric and non-electric chiller technologies. Examples are presented to illustrate the typical sizes and locations of actual installations as well as the growth and extent of the use of this technology to-date. Case studies document the energy efficiency improvements, cost reductions in both operating and capital costs, and improvements in schedule and space utilization, of the packaged chiller plant approach relative to the traditional chiller plant approach.

Pierson, T. L.; Andrepont, J. S.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Available Technologies: Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology ...

105

Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost - Energy Innovation ...  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology ...

106

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

108

O&M First! Actions You Can Take to Reduce Heating Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fact Sheet Actions You Can Take to Reduce Heating Costs Heating accounts for a significant energy load and usually presents a number of opportunities to improve performance and...

109

Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs 7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware Costs of Solar Energy Systems November 15, 2011 - 4:52pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative, Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $7 million to reduce the non-hardware costs of residential and commercial solar energy installations. Made available through the SunShot Incubator Program, this funding will support the development of tools and approaches that reduce non-hardware, or "soft" costs, such as installation, permitting, interconnection, and inspection. These expenses can amount to up to half of the cost of residential systems. The Incubator will make the process of

110

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates in

Mills, Evan

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

111

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations June 1, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - As part of the Obama Administration's SunShot Initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with fossil fuels within the decade, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the availability of more than $27 million in new funding that will reduce the non-hardware costs of solar energy projects, a critical element in bringing down the overall costs of installed solar energy systems. The funding will support a $12.5 million challenge to encourage cities and counties to compete to streamline and digitize permitting processes, as

112

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, 27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects, Streamline Permitting and Installations June 1, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - As part of the Obama Administration's SunShot Initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with fossil fuels within the decade, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the availability of more than $27 million in new funding that will reduce the non-hardware costs of solar energy projects, a critical element in bringing down the overall costs of installed solar energy systems. The funding will support a $12.5 million challenge to encourage cities and counties to compete to streamline and digitize permitting processes, as

113

Reducing the cost of quality (COQ) through increased product reliability and reduced process variability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Today, Dell, Inc. (Dell) spends millions of dollars each year to prevent product defects from reaching the end customer and to manage those product defects that have escaped to the end customer. The cost of the equipment, ...

Schiveley, Steven C. (Steven Charles), 1974-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Definition: Reduced T&D Equipment Maintenance Cost | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

T&D Equipment Maintenance Cost T&D Equipment Maintenance Cost Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced T&D Equipment Maintenance Cost The cost of sending technicians into the field to check equipment condition is high. Moreover, to ensure that they maintain equipment sufficiently, and identify failure precursors, some utilities may conduct equipment testing and maintenance more often than is necessary. Online diagnosis and reporting of equipment condition would reduce or eliminate the need to send people out to check equipment resulting in a cost savings.[1] References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Reduced_T%26D_Equipment_Maintenance_Cost&oldid=417296"

115

NASA Ames Saves Energy and Reduces Project Costs with Non-Invasive Retrofit Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NASA Ames Saves Energy and Reduces Project Costs NASA Ames Saves Energy and Reduces Project Costs with Non-Invasive Retrofit Technologies The Wireless Pneumatic Thermostat Enables Energy Efficiency Strategies, Ongoing Commissioning and Improved Operational Control Harry Sim CEO Cypress Envirosystems harry.sim@cypressenvirosystems.com www.cypressenvirosystems.com NASA Ames Reduced Project Cost by Over 80% with Non-Invasive Retrofit Technologies * Legacy Pneumatic Thermostats  Waste energy  High maintenance costs  Uncomfortable occupants  No visibility * Project Scope  14 buildings  1,370 pneumatic thermostats  Integration with campus BAS  Diagnostics for ongoing commissioning * Traditional DDC Retrofit  Cost over $4.1 million  Asbestos exposure/abatement  Occupants significantly disrupted

116

The Cost of Helium Refrigerators and Coolers for SuperconductingDevices as a Function of Cooling at 4 K  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an update of papers written in 1991 and in1997 by Rod Byrns and this author concerning estimating the cost ofrefrigeration for superconducting magnets and cavities. The actual costsof helium refrigerators and coolers (escalated to 2007 dollars) areplotted and compared to a correlation function. A correlation functionbetween cost and refrigeration at 4.5 K is given. The capital cost oflarger refrigerators (greater than 10 W at 4.5 K) is plotted as afunction of 4.5-K cooling. The cost of small coolers is plotted as afunction of refrigeration available at 4.2 K. A correlation function forestimating efficiency (percent of Carnot) of both types of refrigeratorsis also given.

Green, Michael A.

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

117

Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, ...

Pettit R. G.; Wang J. J.; Toh C.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Energy RD&D: Reducing the Cost of CCUS for Coal Power Plants Revision 1, January 31, 2012 DOENETL-20121550 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work...

119

Reduce Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

School Project Reduce Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project EnergySmart Schools fact sheet on how school operations and maintenance (O&M) personnel can play a...

120

Reducing Enzyme Costs Increases the Market Potential of Biofuels (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol prices depend heavily on the cost of the cellulase enzymes used to break down the biomass into fermentable sugars. To reduce these costs, NREL partnered with two leading enzyme companies, Novozymes and Genencor, to engineer new cellulase enzymes that are exceptionally good at breaking down cellulose. Genencor is now part of DuPont Industrial Biosciences.

Not Available

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance was analyzed and improvements implemented to the Veeco PVD-AlN prototype system to establish a specification and baseline PVD-AlN films on sapphire and in parallel the evaluation of PVD AlN on silicon substrates began. In Phase II of the project a Beta tool based on a scaled-up process module capable of depositing uniform films on batches of 4”or 6” diameter substrates in a production worthy operation was developed and qualified. In Phase III, the means to increase the throughput of the PVD-AlN system was evaluated and focused primarily on minimizing the impact of the substrate heating and cooling times that dominated the overall cycle time.

Cerio, Frank

2013-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

122

Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers December 21, 2011 - 12:49pm Addthis As part of the Obama Administration's commitment to reduce America's dependence on oil through advanced vehicle technologies, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced awards totaling nearly $7 million in research and development funding that will help to reduce the current costs of electric vehicle chargers by 50 percent over the next three years. With support from the Energy Department, manufacturers in California, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania will work to improve the development and design of charging equipment. This research will promote "smart"

123

Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers December 21, 2011 - 12:49pm Addthis As part of the Obama Administration's commitment to reduce America's dependence on oil through advanced vehicle technologies, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced awards totaling nearly $7 million in research and development funding that will help to reduce the current costs of electric vehicle chargers by 50 percent over the next three years. With support from the Energy Department, manufacturers in California, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania will work to improve the development and design of charging equipment. This research will promote "smart"

124

Minnesota Company 3M Awarded $3 Million by Energy Department to Reduce Cost  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minnesota Company 3M Awarded $3 Million by Energy Department to Minnesota Company 3M Awarded $3 Million by Energy Department to Reduce Cost of Advanced Fuel Cells Minnesota Company 3M Awarded $3 Million by Energy Department to Reduce Cost of Advanced Fuel Cells March 29, 2012 - 4:20pm Addthis In support of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above approach to American energy, the Energy Department today announced the investment of $3 million to 3M Company in St. Paul, Minnesota, to lower the cost of advanced fuel cell systems by developing cost-effective, durable, and highly efficient fuel cell components. The 3-year project will focus on boosting the performance of fuel cell systems for vehicles and stationary applications while driving down costs. These investments are a part of the Department's commitment to U.S. leadership in innovative fuel cell

125

Notwithstanding our concerns for reliability, the Energy Commission supports efforts to reduce the impacts of once-through cooling on marine and estuarine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling towers and half of the projects under licensing review at the Energy Commission are using recycled to reduce the impacts of once-through cooling on marine and estuarine environments in California. In our the federal Clean Water Act section 316(b) Phase II rule regulating cooling water intakes for existing, large

126

Review of cost estimates for reducing CO2 emissions. Final report, Task 9  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the ground breaking work of William Nordhaus in 1977, cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions have been developed by numerous groups. The various studies have reported sometimes widely divergent cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Some recent analyses have indicated that large reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved at zero or negative costs (e.g. Rocky Mountain Institute 1989). In contrast, a recent study by Alan Manne of Stanford and Richard Richels of the Electric Power Research Institute (Manne-Richels 1989) concluded that in the US the total discounted costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level could be as much as 3.6 trillion dollars over the period from 1990 to 2100. Costs of this order of magnitude would represent about 5 percent of US GNP. The purpose of this briefing paper is to summarize the different cost estimates for CO{sub 2} emission reduction and to identify the key issues and assumptions that underlie these cost estimates.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Cost analysis of power plant cooling using aquifer thermal energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most utilities in the US experience their peak demand for electric power during periods with high ambient temperature. Unfortunately, the performance of many power plants decreases with high ambient temperature. The use of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for seasonal storage of chill can be an alternative method for heat rejection. Cold water produced during the previous winter is stored in the aquifer and can be used to provide augmented cooling during peak demand periods increasing the output of many Rankine cycle power plants. This report documents an investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of using aquifer thermal energy storage for peak cooling of power plants. 9 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

Zimmerman, P.W.; Drost, M.K.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

Ken Mortensen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

129

Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Baseload Cooling Equipment: FY08 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Documentation of a study to investigate one heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option, low-lift cooling, which offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, P. R.; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Reducing Operations and Maintenance Costs of Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses opportunities for utilities to reduce fire protection operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. A number of these opportunities have been implemented by some utilities and can be implemented now by others. Other opportunities can be implemented in the short term with some additional development. These other opportunities are amenable to cooperative projects with costs shared by multiple utilities. There is also a group of opportunities that are probably best developed on an industry w...

1997-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

131

Reducing the Cost of Energy from Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Parabolic trough solar technology is the most proven and lowest cost large-scale solar power technology available today, primarily because of the nine large commercial-scale solar power plants that are operating in the California Mojave Desert. However, no new plants have been built during the past ten years because the cost of power from these plants is more expensive than power from conventional fossil fuel power plants. This paper reviews the current cost of energy and the potential for reducing the cost of energy from parabolic trough solar power plant technology based on the latest technological advancements and projected improvements from industry and sponsored R&D. The paper also looks at the impact of project financing and incentives on the cost of energy.

Price, H.; Kearney, D.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Award-winning alloys could reduce costs for chemical and petrochemical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Award-winning alloys could reduce costs for chemical and petrochemical Award-winning alloys could reduce costs for chemical and petrochemical industries Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library About Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Opportunities within NE Division Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) Argonne OutLoud on Nuclear Energy Argonne Energy Showcase 2012 Highlights Bookmark and Share Award-winning alloys could reduce costs for chemical and petrochemical industries This macrophotograph compares commercial nickel-based Alloy 600 (top) and Argonne's new alloy after 5,700 hours of exposure to the same metal-dusting environment at 593°C

133

Diagnostics-while drilling: Reducing the cost of geothermal-produced electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this document is to estimate the potential impact of proposed new Diagnostics-While-Drilling technology on the cost of electricity (COE) produced with geothermal energy. A cost model that predicts the COE was developed and exercised over the range of conditions found for geothermal plants in flashed-steam, binary, and enhanced-reservoir (e.g., Hot Dry Rock) applications. The calculations were repeated assuming that DWD technology is available to reduce well costs and improve well productivity. The results indicate that DWD technology would reduce the geothermal COE by 2--31%, depending on well depth, well productivity, and the type of geothermal reservoir. For instance, for a typical 50-MW, flashed-steam geothermal power plant employing 3-MW wells, 6,000-ft deep, the model predicts an electricity cost of 4.9 cents/kwh. With the DWD technology envisioned, the electricity cost could be reduced by nearly 20%, to less than 4 cents/kwh. Such a reduction in the cost of electricity would give geothermal power a competitive edge over other types of power at many locations across the US and around the world. It is thus believed that DWD technology could significantly expand the role of geothermal energy in providing efficient, environment-friendly electric generating capacity.

PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,DAVID A.

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

134

CoolCab: Reducing Thermal Loads in Long-Haul Trucks (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project tested and modeled the effects of several thermal-load reduction strategies applied to long-haul truck cabs. NREL partnered with two major truck manufacturers to evaluate three long-haul trucks at NREL's outdoor test facility in Golden, Colorado.

Not Available

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Program on Technology Innovation: Feasibility Study of Using a Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System to Reduce Cooling Tower Water Consu mption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update describes the initial work accomplished by a feasibility study for using a newly developed Thermosyphon Cooler (TSC) Hybrid System to reduce cooling-tower water consumption at steam power plants. The report outlines the overall project and then details the applicable codes and standards that would apply to this technology. It also briefly touches on the literature and patents relating to this field. It describes the rationale and constraints involved in setting up the ...

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

136

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

T: a data-centric cooling energy costs reduction approach for big data analytics cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Explosion in Big Data has led to a surge in extremely large-scale Big Data analytics platforms, resulting in burgeoning energy costs. Big Data compute model mandates strong data-locality for computational performance, and moves computations to data. ...

Rini T. Kaushik; Klara Nahrstedt

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

Camillo A. DiNunzio Framatome ANP DE& S; Dr. Abhinav Gupta Assistant Professor NCSU; Dr. Michael Golay Professor MIT Dr. Vincent Luk Sandia National Laboratories; Rich Turk Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems; Charles Morrow, Sandia National Laboratories; Geum-Taek Jin, Korea Power Engineering Company Inc.

2002-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

CoolSpots: Reducing the Power Consumption of Wireless Mobile Devices with Multiple Radio Interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CoolSpots enable a wireless mobile device to automatically switch between multiple radio interfaces, such as WiFi and Bluetooth, in order to increase battery lifetime. The main contribution of this work is an exploration of the policies that enable a system to switch among these interfaces, each with diverse radio characteristics and different ranges, in order to save power – supported by detailed quantitative measurements. The system and policies do not require any changes to the mobile applications themselves, and changes required to existing infrastructure are minimal. Results are reported for a suite of commonly used applications, such as file transfer, web browsing, and streaming media, across a range of operating conditions. Experimental validation of the CoolSpot system on a mobile research platform shows substantial energy savings: more than a 50 % reduction in energy consumption of the wireless subsystem is possible, with an associated increase in the effective battery lifetime.

Trevor Pering; Yuvraj Agarwal; Rajesh Gupta; Comm Power

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Styrofoam cups are one of many Styrofoam cups are one of many products made from styrene monomer. Exelus Inc. (Livingston, NJ), established in 2000, develops and licenses "Cleaner-by- Design" chemical technologies to produce a vast array of products and materials used in consumer goods, transportation, and food processing. Currently, the company's principal process technologies are: ExSact - a refining technology that overcomes the environmental concerns, safety hazards and rising costs associated with conventional liquid acid technologies ExSyM - energy efficient, low cost SM production technology BTG - efficient, cost-effective conversion of biomass to clean, high-octane, gasoline-compatible fuel http://www.exelusinc.com/ New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces

142

Solar-assisted heat pump system for cost-effective space heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of heat pumps for the utilization of solar energy is studied. Two requirements for a cost-effective system are identified: (1) a special heat pump whose coefficient of performance continues to rise with source temperature over the entire range appropriate for solar assist, and (2) a low-cost collection and storage subsystem able to supply solar energy to the heat pump efficiently at low temperatures. Programs leading to the development of these components are discussed. A solar assisted heat pump system using these components is simulated via a computer, and the results of the simulation are used as the basis for a cost comparison of the proposed system with other solar and conventional systems.

Andrews, J W; Kush, E A; Metz, P D

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Offshore Wind Energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Currently, installation, operation, and maintenance (IO&M) costs contribute approximately 30% to the LCOE of offshore wind plants. To reduce LCOE while ensuring safety, this paper identifies principal cost drivers associated with IO&M and quantifies their impacts on LCOE. The paper identifies technology improvement opportunities and provides a basis for evaluating innovative engineering and scientific concepts developed subsequently to the study. Through the completion of a case study, an optimum IO&M strategy for a hypothetical offshore wind project is identified.

Maples, B.; Saur, G.; Hand, M.; van de Pieterman, R.; Obdam, T.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Estimating the marginal cost of reducing global fossil fuel CO[sub 2] emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper estimates the marginal, total, and average cost and effectiveness of carbon taxes applied either by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members alone, or as part of a global cooperative strategy, to reduce potential future emissions and their direct implications for employment in the US coal industry. Two sets of cases are examined, one set in which OECD members acts alone, and another set in which the world acts in concert. In each case set taxes are examined which achieve four alternative levels of emissions reduction: halve the rate of emissions growth, no emissions growth, 20[percent] reduction from 1988 levels, and 50[percent] reduction from 1988 levels. For the global cooperation case, carbon tax rates of [dollar sign]32, [dollar sign]113, [dollar sign]161, and [dollar sign]517 per metric ton of carbon (mtC) were needed in the year 2025 to achieve the objectives. Total costs were respectively [dollar sign]40, [dollar sign]178, [dollar sign]253, and [dollar sign]848 billions of 1990 US dollars per year in the year 2025. Average costs were [dollar sign]32, [dollar sign]55, [dollar sign]59, and [dollar sign]135 per mtC. Costs were significantly higher in the cases in which the OECD members states acted alone. OECD member states, acting alone, could not reduce global emissions by 50[percent] or 20[percent] relative to 1988, given reference case assumptions regarding developing and recently planned nations economic growth.

Edmonds, J.; Barns, D.W.; McDonald, S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Wireless Smart Sensor Development Update: Applying Technology to Reduce Fire Watch Costs and to Improve Coverage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smart Sensor product development for the use of fire watch improvement has been initiated by EPRI for the purposes of understanding the current state and/or industry available systems for electronically supporting the performance of existing work activities and/or providing for performance enhancement through cost effective monitoring and automation capabilities. The use of wireless technologies will allow a greater ease of deployment, reduced response time, and increased efficiency for fire watch equipm...

2004-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

147

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Heating & Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Heating & Cooling Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Heating and cooling account for about 56% of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes. Learn more about the principles of heating and cooling. Did you know that heating and cooling accounts for more than half of the energy use in a typical U.S. home, making it the largest energy expense for most homes? Energy Saver shares tips and advice on ways you can reduce your heating and cooling costs, putting more money in your wallet.

149

Estimating market penetration of new district heating and cooling systems using a combination of economic cost and diffusion models  

SciTech Connect

The economic-cost model and the diffusion model are among the many market-penetration forecasting approaches that are available. These approaches have been used separately in many applications. In this paper, the authors briefly review these two approaches and then describe a methodology for forecasting market penetration using both approaches sequentially. This methodology is illustrated with the example of market-penetration forecasting of new district heating and cooling (DHC) systems in the Argonne DHC Market Penetration Model, which was developed and used over the period 1979--1983. This paper discusses how this combination approach, which incorporates the strengths of the economic-cost and diffusion models, has been superior to any one approach for market forecasts of DHC systems. Also discussed are the required modifications for revising and updating the model in order to generate new market-penetration forecasts for DHC systems. These modifications are required as a result of changes in DHC engineering, economic, and market data from 1983 to 1990. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Teotia, A.P.S.; Karvelas, D.E.

