National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for reduced wide-scale blackouts

  1. Blackout 2003: Blackout Final Implementation Report | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Blackout Final Implementation Report Blackout 2003: Blackout Final Implementation Report Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations PDF icon Blackout Final Implementation Report More Documents & Publications Blackout 2003: The August 14, 2003 Blackout One Year Later: Actions Taken in the United States and Canada To Reduce Blackout Risk D:\0myfiles\Blackout Progress\Blackout-Progress.vp U.S. - Canada Power System Outage Task Force:

  2. D:\0myfiles\Blackout Progress\Blackout-Progress.vp | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    D:\0myfiles\Blackout Progress\Blackout-Progress.vp D:\0myfiles\Blackout Progress\Blackout-Progress.vp PDF icon D:\0myfiles\Blackout Progress\Blackout-Progress.vp More Documents & Publications Blackout 2003: The August 14, 2003 Blackout One Year Later: Actions Taken in the United States and Canada To Reduce Blackout Risk U.S. - Canada Power System Outage Task Force: Final Report on the Implementation of Task Force Recommendations Blackout 2003: Blackout Final Implementation Report

  3. Blackout 2003: The August 14, 2003 Blackout One Year Later: Actions Taken

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in the United States and Canada To Reduce Blackout Risk | Department of Energy The August 14, 2003 Blackout One Year Later: Actions Taken in the United States and Canada To Reduce Blackout Risk Blackout 2003: The August 14, 2003 Blackout One Year Later: Actions Taken in the United States and Canada To Reduce Blackout Risk A report to the US-Canada Power System Outage Task Force on steps taken in the United States and Canada to reduce blackout risk one year after the August 14, 2003 blackout.

  4. D:\0myfiles\Blackout Progress\Blackout-Progress.vp

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    August 14, 2003 Blackout One Year Later: Actions Taken in the United States and Canada To Reduce Blackout Risk Report to the U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force Natural Resources Canada U.S. Department of Energy August 13, 2004 The August 14, 2003 Blackout One Year Later: Actions Taken in the United States and Canada To Reduce Blackout Risk Report to the U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force August 13, 2004 Natural Resources Canada U.S. Department of Energy Acknowledgments As

  5. Blackout 2003: The August 14, 2003 Blackout One Year Later: Actions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A report to the US-Canada Power System Outage Task Force on steps taken in the United States and Canada to reduce blackout risk one year after the August 14, 2003 blackout. Report...

  6. Exploring Complex Systems Aspects of Blackout Risk and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, David E [University of Alaska; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2011-01-01

    Electric power transmission systems are a key infrastructure, and blackouts of these systems have major consequences for the economy and national security. Analyses of blackout data suggest that blackout size distributions have a power law form over much of their range. This result is an indication that blackouts behave as a complex dynamical system. We use a simulation of an upgrading power transmission system to investigate how these complex system dynamics impact the assessment and mitigation of blackout risk. The mitigation of failures in complex systems needs to be approached with care. The mitigation efforts can move the system to a new dynamic equilibrium while remaining near criticality and preserving the power law region. Thus, while the absolute frequency of blackouts of all sizes may be reduced, the underlying forces can still cause the relative frequency of large blackouts to small blackouts to remain the same. Moreover, in some cases, efforts to mitigate small blackouts can even increase the frequency of large blackouts. This result occurs because the large and small blackouts are not mutually independent, but are strongly coupled by the complex dynamics.

  7. Blackout 2003: Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations Blackout 2003: Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United...

  8. The Northeast Blackout of 1965

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vassell, G.S.

    1990-10-11

    Twenty-five years ago, on November 9, 1965, the electric utility industry - and the nation - experienced the biggest power failure in history. While major power outages did happen before and after this unique event, none of them came even close to the Great Northeast Blackout of 1965 - not in terms of the size of the area or the number of people affected, not in terms of the trauma inflicted on the society at large, and not in terms of its impact on the electric utility industry. With our institution memory - as a society - being as short as it is, many of the lessons that were learned by the industry, by the regulators, and by the nation at large in the wake of the Northeast Blackout have been, by now, mostly forgotten. The 25th anniversary of this event offers a unique opportunity, therefore, to refresh our institutional memory in this regard and, by doing so, bring to bear our past experience to the problems of today. This article has been written with this objective in mind and from the perspective of an individual who experienced firsthand - as an active electric utility industry participant - the Northeast Blackout itself, its aftermath, and the subsequent evolution of the industry to the present day.

  9. August 2003 Blackout | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Implementation » August 2003 Blackout August 2003 Blackout General Information Final Report on Implementation of Task Force Recommendations (Issued Oct. 3, 2006) and the press release information Report on Competition v. Reliability per Rec. 12 of Aug. 2004 Blackout Investigation Final Report Draft Report on Implementation of the U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force Recommendations Notice of June 22 Conference For Public Review of Draft Report on Implementation of the U.S. - Canada Power

  10. Are You Prepared for a Blackout? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prepared for a Blackout? Are You Prepared for a Blackout? August 24, 2012 - 2:23pm Addthis Earlier this week, Lynn talked about how you could prepare for a blackout. It's always...

  11. Blackout 2003: U.S. - Canada Task Force Presents Final Report onBlackout of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    August 2003 | Department of Energy U.S. - Canada Task Force Presents Final Report onBlackout of August 2003 Blackout 2003: U.S. - Canada Task Force Presents Final Report onBlackout of August 2003 August 14, 2003, saw the worst blackout in North American history. Today, Spencer Abraham, U.S. Secretary of Energy, and the Honorable R. John Efford, Minister of Natural Resources Canada, released the Final Report of the U.S. -Canada Power System Outage Task Force. PDF icon U.S. - Canada Task Force

  12. Utilities respond to nuclear station blackout rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, A.M.; Beasley, B.; Tenera, L.P

    1990-02-01

    The authors discuss how nuclear plants in the United States have taken actions to respond to the NRC Station Blackout Rule, 10CFR50.63. The rule requires that each light water cooled nuclear power plant licensed to operate must be able to withstand for a specified duration and recover from a station blackout. Station blackout is defined as the complete loss of a-c power to the essential and non-essential switch-gear buses in a nuclear power plant. A station blackout results from the loss of all off-site power as well as the on-site emergency a-c power system. There are two basic approaches to meeting the station blackout rule. One is to cope with a station blackout independent of a-c power. Coping, as it is called, means the ability of a plant to achieve and maintain a safe shutdown condition. The second approach is to provide an alternate a-c power source (AAC).

  13. Station blackout transients in the semiscale facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, J.C.

    1985-12-01

    The test results of station blackout transients conducted in the Semiscale MOD-2B facility are discussed in this report. The Semiscale MOD-2B facility simulates a pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant. The experiments were initiated from conditions typical of PWR plant operating conditions (primary pressure of 15.2 MPa (2205 psi) and cold leg fluid temperature of 550 K (530F)). Five station blackout experiments were conducted, Three tests in the Power Loss (PL) Test Series and the two Primary Boil-off (PBO) Tests. The responses of these tests were analyzed and compared. However, only one test response (S-PL-2) is presented and discussed in detail. The S-PL-2 experiment is characterized by examining the responses of the primary and secondary pressures and fluid temperatures, the pressurizer liquid level, the primary fluid distribution, and the core thermal behavior. The mechanisms driving the S-PL-2 responses, the main elements of the station blackout transient, the influences of initial and boundary conditions and other transient that may appear similar to a station blackout are also discussed. Information pertinent to station blackout nuclear safety issues is presented in the report. 13 refs., 44 figs.

  14. D:\0myfiles\DOE Policy (LBL) Blackout Final\final-blackout-body-xx.vp

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Canada Power System Outage Task Force Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations April 2004 U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations April 2004 ii G U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force G August 14th Blackout: Causes and Recommendations G U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force March 31, 2004 Dear Mr. President and Prime

  15. Blackout 2003: Electric System Working Group Technical Conference -

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Comments and Recommendations | Department of Energy Electric System Working Group Technical Conference - Comments and Recommendations Blackout 2003: Electric System Working Group Technical Conference - Comments and Recommendations December 16, 2003 Electric System Working Group Technical Conference, Philadelphia PA - Summary of comments and recommendations relating to the aftermath of the August 2003 blackout. PDF icon Recommendations More Documents & Publications Blackout 2003:

  16. Second Anniversary of Northeast Blackout Marked with Progress | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Anniversary of Northeast Blackout Marked with Progress Second Anniversary of Northeast Blackout Marked with Progress August 12, 2005 - 2:41pm Addthis Electric Reliability Standards Made Clearer and Enforceable WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today marked the second anniversary of the Northeast blackout during which 50 million Americans lost electricity by highlighting important progress that has been made to make North American electricity grids more reliable.

  17. Blackout 2003: Transcript of Technical Conference with the Electric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    consultation Transcript of the technical conference sponsored by the U.S. Canada task force investigating the August 14, 2003 blackout across Canada and the...

  18. Blackout 2003: Conference for public review draft report on implementa...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conference for public review draft report on implementation of the task force recommendations Blackout 2003: Conference for public review draft report on implementation of the task...

  19. Blackout 2003: Summary of Comments from Forum and Email | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Summary of Comments from Forum and Email Blackout 2003: Summary of Comments from Forum and Email This Excel file is a summary of all comments and recommendations received by DOE on the Blackout Report via email and the Blackout Forum as of 1-12-04. PDF icon Summary of Comments from Forum and Email More Documents & Publications Blackout 2003: Blackout Final Implementation Report Blackout 2003: Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and

  20. 10 Years after the 2003 Northeast Blackout

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ten years ago today, large portions of the Midwest and Northeast United States and into Canada went dark. The cascading event, which started shortly after 4:00 PM on August 14, 2003, ended up affecting an estimated 50 million people. For some customers, power was not restored for nearly four days. The Department of Energy and Natural Resources Canada jointly commissioned a task force that examined the underlying causes of the blackout and recommended forty-six actions to enhance the reliability of the North American power system. A number of the recommendations were incorporated into law passed by Congress and enacted in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Infrastructure Security Act of 2007.

  1. Determination of station blackout frequency-duration relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griggs, D.P.; Riggs, B.K.; Balakrishna, S.

    1986-01-01

    Station blackout is the loss of all alternating current (ac) power to the essential and nonessential electrical buses in a nuclear power plant. This generally involves the loss of redundant off-site power sources and the failure of two or more emergency diesel generators (EDGs). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed requiring all commercial reactors to have the capability of coping with a station blackout of a specified duration. The NRC has also proposed 4 or 8 h as acceptable durations, depending on plant susceptibility to the occurrence of station blackout events. Analyses were performed to determine expected station blackout frequencies representative of a majority of domestic nuclear power plants. A methodology based on that developed by the NRC was used. Representative industry data for loss of off-site power (LOOP) events and EDG reliability were used in the analyses.

  2. Blackout 2003: Transcript of Technical Conference with the Electric System

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Investigation Team | Department of Energy Transcript of Technical Conference with the Electric System Investigation Team Blackout 2003: Transcript of Technical Conference with the Electric System Investigation Team Electric System Investigation Team: 8 Reliability Recommendation consultation Transcript of the technical conference sponsored by the U.S. Canada task force investigating the August 14, 2003 blackout across Canada and the Northeastern United States. The transcript includes reports

  3. Loss of pressurizer water level during station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griggs, D.P.; Riggs, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Station blackout is the loss of all alternating current (ac) power to both the essential and nonessential electrical buses in a nuclear power plant. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed a requirement that all plants be capable of maintaining adequate core cooling during station blackout events lasting a specified duration. The NRC has also suggested acceptable specified durations of four or eight hours, depending on individual plant susceptibility to blackout events. In a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the occurrence of a station blackout event results in the functional loss of many plant components, including main feedwater, reactor coolant pumps, the emergency core cooling system, and pressurizer heaters and spray. Nevertheless, PWRs have the capability of removing decay heat for some period of time using steam-driven auxiliary feedwater pumps and the natural-circulation capability of the primary system. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the early response of a PWR to station blackout conditions. In particular, the effect of primary coolant shrinkage and inventory loss on pressurizer level is examined to gain insight into the operational and analytical issues associated with the proposed station blackout coping requirement.

  4. Blackout 2003: Final Report on the August 14, 2003 Blackout in the United States and Canada: Causes and Recommendations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Task Force has completed a thorough investigation of the causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout and has recommended actions to minimize the likelihood and scope of similar events in the future.

  5. How to Prepare Your Home for a Blackout | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Your Home for a Blackout How to Prepare Your Home for a Blackout August 20, 2012 - 7:19pm Addthis Lynn Meyer Presidential Management Fellow, Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  6. Initial Evidence for Self-Organized Criticality in Electric Power System Blackouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carreras, B.A.; Dobson, I.; Newman, D.E.; Poole, A.B.

    2000-01-04

    We examine correlations in a time series of electric power system blackout sizes using scaled window variance analysis and R/S statistics. The data shows some evidence of long time correlations and has Hurst exponent near 0.7. Large blackouts tend to correlate with further large blackouts after a long time interval. Similar effects are also observed in many other complex systems exhibiting self-organized criticality. We discuss this initial evidence and possible explanations for self-organized criticality in power systems blackouts. Self-organized criticality, if fully confirmed in power systems, would suggest new approaches to understanding and possibly controlling blackouts.

  7. Complex systems analysis of series of blackouts: cascading failure, critical points, and self-organization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska

    2007-01-01

    We give an overview of a complex systems approach to large blackouts of electric power transmission systems caused by cascading failure. Instead of looking at the details of particular blackouts, we study the statistics and dynamics of series of blackouts with approximate global models. Blackout data from several countries suggest that the frequency of large blackouts is governed by a power law. The power law makes the risk of large blackouts consequential and is consistent with the power system being a complex system designed and operated near a critical point. Power system overall loading or stress relative to operating limits is a key factor affecting the risk of cascading failure. Power system blackout models and abstract models of cascading failure show critical points with power law behavior as load is increased. To explain why the power system is operated near these critical points and inspired by concepts from self-organized criticality, we suggest that power system operating margins evolve slowly to near a critical point and confirm this idea using a power system model. The slow evolution of the power system is driven by a steady increase in electric loading, economic pressures to maximize the use of the grid, and the engineering responses to blackouts that upgrade the system. Mitigation of blackout risk should account for dynamical effects in complex self-organized critical systems. For example, some methods of suppressing small blackouts could ultimately increase the risk of large blackouts.

  8. Estimating Failure Propagation in Models of Cascading Blackouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, Ian [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Carreras, Benjamin A [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; Nkei, Bertrand [ORNL; Newman, David E [University of Alaska

    2005-09-01

    We compare and test statistical estimates of failure propagation in data from versions of a probabilistic model of loading-dependent cascading failure and a power systems blackout model of cascading transmission line overloads. The comparisons suggest mechanisms affecting failure propagation and are an initial step towards monitoring failure propagation from practical system data. Approximations to the probabilistic model describe the forms of probability distributions of cascade sizes.