1991-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

150

Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of a Reduced Scale High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Test Facility and its Prototype with MELCOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pursuant to the energy policy act of 2005, the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been selected as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) that will become the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). Although plans to build a demonstration plant at Idaho National Laboratories (INL) are currently on hold, a cooperative agreement on HTGR research between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and several academic investigators remains in place. One component of this agreement relates to validation of systems-level computer code modeling capabilities in anticipation of the eventual need to perform HTGR licensing analyses. Because the NRC has used MELCOR for LWR licensing in the past and because MELCOR was recently updated to include gas-cooled reactor physics models, MELCOR is among the system codes of interest in the cooperative agreement. The impetus for this thesis was a code-to-experiment validation study wherein MELCOR computer code predictions were to be benchmarked against experimental data from a reduced-scale HTGR testing apparatus called the High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF). For various reasons, HTTF data is not yet available from facility designers at Oregon State University, and hence the scope of this thesis was narrowed to include only computational studies of the HTTF and its prototype, General Atomics’ Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). Using the most complete literature references available for MHTGR design and using preliminary design information on the HTTF, MELCOR input decks for both systems were developed. Normal and off-normal system operating conditions were modeled via implementation of appropriate boundary and inititial conditions. MELCOR Predictions of system response for steady-state, pressurized conduction cool-down (PCC), and depressurized conduction cool-down (DCC) conditions were checked against nominal design parameters, physical intuition, and some computational results available from previous RELAP5-3D analyses at INL. All MELCOR input decks were successfully built and all scenarios were successfully modeled under certain assumptions. Given that the HTTF input deck is preliminary and was based on dated references, the results were altogether imperfect but encouraging since no indications of as yet unknown deficiencies in MELCOR modeling capability were observed. Researchers at TAMU are in a good position to revise the MELCOR models upon receipt of new information and to move forward with MELCOR-to-HTTF benchmarking when and if test data becomes available.

Beeny, Bradley 1988-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Enriched-uranium feed costs for the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactor: trends and comparison with other reactor concepts  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses each of the components that affect the unit cost for enriched uranium; that is, ore costs, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ to UF/sub 6/ conversion cost, costs for enriching services, and changes in transaction tails assay. Historical trends and announced changes are included. Unit costs for highly enriched uranium (93.15 percent /sup 235/U) and for low-enrichment uranium (3.0, 3.2, and 3.5 percent /sup 235/U) are displayed as a function of changes in the above components and compared. It is demonstrated that the trends in these cost components will probably result in significantly less cost increase for highly enriched uranium than for low-enrichment uranium--hence favoring the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor.

Thomas, W.E.

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Labor costs may be reduced . . . Research yields size-controlling rootstocks for peach production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Doyle David Ramming Production costs in peaches are highlyby UC and USDA. production costs could be substantiallyDRAFT T he annual production costs for peaches grown in

DeJong, Theodore M.; Johnson, R. Scott; Doyle, James F.; Ramming, David

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Why Cool Roofs? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Why Cool Roofs? Addthis Description By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills. Speakers Secretary Steven Chu Duration 1:46 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Fossil Oil Credit Energy Department Video SECRETARY OF ENERGY STEVEN CHU: The reason we wanted the Department of Energy to take the lead in cool roofs is to demonstrate that this really saves money. If you have a roof and it's black, it's absorbing energy from the sun

155

Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

A Comparative Demonstration of Alternative Milk Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A newly-designed groundwater-ice bank milk cooling system significantly reduces energy use and peak electric demand by about 30% over a conventional direct expansion bulk tank cooling system. This study compared the energy efficiency, electrical demands, and milk quality obtained using the new and conventional systems. Overall, the new system represents a viable, cost-effective alternative for dairy farms that are upgrading or replacing milk cooling equipment.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy Energy Department Completes Cool Roof Installation on DC Headquarters Building to Save Money by Saving Energy December 14, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - Secretary Steven Chu today announced the completion of a new cool roof installation on the Department of Energy's Headquarters West Building. There was no incremental cost to adding the cool roof as part of the roof replacement project and it will save taxpayers $2,000 every year in building energy costs. Cool roofs use lighter-colored roofing surfaces or special coatings to reflect more of the sun's heat, helping improve building efficiency, reduce cooling costs and offset carbon emissions. The cool roof and increased insulation at the facility were

158

Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling April 24, 2012 - 4:18pm Addthis Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs can be reduced to less than half the cost of heating a typical home. Passive solar design can also help lower your cooling costs. Passive solar cooling techniques include carefully designed overhangs and using reflective coatings on windows, exterior walls, and roofs. Newer techniques include placing large, insulated windows on south-facing walls and putting thermal mass, such as a concrete slab floor or a heat-absorbing wall, close to the windows. A passive solar house requires careful design and siting, which vary by

159

Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling April 24, 2012 - 4:18pm Addthis Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs can be reduced to less than half the cost of heating a typical home. Passive solar design can also help lower your cooling costs. Passive solar cooling techniques include carefully designed overhangs and using reflective coatings on windows, exterior walls, and roofs. Newer techniques include placing large, insulated windows on south-facing walls and putting thermal mass, such as a concrete slab floor or a heat-absorbing wall, close to the windows. A passive solar house requires careful design and siting, which vary by

160

A review of desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes recent published design advances that have been made in desiccant cooling systems. In desiccant cooling cycles, the desiccant reduces the humidity of the air by removing moisture from the air. Then the temperature is reduced by other components such as heat exchangers, evaporative coolers, or conventional cooling coils. The main advantage that desiccant cooling systems offer is the capability of using low-grade thermal energy. Desiccant cooling systems for residential and commercial applications are now being used to reduce energy-operating costs. However, the initial costs are comparatively high. The focus of research for the past decade has been to develop desiccant systems with a high coefficient of performance. Recent studies have emphasized computer modeling and hybrid systems that combine desiccant dehumidifiers with conventional systems.

Waugaman, D.G.; Kini, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Performance of active solar space-cooling systems: 1980 cooling season  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed analysis of the solar absorption cooling process as represented by the NSDN system is presented. There is comprehensive data on eight solar cooling systems in the NSDN. Among these eight systems solar cooling by an absorption chiller is not a cost effective method to use solar heat. This statement is substantiated by careful analysis of each subsystem and equipment component. Good designs and operating procedures are identified. The problems which reduce cost effectiveness are pointed out. There are specific suggestions for improvements. Finally, there is a comparison of solar cooling by absorption chilling and using photovoltaic cells.

Blum, D.; Frock, S.; Logee, T.; Missal, D.; Wetzel, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Cooling tower waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Reducing electricity cost through virtual machine placement in high performance computing clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we first study the impact of load placement policies on cooling and maximum data center temperatures in cloud service providers that operate multiple geographically distributed data centers. Based on this study, we then propose dynamic ... Keywords: computing cloud, cooling, energy, multi-data-center

Kien Le; Ricardo Bianchini; Jingru Zhang; Yogesh Jaluria; Jiandong Meng; Thu D. Nguyen

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Floating dry cooling: a competitive alternative to evaporative cooling in a binary cycle geothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of the floating cooling concept to non-evaporative and evaporative atmospheric heat rejection systems was studied as a method of improving the performance of geothermal powerplants operating upon medium temperature hydrothermal resources. The LBL thermodynamic process computer code GEOTHM is used in the case study of a 50 MWe isobutane binary cycle power plant at Heber, California. It is shown that operating a fixed capacity plant in the floating cooling mode can generate significantly more electrical energy at a higher thermodynamic efficiency and reduced but bar cost for approximately the same capital investment. Floating cooling is shown to benefit a plant which is dry cooled to an even greater extent than the same plant operating with an evaporative heat rejection system. Results of the Heber case study indicate that a dry floating cooling geothermal binary cycle plant can produce energy at a bus bar cost which is competitive with the cost of energy associated with evaporatively cooled systems.

Pines, H.S.; Green, M.A.; Pope, W.L.; Doyle, P.A.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

payback time versus building size Project costs and energyPayback time (commissioning cost/annual energy savings) lessenergy payback time of 41 years, while the proper allocation of costs and

Mills, Evan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Cooling Plant Optimization Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Central cooling plants or district cooling systems account for 22 percent of energy costs for cooling commercial buildings. Improving the efficiency of central cooling plants will significantly impact peak demand and energy usage for both building owners and utilities. This guide identifies opportunities for optimizing a central cooling plant and provides a simplified optimization procedure. The guide focuses on plant optimization from the standpoint of minimizing energy costs and maximizing efficiencies...

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

168

Reducing emissions from the electricity sector: the costs and benefits nationwide and for the Empire State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using four models, this study looks at EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as originally proposed, which differs in only small ways from the final rule issued in March 2005, coupled with several approaches to reducing emissions of mercury including one that differs in only small ways from the final rule also issued in March 2005. This study analyzes what costs and benefits each would incur to New York State and to the nation at large. Benefits to the nation and to New York State significantly outweigh the costs associated with reductions in SO{sub 2}, NOx and mercury, and all policies show dramatic net benefits. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications for the cost of the regulation and for emission levels for SO{sub 2} and NOx and where those emissions are located. Contrary to EPA's findings, CAIR as originally proposed by itself would not keep summer emissions of NOx from electricity generators in the SIP region below the current SIP seasonal NOx cap. In the final CAIR, EPA added a seasonal NOx cap to address seasonal ozone problems. The CAIR with the seasonal NOx cap produces higher net benefits. The effect of the different policies on the mix of fuels used to supply electricity is fairly modest under scenarios similar to the EPA's final rules. A maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach, compared to a trading approach as the way to achieve tighter mercury targets (beyond EPA's proposal), would preserve the role of coal in electricity generation. The evaluation of scenarios with tighter mercury emission controls shows that the net benefits of a maximum achievable control technology (MACT) approach exceed the net benefits of a cap and trade approach. 39 refs., 10 figs., 30 figs., 5 apps.

Karen Palmer; Dallas Butraw; Jhih-Shyang Shih

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Nissan and Centro partner to reduce energy cost 20% through improved metering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centro Inc. Nissan Centro Inc. Nissan 321 Hill Avenue 983 Nissan Drive Nashville, TN 37210 Smyrna, TN 37167 Business: Flow Control Distributor & Representative Business: Automobile Manufacturing Brad Davis Chris Goddard Territory Manager Environmental Engineer Phone: 615-255-2220 Phone: 615-459-1633 Email: bdavis@centromemphis.com Email: chris.goddard@nissan-usa.com Nissan and Centro partner to reduce energy cost 20% through improved metering Project Scope Nissan wanted to precisely measure consumption by department in their Smyrna facility. For low pressure natural gas applications, Nissan sought a simple, reliable metering device with no moving parts. Centro determined that the Aaliant Target Flow meter and the Fox Thermal Mass Flow meter would meet

170

GAO-05-897 Department of Energy: Additional Opportunities Exist for Reducing Laboratory Contractors' Support Costs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Subcommittee on Energy Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives September 2005 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Additional Opportunities Exist for Reducing Laboratory Contractors' Support Costs GAO-05-897 What GAO Found United States Government Accountability Office Why GAO Did This Study Highlights Accountability Integrity Reliability www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-05-897. To view the full product, including the scope and methodology, click on the link above. For more information, contact Jim Wells at (202) 512-3841 or wellsj@gao.gov. Highlights of GAO-05-897, a report to the Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives September 2005 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Additional Opportunities Exist for

171

Cooling your home naturally  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes some alternatives to air conditioning which are common sense suggestions and low-cost retrofit options to cool a house. It first describes how to reflect heat away from roofs, walls, and windows. Blocking heat by using insulation or shading are described. The publication then discusses removing built-up heat, reducing heat-generating sources, and saving energy by selecting energy efficient retrofit appliances. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Industrial Approaches to Reducing Energy Costs in a Restructuring Electric Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric restructuring, currently proposed in California and being reviewed elsewhere, can produce many opportunities for large companies to reduce their electricity costs. As the electricity market changes, electric utilities and other potential suppliers are likely to develop a portfolio of options and creative pricing to attract customers in a competitive market. In attempting to be "energy neutral," i.e., to be indifferent to energy costs in one state or utility service area versus another, many companies are looking at a corporate approach to energy procurement, similar to the procurement of other products. Industrial customers may be looking for regional or even national energy suppliers for their facilities. Electric utilities, in an attempt to be competitive and retain customers, will likely work to be this regional or national energy supplier. The expectation will be that these suppliers can offer competitive pricing and a portfolio of options from which to choose. These options may resemble those that have developed in the natural gas market as a result of restructuring in the fuels industry.

Lowe, E. T.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

A New User-Friendly Model to Reduce Cost for Headwater Benefits Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Headwater benefits at a downstream hydropower project are energy gains that are derived from the installation of upstream reservoirs. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is required by law to assess charges of such energy gains to downstream owners of non-federal hydropower projects. The high costs of determining headwater benefits prohibit the use of a complicated model in basins where the magnitude of the benefits is expected to be small. This paper presents a new user-friendly computer model, EFDAM (Enhanced Flow Duration Analysis Method), that not only improves the accuracy of the standard flow duration method but also reduces costs for determining headwater benefits. The EFDAM model includes a MS Windows-based interface module to provide tools for automating input data file preparation, linking and executing of a generic program, editing/viewing of input/output files, and application guidance. The EDFAM was applied to various river basins. An example was given to illustrate the main features of EFDAM application for creating input files and assessing headwater benefits at the Tulloch Hydropower Plant on the Stanislaus River Basin, California.

Bao, Y.S.; Cover, C.K.; Perlack, R.D.; Sale, M.J.; Sarma, V.

1999-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

174

Forest Products: Georgia-Pacific's Insulation Upgrade Leads to Reduced Fuel Costs and Increased Process Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This Steam Challenge Case Study looks at how the company, by insulating steam lines and replacing steam traps, was able to reduce fuel costs, increase process efficiency, and improve plant safety.

Ericksen, E.

1999-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

175

Options for Reducing Environmental-Related Utility Costs Associated With Dielectric Fluids Employed in Cables and Transformers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report represents results of a literature review and technical workshop on environmental management of dielectric fluids, with emphasis on those properties that strongly influence transport, fate, impacts, and costs of a dielectric fluid release into the environment. From this basis, options are presented for new or modified dielectric fluids that could reduce environmental impacts and lower management costs.

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

176

Floating power optimization studies for the cooling system of a geothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The floating power concept was studied for a geothermal power plant as a method of increasing the plant efficiency and decreasing the cost of geothermal power. The stored cooling concept was studied as a method of reducing the power fluctuations of the floating power concept. The studies include parametric and optimization studies for a variety of different types of cooling systems including wet and dry cooling towers, direct and indirect cooling systems, forced and natural draft cooling towers, and cooling ponds. The studies use an indirect forced draft wet cooling tower cooling system as a base case design for comparison purposes.

Shaffer, C.J.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Cool Roofs Are Ready to Save Energy, Cool Urban Heat Islands, and Help Slow Global Warming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

roofing is the fastest growing sector roofing is the fastest growing sector of the building industry, as building owners and facility managers realize the immediate and long-term benefits of roofs that stay cool in the sun. Studies exploring the energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of cool roofs show that in warm or hot climates, substituting a cool roof for a conventional roof can: * Reduce by up to 15% the annual air-

178

Advanced Thermal Control Enabling Cost Reduction for Automotive Power Electronics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Describes NREL's work on next-generation vehicle cooling technologies (jets, sprays, microchannels) and novel packaging topologies to reduce costs and increase performance and reliability.

Abraham, T.; Kelly, K.; Bennion, K.; Vlahinos, A.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Current trends in commercial cool storage. Final report. [Use of chilled water and ice storage to reduce demand charges and electric bills; 85 projects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this study were to identify, by means of a phone-and-mail survey, recent installations of off-peak cool storage air conditioning systems in commercial buildings; to monitor new developments; and to indicate trends. This report contains descriptions of over 80 systems installed since 1981, plus findings and conclusions based on site-specific information. Analysis of the findings suggests that storage cooling systems in commercial buildings can, in many cases, offer technical and cost advantages over nonstorage systems. The detailed information should be of value to potential customers and HVAC engineers in making cooling equipment decisions that would be advantageous to customer, utility, and HVAC industry alike. 20 refs.

Hersh, H.N.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Substantial numbers of existing plants and buildings are found to depend solely upon Mechanical Cooling even though Natural Cooling techniques could be employed utilizing ambient air. Most of these facilities were constructed without Natural Cooling capability due to 'first cost' budget constraints when the cost and availability of energy were of little concern.

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Roofs that have high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance stay cool in the sun. A roof with lower thermal emittance but exceptionally high solar reflectance can also stay cool in the sun. Substituting a cool roof for a noncool roof decreases cooling-electricity use, cooling-power demand, and cooling-equipment capacity requirements, while slightly increasing heating-energy consumption. Cool roofs can also lower citywide ambient air temperature in summer, slowing ozone formation and increasing human comfort. Provisions for cool roofs in energy-efficiency standards can promote the building- and climate-appropriate use of cool roofing technologies. Cool-roof requirements are designed to reduce building energy use, while energy-neutral cool-roof credits permit the use of less energy-efficient components (e.g., larger windows) in a building that has energy-saving cool roofs. Both types of measures can reduce the life-cycle cost of a building (initial cost plus lifetime energy cost). Since 1999, several widely used building energy-efficiency standards, including ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, and California's Title 24 have adopted cool-roof credits or requirements. This paper reviews the technical development of cool-roof provisions in the ASHRAE 90.1, ASHRAE 90.2, and California Title 24 standards, and discusses the treatment of cool roofs in other standards and energy-efficiency programs. The techniques used to develop the ASHRAE and Title 24 cool-roof provisions can be used as models to address cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standards worldwide.

Akbari, Hashem; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

182

The economics of alternative fuel cycles on sodium-cooled fast reactors and uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of cost estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous work was done to create a baseline capital cost model for the SFR in which case studies were performed to identify ways to decrease the capital costs while maintaining safety and performance. This thesis expands ...

Russo, Genevieve V. (Genevieve Virgina)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Reducing the Environmental Footprint and Economic Costs of Automotive Manufacturing through an Alternative Energy Supply  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MANUFACTURING THROUGH AN ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SUPPLY Chris Y.Footprint, Alternative Energy, Cost of Ownership ABSTRACTmanufacturing is to use alternative energies to partially

Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

Gawlik, Keith

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

185

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

186

VMFlow: leveraging VM mobility to reduce network power costs in data centers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Networking costs play an important role in the overall costs of a modern data center. Network power, for example, has been estimated at 10-20% of the overall data center power consumption. Traditional power saving techniques in data centers focus on ... Keywords: VM placement, energy and power management, green networking, networking aspects in cloud services

Vijay Mann; Avinash Kumar; Partha Dutta; Shivkumar Kalyanaraman

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Evaluation of The Thermal Performance and Cost Effectiveness of Radiant Barrier Thermal Insulation Materials In Residential Construction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Reducing heating and cooling systems loads in buildings is a cost effective way to decrease energy consumption in residential houses. This reduction can be achieved… (more)

Asadi, Somayeh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

On-Site Diesel Generation- How You Can Reduce Your Energy Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interruptible power rates, Utility special rate negotiations, and the emergence of a spot electrical power market all can lead to lower industrial energy costs. The installation of low cost on-site diesel powered generation, or the proposed intention to install, provides the means for obtaining lower purchased power costs. The functionality of a standby power system and its inherent value in the coming free market purchase of electrical energy are added benefits. Project feasibility, conceptual design, on-site generation facility requirements, interconnection requirements, and operation and maintenance costs will be examined. Installation costs in the range of $350 to $400 per KW and operating costs of approximately $0.06 to $0.07 per kWhr compared to purchased power rates determine the feasibility of an on-site generation system. In some cases avoided demand charges offer an opportunity for savings such that special rates are not needed for a feasible project. Depending on the manufacturer, low capital cost diesel generators are available in 1000 to 2000 KW blocks. Capacity requirements determine the number of engines required. Large capacity installations are somewhat restricted by voltage and current ratings. Some variants for multiple engine generator installations will yield greater reliability or lower costs depending on objectives. Specific requirements for basic building blocks of an on-site generation system will be examined as well as an example of a 5,500 KW installation. IEA provides an alternative to installing and operating an on-site generation system. IEA owns and operates diesel standby generation systems for customers, with responsibility for all maintenance and operation as well as associated costs. This allows customers to focus on core business, not the generation of electrical energy.

Charles, D.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Reducing the Costs of Manufacturing Flow Batteries - Dhruv Bhatnagar, SNL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Costs of Manufacturing Flow Batteries the Costs of Manufacturing Flow Batteries Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND No. 2011-XXXXP Next Steps 1. Continued outreach with other with other manufacturers 2. Characterization of the flow battery manufacturing process and determination of process issues 3. Evaluation of the fuel cell, other battery and other industry manufacturing process to address issues identified 4. Coordination with PNNL flow battery component cost

190

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

DOE Announces $27 Million to Reduce Costs of Solar Energy Projects...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the Obama Administration's SunShot Initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with fossil fuels within the decade, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today...

192

Reducing the Environmental Footprint and Economic Costs of Automotive Manufacturing through an Alternative Energy Supply  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

environmental savings from solar PV falls in the middle ofCO 2 saving through use of solar PV, wind, and fuel cell2 savings. The cost of solar PV falls in the middle of these

Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Case Study: Georgia-Pacific Reduces Outside Fuel Costs and Increases Process Efficiency with Insulation Upgrade Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Georgia-Pacific plywood plant located in Madison, Georgia recently decided to insulate their steam lines for energy conservation, improved process efficiency and personnel protection. The goal of the project was to eliminate dependency on purchased fuel. Georgia-Pacific realized immediate and significant results and reduced fuel cost by about one third over a one year period.

Jackson, D.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

MARK-OPT: A Concurrency Control Protocol for Parallel B-Tree Structures to Reduce the Cost of SMOs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a new concurrency control protocol for parallel B-tree structures capable reducing the cost of structure-modification-operation (SMO) compared to the conventional protocols such as ARIES/IM and INC-OPT. We call this protocol ... Keywords: B-tree, concurrency control, index, latch, parallel DB

Tomohiro Yoshihara; Dai Kobayashi; Haruo Yokota

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Summary of EPRI Cooling System Effects Research 1975-1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Twenty years of EPRI-sponsored research on cooling system effects have led to substantial cost savings by reducing utility data collection requirements and, in some cases, showing that cooling towers were unnecessary. This document highlights past and current EPRI projects that address environmental concerns related to power plant cooling systems. It will be particularly useful to utility environmental managers responsible for compliance with the Clean Water Act.

1994-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

196

Comparative report: performance of active-solar space-cooling systems, 1981 cooling season  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed analysis of solar absorption cooling and solar Rankine cooling processes as represented by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) systems. There is comprehensive data on four absorption chiller cooling systems and one Rankine cooling system. Three of these systems, including the Rankine system, demonstrated that solar cooling can be operated efficiently and provide energy savings. Good designs and operating procedures are discussed. Problems which reduce savings are identified. There is also a comparison of solar cooling by absorption, Rankine, and photovoltaic processes. Parameters and performance indices presented include overall system delivered loads, solar fraction of the load, coefficient of performance, energy collected and stored, and various subsystem efficiencies. The comparison of these factors has allowed evaluation of the relative performance of various systems. Analyses performed for which comparative data are provided include: energy savings and operating costs in terms of Btu; energy savings in terms of dollars; overall solar cooling efficiency and coefficient of performance; hourly building cooling loads; actual and long-term weather conditions; collector performance; collector area to tons of chiller cooling capacity; chiller performance; normalized building cooling loads per cooling degree-day and building area; and cooling solar fractions, design and measured.

Wetzel, P.; Pakkala, P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

The cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens in Harris County by a abating chemical plant emissions  

SciTech Connect

The work examines the engineering reasonableness and the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens n ambient air by abating emissions of organic chemicals in waste gas streams from chemical plants in Harris County, Texas, which contains the large chemical manufacturing complex in the Houston ship channel areas. The work also examined the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure through changing the way vent streams are released to the atmosphere. The achievable exposure reductions are estimated by use of 1980 census data and of ambient concentration estimates. The ambient concentration estimates are calculated using the Texas Climatological Model Version 2 (TCM-2) and publicly available emissions inventory collected by the Texas Air Control Board. The TCM-2 is based on the steady state Gaussian plume hypothesis, Briggs plume rise formations, Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficient approximations, and first order pollutant decay. The cost estimates rely on published studies and on the waste gas stream parameters of the chemical plant vents. The cost effectiveness results are compared with the cost effectiveness of controls typically applied to new sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are controlled because of their contribution to ozone air pollution, not because of the carcinogenicity of their emissions.

Price, J.H. Jr.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Plant Design and Cost Assessment of Forced Circulation Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor with Conventional Power Conversion Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost of electricity is the key factor that determines competitiveness of a power plant. Thus the proper selection, design and optimization of the electric power generating cycle is of main importance. This report makes an ...

Dostal, Vaclav

199

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas or by solar systems. Comfort is achieved by reducing the moisture content of air by a solid or liquid desiccant and then reducing the temperature in an evaporative cooler (direct or indirect). Another system is one where the dehumidifier removes enough moisture to meet the latent portion of the load while the sensible portion is met by a vapor compression cooling system; desiccant regeneration is achieved by using the heat rejected from the condenser together with other thermal sources. At present, residential desiccant cooling systems are in actual operation but are more costly than vapor compression systems, resulting in relatively long payback periods. Component efficiencies need to be improved, particularly the efficiency of the dehumidifier.

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The cost of reducing utility S02 emissions : not as low as you might think  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A common assertion in public policy discussions is that the cost of achieving the SO2 emissions reductions under the acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act ("Title IV") has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV ...

Smith, Anne E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower performance. To understand the importance of the optimization techniques, cooling tower theory will be discussed first.

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost  

SciTech Connect

A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the groundwater system, and include redox variables (ORP, DO, chemicals), pH, specific conductivity, biological community (breakdown/decay products), and temperature. A robust suite of relatively inexpensive tools is commercially available to measure these variables. Traditional plume/contaminant variables are various measures of contaminant concentration including traditional analysis of chemicals in groundwater samples. An innovative long term monitoring strategy has been developed for acidic or caustic groundwater plumes contaminated with metals and/or radionuclides. Not only should the proposed strategy be more effective at early identification of potential risks, this strategy should be significantly more cost effective because measurement of controlling boundary conditions and master variables is relatively simple. These variables also directly reflect the evolution of the plume through time, so that the monitoring strategy can be modified as the plume 'ages'. This transformational long-term monitoring paradigm will generate significant cost savings to DOE, other federal agencies and industry and will provide improved performance and leading indicators of environmental management performance.

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

203

A New Ventilation System Integrates Total Energy Recovery, Conventional Cooling and a Novel 'Passive' Dehumidification Wheel to Mitigate the Energy, Humidity Control and First Cost Concerns Often Raised when Designing for ASHRAE Standard 62-1999 Compliance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces a novel, ''passive" desiccant based outdoor air preconditioning system (PDH) that is shown to be significantly more energy-efficient than all known alternatives, and has the unique ability to dehumidify outdoor air streams to very low dewpoints unattainable with conventional cooling approaches. The system allows for precise control of the indoor space humidity while delivering high quantities of outdoor air, at both peak and part load conditions, and during both occupied and unoccupied modes. Low operating cost, reasonable first cost and a significant reduction in cooling plant capacity requirements provide a life cycle cost that is substantially less than that of more conventional system approaches.

Fischer, J. C.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Energy Conservation Fund: Helping Corporations Develop Energy Conservation Strategies and Reduce Utility Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy conservation projects can save companies significant money over time and often pay for themselves very quickly. This is especially true with the dramatic increase in energy costs over the past few years. Yet convincing corporate decision makers of their value is challenging, since most plants with limited capital tend to direct resources toward projects that increase production rather than toward those that save energy. The irony is that production projects may not realize savings if markets change, while conservation improvements usually change a plant's infrastructure in ways that ensure continued savings. Establishing a business unit or department focused on energy cost reduction and investing its profits in an Energy Conservation Fund (ECF) is part of a total energy approach that helps corporations identify projects, dedicate funds and implement changes. It makes conservation improvement projects more attractive on the front end, so companies can enjoy the long-term benefits.

Swanson, G. A.; Houston, W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wind Tower Systems to develop the Wind Tower Systems to develop the Space Frame tower, a new concept for wind turbine towers. Instead of a solid steel tube, the Space Frame tower consists of a highly optimized design of five custom-shaped legs and interlaced steel struts. With this design, Space Frame towers can support turbines at greater heights, yet weigh and cost less than traditional steel tube towers. Wind Tower Systems LLC (now

206

A comparison of estimates of cost-effectiveness of alternative fuels and vehicles for reducing emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is a measure of the monetary value of resources expended to obtain reductions in emissions of air pollutants. The CER can lead to selection of the most effective sequence of pollution reduction options. Derived with different methodologies and technical assumptions, CER estimates for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have varied widely among pervious studies. In one of several explanations of LCER differences, this report uses a consistent basis for fuel price to re-estimate CERs for AFVs in reduction of emissions of criteria pollutants, toxics, and greenhouse gases. The re-estimated CERs for a given fuel type have considerable differences due to non-fuel costs and emissions reductions, but the CERs do provide an ordinal sense of cost-effectiveness. The category with CER less than $5,000 per ton includes compressed natural gas and ed Petroleum gas vehicles; and E85 flexible-fueled vehicles (with fuel mixture of 85 percent cellulose-derived ethanol in gasoline). The E85 system would be much less attractive if corn-derived ethanol were used. The CER for E85 (corn-derived) is higher with higher values placed on the reduction of gas emissions. CER estimates are relative to conventional vehicles fueled with Phase 1 California reformulated gasoline (RFG). The California Phase 2 RFG program will be implemented before significant market penetration by AFVs. CERs could be substantially greater if they are calculated incremental to the Phase 2 RFG program. Regression analysis suggests that different assumptions across studies can sometimes have predictable effects on the CER estimate of a particular AFV type. The relative differences in cost and emissions reduction assumptions can be large, and the effect of these differences on the CER estimate is often not predictable. Decomposition of CERs suggests that methodological differences can make large contributions to CER differences among studies.

Hadder, G.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

Gawlik, Keith

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

208

Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Availability and Reduce Total Installed Cost in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Feasibility Studies to Improve Plant Availability and Reduce Total Installed Cost in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants Background Gasification provides the means to turn coal and other carbonaceous solid, liquid and gaseous feedstocks as diverse as refinery residues, biomass, and black liquor into synthesis gas and valuable byproducts that can be used to produce low-emissions power, clean-burning fuels and a wide range of commercial products to support

209

Study of Operating Control Strategies for Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System with Supplemental Cooling Tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground source heat pump for cooling-dominated commercial buildings may utilize supplemental cooling towers to reduce system first cost and to improve system performance. The use of hybrid ground source heat pump (HGSP) can reduce the size of the ground-loop ... Keywords: hybrid ground source heat pump, supplement heat rejection, control strategies, operating performance

Wang Jinggang; Gao Xiaoxia; Yin Zhenjiang; Li Fang

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Public release of optimization of metallization scheme for thin emitter wrap-through solar cells for higher efficiency, reduced precious metal costs, and reduced stress.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Back-contact crystalline-silicon photovoltaic solar cells and modules offer a number of advantages, including the elimination of grid shadowing losses, reduced cost through use of thinner silicon substrates, simpler module assembly, and improved aesthetics. While the existing edge tab method for interconnecting and stringing edge-connected back contact cells is acceptably straightforward and reliable, there are further gains to be exploited when you have both contact polarities on one side of the cell. In this work, we produce 'busbarless' emitter wrap-through solar cells that use 41% of the gridline silver (Ag) metallization mass compared to the edge tab design. Further, series resistance power losses are reduced by extraction of current from more places on the cell rear, leading to a fill factor improvement of about 6% (relative) on the module level. Series resistance and current-generation losses associated with large rear bondpads and busbars are eliminated. Use of thin silicon (Si) wafers is enabled because of the reduced Ag metallization mass and by interconnection with conductive adhesives leading to reduced bow. The busbarless cell design interconnected with conductive adhesives passes typical International Electrotechnical Commission damp heat and thermal cycling test.

Ruby, Douglas Scott; Murphy, Brian (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Meakin, David (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Jason (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Hacke, Peter (Advent Solar, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Role of gas and steam turbines to reduce industrial plant energy costs  

SciTech Connect

Data are given to help industry select the economic fuel and economic mix of steam and gas turbines for energy-conservation measures and costs. Utilities and industrials can no longer rely on a firm supply of natural gas to fuel their boilers and turbines. The effect various liquid fuels have on gas turbine maintenance and availability is summarized. Process heat requirements per unit of power, process steam pressure, and the type of fuel will be factors in evaluating the proper mix of steam and gas turbines. The plant requirements for heat, and the availability of a reliable source of electric power will influence the amount of power (hp and kW) that can be economically generated by the industrial. (auth)

Wilson, W.B.; Hefner, W.J.

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Ballast users plug life span, cooling savings into paybacks  

SciTech Connect

Energy-efficient ballasts are saving fluorescent lamp users energy expenses by reducing cooling as well as lighting costs and by extending bulb life. Retrofit calculations should include the cost of installing new ballasts with union labor. Three users describe their installations and their use of either simple payback or simple payback including replacement savings. (DCK)

Duffy, J.

1983-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

214

Wind Turbine Control Design to Reduce Capital Costs: 7 January 2009 - 31 August 2009  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report first discusses and identifies which wind turbine components can benefit from advanced control algorithms and also presents results from a preliminary loads case analysis using a baseline controller. Next, it describes the design, implementation, and simulation-based testing of an advanced controller to reduce loads on those components. The case-by-case loads analysis and advanced controller design will help guide future control research.

Darrow, P. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor that Produces Low Cost Electricity FY-01 Annual Report, October 2001  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Herring, James Stephen; Loewen, Eric Paul; Smolik, Galen Richard; Weaver, Kevan Dean; Todreas, N.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Design of an Actinide Burning, Lead or Lead-Bismuth Cooled Reactor That Produces Low Cost Electricty - FY-02 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this collaborative Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project is to investigate the suitability of lead or lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors for producing low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The goal is to identify and analyze the key technical issues in core neutronics, materials, thermal-hydraulics, fuels, and economics associated with the development of this reactor concept. Work has been accomplished in four major areas of research: core neutronic design, plant engineering, material compatibility studies, and coolant activation. The publications derived from work on this project (since project inception) are listed in Appendix A. This is the third in a series of Annual Reports for this project, the others are also listed in Appendix A as FY-00 and FY-01 Annual Reports.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Advanced Cooling Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling Technology Cooling Technology This component of the program is focused on research to develop technologies that improve performance and reduce costs associated with wet cooling, dry cooling, and hybrid cooling technologies. In addition, the research area covers innovative methods to control bio-fouling of cooling water intake structures as well as advances in intake structure systems. Read More! It is technically possible to cool power plants with minimal water use. However, at this time such cooling methods are not as economically feasible as traditional cooling systems. Additional research and development is necessary to develop cooling systems that use as little water as possible, but at a reasonable cost. Water intake structures are also an area of concern, especially considering the Clean Water Act 316(b) regulation which requires that the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. With plant intake structures, the particular concern is impingement and entrainment of aquatic organisms.

218

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and remains on the roadmap for the foreseeable future. This is because the heat capacity of liquids is orders of magnitude larger than that of air and once heat has been transferred to a liquid, it can be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transition from air to liquid cooling is an inflection point providing an opportunity to work collectively to set guidelines for facilitating the energy efficiency of liquid-cooled High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities and systems. The vision is to use non-compressor-based cooling, to facilitate heat re-use, and thereby build solutions that are more energy-efficient, less carbon intensive and more cost effective than their air-cooled predecessors. The Energy Efficient HPC Working Group is developing guidelines for warmer liquid-cooling temperatures in order to standardize facility and HPC equipment, and provide more opportunity for reuse of waste heat. This report describes the development of those guidelines.

IBM Corporation; Energy Efficient HPC Working Group; Hewlett Packard Corporation; SGI; Cray Inc.; Intel Corporation; U.S. Army Engineer Research Development Center; Coles, Henry; Ellsworth, Michael; Martinez, David J.; Bailey, Anna-Maria; Banisadr, Farhad; Bates, Natalie; Coghlan, Susan; Cowley, David E.; Dube, Nicholas; Fields, Parks; Greenberg, Steve; Iyengar, Madhusudan; Kulesza, Peter R.; Loncaric, Josip; McCann, Tim; Pautsch, Greg; Patterson, Michael K.; Rivera, Richard G.; Rottman, Greg K.; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William; Vinson, Wade; Wescott, Ralph

2011-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

219

Abbreviated epitaxial growth mode (AGM) method for reducing cost and improving quality of LEDs and lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of an abbreviated GaN growth mode on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrates, which utilizes a process of using 15 nm low temperature GaN buffer and bypassing etch-back and recovery processes during epitaxy, enables the growth of high-quality GaN template on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire. The GaN template grown on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire by employing abbreviated growth mode has two orders of magnitude lower threading dislocation density than that of conventional GaN template grown on planar sapphire. The use of abbreviated growth mode also leads to significant reduction in cost of the epitaxy. The growths and characteristics of InGaN quantum wells (QWs) light emitting diodes (LEDs) on both templates were compared. The InGaN QWs LEDs grown on the nano-patterned AGOG sapphire demonstrated at least a 24% enhancement of output power enhancement over that of LEDs grown on conventional GaN templates.

Tansu, Nelson; Chan, Helen M; Vinci, Richard P; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Biser, Jeffrey

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

220

Cooling Tower Inspection with Scuba  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A serious problem of scale and other solid material settling in heat transfer equipment was threatening to shut down our ethylene plant. All evidence pointed to the cooling tower as the source of the contamination. Visual inspection of the cooling tower pump suction basin was accomplished by diving into the basin using SCUBA gear. It was possible to see a build-up of debris on the pump suction basket strainers and on the floor of the sumps. Also, it was discovered that one of the four baskets had been installed incorrectly. Photographs of the basket strainers were taken to aid in describing their exact condition. With the aid of SCUBA it was possible to sufficiently clean the pump sumps so that costly downtime was avoided. Likewise, using this technique, steps were taken to greatly reduce the chance for further contamination of the circulating cooling water system.

Brenner, W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

222

A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In efforts to reduce operating costs, the IBM site at Kingston, New York incorporated the energy saving concept of 'free cooling' (direct cooling of chilled water with condenser water) with the expansion of the site chilled water system. Free cooling was employed to satisfy the winter chilled water load of approximately 3000 tons resulting in electrical savings of up to 70% in the winter with wet bulb temperatures below 38 oF. Other energy efficient features included variable speed pumping, high efficiency motors and chillers with reduced entering condenser water limits. This paper will describe the various possible operating modes and their associated savings using computer simulation techniques.

Jansen, P. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Enhancement Methods for Air-Cooled Geothermal Power Plants: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many binary-cycle geothermal power plants are air cooled because insufficient water is available to provide year-round water cooling. The performance of air-cooled geothermal plants is highly dependent on the dry bulb temperature of the air (much more so than fossil fuel plants that operate at higher boiler temperatures), and plant electric output can drop by 50% or more on hot summer days, compared to winter performance. This problem of reduced summer performance is exacerbated by the fact that electricity has a higher value in the summer. This paper describes a spreadsheet model that was developed to assess the cost and performance of four methods for using supplemental evaporative cooling to boost summer performance: (1) pre-cooling with spray nozzles, (2) pre-cooling with Munters media, (3) a hybrid combination of nozzles and Munters media, and (4) direct deluge cooling of the air-cooled condenser tubes. Although all four options show significant benefit, deluge cooling has the potential to be the most economic. However, issues of scaling and corrosion would need to be addressed.