  9. Blackout 2003: Conference for public review draft report on implementation

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the task force recommendations | Department of Energy Conference for public review draft report on implementation of the task force recommendations Blackout 2003: Conference for public review draft report on implementation of the task force recommendations On Thursday, June 22, in Washington, D.C., the U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force will hold a conference for stakeholders and the public to comment on the draft of the final report of the Task Force. The draft report assesses

  10. Comparative Study of Station Blackout Counterpart Tests in APEX and ROSA/AP600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lafi, Abd Y.; Reyes, Jose N. Jr. [Oregon State University (United States)

    2000-05-15

    A comparison is presented between station blackout tests conducted in both the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) facility and in the modified Rig of Safety Assessment (ROSA/AP600) Large-Scale Test Facility. The comparison includes the depressurization and liquid-level behavior during secondary-side blowdown, natural circulation, automatic depressurization system operation, and in-containment refueling water storage tank injection. Reasonable agreement between the test results from APEX NRC-2 and ROSA/AP600 AP-BO-01 has been observed with respect to the timing of depressurization and liquid draining rates. This indicates that the reduced height and pressure scaling of APEX preserves the sequence of events relative to the full-height and pressure ROSA/AP600.

  11. Reproducing continuous radio blackout using glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Kai; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Donglin; Shao, Mingxu [School of Aerospace Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071 (China)] [School of Aerospace Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071 (China); Zhang, Hanlu [School of Communication and Information Engineering, Xi'an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi'an 710121 (China)] [School of Communication and Information Engineering, Xi'an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi'an 710121 (China)

    2013-10-15

    A novel plasma generator is described that offers large-scale, continuous, non-magnetized plasma with a 30-cm-diameter hollow structure, which provides a path for an electromagnetic wave. The plasma is excited by a low-pressure glow discharge, with varying electron densities ranging from 10{sup 9} to 2.5 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?3}. An electromagnetic wave propagation experiment reproduced a continuous radio blackout in UHF-, L-, and S-bands. The results are consistent with theoretical expectations. The proposed method is suitable in simulating a plasma sheath, and in researching communications, navigation, electromagnetic mitigations, and antenna compensation in plasma sheaths.

  12. Assessing the Benefits of On-Site Combined Heat and Power During the August 14, 2003, Blackout, June 2004

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This June 2004 report summarizes the experiences of 12 combined heat and power facilities during the August 14, 2003, blackout

  13. Thermohydraulic and Safety Analysis for CARR Under Station Blackout Accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenxi Tian; Suizheng Qiu; Guanghui Su; Dounan Jia [Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning Road, Xi'an 710049 (China); Xingmin Liu - China Institute of Atomic Energy

    2006-07-01

    A thermohydraulic and safety analysis code (TSACC) has been developed using Fortran 90 language to evaluate the transient thermohydraulic behaviors and safety characteristics of the China Advanced Research Reactor(CARR) under Station Blackout Accident(SBA). For the development of TSACC, a series of corresponding mathematical and physical models were considered. Point reactor neutron kinetics model was adopted for solving reactor power. All possible flow and heat transfer conditions under station blackout accident were considered and the optional models were supplied. The usual Finite Difference Method (FDM) was abandoned and a new model was adopted to evaluate the temperature field of core plate type fuel element. A new simple and convenient equation was proposed for the resolution of the transient behaviors of the main pump instead of the complicated four-quadrant model. Gear method and Adams method were adopted alternately for a better solution to the stiff differential equations describing the dynamic behaviors of the CARR. The computational result of TSACC showed the enough safety margin of CARR under SBA. For the purpose of Verification and Validation (V and V), the simulated results of TSACC were compared with those of Relap5/Mdo3. The V and V result indicated a good agreement between the results by the two codes. Because of the adoption of modular programming techniques, this analysis code is expected to be applied to other reactors by easily modifying the corresponding function modules. (authors)

  14. Potential failure of steam generator tubes following a station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, L.W.; Palmrose, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is considering changes to pressurized water reactor (PWR) requirements relating to steam generator tube plugging and repair criteria, including leakage monitoring. The proposed changes are known as the alternate tube plugging criteria (APC) and are intended to permit PWRs to operate with through-wall cracks in steam generator tubes subject to meeting a specified limit on predicted primary to secondary leakage under accident conditions. To assess the consequences of the alternate plugging criteria, analyses were performed for a station blackout sequence in which the reactor core melts while the reactor coolant system (RCS) remains at high pressure. Evaluations were conducted to investigate the potential for tube failure with and without secondary system depressurization. The excessive heat coupled with the high-pressure differentials across the steam generator tubes could result in creep rupture failure of the tubes during a severe accident, which could lead to a radiological release directly to the environment. In order to assess the safety significance of the APC, it is important to identify the level of steam generator tube leakage that can occur without challenging the previous study conclusions that steam generator creep failure will not occur prior to a surge line or hot-leg failure. To assess the effect of leakage on steam generator tube integrity during a core melt sequence with the RCS at high pressure and the secondary side of the steam generators pressurized and depressurized, an analysis was performed for a core melt event resulting from an unmitigated station blackout to identify the total steamenerator and tube leakage flow rates that could induce tube ruptures prior to other RCS boudary faliures that could depressurize the RCS.

  15. Planning for the Next Blackout: Optimizing the Use of Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glickman, Joan A.; Herrera, Shawn; Kline, Keith F.; Warwick, William M.

    2004-12-01

    Given recent blackouts and concerns of terrorist attacks, some public and private organizations are taking steps to produce their own heating, cooling, and power in the event of future, potentially prolonged, outages. For example, military installations, such as Fort Bragg in North Carolina, and the Marine Task Force Training Command in Twentynine Palms, California, turned to combined heat and power and other distributed energy technologies to reduce costs and simultaneously manage their energy and reliability needs. While these individual efforts can help ensure reliability for these facilities, public policies continue to discourage most individual public and private entities from making such investments. As a result, communities across the country are not adequately prepared to protect human health and ensure safety in the event of a prolonged emergency. Significant cost savings and social benefits can accrue if parties interested in emergency preparedness, energy efficiency, and environmentally preferred technologies, come together to identify and implement win-win solutions. This paper offers recommendations to help federal, state, and local governments, along with utilities, jointly plan and invest in cleaner distributed energy technologies to address growing reliability needs as well as environmental and emergency preparedness concerns.

  16. Data Management Issues Associated with the August 14, 2003 Blackout Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2004-06-10

    The largest blackout in the history of the North American electric power grid occurred on August 14, 2003. An extensive investigation into what happened (and why) began immediately. The joint U.S.-Canada task force led the effort, including support from the electric utility industry and several federal agencies, e.g. the U.S. Department of Energy. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) supported the task force, including particularly the electricity working group. The overall blackout investigation team drew expertise from a large number of organizations, assembled into teams to address specific attributes of the blackout. This paper describes the data management issues associated with supporting the blackout investigation, beginning with the immediate response in the days and weeks following the blackout, supporting the interim report [1], to the long-term plans for deriving lessons learned for implementing improvements in the overall process of outage disturbance reporting. The sole focus of this paper is the electricity working group activities at NERC; the security and nuclear working groups are outside the scope of this paper.

  17. Enhancement of NRC station blackout requirements for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) in response to Commission direction to conduct a systematic and methodical review of NRC processes and regulations to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission for its policy direction, in light of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The NTTF's review resulted in a set of recommendations that took a balanced approach to defense-in-depth as applied to low-likelihood, high-consequence events such as prolonged station blackout (SBO) resulting from severe natural phenomena. Part 50, Section 63, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 'Loss of All Alternating Current Power,' currently requires that each nuclear power plant must be able to cool the reactor core and maintain containment integrity for a specified duration of an SBO. The SBO duration and mitigation strategy for each nuclear power plant is site specific and is based on the robustness of the local transmission system and the transmission system operator's capability to restore offsite power to the nuclear power plant. With regard to SBO, the NTTF recommended that the NRC strengthen SBO mitigation capability at all operating and new reactors for design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NTTF also recommended strengthening emergency preparedness for prolonged SBO and multi-unit events. These recommendations, taken together, are intended to clarify and strengthen US nuclear reactor safety regarding protection against and mitigation of the consequences of natural disasters and emergency preparedness during SBO. The focus of this paper is on the existing SBO requirements and NRC initiatives to strengthen SBO capability at all operating and new reactors to address prolonged SBO stemming from design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NRC initiatives are intended to enhance core and spent fuel pool cooling, reactor coolant system integrity, and containment integrity. (authors)

  18. Study of a Station Blackout Event in the PWR Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ching-Hui Wu; Tsu-Jen Lin; Tsu-Mu Kao [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research P.O. Box 3-3, Longtan, 32500, Taiwan (China)

    2002-07-01

    On March 18, 2001, a PWR nuclear power plant located in the Southern Taiwan occurred a Station Blackout (SBO) event. Monsoon seawater mist caused the instability of offsite power grids. High salt-contained mist caused offsite power supply to the nuclear power plant very unstable, and forced the plant to be shutdown. Around 24 hours later, when both units in the plant were shutdown, several inadequate high cycles of bus transfer between 345 kV and 161 kV startup transformers degraded the emergency 4.16 kV switchgears. Then, in the Train-A switchgear room of Unit 1 occurred a fire explosion, when the degraded switchgear was hot shorted at the in-coming 345 kV breaker. Inadequate configuration arrangement of the offsite power supply to the emergency 4.16 kV switchgears led to loss of offsite power (LOOP) events to both units in the plant. Both emergency diesel generators (EDG) of Unit 1 could not be in service in time, but those of Unit 2 were running well. The SBO event of Unit 1 lasted for about two hours till the fifth EDG (DG-5) was lined-up to the Train-B switchgear. This study investigated the scenario of the SBO event and evaluated a risk profile for the SBO period. Guidelines in the SBO event, suggested by probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) procedures were also reviewed. Many related topics such as the re-configuration of offsite power supply, the addition of isolation breakers of the emergency 4.16 kV switchgears, the betterment of DG-5 lineup design, and enhancement of the reliability of offsite power supply to the PWR plant, etc., will be in further studies. (authors)

  19. Utility perspective on station blackout rule implementation with NUMARC 87-00

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maracek, J.

    1990-01-01

    The development of the station blackout rule involved an unusually high level of cooperation between the industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The industry developed an approach to implementation of the rule in the form of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council's (NUMARC's) Guidelines and Technical Bases for NUMARC Initiatives Addressing Station Blackout at Light Water Reactors (NUMARC 87-00). This document was reviewed and accepted by the NRC staff as a means for meeting the requirements of the station blackout rule. Yet difficulties still arose when individual utilities used the NUMARC 87-00 approach to respond to the rule. This presentation examines the development process and subsequent difficulties and identifies potential improvements for development and implementation of new rules in the future.

  20. Applications of the RELAP5 code to the station blackout transients at the Browns Ferry Unit One Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, R.R.; Wagoner, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    As a part of the charter of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program, station blackout transients have been analyzed using a RELAP5 model of the Browns Ferry Unit 1 Plant. The task was conducted as a partial fulfillment of the needs of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in examining the Unresolved Safety Issue A-44: Station Blackout (1) the station blackout transients were examined (a) to define the equipment needed to maintain a well cooled core, (b) to determine when core uncovery would occur given equipment failure, and (c) to characterize the behavior of the vessel thermal-hydraulics during the station blackout transients (in part as the plant operator would see it). These items are discussed in the paper. Conclusions and observations specific to the station blackout are presented.

  1. The response of BWR Mark II containments to station blackout severe accident sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.R.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Tobias, M.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-05-01

    This report describes the results of a series of calculations conducted to investigate the response of BWR Mark 2 containments to short-term and long-term station blackout severe accident sequences. The BWR-LTAS, BWRSAR, and MELCOR codes were employed to conduct quantitative accident sequence progression and containment response analyses for several station blackout scenarios. The accident mitigation effectiveness of automatic depressurization system actuation, drywell flooding via containment spray operation, and debris quenching in Mark 2 suppression pools is assessed. 27 refs., 16 figs., 21 tabs.

  2. SCDAP severe core-damage studies: BWR ATWS and PWR station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laats, E.T.; Chambers, R.; Driskell, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is addressing a number of accident scenarios that potentially pose a health hazard to the public. Two of the scenarios being analyzed in detail at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are the station blackout at the Bellefonte nuclear plant and the anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) at the Browns Ferry-1 plant. The INEL analyses of the station blackout and ATWS have been divided into four parts, which represent the sequence being followed in this study. First, the evaluation of long term irradiation effects prior to the station blackout or ATWS was conducted using the FRAPCON-2 fuel rod behavior code; second, the reactor primary and secondary coolant system behavior is being analyzed with the RELAP5 code; third, the degradation of the core is being analyzed with the SCDAP code; and finally, the containment building response is being analyzed with the CONTEMPT code. This paper addresses only the SCDAP/MODO degraded core analyses for both the station blackout and ATWS scenarios.

  3. Recovery sequences for a station blackout accident at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Recovery sequences for a low-pressure, short term, station blackout severe accident at the Grand Gulf power plant have been investigated using the computer code MELCOR, version 1.8.3 PN. This paper investigates the effect of reflood timing and mass flow rate on accident recovery.

  4. RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the station blackout experiment conducted at the IIST facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferng, Y.M.; Liu, T.J.; Lee, C.H. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-10-01

    Thermal-hydraulic responses in the station blackout experiment conducted at the IIST facility are simulated through the use of the advanced system code RELAP5/MOD3. Typical behaviors occurring in the IIST station blackout transient are characterized by secondary boiloff, primary saturation and pressurization, and subsequent core uncovery and heatup. As the coolant inventory within the steam generator secondary system boils dry, the primary system pressure increases as a result of degradation of the heat removal ability of the steam generator secondary side. This pressurization phenomenon causes the pressurizer safety valve to open and the primary coolant to deplete through the valve, causing the core to eventually become uncovered. The same response can be exactly simulated by the current model. The current calculated results show fairly good agreement with the experimental data, but the timing of the events occurring in the station blackout transient is calculated earlier than the measured value. The overall comparison of key parameters between the calculated results and IIST test data, however, reveals that the current RELAP5/MOD3 model can provide reasonable station blackout modeling for simulating long-term system behavior.

  5. The Impact of Wide-Scale Implementation of Net Zero-Energy Homes on the Western Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.

    2010-08-16

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study on the impact of wide-scale implementation of net zero-energy homes (ZEHs) in the western grid. Although minimized via utilization of advanced building technologies, ZEHs still consume energy that must be balanced on an annual basis via self-generation of electricity which is commonly assumed to be from rooftop photovoltaics (PV). This results in a ZEH having a significantly different electricity demand profile than a conventional home. Wide-spread implementation of ZEHs will cause absolute demand levels to fall compared to continued use of more conventional facilities; however, the shape of the demand profile will also change significantly. Demand profile changes will lead to changes in the hourly value of electric generation. With significant penetration of ZEHs, it can be expected that ZEHs will face time of day rates or real time pricing that reflect the value of generation and use. This will impact the economics of ZEHs and the optimal design of PV systems for subsequent ZEHs.

  6. An Exploration of Impacts of Wide-Scale Implementation of Net Zero-Energy Homes on the Western Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.