Kutscher, C.; Costenaro, D.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

program in Mexico City, and contacts in energy efficiencyenergy savings due to cool roofs for the median climate in Brazil, India, and Mexico ..energy savings due to cool roofs for the median climate in Brazil, India, and Mexico

Akbari, Hashem

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Developing a Mechanistic Understanding of Lamellar Hydroxide Mineral Carbonation Reaction Processes to Reduce CO2 Mineral Sequestration Process Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanistic Understanding of Lamellar Hydroxide Mechanistic Understanding of Lamellar Hydroxide Mineral Carbonation Reaction Processes to Reduce CO 2 Mineral Sequestration Process Cost Michael J. McKelvy (mckelvy@asu.edu; 480-965-4535), Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya (chizmesh@asu.edu; 480-965-6072), Hamdallah Bearat (Hamdallah.Bearat@asu.edu; 480-965-2624), Renu Sharma (Renu.Sharma@asu.edu; 480-965-4541), and Ray W. Carpenter (carpenter@asu.edu; 480-965-4549) Center for Solid State Science and Science and Engineering of Materials PhD Program, P.O. Box 871704, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 USA ABSTRACT The potential environmental effects of increasing atmospheric CO 2 levels are of major worldwide concern. One alternative for managing CO 2 emissions is carbon sequestration: the capture and secure confinement of CO

226

Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

Kraft, E.H.

2002-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

227

Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 | Y-12 National Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Saving 'Cool ... Saving 'Cool ... Energy Saving 'Cool Roofs' Installed at Y-12 Posted: October 17, 2012 - 4:08pm The Y-12 National Security Complex has taken additional steps to reduce its energy costs by installing almost 100,000 square feet of new heat reflective "cool" roofs at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee facility. The latest Y-12 cool roofs were added to Buildings 9204-2E and 9103. Fifteen percent of roofs at Y-12 are currently equipped with cool roof technology. This technology is expected to be applied to the majority of the roofs at Y-12. "Replacing older, heat-absorbing roofs with the heat-reflective cool roofs is part of NNSA's strategy to achieve energy and cost efficiencies," said Robert "Dino" Herrera, Facilities and Infrastructure Recapitalization Program Manager. "We strive to lead the

228

Upgrade of Compressed Air Control System Reduces Energy Costs at Michelin Tire Plant. Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Project Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This case study highlights the upgraded compressed air system at a Michelin tire manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The controls upgrade project enabled multiple compressor operation without blow-off, and significantly reduced energy costs.

Not Available

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Thermal Storage with Conventional Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The newly opened Pennsylvania Convention Center in Philadelphia, PA; Exxon's Computer Facility at Florham Park, NJ; The Center Square Building in Philadelphia, are success stories for demand shifting through thermal storage. These buildings employ a simple thermal energy storage system that already exists in almost every structure - concrete. Thermal storage calculations simulate sub-cooling of a building's structure during unoccupied times. During occupied times, the sub-cooled concrete reduces peak cooling demand, thereby lowering demand and saving money. In addition, significant savings are possible in the first cost of chilled water equipment, and the smaller chillers run at peak capacity and efficiency during a greater portion of their run time. The building, controlled by an Energy Management and Control System (EMCS), "learns" from past experience how to run the building efficiently. The result is an optimized balance between energy cost and comfort.

Kieninger, R. T.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Would You Consider Installing a Cool Roof? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Would You Consider Installing a Cool Roof? Would You Consider Installing a Cool Roof? Would You Consider Installing a Cool Roof? August 12, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, Erin discussed cool roof technologies and how they can improve the comfort of buildings while reducing energy costs. Would you consider installing a cool roof? Why or why not? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please comment with your answers, and also feel free to respond to other comments. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles Would You Consider Driving a Vehicle that Can Run on Biodiesel? Would You Consider Installing a Cool Roof? Tips: Energy-Efficient Roofs How Do You Save Water When Caring for Your Lawn?

231

Advanced Cooling Options for Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternative power plant cooling systems exist that offer significant opportunity for reducing the amount of water used in power plant cooling. These systems include direct dry cooling using air-cooled condensers, indirect dry cooling using air-cooled heat exchangers paired with water-cooled surface condensers, and a variety of hybrid systems incorporating both dry and wet cooling elements. The water savings afforded by the use of these systems, however, comes at a price in the form of more expensive ...

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

232

Comparison of Alternate Cooling Technologies for U.S. Power Plants: Economic, Environmental, and Other Tradeoffs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam condenser cooling is normally the largest consumptive use of water at an electric power plant. In many situations, the desire to save water leads to the consideration of dry or wet/dry cooling in order to reduce plant water requirements. This report provides data and a method for determining the cost and effect on plant performance associated with the use of these technologies in place of recirculating wet cooling.

2004-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

233

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

SciTech Connect

As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Rich

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

234

SOLERAS solar cooling project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In view of the increasing demand for cooling in both the United States and Saudi Arabia, solar cooling systems are being considered as serious alternatives to the energy intensive conventional systems, especially when confronted with rising fossil fuel costs. Saudi Arabia and the hot, southern regions of the United States, having abundant sunshine and high cooling demand, are obvious candidates for solar active cooling systems and passive cooling design. Solar active cooling has yet to be shown to be either technologically mature or economically feasible, but efforts have been, and are presently being made within the United States National Solar Cooling Program to develop reliable systems which can compete economically with conventional cooling systems. Currently, the program is funding research and development projects in the areas of absorption, Rankine, dessicant, and advanced technologies. Saudi Arabia has a long and successful tradition of building cooling using passive architectural designs. Combining these past achievements with a program of research and development in both active and passive solar cooling should permit an early economical introduction of entirely solar cooled buildings to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States.

Corcoleotes, G.; Williamson, J.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

On-chip high speed localized cooling using superlattice microrefrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for on-chip cooling solution, thermal characterization andActive cooling can provide an effective thermal resistance (cooling of electron gas and by reducing the lattice thermal

Zhang, Y; Christofferson, J; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H; Bowers, J E; Croke, E T

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Energy Savers: Cool Summer Tips  

SciTech Connect

A tri-fold brochure addressing energy-saving tips for homeowners ranging from low- or no-cost suggestions to higher cost suggestions for longer-term savings. Cooling, windows, weatherizing, and landscaping are addressed.

Miller, M.

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

237

Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

239

Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities July 23, 2010 - 2:07pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofs and roadways create what is called the "urban heat island effect," meaning a city is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. Light colored roofs reduce the heat island effect and improve air quality by reducing emissions. Lighter-colored roofing surfaces reflect more of the sun's heat, which helps to improve building efficiency by reducing cooling costs and offsetting carbon emissions. Roofs and road pavement cover 50 to 65 percent of urban areas. Because they absorb so much heat, dark-colored roofs and roadways create what is called

240

Preliminary Analysis of Energy Consumption for Cool Roofing Measures  

SciTech Connect

The spread of cool roofing has been more than prolific over the last decade. Driven by public demand and by government initiatives cool roofing has been a recognized low cost method to reduce energy demand by reflecting sunlight away from structures and back in to the atmosphere. While much of the country can benefit from the use of cool coatings it remains to be seen whether the energy savings described are appropriate in cooler climates. By use of commonly available calculators one can analyze the potential energy savings based on environmental conditions and construction practices.

Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company; Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been accomplished in large integrated plants, such as petroleum refineries. In many of the chemical process industries, however, a plant contains several individual processes, and network optimization, except on a limited basis, is not feasible. So far, no one has developed similar procedures for designing and optimizing a cooling-water once through-exchanger system. This article attempts to fill the void by presenting a design basis that will produce a 'near optimum' system. A cooling-water system consists of four major components: heat exchangers, cooling towers, circulation piping and pumps. To optimize such a system, one must define the system interactions and apply these relationships to the simultaneous design of the aforementioned equipment. This article develops criteria that for most applications allow one to ignore system interactions, and still design a 'near optimum' system. Cooling-water systems have long been designed by 'rules of thumb' that call for fixing the cool ant temperature-rise across all heat exchangers (usually 20 F) and setting the coolant inlet temperature to the heat exchanger at the site's wet-bulb temperature plus 8 F. These rules produce a workable cooling system; but, by taking the same coolant rise across all exchangers, regardless of the individual process outlet-temperatures, this cannot result in an optimized design. The design method presented in this article replaces the 'rules of thumb' with criteria that are easy to apply and that take into account the effect that the individual exchanger process outlet- temperatures have on cooling-system economics. Economic analyses of actual process have shown that cooling-system investment can be reduced by one third, and cooling-system operating cost by one half, If the proposed design criteria are used instead of the 'rules of thumb.' It has been found that the controlling economic factor for a cooling system is the quantity of water being circulated. Reducing the flow (raising the coolant outlet temperature of heat exchangers) significantly reduces cooling tower, pump and piping investment, and operating cost, and only moderately increases the heat-exchanger investment. The overriding conclusion to be drawn is that cooling water is very expensive, and its conservation can result in significant savings.

Crozier, R. A., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Energy Assessment Training Reduces Energy Costs for the U.S. Coast Guard Sector Guam: Success Stories (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Coast Guard Sector Guam experiences considerable energy cost and use savings after implementing training from NREL's energy assessment training.

Not Available

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Low Wind Speed Technology Phase II: Reducing Cost of Energy Through Rotor Aerodynamics Control; Global Energy Concepts, LLC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes a subcontract with Global Energy Concepts to evaluate a wide range of wind turbine configurations and their impact on overall cost of energy (COE).

Not Available

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Energy Assessment Training Reduces Energy Costs for the U.S. Coast Guard Sector Guam: Success Stories (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Coast Guard Sector Guam experiences considerable energy cost and use savings after implementing training from NREL's energy assessment training.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants with little or no internal loads. The evaporative roof cooling system keeps the building from heating up during the day by misting the roof surface with a fine spray of water -just enough to evaporate. This process keeps the roof surface at 90° levels instead of 150° and knocks out the radiant heat transfer from the roof into the building. The system is controlled by a thermostat and automatically shuts off at night or when the roof surface cools below the set point. The same control system turns on exhaust fans to load the building with cool night air. Air circulators are installed to provide air movement on workers during the day. Best results are achieved by closing dock doors and minimizing hot air infiltration during the day. The typical application will maintain inside temperatures that will average 84° -86° when outside ambient temperatures range from 98 °-100°. Many satisfied users will attest to marked improvements in employee moral and productivity, along with providing safe storage temperatures for many products. Installed "Flywheel" systems' costs are usually less than 20% of comparable air-conditioning equipment. By keeping a built up roof cooler, the system will eliminate thermal shock and extend roof life while reducing maintenance.

Abernethy, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Stochastic Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Gas Cooling Guide PRO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

user-defined cooling and dehumidification equipment characteristics, annual energy usage and cost, summary of key calculated performance variables, monthly cooling and heating...

248

Conceptual design of advanced central receiver power systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Volume 4. Commercial and pilot plant cost data. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume of the advanced central receiver final report presents the cost data using the cost breakdown structure identified in the preliminary specification. Cost summaries are presented in the following sections for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plant and a 10-MWe pilot plant. Cost substantiation data for this volume are presented in the appendices. Other cost summary data include Nth plant data for the 100-MWe and 281-MWe commercial plants, and a summary for the alternative concept air-rock storage system. The main description of the plant costing technique occurs as part of Section II for the 100-MWe baseline concept.

Not Available

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

REACH: Reduced Emissions and Advanced Combustion Hardware: A Low-Cost, Retrofit Approach to Reducing Stack Emissions and Enhancing t he Performance of Oil-Fired Boilers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improved oil combustion technology, based upon optimization of oil atomizer and flame stabilizer design, has been developed for retrofit to oil-fired utility boilers. This technology is referred to as Reduced Emissions and Advanced Combustion Hardware, or REACH. REACH is commercially available for retrofit to oil-fired boilers to simultaneously reduce NOx, PM, and opacity, as well as provide operational and performance benefits.

1995-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

250

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

251

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

252

An assessment of desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology  

SciTech Connect

Desiccant systems are heat-actuated cooling and dehumidification technology. With the recent advances in this technology, desiccant systems can now achieve a primary energy coefficient of performance (COP) between 1.3 and 1.5, with potential to go to 1.7 and higher. It is becoming one of the most promising alternatives to conventional cooling systems. Two important and well-known advantages of desiccant cooling systems are that they are CFC free and they can reduce the electricity peak load. Another important but lesser-known advantage of desiccant technology is its potential for energy conservation. The energy impact study in this report indicated that a possible 13% energy saving in residential cooling and 8% in commercial cooling is possible. Great energy saving potential also exists in the industrial sector if industrial waste heat can be used for desiccant regeneration. The latest study on desiccant-integrated building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems indicated that the initial cost for the conventional cooling equipment was greatly reduced by using desiccant technology because of downsized compressors, fans, and ductworks. This cost reduction was more than enough to offset the cost of desiccant equipment. Besides, the system operation cost was also reduced. All these indicate that desiccant systems are also cost effective. This study provides an updated state-of-the-art assessment forsiccant technology in the field of desiccant materials, systems, computer models, and theoretical analyses. From this information the technology options were derived and the future research and development needs were identified. Because desiccant technology has already been applied in the commercial building sector with very encouraging results, it is expected that future market breakthroughs will probably start in this sector. A market analysis for the commercial building application is therefore included.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lavan, Z. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Collier, R.K. Jr. [Collier Engineering Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States); Meckler, G. [Gershon Meckler Associates, P.C., Herndon, VA (United States)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure online 22 October 2012 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Charging infrastructure Battery size a b for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks

McGaughey, Alan

254

Estimating the potential of controlled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging to reduce operational and capacity expansion costs for electric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating the potential of controlled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging to reduce quantify the benefits of controlled charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Costs are determined expansion Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Controlled charging Wind power integration a b s t r a c

McGaughey, Alan

255

Does Competition Reduce Costs? Assessing the Impact of Regulatory Restructuring on U.S. Electric Generation Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 3 One exception is Hiebert (2002), who uses stochastic frontier production functions to estimate generation plant efficiency over 1988-1997. One set of independent variables he includes is indicators for regulatory orders or legislative enactment... to customers. Joskow (1974) and Hendricks (1975) demonstrate that frictions in cost-of-service regulation, particularly those arising from regulatory lag (time between price- resetting hearings), may provide some incentives at the margin for cost...

Markiewicz, Karl; Rose, Nancy L; Wolfram, Catherine

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

256

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Management Practices #8 – Cooling Tower Management. Federalair flow pattern Cooling towers Compressors Compressorhousekeeping Reducing cooling tower bleed-off Wastewater

Brush, Adrian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Published 112011 Conference Location Seattle, WA Call Number LBNL-5128E Abstract Liquid cooling is key to reducing energy consumption for this generation of supercomputers and...

258

Reducing "Search Cost" and Risk in Energy-efficiency Investments: Two Success Stories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Search Cost" and Risk "Search Cost" and Risk in Energy-efficiency Investments: Two Success Stories Philip E. Coleman, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Washington, D.C. ABSTRACT This paper focuses on two compelling arguments made in the literature regarding the efficiency gap: first, that consumers face significant transaction costs related to searching for and analyzing information on prospective energy-saving investments; and second, that even well-informed consumers still rationally perceive substantial risks -higher risks than with most financial investments - in making these purchases. Two case studies of efforts to promote governmental energy-efficiency investment are presented. One is a volume-purchase of LED traffic lights by the city of Philadelphia, and the other an information

259

Energy Efficiency and Least-Cost Planning: The Best Way to Save Money and Reduce Energy Use in Hawaii  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

If the 500 MW geothermal project on the Big Island of Hawaii is developed as planned, the Wao Kele O Puna rain forest will be severely damaged or destroyed. If this happens the State will lose one of its most precious resources. It would be tragic for this to happen, since on a least-cost basis, the geothermal project does not make economic sense. Improving energy efficiency in the commercial and residential sectors of Hawaii can save about 500 MW of power at a cost of $700 million.

Mowris, Robert J.

1990-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

260

On developing a fast, cost-effective and non-invasive method to derive data center thermal maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ongoing research has demonstrated the potential benefits of thermal-aware load placement in data centers to both reduce cooling costs and component failure rates. However, thermal-aware load placement techniques have not been widely deployed in existing ...

Michael Jonas; Georgios Varsamopoulos; Sandeep K. S. Gupta

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Naval Reserve Force : cost and benefit analysis of reducing the number of Naval Surface Reserve Force operating budget holders ; .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Quadrennial Defense Review 1997 recommended reductions of civilian and military personnel associated with infrastructure. The Naval Reserve Force is aggressively pursuing options to reduce… (more)

Young, Eric Coy

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

263

Novel System for Recalcitrance Screening Will Reduce Biofuels Production Costs, The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

This new system will allow researchers to much more rapidly screen large numbers of samples This new system will allow researchers to much more rapidly screen large numbers of samples and identify the most promising biomass feedstocks for higher efficiency and lower cost bio- fuels conversion processes. NREL will be screening thousands of variants of different biomass feedstocks to link genetic traits with environmental factors that can enhance biomass conver- sion efficiencies. Identifying the genes controlling the anatomical, chemical, and morphologi- cal features of biomass is essential to develop the next generation of low-cost, easily convert- ible biomass feedstocks. To identify superior performing biomass feedstocks using approaches that account for natural diversity and randomness, researchers must measure the cell wall chemistry and recalcitrance

264

Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most K-12 schools could save 25% of their energy costs by being smart about energy. Nationwide, the savings potential is $6 billion. While improving energy use in buildings and busses, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning, with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. This brochure, targeted to school facilities managers and business officials, describes how schools can become more energy efficient.

Energy Smart Schools Team

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

265

Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling fluid operates as a single-phase coolant as the liquid phase of the WEG does not change to its vapor phase during the cooling process. In these single-phase systems, two cooling loops of WEG produce a low temperature (around 70 C) cooling loop for the power electronics and motor/generator, and higher temperature loop (around 105 C) for the internal combustion engine. There is another coolant option currently available in automobiles. It is possible to use the transmission oil as a coolant. The oil temperature exists at approximately 85 C which can be utilized to cool the power electronic and electrical devices. Because heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference between the device's hot surface and the coolant, a device that can tolerate higher temperatures enables the device to be smaller while dissipating the same amount of heat. Presently, new silicon carbide (SiC) devices and high temperature direct current (dc)-link capacitors, such as Teflon capacitors, are available but at significantly higher costs. Higher junction temperature (175 C) silicon (Si) dies are gradually emerging in the market, which will eventually help to lower hardware costs for cooling. The development of high-temperature devices is not the only way to reduce device size. Two-phase cooling that utilizes the vaporization of the liquid to dissipate heat is expected to be a very effective cooling method. Among two-phase cooling methods, different technologies such as spray, jet impingement, pool boiling and submersion, etc. are being developed. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading the research on a novel floating refrigerant loop that cools high-power electronic devices and the motor/generator with very low cooling energy. The loop can be operated independently or attached to the air conditioning system of the vehicle to share the condenser and other mutually needed components. The ability to achieve low cooling energy in the floating loop is attributable to the liquid refrigerant operating at its hot saturated temperature (around 50 C+). In an air conditioning system, the liquid refrigerant is sub-cooled for producing cool air to the passenger compartment. The ORNL floating loop avoids the sub-cooling of the liquid refrigerant and saves significant cooling energy. It can raise the coefficient of performance (COP) more than 10 fold from that of the existing air-conditioning system, where the COP is the ratio of the cooled power and the input power for dissipating the cooled power. In order to thoroughly investigate emerging two-phase cooling technologies, ORNL subcontracted three university/companies to look into three leading two-phase cooling technologies. ORNL's assessments on these technologies are summarized in Section I. Detailed descriptions of the reports by the three university/companies (subcontractors) are in Section II.