    2010-07-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a study on the impact of wide-scale implementation of net zero-energy homes (ZEHs) in the western grid. Although minimized via utilization of advanced building technologies, ZEHs still consume energy that must be balanced on an annual basis via self-generation of electricity, which is commonly assumed to be from rooftop photovoltaics (PV). This results in a ZEH having a significantly different electricity demand profile than a conventional home. Widespread implementation of ZEHs will cause absolute demand levels to fall compared to continued use of more conventional facilities; however, the shape of the demand profile will also change significantly. Demand profile changes will lead to changes in the hourly value of electric generation. With significant penetration of ZEHs, it can be expected that ZEHs will face time-of-day rates or real-time pricing that reflect the value of generation and use. This will impact the economics of ZEHs and the optimal design of PV systems for subsequent ZEHs.

  7. STEAM LINE BREAK AND STATION BLACKOUT TRANSIENTS FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANT HEXAGONAL TIGHT LATTICE BWR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROHATGI,U.S.; JO,J.; CHUNG,B.D.; TAKAHASHI,H.

    2002-06-09

    Safety analyses of a proliferation resistant, economically competitive, high conversion, boiling water reactor (HCBWR) fueled with fissile plutonium and fertile thorium oxide fuel elements, and with passive safety systems are presented here. The HCBWR developed here is characterized by a very tight lattice with a relatively small water volume fraction in the core which therefore operates with a fast reactor neutron spectrum, and a considerably improved neutron economy compared to the current generation of Light Water Reactors. The tight lattice core has a very narrow flow channels with a hydraulic diameter less than half of the regular BWR core and, thus, presents a special challenge to core cooling, because of reduced water inventory and high friction in the core. The primary safety concern when reducing the moderator to fuel ratio and when using a tightly packed lattice arrangement is to maintain adequate cooling of the core during both normal operation and accident scenarios. In the preliminary HCBWR design, the core has been placed in a vessel with a large chimney section, and the vessel is connected with Isolation Condenser System (ICs). The vessel is placed in containment with Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS) and Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) in a configuration similar to General Electric's Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). The safety systems are similar to SBWR; ICs and PCCS are scaled with power. An internal recirculation pump was placed in the downcomer to augment the buoyancy head provided by the chimney, since the buoyancy provided by the chimney alone could not generate sufficient recirculation in the vessel as the tight lattice configuration resulted in much larger friction in the core than the SBWR. The constitutive relationships for RELAP5 were assessed for narrow channels, and as a result the heat transfer package was modified. The modified RELAP5 was used to simulate and analyze two of the most limiting events for a tight pitch lattice core: the Station Blackout and the Main Steam Line Break events. The results of the analyses indicate that the HCBWR system will be safely brought to the shutdown condition for these transients.

  8. Steam Line Break and Station Blackout Transients for Proliferation Resistant Hexagonal Tight Lattice BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upendra Rohatgi; Jae Jo; Bub Dong Chung; Hiroshi Takahashi [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Energy Sciences and Technology Department, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Downar, T.J. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906-1290 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Safety analyses of a proliferation resistant, economically competitive, high conversion, boiling water reactor (HCBWR) fueled with fissile plutonium and fertile thorium oxide fuel elements, and with passive safety systems are presented here. The HCBWR developed here is characterized by a very tight lattice with a relatively small water volume fraction in the core which therefore operates with a fast reactor neutron spectrum, and a considerably improved neutron economy compared to the current generation of Light Water Reactors. A tight lattice BWR core has very narrow flow channels with a hydraulic diameter less than half of the regular BWR core. The tight lattice core presented a special challenge to core cooling, because of reduced water inventory and high friction in the core. The primary safety concern when reducing the moderator to fuel ratio and when using a tightly packed lattice arrangement is to maintain adequate cooling of the core during both normal operation and accident scenarios. In the preliminary HCBWR design, the core has been placed in a vessel with a large chimney section, and the vessel is connected with an Isolation Cooling System (ICS). The vessel is placed in a containment with a Gravity Driven Cooling System (GDCS) and a Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) in a configuration similar to General Electric's (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). The safety systems are similar to the SBWR; the ICS and PCCS are scaled with power. An internal recirculation pump was placed in the downcomer to augment the buoyancy head provided by the chimney. The buoyancy provided by the chimney alone could not generate sufficient recirculation in the vessel since the tight lattice configuration resulted in much larger friction in the core than the SBWR. A modified RELAP5 Code was used to simulate and analyze two of the most limiting events for a tight pitch lattice core: the Station Blackout and the Main Steam Line Break events. The constitutive relationships for RELAP5 were compared with the correlations and the data available for narrow channels, and the heat transfer package was modified for narrow channel application. The results of the analyses indicate that the HCBWR system will be safely shutdown for these transients. (authors)

  9. MELCOR calculations for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A postulated, low-pressure, short term station blackout severe accident has been analyzed using the MELCOR code for the Grand Gulf nuclear power plant. Different versions have been used with three different models of the plant. This paper presents results of the effects of different plant models and versions of MELCOR on the calculated results and to present the best-estimating timing of events for this transient.

  10. The AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant innovative features for extended station blackout mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vereb, F.; Winters, J.; Schulz, T.; Cummins, E.; Oriani, L. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Station Blackout (SBO) is defined as 'a condition wherein a nuclear power plant sustains a loss of all offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of all onsite emergency alternating current (AC) power system. Station blackout does not include the loss of available AC power to buses fed by station batteries through inverters or by alternate AC sources as defined in this section, nor does it assume a concurrent single failure or design basis accident...' in accordance with Reference 1. In this paper, the innovative features of the AP1000 plant design are described with their operation in the scenario of an extended station blackout event. General operation of the passive safety systems are described as well as the unique features which allow the AP1000 plant to cope for at least 7 days during station blackout. Points of emphasis will include: - Passive safety system operation during SBO - 'Fail-safe' nature of key passive safety system valves; automatically places the valve in a conservatively safe alignment even in case of multiple failures in all power supply systems, including normal AC and battery backup - Passive Spent Fuel Pool cooling and makeup water supply during SBO - Robustness of AP1000 plant due to the location of key systems, structures and components required for Safe Shutdown - Diverse means of supplying makeup water to the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCS) and the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) through use of an engineered, safety-related piping interface and portable equipment, as well as with permanently installed onsite ancillary equipment. (authors)

  11. Postmortem analysis of power grid blackouts - The role of measurement systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-09-01

    Promptly following any blackout, an investigation is conducted to determine the who, what, where, when, why, and how. For system operators, it is important to quickly grasp the scale and magnitude of the event and rapidly restore service. Then a broader set of stakeholders get involved to assess system performance, determine root causes, compile lessons learned, and develop recommendations. At the heart of the post-mortem investigation is the detailed sequence of events. As accurately as possible, investigators need to know what happened and when. Especially during a cascading failure where events occur rapidly, accurate timing is crucial to understanding how the event unfolded so that the root causes can be determined. The sequence of events is based on vast amounts of data collected from multiple points in the system from a myriad of data collection instruments, some devoted to the purpose of supporting system disturbance post mortem analysis, others providing useful additional context or filling in missing gaps. The more that the investigators know about their available sources of data, and the inherent limitations of each, the better (and quicker) will be the analysis. This is especially important when a large blackout has occurred; there is pressure to find answers quickly, but due to the size and complexity of the event, a deliberate and methodical investigation is necessary. This article discusses the role that system monitoring plays in supporting the investigation of large-scale system disruptions and blackouts.

  12. Regulatory/backfit analysis for the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-44, Station Blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1988-06-01

    Station blackout is the complete loss of alternating current (ac) electric power to the essential and nonessential buses in a nuclear power plant; it results when both offsite power and the onsite emergency ac power systems are unavailable. Because many safety systems required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on ac power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. Because of the concern about the frequency of loss of offsite power, the number of failures of emergency diesel generators, and the potentially severe consequences of a loss of all ac power, ''Station Blackout'' was designated as Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44. This report presents the regulatory/backfit analysis for USI A-44. It includes (1) a summary of the issue, (2) the recommended technical resolution, (3) alternative resolutions considered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff, (4) an assessment of the benefits and costs of the recommended resolution, (5) the decision rationale, (6) the relationship between USI A-44 and other NRC programs and requirements, and (7) a backfit analysis demonstrating that the resolution of USI A-44 complies with the backfit rule (10 CFR 50.109).

  13. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-44, Station Blackout. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    ''Station Blackout'' is the complete loss of alternating current (ac) electric power to the essential and nonessential buses in a nuclear power plant; it results when both offsite power and the onsite emergency ac power systems are unavailable. Because many safety systems required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on ac power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. Because of the concern about the frequency of loss of offsite power, the number of failures of emergency diesel generators, and the potentially severe consequences of a loss of all ac power, ''Station Blackout'' was designated as Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44. This report presents the regulatory analysis for USI A-44. It includes: (1) a summary of the issue, (2) the proposed technical resolution, (3) alternative resolutions considered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff, (4) an assessment of the benefits and costs of the recommended resolution, (5) the decision rationale, and (6) the relationship between USI A-44 and other NRC programs and requirements.

  14. Modeling Advanced Neutron Source reactor station blackout accident using RELAP5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, N.C.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fletcher, C.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) system model using RELAP5 has been developed to perform loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and non-LOCA transients as safety-related input for early design considerations. The transients studies include LOCA, station blackout, and reactivity insertion accidents. The small-, medium-, and large-break LOCA results were presented and documented. This paper will focus on the station blackout scenario. The station blackout analyses have concentrated on thermal-hydraulic system response with and without accumulators. Five transient calculations were performed to characterize system performance using various numbers and sizes of accumulators at several key sites. The main findings will be discussed with recommendations for conceptual design considerations. ANS is a state-of-the-art research reactor to be built and operated at high heat flux, high mass flux, and high coolant subcooling. To accommodate these features, three ANS-specific changes were made in the RELAP5 code by adding: the Petukhov heat transfer correlation for single-phase forced convection in the thin coolant channel; the Gambill additive method with the Weatherhead wall superheat for the critical heat flux; and the Griffith drift flux model for the interfacial drag in the slug flow regime. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Evaluation of station blackout accidents at nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to unresolved safety issue A-44: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    ''Station Blackout,'' which is the complete loss of alternating current (AC) electrical power in a nuclear power plant, has been designated as Unresolved Safety Issue A-44. Because many safety systems required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on AC power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. This report documents the findings of technical studies performed as part of the program to resolve this issue. The important factors analyzed include: the fequency of loss of offsite power; the probability that emergency or onsite AC power supplies would be unavailable; the capability and reliability of decay heat removal systems independent of AC power; and the likelihood that offsite power would be restored before systems that cannot operate for extended periods without AC power fail, thus resulting in core damage. This report also addresses effects of different designs, locations, and operational features on the estimated frequency of core damage resulting from station blackout events.

  16. Blackout: coal, climate and the last energy crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinberg, R. [Post Carbon Institute in California, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Coal fuels more than 30 per cent of UK electricity production, and about 50 per cent in the US, providing a significant portion of total energy output. China and India's recent ferocious economic growth has been based almost entirely on coal-generated electricity. Coal currently looks like a solution to many of our fast-growing energy problems. However, while coal advocates are urging us full steam ahead, the increasing reliance on this dirtiest of all fossil fuels has crucial implications for energy policy, pollution levels, the global climate, world economy and geopolitics. Drawbacks to a coal-based energy strategy include: Scarcity - new studies suggest that the peak of world coal production may actually be less than two decades away; Cost - the quality of produced coal is declining, while the expense of transportation is rising, leading to spiralling costs and increasing shortages; and, Climate impacts - our ability to deal with the historic challenge of climate change may hinge on reducing coal consumption in future years.

  17. Containment pressurization and burning of combustible gases in a large, dry PWR containment during a station blackout sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.; Fan, C.T. (National Tsing-Hua Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hsinchu (TW))

    1992-07-01

    In this paper, responses of a large, dry pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment in a station blackout sequence are analyzed with the CONTAIN, MARCH3, and MAAP codes. Results show that the predicted containment responses in a station blackout sequence of these three codes are substantially different. Among these predictions, the MAAP code predicts the highest containment pressure because of the large amount of water made available to quench the debris upon vessel failure. The gradual water boiloff by debris pressurizes the containment. The combustible gas burning models in these codes are briefly described and compared.

  18. Station Blackout: A case study in the interaction of mechanistic and probabilistic safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli; Cristian Rabiti

    2013-11-01

    The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margins is important to improved decision making about nuclear power plant design, operation, and plant life extension. As research and development (R&D) in the light-water reactor (LWR) Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margin management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. In this paper, we describe the RISMC analysis process illustrating how mechanistic and probabilistic approaches are combined in order to estimate a safety margin. We use the scenario of a station blackout wherein offsite power and onsite power is lost, thereby causing a challenge to plant safety systems. We describe the RISMC approach, illustrate the station blackout modeling, and contrast this with traditional risk analysis modeling for this type of accident scenario.

  19. ESBWR response to an extended station blackout/loss of all AC power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, A. J.; Marquino, W.

    2012-07-01

    U.S. federal regulations require light water cooled nuclear power plants to cope with Station Blackouts for a predetermined amount of time based on design factors for the plant. U.S. regulations define Station Blackout (SBO) as a loss of the offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency AC power system. According to U.S. regulations, typically the coping period for an SBO is 4 hours and can be as long as 16 hours for currently operating BWR plants. Being able to cope with an SBO and loss of all AC power is required by international regulators as well. The U.S. licensing basis for the ESBWR is a coping period of 72 hours for an SBO based on U.S. NRC requirements for passive safety plants. In the event of an extended SBO (viz., greater than 72 hours), the ESBWR response shows that the design is able to cope with the event for at least 7 days without AC electrical power or operator action. ESBWR is a Generation III+ reactor design with an array of passive safety systems. The ESBWR primary success path for mitigation of an SBO event is the Isolation Condenser System (ICS). The ICS is a passive, closed loop, safety system that initiates automatically on a loss of power. Upon Station Blackout or loss of all AC power, the ICS begins removing decay heat from the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) by (i) condensing the steam into water in heat exchangers located in pools of water above the containment, and (ii) transferring the decay heat to the atmosphere. The condensed water is then returned by gravity to cool the reactor again. The ICS alone is capable of maintaining the ESBWR in a safe shutdown condition after an SBO for an extended period. The fuel remains covered throughout the SBO event. The ICS is able to remove decay heat from the RPV for at least 7 days and maintains the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. The water level in the RPV remains well above the top of active fuel for the duration of the SBO event. Beyond 7 days, only a few simple actions are needed to cope with the SBO for an indefinite amount of time. The operation of the ICS as the primary success path for mitigation of an SBO, allows for near immediate plant restart once power is restored. (authors)

  20. Source term experiment STEP-3 simulating a PWR severe station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simms, R.; Baker, L. Jr.; Ritzman, R.L.

    1987-05-21

    For a severe PWR accident that leads to a loss of feedwater to the steam generators, such as might occur in a station blackout, fission product decay heating will cause a water boiloff. Without effective cooling of the core, steam will begin to oxidize the Zircaloy cladding. The noble gases and volatile fission products, such as Cs and I, that are major contributors to the radiological source term, will be released from the damaged fuel shortly after cladding failure. The accident environment when these volatile fission products escape was simulated in STEP-3 using four fuel elements from the Belgonucleaire BR3 reactor. The primary objective was to examine the releases in samples collected as close to the test zone as possible. In this paper, an analysis of the temperatures and hydrogen generation is compared with the measurements. The analysis is needed to estimate releases and characterize conditions at the source for studies of fission product transport.

  1. Proposed SPAR Modeling Method for Quantifying Time Dependent Station Blackout Cut Sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John A. Schroeder

    2010-06-01

    Abstract: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions (USNRCs) Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models and industry risk models take similar approaches to analyzing the risk associated with loss of offsite power and station blackout (LOOP/SBO) events at nuclear reactor plants. In both SPAR models and industry models, core damage risk resulting from a LOOP/SBO event is analyzed using a combination of event trees and fault trees that produce cut sets that are, in turn, quantified to obtain a numerical estimate of the resulting core damage risk. A proposed SPAR method for quantifying the time-dependent cut sets is sometimes referred to as a convolution method. The SPAR method reflects assumptions about the timing of emergency diesel failures, the timing of subsequent attempts at emergency diesel repair, and the timing of core damage that may be different than those often used in industry models. This paper describes the proposed SPAR method.

  2. Demonstration of fully coupled simplified extended station black-out accident simulation with RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Zou, Ling; Anders, David; Martineau, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The RELAP-7 code develop-ment effort started in October of 2011 and by the end of the second development year, a number of physical components with simplified two phase flow capability have been de-veloped to support the simplified boiling water reactor (BWR) extended station blackout (SBO) analyses. The demonstration case includes the major components for the primary system of a BWR, as well as the safety system components for the safety relief valve (SRV), the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system, and the wet well. Three scenar-ios for the SBO simulations have been considered. Since RELAP-7 is not a severe acci-dent analysis code, the simulation stops when fuel clad temperature reaches damage point. Scenario I represents an extreme station blackout accident without any external cooling and cooling water injection. The system pressure is controlled by automatically releasing steam through SRVs. Scenario II includes the RCIC system but without SRV. The RCIC system is fully coupled with the reactor primary system and all the major components are dynamically simulated. The third scenario includes both the RCIC system and the SRV to provide a more realistic simulation. This paper will describe the major models and dis-cuss the results for the three scenarios. The RELAP-7 simulations for the three simplified SBO scenarios show the importance of dynamically simulating the SRVs, the RCIC sys-tem, and the wet well system to the reactor safety during extended SBO accidents.

  3. Steam Line Break and Station Blackout Transients for Proliferation-Resistant Hexagonal Tight Lattice Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Upendra S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Jo, Jae H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Chung, Bub Dong [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Takahashi, Hiroshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States); Downar, Thomas J. [Purdue University (United States)

    2004-01-15

    Safety analyses of a proliferation-resistant, economically competitive, high-conversion boiling water reactor (HCBWR) fueled with fissile plutonium and fertile thorium oxide fuel elements, and with passive safety systems, are presented here. The HCBWR developed here is characterized by a very tight lattice with a relatively small water volume fraction in the core that therefore operates with a fast reactor neutron spectrum and a considerably improved neutron economy compared to the current generation of light water reactors. The tight lattice core has a very narrow flow channel with a hydraulic diameter less than half of the regular boiling water reactor (BWR) core and, thus, presents a special challenge to core cooling because of reduced water inventory and high friction in the core. The primary safety concern when reducing the moderator-to-fuel ratio and when using a tightly packed lattice arrangement is to maintain adequate cooling of the core during both normal operation and accident scenarios.In the preliminary HCBWR design, the core is placed in a vessel with a large chimney section, and the vessel is connected to the isolation condenser system (ICS). The vessel is placed in containment with the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) and passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in a configuration similar to General Electric's simplified BWR (SBWR). The safety systems are similar to those of the SBWR; the ICS and PCCS are scaled with power. An internal recirculation pump is placed in the downcomer to augment the buoyancy head provided by the chimney since the buoyancy provided by the chimney alone could not generate sufficient recirculation in the vessel as the tight lattice configuration results in much larger friction in the core than with the SBWR.The constitutive relationships for RELAP5 are assessed for narrow channels, and as a result the heat transfer package is modified. The modified RELAP5 is used to simulate and analyze two of the most limiting events for a tight pitch lattice core: the station blackout and the main-steam-line-break events. The results of the analyses indicate that the HCBWR system will be safely brought to the shutdown condition for these transients.

  4. Source-term experiment STEP-3 simulating a PWR severe station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simms, R.; Baker, L. Jr.; Ritzman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    For a severe pressurized water reactor accident that leads to a loss of feedwater to the stream generators, such as might occur in a station blackout, fission product decay heating causes a water boil-off. Without effective decay heat removal, the fuel elements will be uncovered. Eventually, steam will oxidize the overheated cladding. The noble gases and volatile fission products, such as cesium and iodine, that are major contributors to the radiological source term will be released from the damaged fuel shortly after cladding failure. The accident environment when these volatile fission products escape was simulated in STEP-3 using four fuel elements from the Belgonucleaire BR3 reactor. The primary objective was to examine the releases in samples collected as close to the test zone as possible. In this paper, an analysis of the temperatures and hydrogen generation is compared with the measurements. The analysis is needed to estimate releases and characterize conditions at the source for studies of fission product transport.

  5. Analysis of fission product revaporization in a BWR reactor cooling system during a station blackout accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.W.; Schmidt, E.; Cazzoli, E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary analysis of fission product revaporization in the Reactor Cooling System (RCS) after the vessel failure. The station blackout transient for BWR Mark I Power Plant is considered. The TRAPMELT3 models of evaporization, chemisorption, and the decay heating of RCS structures and gases are adopted in the analysis. The RCS flow models based on the density-difference between the RCS and containment pedestal region are developed to estimate the RCS outflow which carries the revaporized fission product to the containment. A computer code called REVAP is developed for the analysis. The REVAP is incorporated with the MARCH, TRAPMELT3 and NAUA codes of the Source Term Code Pack Package (STCP). The NAUA code is used to estimate the impact of revaporization on environmental release. The results show that the thermal-hydraulic conditions between the RCS and the pedestal region are important factors determining the magnitude of revaporization and subsequent release of the volatile fission product. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  6. MELCOR Analysis of Steam Generator Tube Creep Rupture in Station Blackout Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Y.; Vierow, K. [Purdue University (United States)

    2005-12-15

    A pressurized water reactor steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) is of concern because it represents a bypass of the containment for radioactive materials to the environment. In a station blackout accident, tube integrity could be threatened by creep rupture, particularly if cracks are present in the tube walls. Methods are developed herein to improve assessment capabilities for SGTR by using the severe-accident code MELCOR. Best-estimate assumptions based on recent research and computational fluid dynamics calculations are applied in the MELCOR analysis to simulate two-dimensional natural circulation and to determine the relative creep-rupture timing in the reactor coolant pressure boundary components. A new method is developed to estimate the steam generator (SG) hottest tube wall temperature and the tube critical crack size for the SG tubes to fail first. The critical crack size for SG tubes to fail first is estimated to be 20% of the wall thickness larger than by a previous analysis. Sensitivity studies show that the failure sequence would change if some assumptions are modified. In particular, the uncertainty in the countercurrent flow limit model could reverse the failure sequence of the SG tubes and surge line.

  7. Analysis of Kuosheng Station Blackout Accident Using MELCOR 1.8.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S.-J.; Chien, C.-S.; Wang, T.-C.; Chiang, K.-S

    2000-11-15

    The MELCOR code, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is a fully integrated, relatively fast-running code that models the progression of severe accidents in commercial light water nuclear power plants (NPPs).A specific station blackout (SBO) accident for Kuosheng (BWR-6) NPP is simulated using the MELCOR 1.8.4 code. The MELCOR input deck for Kuosheng NPP is established based on Kuosheng NPP design data and the MELCOR users' guides. The initial steady-state conditions are generated with a developed self-initialization algorithm. The main severe accident phenomena and the fission product release fractions associated with the SBO accident were simulated. The predicted results are plausible and as expected in light of current understanding of severe accident phenomena. The uncertainty of this analysis is briefly discussed. The important features of the MELCOR 1.8.4 are described. The estimated results provide useful information for the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of Kuosheng NPP. This tool will be applied to the PRA, the severe accident analysis, and the severe accident management study of Kuosheng NPP in the near future.

  8. Analysis of core uncovery time in Kuosheng station blackout transient with MELCOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S.J.; Chien, C.S. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Lungtan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-02-01

    The MELCOR code, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories, is capable of simulating severe accident phenomena of nuclear power plants. Core uncovery time is an important parameter in the probabilistic risk assessment. However, many MELCOR users do not generate the initial conditions in a station blackout (SBO) transient analysis. Thus, achieving reliable core uncovery time is difficult. The core uncovery time for the Kuosheng nuclear power plant during an SBO transient is analyzed. First, full-power steady-state conditions are generated with the application of a developed self-initialization algorithm. Then the response of the SBO transient up to core uncovery is simulated. The effects of key parameters including the initialization process and the reactor feed pump (RFP) coastdown time on the core uncovery time are analyzed. The initialization process is the most important parameter that affects the core uncovery time. Because SBO transient analysis, the correct initial conditions must be generated to achieve a reliable core uncovery time. The core uncovery time is also sensitive to the RFP coastdown time. A correct time constant is required.

  9. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  10. Hydrogen Mitigation Strategy of the APR1400 Nuclear Power Plant for a Hypothetical Station Blackout Accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan; Kim, Sang-Baik; Kim, Hee-Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    In order to analyze the hydrogen distribution during a hypothetical station blackout accident in the Korean next-generation Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) containment, the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code GASFLOW was used. The source of the hydrogen and steam for the GASFLOW analysis was obtained from a MAAP calculation. The discharged water, steam, and hydrogen from the pressurizer are released into the water of the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). Most of the discharged steam is condensed in the IRWST water because of its subcooling, and dry hydrogen is released into the free volume of the IRWST; finally, it goes out to the annular compartment above the IRWST through the vent holes. From the GASFLOW analysis, it was found that the gas mixture in the IRWST becomes quickly nonflammable by oxygen starvation but the hydrogen is accumulated in the annular compartment because of the narrow ventilation gap between the operating deck and containment wall when the igniters installed in the IRWST are not operated. When the igniters installed in the APR1400 were turned on, a short period of burning occurred in the IRWST, and then the flame was extinguished by the oxygen starvation in the IRWST. The unburned hydrogen was released into the annular compartment and went up to the dome because no igniters are installed around the annular compartment in the base design of the APR1400. From this result, it could be concluded that the control of the hydrogen concentration is difficult for the base design. In this study design modifications are proposed and evaluated with GASFLOW in view of the hydrogen mitigation strategy.

  11. Investigations on optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident in a VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tusheva, P.; Schaefer, F.; Kliem, S.

    2012-07-01

    The reactor safety issues are of primary importance for preserving the health of the population and ensuring no release of radioactivity and fission products into the environment. A part of the nuclear research focuses on improvement of the safety of existing nuclear power plants. Studies, research and efforts are a continuing process at improving the safety and reliability of existing and newly developed nuclear power plants at prevention of a core melt accident. Station blackout (loss of AC power supply) is one of the dominant accidents taken into consideration at performing accident analysis. In case of multiple failures of safety systems it leads to a severe accident. To prevent an accident to turn into a severe one or to mitigate the consequences, accident management measures must be performed. The present paper outlines possibilities for application and optimization of accident management measures following a station blackout accident. Assessed is the behaviour of the nuclear power plant during a station blackout accident without accident management measures and with application of primary/secondary side oriented accident management measures. Discussed are the possibilities for operators ' intervention and the influence of the performed accident management measures on the course of the accident. Special attention has been paid to the effectiveness of the passive feeding and physical phenomena having an influence on the system behaviour. The performed simulations show that the effectiveness of the secondary side feeding procedure can be limited due to an early evaporation or flashing effects in the feed water system. The analyzed cases show that the effectiveness of the accident management measures strongly depends on the initiation criteria applied for depressurization of the reactor coolant system. (authors)

  12. An uncertainty analysis of the hydrogen source term for a station blackout accident in Sequoyah using MELCOR 1.8.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Wagner, Kenneth Charles

    2014-03-01

    A methodology for using the MELCOR code with the Latin Hypercube Sampling method was developed to estimate uncertainty in various predicted quantities such as hydrogen generation or release of fission products under severe accident conditions. In this case, the emphasis was on estimating the range of hydrogen sources in station blackout conditions in the Sequoyah Ice Condenser plant, taking into account uncertainties in the modeled physics known to affect hydrogen generation. The method uses user-specified likelihood distributions for uncertain model parameters, which may include uncertainties of a stochastic nature, to produce a collection of code calculations, or realizations, characterizing the range of possible outcomes. Forty MELCOR code realizations of Sequoyah were conducted that included 10 uncertain parameters, producing a range of in-vessel hydrogen quantities. The range of total hydrogen produced was approximately 583kg 131kg. Sensitivity analyses revealed expected trends with respected to the parameters of greatest importance, however, considerable scatter in results when plotted against any of the uncertain parameters was observed, with no parameter manifesting dominant effects on hydrogen generation. It is concluded that, with respect to the physics parameters investigated, in order to further reduce predicted hydrogen uncertainty, it would be necessary to reduce all physics parameter uncertainties similarly, bearing in mind that some parameters are inherently uncertain within a range. It is suspected that some residual uncertainty associated with modeling complex, coupled and synergistic phenomena, is an inherent aspect of complex systems and cannot be reduced to point value estimates. The probabilistic analyses such as the one demonstrated in this work are important to properly characterize response of complex systems such as severe accident progression in nuclear power plants.

  13. Source terms released into the environment for a station blackout severe accident at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-07-01

    This study calculates source terms released into the environment at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station after containment failure during a postulated low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.1, was used in these calculations. Source terms were calculated for three different containment failure modes. The largest environmental releases occur for early containment failure at the drywell liner in contact with the cavity by liner melt-through. This containment failure mode is very likely to occur when the cavity is dry during this postulated severe accident sequence.

  14. Comparing Simulation Results with Traditional PRA Model on a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhegang Ma; Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    A previous study used RELAP and RAVEN to conduct a boiling water reactor station black-out (SBO) case study in a simulation based environment to show the capabilities of the risk-informed safety margin characterization methodology. This report compares the RELAP/RAVEN simulation results with traditional PRA model results. The RELAP/RAVEN simulation run results were reviewed for their input parameters and output results. The input parameters for each simulation run include various timing information such as diesel generator or offsite power recovery time, Safety Relief Valve stuck open time, High Pressure Core Injection or Reactor Core Isolation Cooling fail to run time, extended core cooling operation time, depressurization delay time, and firewater injection time. The output results include the maximum fuel clad temperature, the outcome, and the simulation end time. A traditional SBO PRA model in this report contains four event trees that are linked together with the transferring feature in SAPHIRE software. Unlike the usual Level 1 PRA quantification process in which only core damage sequences are quantified, this report quantifies all SBO sequences, whether they are core damage sequences or success (i.e., non core damage) sequences, in order to provide a full comparison with the simulation results. Three different approaches were used to solve event tree top events and quantify the SBO sequences: W process flag, default process flag without proper adjustment, and default process flag with adjustment to account for the success branch probabilities. Without post-processing, the first two approaches yield incorrect results with a total conditional probability greater than 1.0. The last approach accounts for the success branch probabilities and provides correct conditional sequence probabilities that are to be used for comparison. To better compare the results from the PRA model and the simulation runs, a simplified SBO event tree was developed with only four top events and eighteen SBO sequences (versus fifty-four SBO sequences in the original SBO model). The estimated SBO sequence conditional probabilities from the original SBO model were integrated to the corresponding sequences in the simplified SBO event tree. These results were then compared with the simulation run results.