Hsu, J.S.

2005-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

266

cooling | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

267

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

268

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

269

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

270

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

271

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

272

"Penn State will take every step possible to reduce emissions without unduly increasing our costs. In light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

petroleum consumption by reducing our overall service fleet, converting our diesel vehicles to use bio-diesel Development · New Wind Energy Leader Award Community Energy · EPA, DOE and Center for Resource Solutions 2002

Lee, Dongwon

273

Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting  

SciTech Connect

Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Prospects for hydrogen production by water electrolysis to be competitive with conventional methods. [Areas of research to reduce capital costs and approach 100 percent energy efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

With the impending unavailability of oil and natural gas, hydrogen will be produced on a large scale in the United States (1) from coal, or (2) by water electrolysis using electricity derived from nuclear or solar energy. In many parts of the world which lack fossil fuels, the latter will be the only possible method. The cost of purification of hydrogen produced from fossil fuels will increase its cost to about the same level as that of electrolytic hydrogen. When hydrogen is required in relatively small quantities too, the electrolytic method is advantageous. To minimize the cost of hydrogen produced by water electrolysis, it is necessary to reduce capital costs and approach 100 percent energy efficiencies. Areas of research, which will be necessary to achieve these goals are: (1) maximization of surface areas of electrodes; (2) use of thin electrolyte layers; (3) increase of operating temperature in alkaline water electrolysis cells to about 120-150/sup 0/C; (4) selection and evaluation of separator materials; (5) electrocatalysis of the hydrogen and oxygen electrode reaction; (6) mixed oxides as oxygen electrodes; and (7) photoelectrochemical effects. The progress made to date and proposed studies on these topics are briefly dealt with in this paper. The General Electric Solid Polymer Water Electrolyzer and Teledyne Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cells, both operating at about 120-150/sup 0/C, look mostpromising in achieving the goals of low capital cost and high energy efficiency. (auth)

Srinivasan, S.; Salzano, F.J.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Across the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Across the Federal Government Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement Cool Roofs at DOE and Across the Federal Government July 19, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced a series of initiatives underway at the Department of Energy to more broadly implement cool roof technologies on DOE facilities and buildings across the federal government. Cool roofs use lighter-colored roofing surfaces or special coatings to reflect more of the sun's heat, helping improve building efficiency by reducing cooling costs and offsetting carbon emissions. President Obama and Secretary Chu have made clear that the federal government should play a leading role in moving the nation toward a more

276

Title: Electrical Power Generation from Produced Water: Field Demonstration of Ways to Reduce Operating Costs of Small Producers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Electrical Power Generation from Produced Water: Field Demonstration of Ways to Reduce produced water to create "green" electricity usable on site or for transmission off site . The goal the environmental impact by creating green electricity using produced water and no additional fossil fuel. Approach

277

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants ProMIS/Project No.:DE-NT0005647  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improvement to AIr2AIr® technology Improvement to AIr2AIr® technology to reduce Fresh-WAter evAporAtIve coolIng loss At coAl-BAsed thermoelectrIc poWer plAnts promIs/project no. :de-nt0005647 Background The production of electricity requires a reliable, abundant, and predictable source of freshwater - a resource that is limited in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. The process of thermoelectric generation from fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas is water intensive. According to the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey, thermoelectric-power withdrawals accounted for 48 percent of total water use, 39 percent of total freshwater withdrawals (136 billion gallons per day) for all categories, and 52 percent of fresh surface water withdrawals. As a growing economy drives the need for more electricity, demands on freshwater

278

Simulated energy savings of cool roofs applied to industrial premises in the Mediterranean Area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermal insulation affects the sensible cooling savingshigh thermal insulation reduces the sensible cooling energyof a high thermal insulation increases the sensible cooling

De Carli, Michele; Scarpa, Massimiliano; Schiavon, Stefano; Zecchin, Roberto

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows, and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. The results of Phase 1 work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems. One potential disadvantage of an ice-slurry district cooling system is the introduction of ice into equipment not so designed, such as air handlers at end user locations. A prototypic ice slurry distribution loop will demonstrate a cooling network which will provide ice slurry to an end user but sends ice free water into the actual heat transfer.

Winters, P.J.

1991-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

280

Alternate Cooling Methods for Industrial Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling in industrial facilities has traditionally been performed by mechanical vapor compression units. While it remains the standard, recent concerns with the rising cost of electricity and environmental legislation restricting or outlawing CFC refrigerants has caused many plants to evaluate existing cooling methods. This paper presents case studies on alternate cooling methods used for space conditioning at several different industrial facilities. Methods discussed include direct and indirect evaporative, desiccant, and absorption cooling. Cooling effectiveness, operating cost and investment are also presented. Data for this evaluation was collected from clients served by Georgia Tech's Industrial Energy Extension Service, a state-sponsored energy conservation assistance program.

Brown, M.; Moore, D.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Title Potential benefits of cool roofs on...

282

FOCUS COOLING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

283

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Cost-effective ways to improve the fabrication and installation of solar heating and cooling systems for residences. Final report, June 1, 1977-September 30, 1978  

SciTech Connect

A Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory study investigating cost-effective ways of improving fabrication and installation of residential solar energy heating systems is documented. The study entailed on-site observation of twelve installations focusing on the phase of mounting and manifolding of solar collectors. Time lapse photography and work measurement techniques were employed to record these installations. Generic collector types studied included air and liquid panels both internally and externally manifolded. Principal findings of the study synthesized from field observations, analysis of photographic data, time studies, and discussion with installation personnel and manufacturers' representatives are presented in the technical report.

Thayer, S.B.; Jacobs, P.; Weaver, N.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Cost-effective ways to improve the fabrication and installation of solar heating and cooling systems for residences. Final report, June 1, 1977-September 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory study investigating cost-effective ways of improving fabrication and installation of residential solar energy heating systems is documented. The study entailed on-site observation of twelve installations focusing on the phase of mounting and manifolding of solar collectors. Time lapse photography and work measurement techniques were employed to record these installations. Generic collector types studied included air and liquid panels both internally and externally manifolded. Principal findings of the study synthesized from field observations, analysis of photographic data, time studies, and discussion with installation personnel and manufacturers' representatives are presented in the technical report.

Thayer, S.B.; Jacobs, P.; Weaver, N.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Gas-Cooled Reactors: the importance of their development  

SciTech Connect

Gas-Cooled Reactors are considered to have a significant future impact on the application of fission energy. The specific types are the steam-cycle High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor, the gas-turbine HTGR, and the Very High-Temperature Process Heat Reactor. The importance of developing the above systems is discussed relative to alternative fission power systems involving Light Water Reactors, Heavy Water Reactors, Spectral Shift Controlled Reactors, and Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors. A primary advantage of developing GCRs as a class lies in the technology and cost interrelations, permitting cost-effective development of systems having diverse applications. Further, HTGR-type systems have highly proliferation-resistant characteristics and very attractive safety features. Finally, such systems and GCFRs are mutally complementary. Overall, GCRs provide interrelated systems that serve different purposes and needs; their development can proceed in stages that provide early benefits while contributing to future needs. It is concluded that the long-term importance of the various GCRs is as follows: HTGR, providing a technology for economic GCFRs and HTGR-GTs, while providing a proliferation-resistant reactor system having early economic and fuel utilization benefits; GCFR, providing relatively low cost fissile fuel and reducing overall separative work needs at capital costs lower than those for LMFBRs; HTGR-GT (in combination with a bottoming cycle), providing a very high thermal efficiency system having low capital costs and improved fuel utilization and technology pertinent to VHTRs; HTGR-GT, providing a power system well suited for dry cooling conditions for low-temperature process heat needs; and VHTR, providing a high-temperature heat source for hydrogen production processes.

Kasten, P.R.

1978-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

289

Global Cool Cities Alliance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance Global Cool Cities Alliance The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the worldwide installation of cool roofs, pavements, and other surfaces. GCCA is dedicated to advancing policies and actions that increase the solar reflectance of our buildings and pavements as a cost-effective way to promote cool buildings, cool cities, and to mitigate the effects of climate change through global cooling. The alliance was launched in June of 2011. Cool reflective surfaces are an important near-term strategy for improving city sustainability by delivering significant benefits such as increased building efficiency and comfort, improved urban health, and heat

290

Thermal energy storage for cooling of commercial buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The storage of coolness'' has been in use in limited applications for more than a half century. Recently, because of high electricity costs during utilities' peak power periods, thermal storage for cooling has become a prime target for load management strategies. Systems with cool storage shift all or part of the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak hours to take advantage of reduced demand charges and/or off-peak rates. Thermal storage technology applies equally to industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. In the industrial sector, because of the lack of economic incentives and the custom design required for each application, the penetration of this technology has been limited to a few industries. The penetration rate in the residential sector has been also very limited due to the absence of economic incentives, sizing problems, and the lack of compact packaged systems. To date, the most promising applications of these systems, therefore, appear to be for commercial cooling. In this report, the current and potential use of thermal energy storage systems for cooling commercial buildings is investigated. In addition, a general overview of the technology is presented and the applicability and cost-effectiveness of this technology for developed and developing countries are discussed. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Akbari, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Mertol, A. (Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (USA))

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Machines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers, in all too many industrial plants, are often the neglected units of the process chain which are hidden bonanzas for energy conservation and dollar savings. By lowering the entire systems temperature by the use of colder water returning from the cooling tower, greater chemical product volume can be condensed and less energy is required to run compressors. This paper will discuss two case histories and the rapid cost-effective savings thereby accruing through retrofit.

Burger, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

some cases by absorption cooling (Mottal, 1995). Electricitybasis. With the absorption cooling, the project decreasedsystem (without absorption cooling) has capital costs twice

Xu, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Efficient gas stream cooling in Second-Generation PFBC plants  

SciTech Connect

The coal-fueled Advanced or Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor concept (APFBC) is an efficient combined cycle in which coal is carbonized (partially gasified) to fuel a gas turbine, gas turbine exhaust heats feedwater for the steam cycle, and carbonizer char is used to generate steam for a steam turbine while heating combustion air for the gas turbine. The system can be described as an energy cascade in which chemical energy in solid coal is converted to gaseous form and flows to the gas turbine followed by the steam turbine, where it is converted to electrical power. Likewise, chemical energy in the char flows to both turbines generating electrical power in parallel. The fuel gas and vitiated air (PFBC exhaust) streams must be cleaned of entrained particulates by high-temperature equipment representing significant extensions of current technology. The energy recovery in the APFBC cycle allows these streams to be cooled to lower temperatures without significantly reducing the efficiency of the plant. Cooling these streams would allow the use of lower-temperature gas cleanup equipment that more closely approaches commercially available equipment, reducing cost and technological risk, and providing an earlier path to commercialization. This paper describes the performance effects of cooling the two hottest APFBC process gas streams: carbonizer fuel gas and vitiated air. Each cooling variation is described in terms of energy utilization, cycle efficiency, and cost implications.

White, J.S.; Horazak, D.A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Active and passive cooling for concentrating photovoltaic arrays  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Optimization, based on minimum energy cost, of active and passive cooling designs for point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic arrays and line-focus, parabolic-trough photovoltaic arrays is discussed, and the two types of cooling are compared. Passive cooling is more cost-effective for Fresnel lens arrays while the reverse is true for parabolic-trough arrays.

Edenburn, M.W.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

ALTERNATE POWER AND ENERGY STORAGE/REUSE FOR DRILLING RIGS: REDUCED COST AND LOWER EMISSIONS PROVIDE LOWER FOOTPRINT FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diesel engines operating the rig pose the problems of low efficiency and large amount of emissions. In addition the rig power requirements vary a lot with time and ongoing operation. Therefore it is in the best interest of operators to research on alternate drilling energy sources which can make entire drilling process economic and environmentally friendly. One of the major ways to reduce the footprint of drilling operations is to provide more efficient power sources for drilling operations. There are various sources of alternate energy storage/reuse. A quantitative comparison of physical size and economics shows that rigs powered by the electrical grid can provide lower cost operations, emit fewer emissions, are quieter, and have a smaller surface footprint than conventional diesel powered drilling. This thesis describes a study to evaluate the feasibility of adopting technology to reduce the size of the power generating equipment on drilling rigs and to provide ?peak shaving? energy through the new energy generating and energy storage devices such as flywheels. An energy audit was conducted on a new generation light weight Huisman LOC 250 rig drilling in South Texas to gather comprehensive time stamped drilling data. A study of emissions while drilling operation was also conducted during the audit. The data was analyzed using MATLAB and compared to a theoretical energy audit. The study showed that it is possible to remove peaks of rig power requirement by a flywheel kinetic energy recovery and storage (KERS) system and that linking to the electrical grid would supply sufficient power to operate the rig normally. Both the link to the grid and the KERS system would fit within a standard ISO container. A cost benefit analysis of the containerized system to transfer grid power to a rig, coupled with the KERS indicated that such a design had the potential to save more than $10,000 per week of drilling operations with significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, and smaller size well pad.

Verma, Ankit

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Title Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings: conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Levinson, Ronnen M., and Hashem Akbari Journal Energy Efficiency Volume 3 Pagination 53-109 Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 1570-646X Keywords cool roof, Heat Island Abstract Cool roofs-roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission-lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load is typically much greater than the increase in annual heating load. This study combines building energy simulations, local energy prices, local electricity emission factors, and local estimates of building density to characterize local, state average, and national average cooling energy savings, heating energy penalties, energy cost savings, and emission reductions per unit conditioned roof area. The annual heating and cooling energy uses of four commercial building prototypes-new office (1980+), old office (pre-1980), new retail (1980+), and old retail (pre-1980)-were simulated in 236 US cities. Substituting a weathered cool white roof (solar reflectance 0.55) for a weathered conventional gray roof (solar reflectance 0.20) yielded annually a cooling energy saving per unit conditioned roof area ranging from 3.30 kWh/m2 in Alaska to 7.69 kWh/m2 in Arizona (5.02 kWh/m2 nationwide); a heating energy penalty ranging from 0.003 therm/m2 in Hawaii to 0.14 therm/m2 in Wyoming (0.065 therm/m2 nationwide); and an energy cost saving ranging from $0.126/m2 in West Virginia to $1.14/m2 in Arizona ($0.356/m2 nationwide). It also offered annually a CO2 reduction ranging from 1.07 kg/m2 in Alaska to 4.97 kg/m2 in Hawaii (3.02 kg/m2 nationwide); an NOx reduction ranging from 1.70 g/m2 in New York to 11.7 g/m2 in Hawaii (4.81 g/m2 nationwide); an SO2 reduction ranging from 1.79 g/m2 in California to 26.1 g/m2 in Alabama (12.4 g/m2 nationwide); and an Hg reduction ranging from 1.08 μg/m2 in Alaska to 105 μg/m2 in Alabama (61.2 μg/m2 nationwide). Retrofitting 80% of the 2.58 billion square meters of commercial building conditioned roof area in the USA would yield an annual cooling energy saving of 10.4 TWh; an annual heating energy penalty of 133 million therms; and an annual energy cost saving of $735 million. It would also offer an annual CO2 reduction of 6.23 Mt, offsetting the annual CO2 emissions of 1.20 million typical cars or 25.4 typical peak power plants; an annual NOx reduction of 9.93 kt, offsetting the annual NOx emissions of 0.57 million cars or 65.7 peak power plants; an annual SO2 reduction of 25.6 kt, offsetting the annual SO2 emissions of 815 peak power plants; and an annual Hg reduction of 126 kg.

297

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

299

Gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing.

Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

A model for calculation of RCS pressure during reflux boiling under reduced inventory conditions and its assessment against PKL data. [Reactor Cooling Systems (RCS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been recent interest in the United States concerning the loss of residual heat removal system (RHRS) under reduced coolant inventory conditions for pressurized water reactors. This issue is also of interest in the Federal Republic of Germany and an experiment was performed in the integral PKL-HI experimental facility at Siemens-KWU to supply applicable data. Recently, an NRC-sponsored effort has been undertaken at the Idaho-National Engineering Laboratory to identify and analyze the important thermal-hydraulic phenomena in pressurized water reactors following the long term loss-of-RHRS during reduced inventory operation. The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed reactor coolant system during such a transient is investigated in this report. Some of the specific processes investigated include: reflux condensation in the steam generators, the corresponding pressure increase in the reactor coolant system, and void fraction distributions on the primary side of the system. Mathematical models of these and other physical processes Experiment B4.5.

Palmrose, D.E. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Mandl, R.M. (Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Description This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment. Duration 2:17 Topic Tax Credits, Rebates, Savings Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Credit Energy Department Video MR. : Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is or what it's made of, but your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. Think about it this way: In the summertime, we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter clothes reflect rather than absorb the heat of the sun. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is

302

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

303

5 Cool Things about Solar Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 Cool Things about Solar Heating 5 Cool Things about Solar Heating March 26, 2013 - 3:08pm Addthis Solar heating systems can be a cost-effective way to heat your home. | Photo...

304

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows; and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. Previous research (Phase 1) conducted by CBI under DOE Contract FG01-86CE26564 has shown a friction reducing effect of ice crystals in water flow. The results of this work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems.

Winters, P.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Evaluation of Cooling Solutions for Outdoor Electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermal management of an outdoor electronic enclosure can be quite challenging due to the additional thermal load from the sun and the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure. It is essential to consider the effect of solar heating loads in the design process; otherwise, it can shorten the life expectancy of the electronic product or lead to catastrophic failure. In this paper we analyze and compare the effectiveness of different cooling techniques used for outdoor electronics. Various cooling techniques were compared like special coatings and paints on the outer surface, radiation shields, double-walled vented enclosures, fans for internal air circulation and air-to-air heat exchangers. A highly simplified, typical outdoor system was selected for this study measuring approximately 300x300x400 mm (WxLxH). Solar radiation was incident on 3 sides of the enclosure. There were 8 equally spaced PCBs inside the enclosure dissipating 12.5W each uniformly (100 watts total). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the system was built and analyzed. This was followed by building a mock-up of the system and conducting experiments to validate the CFD model. It was found that some of the simplest cooling techniques like white oil paint on the outer surface can significantly reduce the impact of solar loads. Adding internal circulation fans can also be very effective. Using air-to-air heat exchangers was found to be the most effective solution although it is more complex and costly.

Mahendra Wankhede; V. Khaire; A. Goswami; S. D. Mahajan

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

306

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy usage and energy cost over time using net presentlower energy costs substantially. (5) Real-Time Monitoring:costs: demand = $10 per kW per month (all 12 months of the year); energy consumption = 7 per kWh (all times

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid cooling, dry cooler, cooling tower 1. INTRODUCTIONsolutions for cooling. Substituting cooling towers,hybrid cooling towers, or dry coolers that provide warmer

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Cool Roofs July 26, 2013 - 10:36am Addthis White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk White painted roofs have been popular since ancient times in places like Greece. Similar technology can be easy to adapt to modern homes and other buildings. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/PhotoTalk If you live in a hot climate, a cool roof can: Save you money on air conditioning Make your home more comfortable in hot weather How does it work? By making your roof more reflective, you reduce heat gain into your home. Check out these resources for more information. A cool roof is one that has been designed to reflect more sunlight and

309

Federal Energy Management Program: Energy Cost Calculator for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Energy Cost Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on...

310

Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

Eugene A. Fritzler

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

REACTOR COOLING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

Quackenbush, C.F.

1959-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

313

Effectiveness of Cool Roof Coatings with Ceramic Particles  

SciTech Connect

Liquid applied coatings promoted as cool roof coatings, including several with ceramic particles, were tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tenn., for the purpose of quantifying their thermal performances. Solar reflectance measurements were made for new samples and aged samples using a portable reflectometer (ASTM C1549, Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer) and for new samples using the integrating spheres method (ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres). Thermal emittance was measured for the new samples using a portable emissometer (ASTM C1371, Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room 1 Proceedings of the 2011 International Roofing Symposium Temperature Using Portable Emissometers). Thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured using a FOX 304 heat flow meter (ASTM C518, Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The surface properties of the cool roof coatings had higher solar reflectance than the reference black and white material, but there were no significant differences among coatings with and without ceramics. The coatings were applied to EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) membranes and installed on the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA), an instrumented facility at ORNL for testing roofs. Roof temperatures and heat flux through the roof were obtained for a year of exposure in east Tennessee. The field tests showed significant reduction in cooling required compared with the black reference roof (~80 percent) and a modest reduction in cooling compared with the white reference roof (~33 percent). The coating material with the highest solar reflectivity (no ceramic particles) demonstrated the best overall thermal performance (combination of reducing the cooling load cost and not incurring a large heating penalty cost) and suggests solar reflectivity is the significant characteristic for selecting cool roof coatings.

Brehob, Ellen G [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Addthis Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Cool Roofs video. The video opens with "Energy 101: Cool Roofs." This is followed by images of residential rooftops. Maybe you've never given much thought about what color your roof is, or what it's made of. But your roof could be costing you more money than you know to cool your home or office building, especially if you live in a warmer climate. The video shows pedestrians walking on a city street. Think about it this way... in the summertime we wear light-colored clothes because they keep us cooler. Lighter colors reflect - rather than absorb - the heat of the sun. The video shows images of a white roof. It's the same with your roof. A cool roof is often light in color and made

315

Advanced Laser Machining Techniques for Cooling Holes in Gas...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

that will improve the predictability and repeatability of cooling hole performance in gas turbine blades while meeting manufacturing cost objectives. The water guided laser...

316

Passive heating and cooling strategies for single family housing in Fresno, California: a case study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study focuses on the integration of passive heating, cooling, and ventilating techniques for detached single family housing in Fresno, California. The energy use and patterns of energy use were simulated for a typical tract house in Fresno, and serves as a case study, to which energy saving strategies were applied and evaluated using Ener-Win software. The effectiveness of each strategy was assessed based on the annual savings, the initial cost, and a life-cycle cost analysis. Specific areas of evaluation include: shading, improving the R-value and infiltration rate of the building envelope, thermal mass, natural ventilation, and evaporative cooling. The optimum strategies selected utilize only traditional building techniques. Evaporative cooling used in conjunction with an air conditioner was the most effective energy reducing strategy, but a combination of purely passive strategies yield competitive results. Although the typical Fresno home is already energy efficient, small alterations provide energy savings up to 75% for space conditioning.

Winchester, Nathan James

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Basics Cooling Basics Absorption Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as gas-fired cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption coolers are commercially available for large residential homes. How Absorption Cooling Works An absorption cooling cycle relies on three basic principles: When a liquid is heated it boils (vaporizes) and when a gas is cooled it condenses Lowering the pressure above a liquid reduces its boiling point Heat flows from warmer to cooler surfaces.

318

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

utilities use more electricity for distribution (48 millionthe most electricity for distribution. For the utilitiesUse Treatment electricity cost Distribution electricity use

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pump central cooling exogenous variable price of gas priceof gas priceof gas price of gas own capital cost own capital cost

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Miller, William; Berdahl, Paul

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cooling by Heat Conduction Inside Magnetic Flux Loops and the Moderate Cluster Cooling Flow Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I study non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas via heat conduction along magnetic field lines inside magnetic flux loops in cooling flow clusters of galaxies. I find that such heat conduction can reduce the fraction of energy radiated in the X-ray band by a factor of 1.5-2. This non-radiative cooling joins two other proposed non-radiative cooling processes, which can be more efficient. These are mixing of cold and hot gas, and heat conduction initiated by magnetic fields reconnection between hot and cold gas. These processes when incorporated into the moderate cooling flow model lead to a general cooling flow model with the following ingredients. (1) Cooling flow does occur, but with a mass cooling rate about 10 times lower than in old versions of the cooling flow model. Namely, heating occurs such that the effective age of the cooling flow is much below the cluster age, but the heating can't prevent cooling altogether. (2) The cooling flow region is in a non-steady state evolution. (3) Non-radiative cooling of X-ray emitting gas can bring the model to a much better agreement with observations. (4) The general behavior of the cooling flow gas, and in particular the role played by magnetic fields, make the intracluster medium in cooling flow clusters similar in some aspects to the active solar corona.

Noam Soker

2003-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

322

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description As the geothermal industry moves to use geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. Because of increasing demand on finite supplies of water, this next generation of more efficient plants will likely need to reject heat sensibly to the ambient (air-cooling). This will be especially true in western states having higher grade Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) resources, as well as most hydrothermal resources. If one had a choice, an evaporative heat rejection system would be selected because it would provide both cost and performance advantages. The evaporative system, however, consumes a significant amount of water during heat rejection that would require makeup. Though they use no water, air-cooling systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at a higher temperature), lower power sales due to higher parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power output (because of large variation in the dry-bulb temperature).

323

Stochastic cooling in muon colliders  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of muon production techniques for high energy colliders indicates the need for rapid and effective beam cooling in order that one achieve luminosities > 10{sup 30} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} as required for high energy physics experiments. This paper considers stochastic cooling to increase the phase space density of the muons in the collider. Even at muon energies greater than 100 GeV, the number of muons per bunch must be limited to {approximately}10{sup 3} for the cooling rate to be less than the muon lifetime. With such a small number of muons per bunch, the final beam emittance implied by the luminosity requirement is well below the thermodynamic limit for beam electronics at practical temperatures. Rapid bunch stacking after the cooling process can raise the number of muons per bunch to a level consistent with both the luminosity goals and with practical temperatures for the stochastic cooling electronics. A major advantage of our stochastic cooling/stacking scheme over scenarios that employ only ionization cooling is that the power on the production target can be reduced below 1 MW.

Barletta, W.A.; Sessler, A.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Cool Roofs: An Introduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Roofs: An Introduction Roofs: An Introduction Cool Roofs: An Introduction August 9, 2010 - 4:43pm Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Lately, I've been hearing a lot about cool roof technologies, so I welcomed the chance to learn more at a recent seminar. Cool roofs, also referred to as white roofs, have special coatings that reflect sunlight and emit heat more efficiently than traditional roofs, keeping them cooler in the sun. Cool roofing technologies can be implemented quickly and at a relatively low cost, making it the fastest growing sector of the building industry. U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu is among the many cool roof enthusiasts. The Secretary recently announced plans to install cool roofs

325

Cool Farm Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Farm Tool Cool Farm Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Farm Tool Agency/Company /Organization: Unilever Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.unilever.com/aboutus/supplier/sustainablesourcing/tools/?WT.LHNAV= Cost: Free Language: English Cool Farm Tool Screenshot References: Cool Farm Tool [1] Overview "The Cool Farm Tool is a new greenhouse gas calculator for farming. It's easy to use and gives instant results that invite users to try out alternatives and ask 'what if' questions. The tool was commissioned by Unilever from the University of Aberdeen The tool is ideal for farmers, supply chain managers and companies interested in quantifying their

326

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D Contractors'been supported by the Solar Heating and Cooling Research andof Energy. 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Monitoring the Energy-Use Effects of Cool Roofs on California Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

can also reduce peak electricity demand. Cool roofs transferthe cool roof on peak electricity demand, we inspected theEstimate of Peak Electricity Demand Use and Savings Using

Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Konopaki, Steve; Rainer, Leo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems  

SciTech Connect

The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Cooling thermal storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article gives some overall guidelines for successful operation of cooling thermal storage installations. Electric utilities use rates and other incentives to encourage thermal storage, which not only reduces their system peaks but also transfers a portion of their load from expensive daytime inefficient peaking plants to less expensive nighttime base load high efficiency coal and nuclear plants. There are hundreds of thermal storage installations around the country. Some of these are very successful; others have failed to achieve all of their predicted benefits because application considerations were not properly addressed.

Gatley, D.P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Novel Approaches and Alternative Cryogens for Cooling a Superconducting Cable  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has been a pioneer in the development of a long-distance superconducting dc cable, which is described in EPRI report 1020458. There is now worldwide interest in the technology, much of which is based on EPRI’s concept. This report extends one aspect of the EPRI design to improve performance and reduce costs. It addresses the issue of using liquid air as the cryogenic fluid that is used to cool the cable. The use of air instead of liquid nitrogen eliminates the potential hazard of oxygen ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

331

Towards Occupancy-Driven Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

$100­$200 per home in hardware, and less than $0.10 per square foot in office buildings. It will also a 28% reduction per household in the energy required for heating and cooling, at the cost of only $25. This energy savings is a low hanging fruit: a large amount of energy can be saved at a very low cost

Whitehouse, Kamin

332

Energy Basics: Evaporative Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

absorbent material. Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative...

333

Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description - Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School, Middle School and Elementary School. - Provide jobs, and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District, and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession. - The new Heat Pumps will be targeted to perform at very high efficiency with EER (energy efficiency ratios) of 22+/-. System capacity is planned at 610 tons. - Remove unusable antiquated existing equipment and systems from the campus heating and cooling system, but utilize ductwork, piping, etc. where feasible. The campus is served by antiquated air conditioning units combined with natural gas, and with very poor EER estimated at 6+/-. - Monitor for 3 years the performance of the new systems compared to benchmarks from the existing system, and provide data to the public to promote adoption of Geothermal technology. - The Geothermal installation contractor is able to provide financing for a significant portion of project funding with payments that fall within the energy savings resulting from the new high efficiency heating and cooling systems.

334

Direct Lamination Cooling of Motors For Electric Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current designs for electric motors use a housing that acts as both a structural support and as a method of cooling the stator and rotor. This approach to cooling is not as effective as possible because heat must flow from the rotor and stator through the housing to the cooling media. Because the housing must contain the coolant, it is also larger, heavier, and more expensive than necessary. This project develops a motor that uses a direct lamination cooling (DLC) system, passing coolant directly through the stator and eliminating the need for bulky housing, thereby improving heat transfer. Motor size could be reduced by up to 30-40%, mass by up to 20-30%, and cost by up to 30%. Phase I demonstrated that reliable lamination-to-lamination seals and reliable stack-to-manifold seals can be achieved using the methods identified. The addition of the selected sealants adds only slightly to the thermal resistance and pressure drop compared with unsealed counterparts. Phase II builds electric motors and inductors using the DLC method, obtain comparative performance data on the effectiveness of the method, and then obtain operational use data on these components through long term testing in a representative environment. The long-term testing will ensure that real world aspects of motor and inductor operation (including vibration, temperature cycling, and the presence of electrical and magnetic fields) do not degrade the seals such that leaking occurs or that the thermal performance degrades.

Rippel, Wally; Kobayashi, Drayll

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

335

NREL Helps Cool the Power Electronics in Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing and demonstrating innovative heat-transfer technologies for cooling power electronics devices in hybrid and electric vehicles. In collaboration with 3M and Wolverine Tube, Inc., NREL is using surface enhancements to dissipate heat more effectively, permitting a reduction in the size of power electronic systems and potentially reducing the overall costs of electric vehicles.

Not Available

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Assessment of solar heating and cooling techology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to assess in detail the state of the technology for solar heating and cooling of buildings, five 2-day meetings were held. The meeting subjects were solar collectors, thermal storage, air conditioning and heat pumps, systems and controls, and non-engineering aspects of solar energy. This is a condensation of these meetings, presenting for each topic discussed the details of the state of the art, the problem areas, and the objectives of necessary research and development. The existing state of technology for solar heating and cooling presents a mixed picture. Liquid-heating flat-plate solar collectors, for example, are in a rather mature stage, and there is a small, viable industry producing components. Even here, however, there are problems of materials which, if solved, can reduce collector cost, improve performance, or increase lifetime. In other areas such as, for example, desiccant chillers, passive concepts, and many of the systems categories, the technology is at an early stage of evolution, and much research and development remain to be done.

Balcomb, J.D.; Perry, J.E. Jr.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY An ENERGY STAR Resource Guidedrinking water supply industry to reduce energy consumptionenergy is used in the public drinking water supply industry.

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling. From NIST Tech Beat: September 13, 2007. ...

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

339

Proceedings: Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems performance strongly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Papers presented at EPRI's 1994 Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions. Specific topics include cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid cooling systems.

1995-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

340

High Power SiC Modules for HEVs and PHEVs Abstract--With efforts to reduce the cost, size, and thermal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and electric machinery (APEEM) activity is to develop technology towards achieving overall electric propulsion of these components. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) cost targets for the APEEM as established by DOE for PHEVs. Research in eliminating the low temperature loop and using the engine coolant for the APEEM shows

Tolbert, Leon M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project  

SciTech Connect

Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

342

Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of Building Thermal Mass to Offset Cooling Loads. ASHRAEThe Role of Thermal Mass on the Cooling Load of Buildings.to reduce peak cooling loads with thermal mass control.

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Peak demand reduction from pre-cooling with zone temperature reset in an office building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Use of Building Thermal Mass to Offset Cooling Loads. ASHRAEThe Role of Thermal Mass on the Cooling Load of Buildings.to reduce peak cooling loads with thermal mass control.

Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Braun, James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

A computer simulation appraisal of non-residential low energy cooling systems in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

greater direct use of cooling towers to reduce the use ofcoil, chiller and cooling tower in the baseline system wereoption is to use cooling tower water directly, without the

Bourassa, Norman; Haves, Philip; Huang, Joe

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

OCCUPATIONAL COOLING TOWERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY COOLING TOWERS EMPLOYEE HEALTH B C D F E CHILDREN'S ELEVATORS MEDICAL SCHOOL

Crews, Stephen

346

Systems simulation and economic analysis for active solar cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A consistent methodology has been developed by which general solar cooling market capture goals have been translated into specific cost and performance goals for solar cooling systems and subsystems. Preliminary results indicate that realistic cost/performance goals can be established for active solar cooling systems and that, with aggressive development, these goals can be reached by the year 2000. As the technology develops, tax incentives will be required to bridge the gap between the actual costs and the cost goals, so that the scenario of an ever increasing share of market penetration can be maintained over the 1986 to 2000 time period.

Warren, M.; Wahlig, M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Gas cooling for large commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Energy costs typically account for 10% to 20% of the operating costs for commercial buildings. These costs have continued to rise over the past several years notwithstanding the implementation of energy conservation programs. Increasing electric demand charges have been a major cause of the problem, and as capital-intensive nuclear and coal plants under construction are rolled into the rate base, these demand penalties are likely to become more severe. Electric cooling is the major contributor to seasonal and daily electric peaks. The use of natural gas for cooling can provide relief from high peak period electric prices either directly through absorption systems and engine-driven chillers or indirectly via cogeneration and recovered heat-driven absorption cooling. Although a window of opportunity exists for gas cooling in some parts of the country today, technological advancement and cost reduction are required in order for gas cooling to realize widespread applicability. The Gas Research Institute has implemented a comprehensive development program in cooperation with industry to evolve engine-driven chiller systems in the 100-ton and larger size range with gas coefficients of performance of 2.4, first-cost premiums of less than $100/ton, and service intervals of 4000 hours. Maintenance records of several engine-driven systems installed in the early 1970's were studied. System reliability was found to be in-line with HVAC market requirements.

Davidson, K.; Brattin, H.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Magneto-Optical Cooling of Atoms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an alternative method to laser cooling. Our approach utilizes the extreme brightness of a supersonic atomic beam, and the adiabatic atomic coilgun to slow atoms in the beam or to bring them to rest. We show how internal-state optical pumping and stimulated optical transitions, combined with magnetic forces can be used to cool the translational motion of atoms. This approach does not rely on momentum transfer from photons to atoms, as in laser cooling. We predict that our method can surpass laser cooling in terms of flux of ultra-cold atoms and phase-space density, with lower required laser power and reduced complexity.

Raizen, Mark G; Rochester, Simon; Narevicius, Julia; Narevicius, Edvardas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Hybrid Cooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water consumption by power plants has become an increasingly contentious siting issue. In nearly all fossil-fired and nuclear plants, water for plant cooling is by far the greatest water requirement. Therefore, the use of water-conserving cooling systems such as dry or hybrid cooling is receiving increasing attention. This technology overview from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provides a brief introduction to hybrid cooling systems. As defined in the report, the term "hybrid cooling" refer...

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

350

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

351

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

352

IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EPA’s Teaming Up to Save Energy (U.S. EPA, 2005), which isStates Department of Energy (U.S. DOE), Energy Efficiencyinstalled: $25,000 US Reduced energy use by 10%, equal to

Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Energy 101: Cool Roofs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs Energy 101: Cool Roofs February 1, 2011 - 10:50am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from DOE's Energy Blog. In this edition of Energy 101 we take a look at one of Secretary Chu's favorite energy efficiency techniques, cool roofs. Traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb a great deal of sunlight, which in turn transfers heat to a building. Cool roofs use light-colored, highly reflective materials to regulate building temperatures without increasing electricity demand, which can result in energy savings of up to 10 to 15 percent. Cool roofs can also reduce the "heat island" effect in cities and suburbs, a phenomenon that produces higher temperatures in densely populated areas

354

Aging and weathering of cool roofing membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and L.S. Rose. 2002. “Aging of reflective roofs: sootAging and Weathering of Cool Roofing Membranes HashemNRC), Canada ABSTRACT Aging and weathering can reduce the

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

On thermal performance of seawater cooling towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seawater cooling towers have been used since the 1970s in power generation and other industries, so as to reduce the consumption of freshwater. The salts in seawater are known to create a number of operational problems, ...

Sharqawy, Mostafa H.

356

Operating Experience and Economic Assessment of Commercial and Industrial Cool Storage Systems - TVA Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal storage systems offer utilities a means to change the energy use patterns of both residential and commercial and industrial (C&I) customers by moving water-heating and space-conditioning loads from peak to offpeak periods. Benefits from investments in these systems include reduced capital investment in new generating capacity, reduced operating costs, and reduced risk associated with load growth projections and future environmental legislation. This paper presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the performance of and quantify the potential economic benefits of C&I cool storage systems. The paper is organized into three major sections. Section one discusses the empirical data gathered from TVA's C&I Cool Storage Demonstration conducted during the summer of 1984. Section two discusses TVA's methodology For quantifying the potential economic benefits of these systems. Finally, the results are summarized with regard to future program activities.

Sieber, R. E.; Dahmus, A. B.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Cooling Strategies Based on Indicators of Thermal Storage in Commercial Building Mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building thermal mass and multi-day regimes of hot weather are important, yet poorly understood, contributors to cooling energy requirements. This paper develops load-shifting sub-cooling and precooling equipment operating strategies to address a specific instance of this phenomenon, in which thermal storage by building mass over weekends exacerbates Monday cooling energy requirements. The study relies on computer simulations of energy use for a large, office building prototype in El Paso, TX using the DOE-2 building energy analysis program. The economic value of the strategies is evaluated with direct reference to utility rate schedules and a crude measure of thermal storage is related to the energy impacts of the strategies. The indicators are based on core zone air temperatures, which are sampled a t night when HVAC systems are not in use. The suggestion is made that the results and proposed strategies could be adapted for use by computerized energy management systems to reduce building energy operating costs.