  15. Performance of "WAMS East 1" in Providing Dynamic Information for the North East Blackout of August 14, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, John F.; Bhatt, Navin B.; Shah, Kirit; Kolluri, Sharma

    2004-12-31

    The blackout that impacted the U.S. and Canada on August 14, 2003, was notable for its extent, complexity, and impact. It triggered a massive review of operating records to determine what happened, why it happened, and how to avoid it in future operations. Much of this work was done at NERC level, through the U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force. Additional background information concerning the event was gathered together by a group of utilities that, collectively, have been developing a wide area measurement system (WAMS) for the eastern interconnection. Like its counterpart in the western interconnection, "WAMS East" has a primary backbone of synchronized phasor measurements that are continuously recorded at central locations. Operational data have been critical for understanding and responding to the August 14 Blackout. Records collected on WAMS East demonstrate the contributions that well synchronized data offer in such efforts, and the value of strategically located continuous recording systems to facilitate their integration. This paper examines overall performance of the WAMS East backbone, with a brief assessment of the technology involved.

  16. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout caused by external flooding using the RISMC toolkit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis; Prescott, Steven; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impacts of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization project aims to provide insights to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This paper focuses on the impacts of power uprate on the safety margin of a boiling water reactor for a flooding induced station black-out event. Analysis is performed by using a combination of thermal-hydraulic codes and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. RAVEN. We employed both classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. Results obtained give a detailed investigation of the issues associated with a plant power uprate including the effects of station black-out accident scenarios. We were able to quantify how the timing of specific events was impacted by a higher nominal reactor core power. Such safety insights can provide useful information to the decision makers to perform risk informed margins management.

  17. Containment failure time and mode for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-4 with Mark-I containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.; Greene, S.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates containment failure time and mode for a low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident sequence in a boiling water reactor (BWR-4) with a Mark-I containment. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.1, was used in these calculations. Other results using the MELCOR/CORBH package and the BWRSAR and CONTAIN codes are also presented and compared to the MELCOR results. The plant analyzed is the Peach Bottom atomic station, a BWR-4 with a Mark-I containment. The automatic depressurization system was used to depressurize the vessel in accordance with the Emergency Procedure Guidelines. Two different variations of the station blackout were studied: one with a dry cavity and the other with a flooded cavity. For the flooded cavity, it is assumed that a control rod drive (CRD) pump becomes operational after vessel failure, and it is used to pump water into the cavity.

  18. Analysis of the FeCrAl Accident Tolerant Fuel Concept Benefits during BWR Station Blackout Accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robb, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are being considered for fuel concepts with enhanced accident tolerance. FeCrAl alloys have very slow oxidation kinetics and good strength at high temperatures. FeCrAl could be used for fuel cladding in light water reactors and/or as channel box material in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To estimate the potential safety gains afforded by the FeCrAl concept, the MELCOR code was used to analyze a range of postulated station blackout severe accident scenarios in a BWR/4 reactor employing FeCrAl. The simulations utilize the most recently known thermophysical properties and oxidation kinetics for FeCrAl. Overall, when compared to the traditional Zircaloy-based cladding and channel box, the FeCrAl concept provides a few extra hours of time for operators to take mitigating actions and/or for evacuations to take place. A coolable core geometry is retained longer, enhancing the ability to stabilize an accident. Finally, due to the slower oxidation kinetics, substantially less hydrogen is generated, and the generation is delayed in time. This decreases the amount of non-condensable gases in containment and the potential for deflagrations to inhibit the accident response.

  19. Developing Fully Coupled Dynamical Reactor Core Isolation System Models in RELAP-7 for Extended Station Black-Out Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-04-01

    The reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) provides makeup water to the reactor vessel for core cooling when the main steam lines are isolated and the normal supply of water to the reactor vessel is lost. It was one of the very few safety systems still available during the Fukushima Daiichi accidents after the tsunamis hit the plants and the system successfully delayed the core meltdown for a few days for unit 2 & 3. Therefore, detailed models for RCIC system components are indispensable to understand extended station black-out accidents (SBO) for BWRs. As part of the effort to develop the new generation reactor system safety analysis code RELAP-7, major components to simulate the RCIC system have been developed. This paper describes the models for those components such as turbine, pump, and wet well. Selected individual component test simulations and a simplified SBO simulation up to but before core damage is presented. The successful implementation of the simplified RCIC and wet well models paves the way to further improve the models for safety analysis by including more detailed physical processes in the near future.

  20. Experimental and code simulation of a station blackout scenario for APR1400 with test facility ATLAS and MARS code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, X. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Choi, K. Y.; Park, H. S.; Cho, S.; Kang, K. H.; Choi, N. H. [Thermal-hydraulic Safety Research Div., KAERI Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Dae-deok Dae-ro 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    A SBO (station blackout) experiment named SBO-01 was performed at full-pressure IET (Integral Effect Test) facility ATLAS (Advanced Test Loop for Accident Simulation) which is scaled down from the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe). In this study, the transient of SBO-01 is discussed and is subdivided into three phases: the SG fluid loss phase, the RCS fluid loss phase, and the core coolant depletion and core heatup phase. In addition, the typical phenomena in SBO-01 test - SG dryout, natural circulation, core coolant boiling, the PRZ full, core heat-up - are identified. Furthermore, the SBO-01 test is reproduced by the MARS code calculation with the ATLAS model which represents the ATLAS test facility. The experimental and calculated transients are then compared and discussed. The comparison reveals there was malfunction of equipments: the SG leakage through SG MSSV and the measurement error of loop flow meter. As the ATLAS model is validated against the experimental results, it can be further employed to investigate the other possible SBO scenarios and to study the scaling distortions in the ATLAS. (authors)

  1. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Convergence of the Uncertainty Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, Nathan E.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Mattie, Patrick D.; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the convergence of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) probabilistic results of offsite consequences for the uncertainty analysis of the State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The consequence metrics evaluated are individual latent-cancer fatality (LCF) risk and individual early fatality risk. Consequence results are presented as conditional risk (i.e., assuming the accident occurs, risk per event) to individuals of the public as a result of the accident. In order to verify convergence for this uncertainty analysis, as recommended by the Nuclear Regulatory Commissions Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, a high source term from the original population of Monte Carlo runs has been selected to be used for: (1) a study of the distribution of consequence results stemming solely from epistemic uncertainty in the MACCS2 parameters (i.e., separating the effect from the source term uncertainty), and (2) a comparison between Simple Random Sampling (SRS) and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) in order to validate the original results obtained with LHS. Three replicates (each using a different random seed) of size 1,000 each using LHS and another set of three replicates of size 1,000 using SRS are analyzed. The results show that the LCF risk results are well converged with either LHS or SRS sampling. The early fatality risk results are less well converged at radial distances beyond 2 miles, and this is expected due to the sparse data (predominance of zero results).

  2. Comparison of MELCOR and SCDAP/RELAP5 results for a low-pressure, short-term station blackout at Browns Ferry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This study compares results obtained with two U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored codes, MELCOR version 1.8.3 (1.8PQ) and SCDAP/RELAP5 Mod3.1 release C, for the same transient - a low-pressure, short-term station blackout accident at the Browns Ferry nuclear plant. This work is part of MELCOR assessment activities to compare core damage progression calculations of MELCOR against SCDAP/RELAP5 since the two codes model core damage progression very differently.

  3. Blackout Final Implementation Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Most industry practices assessed in a readiness audit do not change significantly over three years, so mov- ing to a two-year cycle to audit these practices will result in ...

  4. Blackout Final Implementation Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report on the Implementation of the Task Force Recommendations U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force Natural Resources Canada U.S. Department of Energy September 2006 Final Report on the Implementation of the Task Force Recommendations U.S.-Canada Power System Outage Task Force September 2006 Natural Resources Canada U.S. Department of Energy Acknowledgments This document was prepared by staff of Natural Resources Canada and the U.S. Department of Energy. The principal contributors

  5. August 2003 Blackout | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 12, 2004 - This Excel file is a summary of all comments and recommendations ... December 16, 2003 - This Excel file is a summary of all comments submitted at the 12-16-03 ...

  6. SciTech Connect: "August 2003 blackout"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CA (United States) Office of Economic Impact and Diversity Office of Environmental Management-Consolidated Business Center Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation Office...

  7. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge you an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system's distribu- tion capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system's capacity. REDUCING POWER FACTOR COST To understand power factor, visualize a

  8. Reducing the Vulnerability of Electric Power Grids to Terrorist Attacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross Baldick; Thekla Boutsika; Jin Hur; Manho Joung; Yin Wu; Minqi Zhong

    2009-01-31

    This report describes the development of a cascading outage analyzer that, given an initial disturbance on an electric power system, checks for thermal overloads, under-frequency and over-frequency conditions, and under-voltage conditions that would result in removal of elements from the system. The analyzer simulates the successive tripping of elements due to protective actions until a post-event steady state or a system blackout is reached.

  9. Adequacy of Power-to-Mass Scaling in Simulating PWR Incident Transient for Reduced-Height, Reduced-Pressure and Full-Height, Full-Pressure Integral System Test Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, T.-J.; Lee, C.-H

    2004-03-15

    A complete scheme of scaling methods to design the reduced-height, reduced-pressure (RHRP) Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Integral System Test (IIST) facility and to specify test conditions for incident simulation was developed. In order to preserve core decay power history and coolant mass inventory during a transient, a unique power-to-mass scaling method is proposed and utilized for RHRP and full-height, full-pressure (FHFP) systems. To validate the current scaling method, three counterpart tests done at the IIST facility are compared with the FHFP tests in small-break loss-of-coolant, station blackout, and loss-of-feedwater accidents performed at the Large-Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the BETHSY test facility. Although differences appeared in design, scaling, and operation conditions among the IIST, LSTF, and BETHSY test facilities, the important physical phenomena shown in the facilities are almost the same. The physics involved in incident transient phenomena are well measured and modeled by showing the common thermal-hydraulic behavior of key parameters and the general consistency of chronological events. The results also confirm the adequacy of power-to-mass scaling methodology.

  10. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  11. Reduced shear power spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  12. reduce CFRP embodied energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduce CFRP embodied energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  13. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Howard L. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1991-10-01

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  14. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  15. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  16. Reducing gas generators and methods for generating a reducing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scotto, Mark Vincent; Perna, Mark Anthony

    2015-11-03

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  17. Reduced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova, Italy a P. Martin Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova, Italy a and Dipartimento di Fisica ...

  18. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  19. Battery Electric Vehicles can reduce greenhouse has emissions and make renewable energy cheaper in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopal, Anand R; Witt, Maggie; Sheppard, Colin; Harris, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    India's National Mission on Electric Mobility (NMEM) sets a countrywide goal of deploying 6 to 7 million hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) by 2020. There are widespread concerns, both within and outside the government, that the Indian grid is not equipped to accommodate additional power demand from battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Such concerns are justified on the grounds of India's notorious power sector problems pertaining to grid instability and chronic blackouts. Studies have claimed that deploying BEVs in India will only

  20. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Request for information on reducing regulatory burden PDF icon Reducing Regulatory Burden More Documents & Publications Reducing Regulatory Burden Reducing Regulatory Burden

  1. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  2. Reduce air, reduce compliance cost new patented spray booth technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, F.

    1997-12-31

    A New Paint Spray Booth System that dramatically reduces air volumes normally required for capturing and controlling paint overspray that contains either Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), or both. In turn, a substantial reduction in capital equipment expenditures for air abatement systems and air make-up heaters as well as related annual operating expenses is realized.

  3. Microbial methods of reducing technetium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wildung, Raymond E. [Richland, WA; Garland, Thomas R. [Greybull, WY; Gorby, Yuri A. [Richland, WA; Hess, Nancy J. [Benton City, WA; Li, Shu-Mei W. [Richland, WA; Plymale, Andrew E. [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a method for microbial reduction of a technetium compound to form other compounds of value in medical imaging. The technetium compound is combined in a mixture with non-growing microbial cells which contain a technetium-reducing enzyme system, a stabilizing agent and an electron donor in a saline solution under anaerobic conditions. The mixture is substantially free of an inorganic technetium reducing agent and its reduction products. The resulting product is Tc of lower oxidation states, the form of which can be partially controlled by the stabilizing agent. It has been discovered that the microorganisms Shewanella alga, strain Bry and Shewanelia putrifacians, strain CN-32 contain the necessary enzyme systems for technetium reduction and can form both mono nuclear and polynuclear reduced Tc species depending on the stabilizing agent.

  4. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  5. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Dimos, Duane B. (6105 Innsbrook Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Pike, Gordon E. (1609 Cedar Ridge, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  6. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  7. MapReduce SVM Game

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, Craig M.; Verzi, Stephen J.; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2015-08-10

    Despite technological advances making computing devices faster, smaller, and more prevalent in today's age, data generation and collection has outpaced data processing capabilities. Simply having more compute platforms does not provide a means of addressing challenging problems in the big data era. Rather, alternative processing approaches are needed and the application of machine learning to big data is hugely important. The MapReduce programming paradigm is an alternative to conventional supercomputing approaches, and requires less stringent data passing constrained problem decompositions. Rather, MapReduce relies upon defining a means of partitioning the desired problem so that subsets may be computed independently and recom- bined to yield the net desired result. However, not all machine learning algorithms are amenable to such an approach. Game-theoretic algorithms are often innately distributed, consisting of local interactions between players without requiring a central authority and are iterative by nature rather than requiring extensive retraining. Effectively, a game-theoretic approach to machine learning is well suited for the MapReduce paradigm and provides a novel, alternative new perspective to addressing the big data problem. In this paper we present a variant of our Support Vector Machine (SVM) Game classifier which may be used in a distributed manner, and show an illustrative example of applying this algorithm.

  8. MapReduce SVM Game

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vineyard, Craig M.; Verzi, Stephen J.; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2015-08-10

    Despite technological advances making computing devices faster, smaller, and more prevalent in today's age, data generation and collection has outpaced data processing capabilities. Simply having more compute platforms does not provide a means of addressing challenging problems in the big data era. Rather, alternative processing approaches are needed and the application of machine learning to big data is hugely important. The MapReduce programming paradigm is an alternative to conventional supercomputing approaches, and requires less stringent data passing constrained problem decompositions. Rather, MapReduce relies upon defining a means of partitioning the desired problem so that subsets may be computed independently andmore » recom- bined to yield the net desired result. However, not all machine learning algorithms are amenable to such an approach. Game-theoretic algorithms are often innately distributed, consisting of local interactions between players without requiring a central authority and are iterative by nature rather than requiring extensive retraining. Effectively, a game-theoretic approach to machine learning is well suited for the MapReduce paradigm and provides a novel, alternative new perspective to addressing the big data problem. In this paper we present a variant of our Support Vector Machine (SVM) Game classifier which may be used in a distributed manner, and show an illustrative example of applying this algorithm.« less

  9. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Burden Reducing Regulatory Burden Request for information on reducing regulatory burden PDF icon Reducing Regulatory Burden More Documents & Publications Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 Reducing Regulatory Burden Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden (Reply Comments)

  10. Blackout 2003: Energy Secretary Bodman and Minister of Natural...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Secretary Bodman and Minister of Natural Resources for Canada Lunn Release the 2003 Power Outage Final Report. In accordance with the mandate of the U.S.-Canada Power Outage...

  11. Blackout 2003: Electric System Working Group Technical Conference...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 16, 2003 Electric System Working Group Technical Conference, Philadelphia PA - Summary of comments and recommendations relating to the aftermath of the August 2003...

  12. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, Charles J. (Rexford, NY); Rhudy, Ralph G. (Scotia, NY); Bushman, Ralph E. (Lathem, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  13. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  14. Reducing Your Electricity Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appliances & Electronics » Reducing Your Electricity Use Reducing Your Electricity Use An energy audit can help you find the most effective ways to save money and reduce energy use in your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. An energy audit can help you find the most effective ways to save money and reduce energy use in your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Reducing energy use in your home saves you money, increases our energy security, and reduces the

  15. PROJECT PROFILE: Scientific Approach to Reducing Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROJECT PROFILE: Scientific Approach to Reducing Photovoltaic Module Material Costs While Increasing Durability PROJECT PROFILE: Scientific Approach to Reducing Photovoltaic Module ...

  16. Reducing Photovoltaic Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Photo of gloved hands pouring liquid from a glass bottle to glass beaker. The development of more ...

  17. Reducing Power Factor Cost | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Power Factor Cost Reducing Power Factor Cost Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system's distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system's capacity. PDF icon Reducing

  18. Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint We're dedicated to cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent across the Lab, from facilities to transportation. January 30, 2014 Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint From monitoring storm water run-off in Los Alamos Canyon to riding their bikes to work, employees in the field all over the Lab's 36 square miles see the landscape around them as an inspiration and reminder to go green at work

  19. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  20. Reducing Your Electricity Use | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An energy audit can help you find the most effective ways to save money and reduce energy use in your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. An energy audit can help you find the most effective ways to save money and reduce energy use in your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Reducing energy use in your home saves you money, increases our energy security, and reduces the pollution that is emitted from non-renewable sources of energy. If you are planning to install a

  1. Innovative Computational Tools for Reducing Exploration Risk...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Water-Rock Interactions and Magnetotelluric Surveys Innovative Computational Tools for Reducing Exploration Risk Through Integration of Water-Rock Interactions and ...

  2. Reduced AC losses in HTS coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2004-10-05

    Methods for reducing hysteresis losses in superconductor coated ribbons where a flux distribution is set into the superconductor coated ribbon prior to the application of alternating current.

  3. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water ...

  4. Industrial Assessment Centers Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOEEE-1278 Industrial Assessment Centers Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US...

  5. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces.

  6. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As part of its implementation of Executive Order 13563, ''Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' PDF icon RRB_EO_13563.pdf More Documents & Publications Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 Reducing Regulatory Burden EO 13563 Third RFI

  7. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product.

  8. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, A.J.

    1993-11-30

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product. 3 figures.

  9. Reducing Your Electricity Use | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    If you are planning to install a small renewable energy system to make your own electricity, such as a solar electric system or small wind turbine, reducing your electricity...

  10. National Renewable Energy Laboratory To Reduce Staff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To Reduce Staff Last updated: November 14, 1995 For information contact: Robert Noun, (303) 275-3062 Kerry Masson (303) 275-4083 Golden, Colo., November 3, 1995 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) announced today a schedule for restructuring and reducing its work force in response to impending reductions in federal research budgets. Work force reductions may ultimately eliminate more than 10 percent of the present work force of about 900 full-time

  11. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  12. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction.

  13. Infrared photoemitting diode having reduced work function

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    In electro-optical detectors which include as elements a photoemitting photocathode and anode, a photoemitting diode is fabricated which lowers the diode's work function, thus reducing the cooling requirement typically needed for this type of device. The work function is reduced by sandwiching between the photocathode and anode a liquid medium of the formula NR.sub.3 and having an electron affinity for the electrons of the photocathode, which liquid medium permits free electrons leaving the photocathode to remain as stable solvated species in the liquid medium. Thus, highly light-absorbent, and therefore thin, metallic layers can be used for detection, thereby reducing dark current at a given temperature, with a consequent reduction in cooling requirements at constant detector performance.

  14. Infrared photoemitting diode having reduced work function

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1982-05-06

    In electro-optical detectors which include as elements a photoemitting photocathode and anode, a photoemitting diode is fabricated which lowers the diode's work function, thus reducing the cooling requirement typically needed for this type of device. The work function is reduced by sandwiching between the photocathode and anode a liquid meidum of the formula NR/sub 3/ and having an electron affinity for the electrons of the photocathode, which liquid medium permits free electrons leaving the photocathode to remain as stable solvated species in the liquid medium. Thus, highly light-absorbent, and therefore thin, metallic layers can be used for detection, thereby reducing dark current at a given temperature, with a consequent reduction in cooling requirements at constant detector performance.

  15. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Gifford G. (Cincinnatti, OH); Kato, Takeo R. (Cincinnatti, OH); Schonegg, Edward (Cleves, OH)

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  16. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  17. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-06-09

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

  18. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laabs, Gary W. (Los Alamos, NM); Funk, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Asay, Blaine W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile.

  19. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  20. Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Judith Mondre spent the past two months learning the ins and outs of Upper Darby Township, Pa.'s energy usage. She's analyzed energy bills, observed town facilities and interviewed staff to put together a plan to help the municipality reduce its total energy usage.

  1. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  2. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-08-22

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

  3. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.

    2012-07-08

    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  4. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Chau, Hoi Fung

    1998-01-01

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.

  5. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.

    1998-03-24

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.

  6. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  7. New system reduces sludge management costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roll, R.R. ); Koser, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    This article describes a recently completed a $2.7-million project to upgrade the sludge dewatering and stabilizing system at a 48-mgd wastewater treatment facility in Niagara Fall, New York. The work was necessitated by the deteriorated condition of the plant's original vacuum filters and increasing costs to landfill the dewatered sludge. The new equipment has restored sludge production capacity while reducing the final material's moisture content. The Niagara Falls plant is one of the few municipal physical-chemical treatment plants built in this country, and is the largest still functioning. Constructed in the mid-1970s, it was designed to treat a combination of domestic sewage and industrial wastes. One third of the flow and one half of the solids are industrial in nature. The changes made reduced electrical power consumption and sanitary landfill costs.

  8. Erratum: "Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Erratum: "Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in ... Title: Erratum: "Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in ...

  9. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  10. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  11. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2005-02-15

    A device for a vehicle with a pair of swinging rear doors, which converts flat sheets of pliable material hinged to the sides of the vehicle adjacent the rear thereof into effective curved airfoils that reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, when the doors are closed by hand, utilizing a plurality of stiffeners disposed generally parallel to the doors and affixed to the sheets and a plurality of collapsible tension bearings struts attached to each stiffener and the adjacent door.

  12. NREL Transportation Project to Reduce Fuel Usage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Project to Reduce Fuel Usage For more information contact: Sarah Holmes Barba, 303-275-3023 email: Sarah Barba Golden, Colo., Mar. 23, 2001 - The Jefferson County Seniors Resource Center (SRC) Paratransit Service has become an important part of Eulalia Gaillard's life since her stroke in 1996. She calls on SRC to drive her to cardiologist, neurologist and chiropractor appointments each week. "It's wonderful," Gaillard says. "I'd give this program 150 plus in regards

  13. Reducing Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Diesel | Department of Energy Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About Light-Duty Diesel Reducing Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About Light-Duty Diesel 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies PDF icon 2002_deer_phillips.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Use in California Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Market Dumping Dirty Diesels: The

  14. Renewable Energy Can Help Reduce Oil Dependency

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Arvizu, Dan

    2013-05-29

    In a speech to the Economic Club of Kansas City on June 23, 2010, NREL Director Dan Arvizu takes a realistic look at how renewable energy can help reduce America's dependence on oil, pointing out that the country gets as much energy from renewable sources now as it does from offshore oil production. For a transcript, visit http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/energy_overview_06_10.pdf

  15. Segmented electrode hall thruster with reduced plume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2004-08-17

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes along the channel, which make the acceleration region as localized as possible. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to minimize erosion and arcing. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to produce a substantial reduction in plume divergence. The use of electrodes made of emissive material will reduce the radial potential drop within the channel, further decreasing the plume divergence. Also disclosed is a method of arranging and powering these electrodes so as to provide variable mode operation.

  16. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg F. (Livermore, CA); Comaskey, Brian (Stockton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends.

  17. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, G.F.; Comaskey, B.; Sutton, S.B.

    1994-04-19

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends. 11 figures.

  18. Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical Absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klem, John F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-08-16

    A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-index and low-index quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon absorption resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-index and low-index quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.

  19. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Michael L. (Kennewick, WA); Perez, Jr., Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Chapman, Chris C. (Richland, WA); Peters, Richard D. (Pasco, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  20. Working Together to Reduce Our Environmental Footprint

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    MONDAY April 13 - TUESDAY April 21 All Day * Earth Day Displays * Forrestal First Floor, Ground Floor, & DOE Cafeteria MONDAY APRIL 20 11:00 A.M. - 2:30 P.M. * Environmental Film Series * Forrestal Small Auditorium GJ-015 See two excellent films related to reducing our carbon footprint and evaluating the environmental consequences of some of the products we use on a regular basis. 11:00-12:30 Tapped 1:00-2:30 Bag It TUESDAY April 21 12:00 P.M. - 1:00 P.M. * Green Tips for the Home Workshop *

  1. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bang, Y.; Abdel-Khalik, H. S.; Jessee, M. A.; Mertyurek, U.

    2013-07-01

    While the accuracy of assembly calculations has considerably improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This manuscript extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system. (authors)

  2. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  3. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-07-30

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  4. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-03-07

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pair of pliable opposing flat sheets having an outside edge portion attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides thereof and an upper edge with a predetermined curve; the opposing flat sheets being bent and attached to the struts to form effective curved airfoil shapes, and a top pliable flat sheet disposed adjacent the top of the flat front face and having predetermined curved side edges, which, when the top sheet is bent and attached to the struts to form an effective curved airfoil shape, mate with the curved upper edges of the opposing sheets to complete the aerodynamic device.

  5. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  6. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  7. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David; Mireles, Jose; Marquez, Noel; Quinones, Stella

    2011-11-01

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  8. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-08-23

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  9. Method of data communications with reduced latency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocksome, Michael A; Parker, Jeffrey J

    2013-11-05

    Data communications with reduced latency, including: writing, by a producer, a descriptor and message data into at least two descriptor slots of a descriptor buffer, the descriptor buffer comprising allocated computer memory segmented into descriptor slots, each descriptor slot having a fixed size, the descriptor buffer having a header pointer that identifies a next descriptor slot to be processed by a DMA controller, the descriptor buffer having a tail pointer that identifies a descriptor slot for entry of a next descriptor in the descriptor buffer; recording, by the producer, in the descriptor a value signifying that message data has been written into descriptor slots; and setting, by the producer, in dependence upon the recorded value, a tail pointer to point to a next open descriptor slot.

  10. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Anan

    2010-12-15

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, {var_epsilon}. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  11. On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) October 8...

  12. A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Title A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Publication Type...

  13. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in ... More Documents & Publications Technology Performance Exchange - 2013 BTO Peer Review ...

  14. DOE Announces Webinars on Reducing Energy Use in Buildings, Integratin...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Use in Buildings, Integrating Bioenergy into the Classroom, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Reducing Energy Use in Buildings, Integrating Bioenergy into the ...

  15. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to reduce vehicle miles traveled, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  16. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by ...

  17. Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange...

  18. Improved Monitor Design and Configuration for Reducing Reported...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Design and Configuration for Reducing Reported Tritium Discharges from the Orphee Research Reactor Improved Monitor Design and Configuration for Reducing Reported Tritium...

  19. Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power...

  20. Reduced Call-Backs with High Performance Production Builders...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduced Call-Backs with High Performance Production Builders - Building America Top Innovation Reduced Call-Backs with High Performance Production Builders - Building America Top ...

  1. IRS Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Reduces Annual Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IRS Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Reduces Annual Energy Use by 76% IRS Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Reduces Annual Energy Use by 76% IRS Parking Facility Lighting ...

  2. Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  3. Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  4. Next-Generation Power Electronics: Reducing Energy Waste and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next-Generation Power Electronics: Reducing Energy Waste and Powering the Future Next-Generation Power Electronics: Reducing Energy Waste and Powering the Future January 15, 2014 - ...

  5. Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden (Reply Comments) Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden (Reply Comments) Comments on RFI on...

  6. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in...

  7. Milestone Reached: New Process Reduces Cost and Risk of Biofuel...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Milestone Reached: New Process Reduces Cost and Risk of Biofuel Production from Bio-Oil Upgrading Milestone Reached: New Process Reduces Cost and Risk of Biofuel Production from ...

  8. Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for ...

  9. Unconventional Oil and Gas Projects Help Reduce Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Unconventional Oil and Gas Projects Help Reduce Environmental Impact of Development Unconventional Oil and Gas Projects Help Reduce Environmental Impact of Development April 17, ...

  10. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  11. Reducing the Consequences of a Nuclear Detonation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buddemeier, B R

    2007-11-09

    The 2002 National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction states that 'the United States must be prepared to respond to the use of WMD against our citizens, our military forces, and those of friends and allies'. Scenario No.1 of the 15 Department of Homeland Security national planning scenarios is an improvised nuclear detonation in the national capitol region. An effective response involves managing large-scale incident response, mass casualty, mass evacuation, and mass decontamination issues. Preparedness planning activities based on this scenario provided difficult challenges in time critical decision making and managing a large number of casualties within the hazard area. Perhaps even more challenging is the need to coordinate a large scale response across multiple jurisdictions and effectively responding with limited infrastructure and resources. Federal response planning continues to make improvements in coordination and recommending protective actions, but much work remains. The most critical life-saving activity depends on actions taken in the first few minutes and hours of an event. The most effective way to reduce the enormous national and international social and economic disruptions from a domestic nuclear explosion is through planning and rapid action, from the individual to the federal response. Anticipating response resources for survivors based on predicted types and distributions of injuries needs to be addressed.

  12. NEMA Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Regulatory Burden NEMA Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) thanks you for the opportunity to provide comments on the Department of Energy's efforts to make its regulatory program more effective and less burdensome in achieving its regulatory objectives. PDF icon NEMA_Comments_on_Reducing_Reg_Burden.pdf More Documents & Publications NEMA Comments on DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI NEMA Comments on DOE Reducing Regulatory

  13. Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 Request for information on reducing regulatory burden, E.O. 13563 PDF icon Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 More Documents & Publications Notice of Availability of Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules Reducing Regulatory Burden Reducing Regulatory Burden

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Knoxville Utilities Board Reduces Petroleum

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Use Knoxville Utilities Board Reduces Petroleum Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Knoxville Utilities Board Reduces Petroleum Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Knoxville Utilities Board Reduces Petroleum Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Knoxville Utilities Board Reduces Petroleum Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Knoxville Utilities Board Reduces Petroleum Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dallas Police Department Reduces Vehicle

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Idling Dallas Police Department Reduces Vehicle Idling to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dallas Police Department Reduces Vehicle Idling on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dallas Police Department Reduces Vehicle Idling on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dallas Police Department Reduces Vehicle Idling on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dallas Police Department Reduces Vehicle Idling on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Use Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    EVs Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Reynolds Logistics Reduces Fuel Costs With EVs on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Students Reduce Vehicle Idling in San

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Antonio, Texas Students Reduce Vehicle Idling in San Antonio, Texas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Students Reduce Vehicle Idling in San Antonio, Texas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Students Reduce Vehicle Idling in San Antonio, Texas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Students Reduce Vehicle Idling in San Antonio, Texas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Students Reduce Vehicle Idling in San Antonio, Texas on

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hybrid Trolleys Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With Propane Hybrid Trolleys on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Reduces Pollution With

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Delicious

  1. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  2. Reducing the Cost of Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlon, B.