Eto, J. H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

NREL Helps Cool the Power Electronics in Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Helps Cool the Power Helps Cool the Power Electronics in Electric Vehicles Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing and demonstrating innovative heat-transfer technologies for cooling power electronics devices in hybrid and electric vehicles. In collaboration with 3M and Wolverine Tube, Inc., NREL is using surface enhancements to dissipate heat more effectively, permitting a reduction in the size of power electronic systems and potentially reducing the overall costs of electric vehicles. Widespread use of advanced electric-drive vehicles-including electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs)-could revolutionize transportation and dramatically reduce U.S. oil consumption. Improving the cost and performance of these vehicles' electric-drive systems

359

Solar space cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Jump to: navigation, search Solarcooling.jpg Contents 1 Introduction 2 Solar Absorption Technology 3 Solar Desiccant Technology 4 Passive Solar Cooling 5 References Introduction There are many benefits to Solar Cooling systems. For one the sun is a clean energy resource that we should be using more often. It also produces no emissions and is replenished naturally, it reduces greenhouse gases, it saves the release of 1.6 lbs. of carbon dioxide (CO2) for each kilowatt-hour (kWh) produced, it saves the use of one-half gallon of water for each kWh of solar energy produced, it saves the release of other emissions that result from the burning of fossil fuels such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide or mercury and it provides customers with options to reduce their electric bills. But up to this point Solar Cooling systems are

360

cooling | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Home Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(15) Member 15 November, 2013 - 13:26 Living Walls ancient building system architect biomimicry building technology cooling cu daylight design problem energy use engineer fred andreas geothermal green building heat transfer heating living walls metabolic adjustment net zero pre-electricity Renewable Energy Solar university of colorado utility grid Wind Much of the discussion surrounding green buildings centers around reducing energy use. The term net zero is the platinum standard for green buildings, meaning the building in question does not take any more energy from the utility grid than it produces using renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, or geothermal installations (and sometimes these renewable energy resources actually feed energy back to the utility grid).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Using Cable Suspended Submersible Pumps to Reduce Production Costs to Increase Ultimate Recovery in the Red Mountain Field of the San Juan Basin Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells, installing cable suspended submersible pumps ( Phase I ) and operating the oil field for approximately one year ( Phase II ). Upon the completion of Phases I and II ( Budget Period I ), Enerdyne LLC commenced work on Phase III which required additional drilling in an attempt to improve field economics ( Budget Period II ). The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for the two Budget Periods, of the Agreement, was $1,205,008.00 as detailed in Phase I, II & III Authorization for Expenditures (AFE). This report describes tasks performed and results experienced by Enerdyne LLC during the three phases of the cooperative agreement.

Don L. Hanosh

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Cooling Towers, Energy Conservation Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration system. While our engineers are pretty well convinced of the importance of their sophisticated equipment, and rightly so, they take the cooling towers and the cold water returning from them for granted. Design Conditions are specified for the particular requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. After it is put on the line and the cold water temperature or volume becomes inadequate, they look to solutions other than the obvious. While all cooling towers are purchased to function at 100% of capability in accordance with the required Design Conditions, in actual on stream employment, the level of operation many times is lower, downwards to as much as 50% due to a variety of reasons: (1) The present service needed is now greater than the original requirements which the tower was purchased for; (2) 'Slippage' due to usage and perhaps deficient maintenance has reduced the performance of the tower over years of operation; (3) The installation could have been originally undersized due to the low bidder syndrome; and (4) New plant expansion needs colder temperatures off the tower.

Burger, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Maryvale Terrace: geothermal residential district space heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary study of the technical and economic feasibility of installing a geothermal district heating and cooling system is analyzed for the Maryvale Terrace residential subdevelopment in Phoenix, Arizona, consisting of 557 residential houses. The design heating load was estimated to be 16.77 million Btu/h and the design cooling load was estimated to be 14.65 million Btu/h. Average annual energy use for the development was estimated to be 5870 million Btu/y and 14,650 million Btu/y for heating and cooling, respectively. Competing fuels are natural gas for heating and electricity for cooling. A geothermal resource is assumed to exist beneath the site at a depth of 6000 feet. Five production wells producing 1000 gpm each of 220/sup 0/F geothermal fluid are required. Total estimated cost for installing the system is $5,079,300. First year system operations cost (including debt service) is $974,361. The average annual geothermal heating and cooling cost per home is estimated to be $1750 as compared to a conventional system annual cost of $1145. Further, the cost of geothermal heating and cooling is estimated to be $47.50 per million Btu when debt service is included and $6.14 per million Btu when only operating costs are included. Operating (or fuel) costs for conventional heating and cooling are estimated to be $15.55 per million Btu.

White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Cooling Systems for the 21st Century  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand at most critical time 20-40% Reduces consumer's energy costs 10-20% May reduce energy usage at the building up to 14% Reduces source energy usage at power plant 8-34%...

365

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler...

366

Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A survey of wet cooling tower literature was performed to develop a simplified method of cooling tower design and simulation for use in power plant cycle optimization. The theory of heat exchange in wet cooling towers is briefly summarized. The Merkel equation (the fundamental equation of heat transfer in wet cooling towers) is presented and discussed. The cooling tower fill constant (Ka) is defined and values derived. A rule-of-thumb method for the optimized design of cooling towers is presented. The rule-of-thumb design method provides information useful in power plant cycle optimization, including tower dimensions, water consumption rate, exit air temperature, power requirements and construction cost. In addition, a method for simulation of cooling tower performance at various operating conditions is presented. This information is also useful in power plant cycle evaluation. Using the information presented, it will be possible to incorporate wet cooling tower design and simulation into a procedure to evaluate and optimize power plant cycles.

Leeper, S.A.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Management Practices #8 – Cooling Tower Management. FederalDry conveyors Reducing cooling tower bleed-off Cleaning andMembrane filtration Cooling towers Hydrocyclones Counter-

Masanet, Eric

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Cost effective air pollution control for geothermal powerplants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air pollution control technology developed and demonstrated at The Geysers by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company includes two different, but equally effective methods to reduce the emissions of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal power plants. These technologies may be used in other geothermal areas as well. Cost saving modifications and adaptations needed to apply these technologies in other geothermal areas with different steam composition are described. Cost estimates are presented for some typical cases. If a surface condenser gives poor H/sub 2/S partitioning with ammonia rich steam, neutralizing the ammonia with SO/sub 2/ is a cost effective alternative to secondary abatement with hydrogen peroxide. Nickel is a cost effective alternative to FeHEDTA when an oxidation catalyst is added to the cooling water of a power plant equipped with a contact condenser. 13 ref., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Weres, O.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Space Heating and Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as...

370

Cooling Rate Dependence of Boron Distribution in Low Carbon Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cooling Rate Dependence of Boron Distribution in Low ... the transformation of austenite to ferrite by reducing the grain boundary energy.

371

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Cool Roofs and Heat Islands Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Cool Roofs Agency/Company /Organization: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Resource assessment Website: eetd.lbl.gov/r-bldgsee-crhi.html References: [1] Logo: Cool Roofs "On warm summer days, a city can be 6 to 8°F warmer than its surrounding areas. This effect is called the urban heat island. Cool roof materials, pavements, and vegetation can reduce the heat island effect, save energy and reduce smog formation. The goal of this research is to develop cool materials to save energy and money." [1] The Cool Roof Calculator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a useful tool for exploring the benefits of cool materials.

372

Cooling System Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...size Flow restrictions Heat exchanger size and design All of these factors must be considered. Every component in the cooling

373

Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these...

374

Cost Effectiveness for Solar Control Film for Residential Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the existing housing, retrofitting single or double glazed clear glass window with solar films can be an effective measure to reduce their peak power demand, and large scale application of the same on national level can be an effective tool for demand side management. This paper analyses the field performance data of a solar control film, retrofitted in a Kuwait villa, for establishing its technical viability and cost effectiveness. The paper concludes that the solar film, besides enhancing the thermal comfort, reduced the peak cooling demand and the peak power demand by 6.7% and 4.7%, respectively, during the peak summer period.

Al-Taqi, H. H.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

377

Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

NONE

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Ohio River Ecological Research Program: Economic Valuation of Impingement Losses at Cooling Water Intakes on the Ohio River  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides estimates of the economic value of fish impinged at 13 intake structures withdrawing cooling water from the Ohio River. The information is designed for permit applicants, environmental staff, and facility managers seeking to increase their understanding of the economic value of fish impinged at these intakes for comparison to the costs of installing intake alternatives that could reduce impingement mortality. This report is a companion to EPRI reports 1014337 and 1008473, which provi...

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place Livermore, California Zip 94550 Product CoolEarth is a concentrated PV developer using inflatable concentrators to focus light onto triple-junction cells. References CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) is a company located in Livermore, California . References ↑ "CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=CoolEarth_formerly_Cool_Earth_Solar&oldid=343892" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ion-driver fast ignition: Reducing heavy-ion fusion driver energy and cost, simplifying chamber design, target fab, tritium fueling and power conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ion fast ignition, like laser fast ignition, can potentially reduce driver energy for high target gain by an order of magnitude, while reducing fuel capsule implosion velocity, convergence ratio, and required precisions in target fabrication and illumination symmetry, all of which should further improve and simplify IFE power plants. From fast-ignition target requirements, we determine requirements for ion beam acceleration, pulse-compression, and final focus for advanced accelerators that must be developed for much shorter pulses and higher voltage gradients than today's accelerators, to deliver the petawatt peak powers and small focal spots ({approx}100 {micro}m) required. Although such peak powers and small focal spots are available today with lasers, development of such advanced accelerators is motivated by the greater likely efficiency of deep ion penetration and deposition into pre-compressed 1000x liquid density DT cores. Ion ignitor beam parameters for acceleration, pulse compression, and final focus are estimated for two examples based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator; (1) a small target with {rho}r {approx} 2 g/cm{sup 2} for a small demo/pilot plant producing {approx}40 MJ of fusion yield per target, and (2) a large target with {rho}r {approx} 10 g/cm{sup 2} producing {approx}1 GJ yield for multi-unit electricity/hydrogen plants, allowing internal T-breeding with low T/D ratios, >75 % of the total fusion yield captured for plasma direct conversion, and simple liquid-protected chambers with gravity clearing. Key enabling development needs for ion fast ignition are found to be (1) ''Close-coupled'' target designs for single-ended illumination of both compressor and ignitor beams; (2) Development of high gradient (>25 MV/m) linacs with high charge-state (q {approx} 26) ion sources for short ({approx}5 ns) accelerator output pulses; (3) Small mm-scale laser-driven plasma lens of {approx}10 MG fields to provide steep focusing angles close-in to the target (built-in as part of each target); (4) beam space charge-neutralization during both drift compression and final focus to target. Except for (1) and (2), these critical issues may be explored on existing heavy-ion storage ring accelerator facilities.

Logan, G.; Callahan-Miller, D.; Perkins, J.; Caporaso, G.; Tabak, M.; Moir, R.; Meier, W.; Bangerter, Roger; Lee, Ed

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

SciTech Connect

We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

383

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

EVALUATION OF MERCURY COOLED BREEDER REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

A technical and economic evaluation of a mercury-cooled fast breeder reactor is presented. The objectives of the program were to establish the technical feasibility of a fast breeder reactor cooled with boiling mercury and to evaluate the long-range potential of such a reactor power plant for production of economic power. Details of the conceptual design of a 100-Mw(e) reactor and system are discussed. The power cost from a mercury cooled fast breeder reactor was estimated as 21.4 mills/kwh which is competitive with the power cost for the initial Enrico Fermi plant. It was concluded that this reactor concept is technically feasible and has promising long-range economic potential. (M.C.G.)

Battles, D.W.

1960-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

385

Tips: Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling Tips: Heating and Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:38pm Addthis Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Household Heating Systems: Although several different types of fuels are available to heat our homes, more than half of us use natural gas. | Source: Buildings Energy Data Book 2010, 2.1.1 Residential Primary Energy Consumption, by Year and Fuel Type (Quadrillion Btu and Percent of Total). Heating and cooling your home uses more energy and costs more money than any other system in your home -- typically making up about 54% of your

386

Doppler cooling three-electronic-level molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analogous to the extension of laser cooling techniques from two-level to three-level atoms, Doppler cooling of molecules with an intermediate electronic state is considered. In particular, we use a rate-equation approach to simulate cooling of SiO+, in which population buildup in the intermediate state is prevented by its short lifetime. We determine that Doppler cooling of SiO+ can be accomplished without optically repumping from the intermediate state, at the cost of causing undesirable parity flips and rotational diffusion. Since the necessary repumping would require a large number of continuous-wave lasers, optical pulse shaping of a femtosecond laser is proposed as an attractive alternative. Other candidate three-electron-level molecules are also discussed.

Nguyen, J H V

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

EVAPORATIVE COOLING - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR ATLAS SCT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conceptual design of an evaporative two-phase flow cooling system for the ATLAS SCT detector is described, using perfluorinated propane (C3F8) as a coolant. Comparison with perfluorinated butane (C4F10) is made, although the detailed design is presented only for C3F8. The two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are calculated in order to determine the dimensions of the cooling pipes and module contacts for the Barrel SCT. The region in which the flow is homogeneous is determined. The cooling cycle, pipework, compressor, heat exchangers and other main elements of the system are calculated in order to be able to discuss the system control, safety and reliability. Evaporative cooling appears to be substantially better than the binary ice system from the point of view of safety, reliability, detector thickness, heat transfer coefficient, cost and simplicity.

Niinikoski, T O

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Intake Operation for Deep Cooling Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Use of a submerged intake, rather than a conventional surface intake, would improve the thermal performance of most cooling reservoirs in the United States. Projected operating cost savings at a typical plant would range from $1 million to $10 million because of decreased intake temperatures during the summer.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

389

cost | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cost cost Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

390

Municipal waste water as a source of cooling water for California electric power plants  

SciTech Connect

The results of an investigation of sources of municipal waste water for potential use as cooling water in California power plants and the major factors which affect this practice are presented. Municipal treatment facilities in California with discharge volumes deemed adequate to supply new power plants are identified. Also included is a summary of the experiences of several utilities in California and other western states with existing or planned applications of municipal waste water in power plant cooling towers. Due to limited supplies of high-quality water, municipal waste water is increasingly viewed as an alternative source of supply for a variety of water uses, including electric power plant evaporative cooling. In California, enough municipal effluent is discharged to the ocean to conceivably supply the total projected cooling water needs of new power plants for the next 20 years or more. A number of existing applications of such waste water for power plant cooling, including several California cases, demonstrate the technical feasibility of its use for this purpose. However, a combination of economic, environmental, and geographic factors reduce the likelihood of widespread use of this alternative for meeting anticipated large increases in power plant water requirements in the state. The most important factors are: the long distances involved; the public health concerns; added costs and environmental effects; and unreliability of supply quality.

McDonald, T.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Efficient Low-Lift cooling with Radiant Distribution, Thermal Storage and Variable-Speed Chiller Controls  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Program goal is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net-zero energy buildings by 2025. To support this goal, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated an integrated technology that through utilization of synergies between emerging heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems can significantly reduce energy consumption in buildings. This set consists of thermal storage, dedicated outdoor air system, radiant heating/cooling with a variable speed low-lift-optimized vapor compression system. The results show that the low-lift cooling system provides significant energy savings in many building types and climates locations. This market represents well over half of the entire U.S. commercial building sector. This analysis shows that significant cooling system efficiency gains can be achieved by integrating low-lift cooling technologies. The cooling energy savings for a standard-performance building range from 37% to 84% and, for a high-performance building, from -9% to 70%.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas

2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Program on Technology Innovation: Tradeoffs Between Once-Through Cooling and Closed-Cycle Cooling for Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been investigating a number of energy-related water topics that include the implications of retrofitting existing once-through generating stations with closed-cycle cooling, the cost and benefits of closed-cycle cooling, the impacts of impingement and entrainment, alternative fish protection technologies, water use in the electric power generation sector, and advanced power plant cooling technologies.

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

393

Reactor physics design of supercritical CO?-cooled fast reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors (GFRs) are among the GEN-IV designs proposed for future deployment. Driven by anticipated plant cost reduction, the use of supercritical CO? (S-CO?) as a Brayton cycle working fluid in a direct ...

Pope, Michael A. (Michael Alexander)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Feasibility of Electron Cooling for Low-Energy RHIC operation April 18, 2008 FEASIBILITY OF ELECTRON COOLING FOR LOW-ENERGY RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for RHIC low-energy cooling. 5.1 DC cooler Electron cooling with electron beam kinetic energies Ek,e=0 for the DC and RF electron beam approach. It suggests that the cost of such a cooler for Low-Energy RHIC;Feasibility of Electron Cooling for Low-Energy RHIC operation April 18, 2008 A.2 Parameters of DC electron

395

Alternatives to compressor cooling in California climates  

SciTech Connect

This review and discussion has been prepared for the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) to examine research on alternatives to compressor cooling. The report focuses on strategies for eliminating compressors in California's transition climates -- moderately warm areas located between the cool coastal regions and the hot central regions. Many of these strategies could also help reduce compressor use in hotter climates. Compressor-driven cooling of residences in California's transition climate regions is an undesirable load for California's electric utilities because load factor is poor and usage is typically high during periods of system peak demand. We review a number of alternatives to compressors, including low-energy strategies: evaporative cooling, natural and induced ventilation, reflective coatings, shading with vegetation and improved glazing, thermal storage, and radiative cooling. Also included are two energy-intensive strategies: absorption cooling and desiccant cooling. Our literature survey leads us to conclude that many of these strategies, used either singly or in combination, are technically and economically feasible alternatives to compressor-driven cooling. 78 refs., 8 figs.

Feustel, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); de Almeida, A. (Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Blumstein, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Universitywide Energy Research Group)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Recent Innovations in Muon Beam Cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eight new ideas are being developed under SBIR/STTR grants to cool muon beams for colliders, neutrino factories, and muon experiments. Analytical and simulation studies have confirmed that a six-dimensional (6D) cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas can provide effective beam cooling. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, helical quadrupole, and helical sextupole magnetic fields to generate emittance exchange and achieve 6D emittance reduction of over 3 orders of magnitude in a 100 m segment. Four such sequential HCC segments, where the RF frequencies are increased and transverse physical dimensions reduced as the beams become cooler, implies a 6D emittance reduction of almost five orders of magnitude. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, then can be employed to reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that can be used as MANX, an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment.

Rolland P. Johnson; Mohammad Alsharo'a; Charles Ankenbrandt; Emanuela Barzi; Kevin Beard; S. Alex Bogacz; Yaroslav Derbenev; Licia Del Frate; Ivan Gonin; Pierrick M. Hanlet; Robert Hartline; Daniel M. Kaplan; Moyses Kuchnir; Alfred Moretti; David Neuffer; Kevin Paul; Milorad Popovic; Thomas J. Roberts; Gennady Romanov; Daniele Turrioni; Victor Yarba; and Katsuya Yonehara

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Cooling Tower Fan Motor Power Optimization Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers are in use at more than 200 major electric generating plants in the United States, representing approximately 800 units and a total of more than 210,000 MW. The auxiliary power consumed by cooling tower fan motors can significantly reduce the net power output of steam-cycle power plants. Cooling tower specifications are established by the economic and operational requirements of maximum unit load and the most demanding environmental conditions expected in the tower’s locale. Since power pl...

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

398

pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly ...  

The discovery represents a cost-effective way to utilize materials indigenous to fossil fuel burning power platns to control mineral precipitation is cooling water.