    2012-04-01

    Solar-powered electricity prices could soon approach those of power from coal or natural gas thanks to collaborative research with solar startup Ampulse Corporation at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Silicon wafers account for almost half the cost of today's solar photovoltaic panels, so reducing or eliminating wafer costs is essential to bringing prices down. Current crystalline silicon technology converts energy in a highly efficient manner; however, that technology is manufactured with processes that could stand some improvement. The industry needs a method that is less complex, creates less waste and uses less energy. First, half the refined silicon is lost as dust in the wafer-sawing process, driving module costs higher. Wafers are sawn off of large cylindrical ingots, or boules, of silicon. A typical 2-meter boule loses as many as 6,000 potential wafers during sawing. Second, the wafers produced are much thicker than necessary. To efficiently convert sunlight into electricity, the wafers need be only one-tenth the typical thickness. NREL, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Ampulse have partnered on an approach to eliminate this waste and dramatically lower the cost of the finished solar panels. By using a chemical vapor deposition process to grow the silicon on inexpensive foil, Ampulse is able to make the solar cells just thick enough to convert most of the solar energy into electricity. No more sawdust - and no more wasting refined silicon materials. NREL developed the technology to grow high-quality silicon and ORNL developed the metal foil that has the correct crystal structure to support that growth. Ampulse is installing a pilot manufacturing line in NREL's Process Development Integration Laboratory, where solar companies can work closely with lab scientists on integrated equipment to answer pressing questions related to their technology development, as well as rapidly overcoming R and D challenges and risk. NREL's program is focused on transformative innovation in the domestic PV industry. With knowledge and expertise acquired from the PDIL pilot production line tools, Ampulse plans to design a full-scale production line to accommodate long rolls of metal foil. The Ampulse process 'goes straight from pure silicon-containing gas to high-quality crystal silicon film,' said Brent Nelson, the operational manager for the Process Development Integration Laboratory. 'The advantage is you can make the wafer just as thin as you need it - 10 microns or less.' Most of today's solar cells are made out of wafer crystalline silicon, though thin-film cells made of more exotic elements such as copper, indium, gallium, arsenic, cadmium, tellurium and others are making a strong push into the market. The advantage of silicon is its abundance, because it is derived from sand. Silicon's disadvantage is that purifying it into wafers suitable for solar cells can be expensive and energy intensive. Manufacturers add carbon and heat to sand to produce metallurgical-grade silicon, which is useful in other industries, but not yet suitable for making solar cells. So this metallurgical-grade silicon is then converted to pure trichlorosilane (SiCl3) or silane (SiH4) gas. Typically, the purified gas is then converted to create a silicon feedstock at 1,000 degrees Celsius. This feedstock is melted at 1,414 C and recrystallized into crystal ingots that are finally sawed into wafers. The Ampulse method differs in that it eliminates the last two steps in the traditional process and works directly with the silane gas growing only the needed silicon right onto a foil substrate. A team of NREL scientists had developed a way to use a process called hot-wire chemical vapor deposition to thicken silicon wafers with near perfect crystal structure. Using a hot tungsten filament much like the one found in an incandescent light bulb, the silane gas molecules are broken apart and deposited onto the wafer using the chemical vapor deposition technique at about 700 C - a much lower temperature than needed to make the wafer. The hot filament dec

  3. Apparatus for storing high magnetic fields having reduced mechanical forces and reduced magnetic pollution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, M.L.; Mueller, F.M.; Smith, J.L.

    1991-04-09

    The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of storing extremely high magnetic fields for the purpose of energy storage or for other uses, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements and the magnetic field pollution produced at locations away from the configuration are both significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by currently proposed techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency. 15 figures.

  4. Apparatus for storing high magnetic fields having reduced mechanical forces and reduced magnetic pollution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prueitt, Melvin L. (Los Alamos, NM); Mueller, Fred M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention identifies several configurations of conducting elements capable of storing extremely high magnetic fields for the purpose of energy storage or for other uses, wherein forces experienced by the conducting elements and the magnetic field pollution produced at locations away from the configuration are both significantly reduced over those which are present as a result of the generation of such high fields by currently proposed techniques. It is anticipated that the use of superconducting materials will both permit the attainment of such high fields and further permit such fields to be generated with vastly improved efficiency.

  5. Energy Permitting Wizard Helps Reduce Project Barriers in Hawai...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permitting Wizard Helps Reduce Project Barriers in Hawai'i Energy Permitting Wizard Helps Reduce Project Barriers in Hawai'i To address the complex permitting process for renewable...

  6. Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation November 19, 2013 - 3:49pm Addthis A combination solid-state laser turret cutter and stamping machine ...

  7. EERE Success Story-Milestone Reached: New Process Reduces Cost...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Milestone Reached: New Process Reduces Cost and Risk of Biofuel Production from Bio-Oil Upgrading EERE Success Story-Milestone Reached: New Process Reduces Cost and Risk of Biofuel ...

  8. Construction of energy-stable projection-based reduced order...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Construction of energy-stable projection-based reduced order models Prev Next Title: Construction of energy-stable projection-based reduced order models Our paper aims to ...

  9. Reduce Waste and Save Energy this Holiday Season | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Wrap your gifts with recycled paper to reduce waste and save money. | Photo courtesy of istockphotodiane555 Wrap your gifts with recycled paper to reduce waste and save money. |...

  10. Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (Reply Comments) | Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden (Reply Comments) Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden (Reply Comments) Comments on RFI on reducing regulatory burden PDF icon Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden (Reply Comments) More Documents & Publications Re: Regulatory Burden RFI RegReview_ReplyComments_Lennox_Hearth_Products.PDF .Hearth, Patio & Barbecue

  11. Comments on reducing regulatory burden | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    reducing regulatory burden Comments on reducing regulatory burden Comments on reducing regulatory burden from Ingersoll Rand, Residential Solutions, manufacturer of Trane and American Standard residential air conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, and accessories PDF icon Comments on reducing regulatory burden More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden RFI [76 FR 75798] Notice of Availability of Preliminary Plan for Retrospective Analysis of Existing Rules 2014-09-18 Issuance: Energy

  12. NAESCO Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI Final | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy NAESCO Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI Final NAESCO Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI Final The National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO) appreciates the opportunity to submit these comments in response to the Request for Information (RFI) entitled, "Reducing Regulatory Burden," published in the Federal Register on May 15, 2012. PDF icon NAESCO_Cmts_Reducing_Reg_Burden_RFI_Final.pdf More Documents & Publications FPCC Regulatory

  13. Reduce Waste and Save Energy this Holiday Season

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reduce waste and save energy this holiday season whether you're shopping, eating, partying, decorating, or wrapping.

  14. NREL Reduces Climate Control Loads in Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    NREL demonstrates that zonal climate control can reduce air conditioning power and improve range while maintaining driver thermal sensation.

  15. Reduced Regeneration Energy CO2 Adsorbent | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Reduced Regeneration Energy CO2 Adsorbent

  16. Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: On Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201)

  17. Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs Helping Alaska Native Communities Reduce Their Energy Costs May 3, 2013 - 12:50pm Addthis The Energy Department is helping Alaska Native communities reduce their energy costs by investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency upgrades. | Photo courtesy of Western Community Energy. The Energy Department is helping Alaska Native communities reduce their energy costs by investing in renewable energy and energy efficiency

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Reduces Truck Idling With

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electrified Parking Areas Delaware Reduces Truck Idling With Electrified Parking Areas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Reduces Truck Idling With Electrified Parking Areas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Reduces Truck Idling With Electrified Parking Areas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Reduces Truck Idling With Electrified Parking Areas on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware

  19. EPA Presentation: Reducing Pollution from Power Plants, October 29, 2010 |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy EPA Presentation: Reducing Pollution from Power Plants, October 29, 2010 EPA Presentation: Reducing Pollution from Power Plants, October 29, 2010 Presentation to the Electricity Advisory Committe on October 29, 2010 by the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation on Reducing Pollution from Power Plants and the need for additional rule making. PDF icon Reducing Pollution from Power Plants More Documents & Publications EEI Presentation: The

  20. MapReduceXMT v. Beta 0.1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-02-24

    The MapReduceXMT library ports the MapReduce framework onto the Cray XMT. MapReduce is a programming paradigm and an approach to data management for unstructured problems. It has gained relevance due to its ability to map serial operations onto parallel distributed architectures, significantly improving developer/analyst productivity. The MapReduceXMT implements the key aspects of MapReduce for the Cray XMT, a massively threaded system that is inherently difficult to program. MapReduceXMT allows users to utilize the machine effectivelymore » and efficiently without extensive training in multi-threaded programming. The MapReduceXMT library ports the MapReduce framework onto the Cray XMT. MapReduce is a programming paradigm and an approach to data management for unstructured problems. It has gained relevance due to its ability to map serial operations onto parallel distributed architectures, significantly improving developer/analyst productivity. The MapReduceXMT implements the key aspects of MapReduce for the Cray XMT, a massively threaded system that is inherently difficult to program. MapReduceXMT allows users to utilize the machine effectively and efficiently without extensive training in multi-threaded programming.« less

  1. Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing This tip sheet discusses how to reduce pumping system costs through optimum pipe sizing. PUMPING SYSTEMS TIP SHEET #9 PDF icon Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing (October 2005) More Documents & Publications Select an Energy-Efficient Centrifugal Pump Effect of Intake on Compressor Performance Pump Selection Considerations

  2. Innovative Computational Tools for Reducing Exploration Risk Through

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of Water-Rock Interactions and Magnetotelluric Surveys | Department of Energy Computational Tools for Reducing Exploration Risk Through Integration of Water-Rock Interactions and Magnetotelluric Surveys Innovative Computational Tools for Reducing Exploration Risk Through Integration of Water-Rock Interactions and Magnetotelluric Surveys Innovative Computational Tools for Reducing Exploration Risk Through Integration of Water-Rock Interactions and Magnetotelluric Surveys

  3. A flooding induced station blackout analysis for a pressurized water reactor using the RISMC toolkit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandelli, Diego; Prescott, Steven; Smith, Curtis; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2015-05-17

    In this paper we evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: the RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., component/system activation) and to perform statistical analyses. In our case, the simulation of the flooding is performed by using an advanced smooth particle hydrodynamics code called NEUTRINO. The obtained results allow the user to investigate and quantify the impact of timing and sequencing of events on system safety. The impact of power uprate is determined in terms of both core damage probability and safety margins.

  4. How to Prepare Your Home for a Blackout | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    matches Also, do not light candles andor oil lamps if there is a possibility of a gas leak in your home. Keep the emergency number for your electric utility handy in case you...

  5. Blackout 2003: U.S. - Canada Task Force Presents Final Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Today, Spencer Abraham, U.S. Secretary of Energy, and the Honorable R. John Efford, Minister of Natural Resources Canada, released the Final Report of the U.S. -Canada Power System ...

  6. A flooding induced station blackout analysis for a pressurized water reactor using the RISMC toolkit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mandelli, Diego; Prescott, Steven; Smith, Curtis; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2015-05-17

    In this paper we evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: the RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., component/system activation) and to perform statistical analyses. In our case, the simulation of the flooding is performed by using an advanced smooth particle hydrodynamics code calledmore » NEUTRINO. The obtained results allow the user to investigate and quantify the impact of timing and sequencing of events on system safety. The impact of power uprate is determined in terms of both core damage probability and safety margins.« less

  7. Modeling of a Flooding Induced Station Blackout for a Pressurized Water Reactor Using the RISMC Toolkit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandelli, Diego; Prescott, Steven R; Smith, Curtis L; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua J; Kinoshita, Robert A

    2011-07-01

    In the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach we want to understand not just the frequency of an event like core damage, but how close we are (or are not) to key safety-related events and how might we increase our safety margins. The RISMC Pathway uses the probabilistic margin approach to quantify impacts to reliability and safety by coupling both probabilistic (via stochastic simulation) and mechanistic (via physics models) approaches. This coupling takes place through the interchange of physical parameters and operational or accident scenarios. In this paper we apply the RISMC approach to evaluate the impact of a power uprate on a pressurized water reactor (PWR) for a tsunami-induced flooding test case. This analysis is performed using the RISMC toolkit: RELAP-7 and RAVEN codes. RELAP-7 is the new generation of system analysis codes that is responsible for simulating the thermal-hydraulic dynamics of PWR and boiling water reactor systems. RAVEN has two capabilities: to act as a controller of the RELAP-7 simulation (e.g., system activation) and to perform statistical analyses (e.g., run multiple RELAP-7 simulations where sequencing/timing of events have been changed according to a set of stochastic distributions). By using the RISMC toolkit, we can evaluate how power uprate affects the system recovery measures needed to avoid core damage after the PWR lost all available AC power by a tsunami induced flooding. The simulation of the actual flooding is performed by using a smooth particle hydrodynamics code: NEUTRINO.