399

Integrated Ice Storage/Sprinkler HVAC System Sharply Cuts Energy Costs and Air-Distribution First Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated ice thermal storage/sprinkler HVAC systems developed and applied by the author in several commercial applications shift a major portion of electric utility demand to cheaper off-peak hours, while also reducing significantly the first cost of distribution ductwork. Savings of up to 80% in primary duct and air handler costs (compared to a traditional all-air HVAC system) partially offset the first cost of ice storage equipment, which in turn permits a 50% reduction in utility energy costs for air conditioning in some facilities. The basic ice storage/sprinkler HVAC system is described as well as optional subsystems, such as cogeneration, that are cost-effective under certain conditions. The system's design parameters, psychrometric process, and thermodynamic characteristics are presented and two installations are described, a 223,000-sq ft shopping center and a 150,000-sq ft, two-story retail store. Reductions in the size and first cost of primary air-handling equipment and ductwork are achieved by distributing a small quantity (0.1 to 0.2 cfm/sq ft) of very dry, 40°F primary air. All dehumidification is handled by the ice-chilled primary air, which is distributed in variable, volume, determined by the space dehumidification requirement, to fan-coil induction terminal units. The primary air is mixed with fan-induced room air in the terminals prior to distribution to the space at a constant volume. The fan-induction terminals contain cooling coils connected to the integrated sprinkler system, which circulates chilled water from the central plant through the coils when additional sensible cooling is required. This chilled water is at a thermodynamically efficient elevated temperature (58-68°F), since it handles sensible cooling load only.

Meckler, G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Optimization and Control of Cooling Microgrids for Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — Reliable operation of today’s data centers requires a tremendous amount of electricity to power both the IT equipment and the supporting cooling facilities. As much as half of total data center electricity consumption can be attributed to the cooling systems required to maintain the thermal status of IT equipment. In order to lower the electricity usage of the cooling system and hence reduce the data center environmental footprint, alternative cooling resources, such as water and air-side economizers, are being exploited to supplement or replace the traditional chilled water based cooling schemes. The various cooling resource options, together with the mechanisms to distribute and deliver the cooling resource to IT equipment racks, constitute a cooling microgrid. In this paper, we present a holistic perspective for the optimization and control of the data

Rongliang Zhou; Zhikui Wang; Alan Mcreynolds; Cullen E. Bash; Thomas W; Christian Rocky Shih

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Gas turbine cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Simple strategies for minimization of cooling water usage in binary power plants  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources which could be used for the production of electrical power in the United States are located for the most part in the semi-arid western regions of the country. The availability of ground or surface water in the quantity or quality desired for a conventional wet'' heat rejections system represents a barrier to the development of these resources with the binary cycle technology. This paper investigates some simple strategies to minimize the cooling water usage of binary power plants. The cooling water usage is reduced by increasing the thermal efficiency of the plant. Three methods of accomplishing this are considered here: increasing the average source temperature, by increasing the geofluid outlet temperature; decreasing pinch points on the heat rejection heat exchangers, increasing their size; and using internal recuperation within the cycle. In addition to the impact on water usage, the impact on cost-of-electricity is determined. The paper shows that some of these strategies can reduce the cooling water requirements 20 to 30% over that for a plant similar to the Heber Binary Plant, with a net reduction in the cost-of-electricity of about 15%. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Simple strategies for minimization of cooling water usage in binary power plants  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal resources which could be used for the production of electrical power in the United States are located for the most part in the semi-arid western regions of the country. The availability of ground or surface water in the quantity or quality desired for a conventional wet'' heat rejections system represents a barrier to the development of these resources with the binary cycle technology. This paper investigates some simple strategies to minimize the cooling water usage of binary power plants. The cooling water usage is reduced by increasing the thermal efficiency of the plant. Three methods of accomplishing this are considered here: increasing the average source temperature, by increasing the geofluid outlet temperature; decreasing pinch points on the heat rejection heat exchangers, increasing their size; and using internal recuperation within the cycle. In addition to the impact on water usage, the impact on cost-of-electricity is determined. The paper shows that some of these strategies can reduce the cooling water requirements 20 to 30% over that for a plant similar to the Heber Binary Plant, with a net reduction in the cost-of-electricity of about 15%. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bliem, C.J.; Mines, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Energy Basics: Absorption Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption...

405

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Energy Basics: Cooling Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the...

408

Process Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers have been on the scene for more than 50 years. It is because they have proven to be an economic choice for waste heat dissipation. But it seems, for some reason, that after installation very little attention is paid to the cooling-tower and its effect on plant operating efficiency and production. This paper will describe the value of working with a cooling tower specialist to establish the physical and thermal potential of an existing cooling tower. It also demonstrates that a repair and thermal upgrade project to improve efficiency will have a better than average return on investment.

McCann, C. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Comparative report: performance of active solar space cooling systems, 1982 cooling season  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides a detailed analysis of solar absorption cooling and solar Rankine cooling processes as represented by the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) systems. Five solar cooling systems were monitored in 1982; four of these have absorption chillers and one has a Rankine engine. Of the four absorption chillers, two are directly solar fired and two are boiler fired using solar energy as the preheat to the boiler. The composite data for the five sites covers the period from September 1981 through December 1982. There are 36 site months of data covered in the report. These are all commercial systems with buildings ranging in size from 5000 to 84,000 square feet. There are three evacuated-tube, one flat-plate, and one linear concentrating collector systems. Analyses performed for which comparative data is provided include: Energy savings and operating costs in terms of Btu; Overall solar cooling efficiency and coefficient of performance; Hourly building cooling loads; Actual and long-term weather conditions; Collector performance; Chiller performance; Normalized building cooling loads per cooling degree-day and building area; and Cooling solar fractions, design and measured. Conclusions and lessons learned from the comparative analysis are presented.

Logee, T.; Kendall, P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Feasibility of a hybrid cooling system in a thermal power plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of introducing a hybrid cooling system in a thermal power plant is investigated with an aim to reduce water use with a minimum impact on plant performance. A number of cooling systems have been modelled including existing evaporative ... Keywords: cooling, hybrid cooling, power station, sustainable water consumption

C. R. Williams; M. G. Rasul

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Heat-activated cooling devices: A guidebook for general audiences  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Heat-activated cooling is refrigeration or air conditioning driven by heat instead of electricity. A mill or processing facility can us its waste fuel to air condition its offices or plant; using waste fuel in this way can save money. The four basic types of heat-activated cooling systems available today are absorption cycle, desiccant system, steam jet ejector, and steam turbine drive. Each is discussed, along with cool storage and biomass boilers. Steps in determining the feasibility of heat-activated cooling are discussed, as are biomass conversion, system cost and integration, permits, and contractor selection. Case studies are given.

Wiltsee, G.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Cool Storage Technology Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is a fact that avoiding load growth is cheaper than constructing new power plants. Cool storage technologies offer one method for strategically stemming the impact of future peak demand growth. This guide provides a comprehensive resource for understanding and evaluating cool storage technologies.

2000-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

414

Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems cause significant loss of availability and heat rate degradation in both nuclear and fossil-fired power plants. Twenty-one papers presented at a 2003 conference in Charleston, South Carolina discussed industrial experience and provided case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions.

2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

415

Overview and Low Cost Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... The major reason that there is not more widespread use of titanium and its alloys is the high cost. Developments in reducing the cost of titanium ...

416

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

417

Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

Narumanchi, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

419

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

422

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

424

Hydronic rooftop cooling systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

425

Winter, a valuable cooling energy resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Frigid winters can now be thought of as a valuable energy resource. Ice frozen naturally during the winter could prove to be an energy-saving summertime blessing for cost-conscious owners of buildings or homes in the near future. Modern techniques involve freezing large blocks of ice in insulated storage tanks under or near the building to be cooled. Cooling with winter's ice is an idea whose time has come. The author discusses some methods of growing blocks of ice. These methods under development at various research organizations are heat pipes, layer by layer, earth freezing, and water spray.

Gorski, A.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Space cooling demands from office plug loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Undersizing space cooling systems for office buildings can result in uncomfortable and angry tenants on peak cooling days. However, oversizing wastes money because more capacity is installed than is needed, and oversized systems have a lower energy efficiency which makes operating costs higher than necessary. Oversizing can adversely affect comfort as well, because oversized systems may provide poor humidity control and large temperature variations. Correct system sizing requires estimating building heat loads accurately. This paper discusses the heat load generated by the plug load, which includes any electrical equipment that is plugged into outlets.

Komor, P.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Reducing Building Operational Cost through Environmental Effectiveness...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

O'Donnell Date: August 26, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The introduction of EU directives 200291EC and 200387EC both prompt a reduction in energy consumption from...

428

Advances in Beam Cooling for Muon Colliders  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A six-dimensional (6D) ionization cooling channel based on helical magnets surrounding RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas is the basis for the latest plans for muon colliders. This helical cooling channel (HCC) has solenoidal, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole magnetic fields, where emittance exchange is achieved by using a continuous homogeneous absorber. Momentum-dependent path length differences in the dense hydrogen energy absorber provide the required correlation between momentum and ionization loss to accomplish longitudinal cooling. Recent studies of an 800 MHz RF cavity pressurized with hydrogen, as would be used in this application, show that the maximum gradient is not limited by a large external magnetic field, unlike vacuum cavities. Two new cooling ideas, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling and Reverse Emittance Exchange, will be employed to further reduce transverse emittances to a few mm-mr, which allows high luminosity with fewer muons than previously imagined. We describe these new ideas as well as a new precooling idea based on a HCC with z dependent fields that is being developed for an exceptional 6D cooling demonstration experiment. The status of the designs, simulations, and tests of the cooling components for a high luminosity, low emittance muon collider will be reviewed.

R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Optimized Design of a Furnace Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a case study of manufacturing furnace optimized re-design. The bottleneck in the production process is the cooling of heat treatment furnaces. These ovens are on an approximate 24-hour cycle, heating for 12 hours and cooling for 12 hours. Pressurized argon and process water are used to expedite cooling. The proposed modifications aim to minimize cycling by reducing cooling time; they are grouped into three fundamental mechanisms. The first is a recommendation to modify current operating procedures. This entails opening the furnace doors at higher than normal temperatures. A furnace temperature model based on current parameters is used to show the reduction in cooling time in response to opening the furnace doors at higher temperatures. The second mechanism considers the introduction of forced argon convection. Argon is used in the process to mitigate part oxidation. Cycling argon through the furnace during cooling increases convection over the parts and removes heat from the furnace envelope. Heat transfer models based on convective Nusselt correlations are used to determine the increase in heat transfer rate. The last mechanism considers a modification to the current heat exchanger. By decreasing the temperature of the water jacket and increasing heat exchanger efficiency, heat transfer from the furnace is increased and cooling time is shortened. This analysis is done using the Effectiveness-NTU method.

Morelli, F.; Bretschneider, R.; Dauzat, J.; Guymon, M.; Studebaker, J.; Rasmussen, B. P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

LOW COST HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER (HPWH)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water heating accounts for the second largest portion of residential building energy consumption, after space conditioning. Existing HPWH products are a technical success, with demonstrated energy savings of 50% or more compared with standard electric resistance water heaters. However, current HPWHs available on the market cost an average of $1000 or more, which is too expensive for significant market penetration. What is needed is a method to reduce the first cost of HPWHs, so that the payback period will be reduced from 8 years to a period short enough for the market to accept this technology. A second problem with most existing HPWH products is the reliability issue associated with the pump and water loop needed to circulate cool water from the storage tank to the HPWH condenser. Existing integral HPWHs have the condenser wrapped around the water tank and thus avoid the pump and circulation issues but require a relatively complex and expensive manufacturing process. A more straightforward potentially less costly approach to the integral, single package HPWH design is to insert the condenser directly into the storage tank, or immersed direct heat exchanger (IDX). Initial development of an IDX HPWH met technical performance goals, achieving measured efficiencies or energy factors (EF) in excess of 1.79. In comparison conventional electric water heaters (EWH) have EFs of about 0.9. However, the initial approach required a 2.5" hole on top of the tank for insertion of the condenser - much larger than the standard openings typically provided. Interactions with water heater manufacturers indicated that the non standard hole size would likely lead to increased manufacturing costs (at least initially) and largely eliminate any cost advantage of the IDX approach. Recently we have been evaluating an approach to allow use of a standard tank hole size for insertion of the IDX condenser. Laboratory tests of a prototype have yielded an EF of 2.02.

Mei, Vince C [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Breaking Barriers to Low-Cost Modular Inverter Production & Use  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this cost share contract is to advance key technologies to reduce size, weight and cost while enhancing performance and reliability of Modular Inverter Product for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Efforts address technology development to meet technical needs of DER market protection, isolation, reliability, and quality. Program activities build on SatCon Technology Corporation inverter experience (e.g., AIPM, Starsine, PowerGate) for Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, Energy Storage applications. Efforts focused four technical areas, Capacitors, Cooling, Voltage Sensing and Control of Parallel Inverters. Capacitor efforts developed a hybrid capacitor approach for conditioning SatCon's AIPM unit supply voltages by incorporating several types and sizes to store energy and filter at high, medium and low frequencies while minimizing parasitics (ESR and ESL). Cooling efforts converted the liquid cooled AIPM module to an air-cooled unit using augmented fin, impingement flow cooling. Voltage sensing efforts successfully modified the existing AIPM sensor board to allow several, application dependent configurations and enabling voltage sensor galvanic isolation. Parallel inverter control efforts realized a reliable technique to control individual inverters, connected in a parallel configuration, without a communication link. Individual inverter currents, AC and DC, were balanced in the paralleled modules by introducing a delay to the individual PWM gate pulses. The load current sharing is robust and independent of load types (i.e., linear and nonlinear, resistive and/or inductive). It is a simple yet powerful method for paralleling both individual devices dramatically improves reliability and fault tolerance of parallel inverter power systems. A patent application has been made based on this control technology.

Bogdan Borowy; Leo Casey; Jerry Foshage; Steve Nichols; Jim Perkinson

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Breaking Barriers to Low-Cost Modular Inverter Production & Use  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this cost share contract is to advance key technologies to reduce size, weight and cost while enhancing performance and reliability of Modular Inverter Product for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Efforts address technology development to meet technical needs of DER market protection, isolation, reliability, and quality. Program activities build on SatCon Technology Corporation inverter experience (e.g., AIPM, Starsine, PowerGate) for Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, Energy Storage applications. Efforts focused four technical areas, Capacitors, Cooling, Voltage Sensing and Control of Parallel Inverters. Capacitor efforts developed a hybrid capacitor approach for conditioning SatCon's AIPM unit supply voltages by incorporating several types and sizes to store energy and filter at high, medium and low frequencies while minimizing parasitics (ESR and ESL). Cooling efforts converted the liquid cooled AIPM module to an air-cooled unit using augmented fin, impingement flow cooling. Voltage sensing efforts successfully modified the existing AIPM sensor board to allow several, application dependent configurations and enabling voltage sensor galvanic isolation. Parallel inverter control efforts realized a reliable technique to control individual inverters, connected in a parallel configuration, without a communication link. Individual inverter currents, AC and DC, were balanced in the paralleled modules by introducing a delay to the individual PWM gate pulses. The load current sharing is robust and independent of load types (i.e., linear and nonlinear, resistive and/or inductive). It is a simple yet powerful method for paralleling both individual devices dramatically improves reliability and fault tolerance of parallel inverter power systems. A patent application has been made based on this control technology.

Bogdan Borowy; Leo Casey; Jerry Foshage; Steve Nichols; Jim Perkinson

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

Kansas City Power and Light - Cool Homes Residential Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Kansas City Power and Light - Cool Homes Residential Rebate Program Kansas City Power and Light - Cool Homes Residential Rebate Program Kansas City Power and Light - Cool Homes Residential Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Missouri Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount SEER 14/15: $650 SEER 16/Greater: $850 Provider Kansas City Power and Light Kansas City Power and Light (KCP&L) offers rebates to residential customers to help offset the cost of replacing inefficient central AC and heat pump systems with newer, more efficient models. In order to qualify for a rebate, the system being replaced must have an EER of 8.0 or less, as tested by a CheckMe!-trained HVAC contractor. The replacement of "dead"

434

Reduces electric energy consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

implementation of the assessment recommendations is estimated to be $843,000 with a total implementation cost. Manufacturing at the facility includes both casting and extrusion processes. Process equipment, air compressors productivity. As a result, facility production costs can be reduced and profits can be increased. August 2001

435

RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Gemmer, Bob [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Scheihing, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Yahoo! Compute Coop (YCC): A Next-Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Yahoo! Compute Coop (YCC) project is to research, design, build and implement a greenfield "efficient data factory" and to specifically demonstrate that the YCC concept is feasible for large facilities housing tens of thousands of heat-producing computing servers. The project scope for the Yahoo! Compute Coop technology includes: - Analyzing and implementing ways in which to drastically decrease energy consumption and waste output. - Analyzing the laws of thermodynamics and implementing naturally occurring environmental effects in order to maximize the "free-cooling" for large data center facilities. "Free cooling" is the direct usage of outside air to cool the servers vs. traditional "mechanical cooling" which is supplied by chillers or other Dx units. - Redesigning and simplifying building materials and methods. - Shortening and simplifying build-to-operate schedules while at the same time reducing initial build and operating costs. Selected for its favorable climate, the greenfield project site is located in Lockport, NY. Construction on the 9.0 MW critical load data center facility began in May 2009, with the fully operational facility deployed in September 2010. The relatively low initial build cost, compatibility with current server and network models, and the efficient use of power and water are all key features that make it a highly compatible and globally implementable design innovation for the data center industry. Yahoo! Compute Coop technology is designed to achieve 99.98% uptime availability. This integrated building design allows for free cooling 99% of the year via the building�¢����s unique shape and orientation, as well as server physical configuration.

Robison, AD; Page, Christina; Lytle, Bob

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

437

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

438

Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Thermal Performance of Phase-Change Wallboard for Residential Cooling Cooling residential buildings in milder climates contributes significantly to peak demand mainly because of poor load factors. Peak cooling load determines the size of equipment and the cooling source. Several measures reduce cooling-system size and allow the use of lower-energy cooling sources; they include incorporating exterior walls or other elements that effectively shelter interiors from outside heat and cold, and providing thermal mass, to cool interior spaces during the day by absorbing heat and warm them at night as the mass discharges its heat. Thermal mass features may be used for storage only or serve as structural elements. Concrete, steel, adobe, stone, and brick all satisfy requirements

439

Overview: Home Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

than earlier models. Dehumidifying heat pipes can help an air conditioner remove humidity and more efficiently cool the air. Radiant Cooling Radiant cooling cools a floor or...

440

Enhanced Prediction Techniques Based on Time-Accurate Simulations for Turbine Blade Internal Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance Computational Fluid-Thermal Science & Engineering Lab Performance Computational Fluid-Thermal Science & Engineering Lab utsr.dkt.oct05 Enhanced Prediction Techniques Based on Time-Accurate Simulations for Turbine Blade Internal Cooling Danesh Tafti SCIES Project 02- 01- SR100 DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT DE-FC26-02NT41431 Tom J. George, Program Manager, DOE/NETL Richard Wenglarz, Manager of Research, SCIES Project Awarded (5/1/02, 36 Month Duration) $ 331,430 Total Contract Value ($331,430 DOE) High Performance Computational Fluid-Thermal Science & Engineering Lab utsr.dkt.oct05 Gas Turbine Need * Need for higher thermal efficiencies result in higher gas temperatures * Cooling technologies critical for increased durability * Reliable prediction tools for design - reduce costs High Performance Computational Fluid-Thermal Science & Engineering Lab

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reducing cooling costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.