  8. Improved Monitor Design and Configuration for Reducing Reported Tritium

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Discharges from the Orphee Research Reactor | Department of Energy Improved Monitor Design and Configuration for Reducing Reported Tritium Discharges from the Orphee Research Reactor Improved Monitor Design and Configuration for Reducing Reported Tritium Discharges from the Orphee Research Reactor Presentation from the 33rd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Aiken, South Carolina on April 22-24, 2014. PDF icon Improved Monitor Design and Configuration for Reducing Reported Tritium

  9. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Infiltration in Furnaces Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing air infiltration in industrial furnaces; tips include repairing leaks and increasing insulation. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #5 PDF icon Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (January 2006) More Documents & Publications Furnace Pressure Controllers Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System

  10. Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation November 27, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Jim Brodrick, Lighting Program Manager A Wisconsin-based company is developing an innovative way to reduce manufacturing costs of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With help from a $2.4 million Energy Department research grant that is matched dollar-for-dollar by the company, researchers at Eaton Corporation in Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin, are creating a manufacturing process that not only

  11. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Rapid deployment and the use of objective force aggressively reduce logistic footprints and

  12. Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Transfer Losses | Department of Energy Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related Heat Transfer Losses Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related Heat Transfer Losses This research discusses how reducing heat-transfer losses from pressure oscillation can increase low-temperature combustion engine efficiency. PDF icon p-22_splitter.pdf More Documents & Publications Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI

  13. Federal Agencies Combine Efforts to Protect Environment and Reduce Home

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Bills | Department of Energy Combine Efforts to Protect Environment and Reduce Home Energy Bills Federal Agencies Combine Efforts to Protect Environment and Reduce Home Energy Bills July 11, 2005 - 2:07pm Addthis Department of Housing and Urban Development; Department of Energy; Environmental Protection Agency WASHINGTON, DC- The Bush administration today announced a major new partnership aimed at reducing household energy costs by 10 percent over the next decade. The Partnership for

  14. DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    through Deployment of Advanced Technology | Department of Energy Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology September 22, 2005 - 10:45am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy today released for public review and comment a plan for accelerating the development and reducing the cost of new and advanced

  15. Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape_06_lai.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability for

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due to Reduced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flow Room Air Mixing | Department of Energy Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due to Reduced Flow Room Air Mixing Technology Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due to Reduced Flow Room Air Mixing Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that

  17. The President's Plan to Reduce Carbon Pollution: Myths v. Reality |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The President's Plan to Reduce Carbon Pollution: Myths v. Reality The President's Plan to Reduce Carbon Pollution: Myths v. Reality June 26, 2013 - 4:59pm Addthis President Obama lays out his vision for a comprehensive plan to reduce carbon pollution, prepare our country for the impacts of climate change and lead global efforts to fight it. Heather Zichal Deputy Assistant to the President for Energy and Climate Change More information on President Obama's Climate Action

  18. Unconventional Oil and Gas Projects Help Reduce Environmental Impact of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development | Department of Energy Unconventional Oil and Gas Projects Help Reduce Environmental Impact of Development Unconventional Oil and Gas Projects Help Reduce Environmental Impact of Development April 17, 2014 - 11:30am Addthis Unconventional Oil and Gas Projects Help Reduce Environmental Impact of Development Since the first commercial oil well was drilled in the United States in 1859, most of the nation's oil and natural gas has come from reservoirs from which the resources are

  19. Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Conditioning Filter | Department of Energy Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Under the test conditions used in this study, the strong base filter had a significant and beneficial effect on the rate of oil degradation. The strong base filter reduced lubricant acidity by absorbing acidic contaminants in the lubricant PDF icon deer09_watson.pdf More

  20. Researchers Uncover Copper's Potential for Reducing CO2 Emissions in

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Chemical Looping | Department of Energy Researchers Uncover Copper's Potential for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Chemical Looping Researchers Uncover Copper's Potential for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Chemical Looping February 18, 2016 - 11:33am Addthis Researchers Uncover Copper’s Potential for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Chemical Looping Copper. It's been used in wires, pipes, and pennies for decades. Ancient Egyptians used it to sterilize wounds and clean drinking water. Today some hospitals

  1. New Jersey: Reducing Energy Bills for Camden's Families | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Reducing Energy Bills for Camden's Families New Jersey: Reducing Energy Bills for Camden's Families April 25, 2013 - 12:58pm Addthis The Northgate II, a 308-unit apartment building, was treated with Aeroseal, thanks to a grant from New Jersey's Multifamily Weatherization Assistance Program. Aeroseal, developed at DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory by Dr. Mark Modera, uses airborne adhesive particles to seal leaky air ducts. The Aeroseal treatment is expected to reduce

  2. Reducing Non-Hardware Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs » Reducing Non-Hardware Costs Reducing Non-Hardware Costs DOE supports efforts to dramatically reduce the non-hardware, balance of systems costs associated with solar energy systems. Representing as much as 64% of the total installed system price, these "soft costs" include: Customer Acquisition Financing and Contracting Permitting, Interconnection, and Inspection Installation and Performance Operations and Maintenance. To meet SunShot goals, the industry must innovate new

  3. PPPL Wins Department of Energy Award For Reducing Greenhouse...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PPPL) has received a federal Sustainability Award for reducing overall greenhouse ... Members of the PPPL staff were among the 20 recipients of the Sustainability Awards in a ...

  4. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability This case study outlines how General Motors (GM) developed a highly efficient ...

  5. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted...

  6. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    improvements in system performance while reducing system cost PDF icon deer10mccarthy.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System...

  7. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    over 60 billion and reduce carbon pollution by 340 million metric tons through ... help Americans save money by saving energy while also protecting the environment. ...

  8. White House Announces New Executive Order To Reduce Greenhouse...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    According to the White House, the President's executive order will build on the federal government's progress in reducing emissions to promote more sustainability actions over the ...

  9. Policies to Reduce Emissions from the Transportation Sector ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Highlights This guide provides information on policy choices that can drive sustainability. Notes References "Policies To Reduce Emissions From The Transportation...

  10. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of new and advanced technologies that avoid, reduce, or capture and store greenhouse gas emissions - the technology component of a comprehensive U.S. approach to climate change. ...

  12. Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    As part of the Obama Administration's commitment to reduce America's dependence on oil ... With support from the Energy Department, manufacturers in California, New Jersey, New York ...

  13. Utilization of UV or EB Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UV or EB Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce Costs and VOCs in the Manufacture of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Utilization...

  14. How Do You Reduce Energy Use from Computers and Electronics?...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    discussed some ways to reduce the energy used by computers and electronics. Some tips include ensuring your computer is configured for optimal energy savings, turning off devices...

  15. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    products made from these materials. Faced with regulatory and competitive pressures to control emissions and reduce operating costs, metal and glass manufacturers are...

  16. NWTC Collaborative Increases Gearbox Reliability and Helps Reduce...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collaborative Increases Gearbox Reliability and Helps Reduce Cost of Wind Energy A collaborative at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology...

  17. NREL Reduces Climate Control Loads in Electric Vehicles (Fact...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demonstrates that zonal climate control can reduce air conditioning power and improve range while maintaining driver thermal sensation. When the climate control system in an...

  18. Cleantech: Innovative Lab Partnership Reduces Emissions from Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how the National Energy Technology Laboratory is working to reduce the emission of pollutants from existing coal-fired power plants.

  19. Major Corporate Fleets Align to Reduce Oil Consumption | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    President Obama announces the National Clean Fleets Partnership to help companies reduce fuel usage by incorporating electric vehicles, alternative fuels, and conservation ...

  20. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BENEFITS A Motor Challeng NEW WATER BOOSTER PUMP SYSTEM REDUCES ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY 80 ... General Motors (GM) needed to relocate the facility's city water booster pumping system. ...

  1. Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Combined Potential of Hybrid Technology and Behavioral Adaptation Title Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

  2. Milestone Reached: New Process Reduces Cost and Risk of Biofuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a bio-oil intermediate into biofuel, making the conversion process expensive. Battelle's new process substantially reduces the cost and risk of biofuel production and helps make ...

  3. Methods for the use of reduced affinity streptavidin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Waltham, MA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for contacting biological targets using a mutated streptavidin protein having a reduced affinity for biotin.

  4. Vietnam-Integrated Action Plan to Reduce Vehicle Emissions |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and reduce air pollution. Furthermore, they are required to ensure that Viet Nam's air quality meets the average standards set by the Association of Southeast Asian Nation...

  5. Reducing Cyber Risk to Critical Infrastructure: NIST Framework...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    directed the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to work with stakeholders to develop a voluntary Framework for reducing cyber risks to critical...

  6. Resin Wafer Electrodeionization Technology Reduces the Cost of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Resin Wafer Electrodeionization Technology Reduces the Cost of Clean Energy, Chemicals, and...

  7. Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The strong base filter reduced lubricant acidity by absorbing acidic contaminants in the lubricant PDF icon deer09watson.pdf More Documents & Publications Minimizing Lubricant-Ash ...

  8. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted to existing engines Significantly reduces NOx emissions (as much as 70%) with just a 2% nitrogen enrichment of intake air PDF icon air_separation_membranes

  9. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Building Codes Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon bldgcodes03_guttman_040213.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology Performance Exchange - 2013 BTO Peer Review Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Building America System Research

  10. Pressure-flow reducer for aerosol focusing devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Eric (San Francisco, CA); Riot, Vincent (Oakland, CA); Coffee, Keith (Diablo Grande, CA); Woods, Bruce (Livermore, CA); Tobias, Herbert (Kensington, CA); Birch, Jim (Albany, CA); Weisgraber, Todd (Brentwood, CA)

    2008-04-22

    A pressure-flow reducer, and an aerosol focusing system incorporating such a pressure-flow reducer, for performing high-flow, atmosphere-pressure sampling while delivering a tightly focused particle beam in vacuum via an aerodynamic focusing lens stack. The pressure-flow reducer has an inlet nozzle for adjusting the sampling flow rate, a pressure-flow reduction region with a skimmer and pumping ports for reducing the pressure and flow to enable interfacing with low pressure, low flow aerosol focusing devices, and a relaxation chamber for slowing or stopping aerosol particles. In this manner, the pressure-flow reducer decouples pressure from flow, and enables aerosol sampling at atmospheric pressure and at rates greater than 1 liter per minute.

  11. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  12. PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon dioxide. PPPL reduced leaks of SF6 by 65 percent over three years - reducing overall greenhouse gas

  13. Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings One easy energy lifehack: fix leaky faucets to save money and energy. One easy energy lifehack: fix leaky faucets to save money and energy. You can lower your water heating costs by using and wasting less hot water in your home. To conserve hot water, you can fix leaks, install low-flow fixtures, and purchase an energy-efficient dishwasher and clothes washer. Fix Leaks You can significantly reduce

  14. Edison Electric Institute (EEI) Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Fed. Reg. 75798 (Dec. 5, 2011) Edison Electric Institute (EEI) Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, 76 Fed. Reg. 75798 (Dec. 5, 2011) The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) is submitting...

  15. EM Exceeds Sustainability Goal by Reducing Carbon Footprint

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – EM has surpassed another DOE sustainability goal, this time reducing its carbon footprint by 44 percent, well ahead of the Department’s 15 percent target for fiscal year 2012.

  16. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...man-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing the negative human-health impacts of ...

  17. Edison Electric Institute (EEI) Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy (DOE). In the RFI, DOE is again asking for information on ways to streamline and to reduce the burden imposed by its regulations. PDF icon Reg review - DOE RFI -...

  18. Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    than today's gasoline-powered cars, and costs about the same or less to consumers. Such a vehicle would reduce the United States' reliance on foreign oil and lower energy costs for...

  19. PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson...

  20. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile ? Reduced...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    linkage between high- performance homes and reduced call-backs, with builders reporting big reductions in call-backs since the program began in 1995. Although few builders are...

  1. Energy Department Announces $7 Million to Reduce Non-Hardware...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy's SunShot Initiative, Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to 7 million to reduce the non-hardware costs of residential and commercial solar energy installations. ...

  2. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  3. Reduce Risk, Increase Clean Energy: How States and Cities are...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Cities are Using Old Finance Tools to Scale Up a New Industry Reduce Risk, Increase Clean Energy: How States and Cities are Using Old Finance Tools to Scale Up a New ...

  4. Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

    2010-06-22

    Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  5. Arc Vault Significantly Reduces Electrical Hazards | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Arc Vault Significantly Reduces Electrical Hazards Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Arc Vault Significantly Reduces Electrical Hazards GE Global Research 2012.05.01 Recently, technology developed at GE Global Research received high praise from industry leaders for its ability to shield industrial -

  6. New Truck Stop Electrification Station Maps Help Truckers Reduce Idling -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Releases | NREL New Truck Stop Electrification Station Maps Help Truckers Reduce Idling April 21, 2006 Golden, Colo. - A new internet-based mapping program is helping truckers find truck stops with idle reduction facilities-on-site systems that can substantially cut fuel use while reducing air emissions. Idle reduction systems hold great promise for the approximately 500,000 long-haul trucks with sleeper cabs currently operating in the United States. Estimates show idle reduction

  7. New tool helps reduce use of hazardous chemicals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tool Helps Reduce Use Of Hazardous Chemicals Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:Mar. 2016 all issues All Issues » submit New tool helps reduce use of hazardous chemicals The "Green Chemical Alternatives Purchasing Wizard," will begin to help employees choose the most benign substances possible for their work. January 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs

  8. Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems This fact sheet describes ten effective ways to save energy and money in industrial process heating systems by making some changes in equipment, operations, and maintenance. PDF icon Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems (September 2007) More Documents & Publications Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired

  9. Reducing Regulatory Burden EO 13563 Third RFI Comment Extension |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy RFI Comment Extension Reducing Regulatory Burden EO 13563 Third RFI Comment Extension This notice announces that the period for submitting comments on the Department of Energy's (DOE) request for information (RFI) issued as part of its implementation of Executive Order 13563, ''Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' is extended to June 19, 2012. PDF icon ReducRegBurden_EO_13563_Third_RFI_Comt_ Ext.pdf More Documents & Publications Fourth RFI Comment on

  10. Increasing Hydrodynamic Efficiency by Reducing Cross-Beam Energy Transfer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Direct-Drive-Implosion Experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Increasing Hydrodynamic Efficiency by Reducing Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive-Implosion Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Increasing Hydrodynamic Efficiency by Reducing Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive-Implosion Experiments Authors: Froula, D. H. ; Igumenshchev, I. V. ; Michel, D. T. ; Edgell, D. H. ; Follett, R. ; Glebov, V. Yu. ; Goncharov, V. N. ; Kwiatkowski, J. ;

  11. Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increase Profits | Department of Energy Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste and Increase Profits Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste and Increase Profits April 8, 2014 - 11:30am Addthis ZF North America used Alabama E3 funding to create a recycling program that saves more than $100,000 a year in trash pickup and landfill fees. Pictured here are workers in the Tuscaloosa location, which provides Mercedes with complete axle systems. |

  12. Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). | Department of Energy Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). I have reviewed the Request For Information

  13. New DOE-NASCAR Partnership Revs Deployment of Pollution Reducing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies | Department of Energy DOE-NASCAR Partnership Revs Deployment of Pollution Reducing Technologies New DOE-NASCAR Partnership Revs Deployment of Pollution Reducing Technologies September 11, 2013 - 4:44pm Addthis Dr. Michael Knotek, Deputy Undersecretary for Science and Energy at the Energy Department, delivers remarks at the NASCAR Green Summit in Chicago, where the DOE-NASCAR MOU was announced. | Photo courtesy of NASCAR. Dr. Michael Knotek, Deputy Undersecretary for Science and

  14. New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities' Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions and Fuel Costs | Department of Energy New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities' Carbon Emissions and Fuel Costs New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities' Carbon Emissions and Fuel Costs October 1, 2013 - 3:51pm Addthis The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2), a follow-up to the initial WWSIS released in May 2010, which examined the viability, benefits, and

  15. Novel Packaging to Reduce Stray Inductance in Power Electronics |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Packaging to Reduce Stray Inductance in Power Electronics Novel Packaging to Reduce Stray Inductance in Power Electronics 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape022_tolbert_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Power Density Integrated Traction Machine Drive Power Device Packaging High Power Density Integrated Traction Machine Drive

  16. Reduced Order Modeling of the Forward Eigenvalue Problem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Forward Eigenvalue Problem Congjian Wang and Hany S. Abdel-Khalik Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 {cwang21,abdelkhalik}@ncsu.edu INTRODUCTION The construction of reduced order models for high fidelity models is now considered an important objective in support of all engineering activities which require repeated execution of the simulation. The reduced model must be computationally inexpensive to allow its repeated execution, and must

  17. Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology would allow power plants and the chemical and cement industries to better sequester carbon dioxide and

  18. Feedstocks with Reduced Acetylation for Higher Product Yields and Improved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties - Energy Innovation Portal Feedstocks with Reduced Acetylation for Higher Product Yields and Improved Properties Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryHenrik Scheller of the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) has developed a method of using plants that have reduced levels of acetylation of their cellulose. The plants are positioned to provide higher yields of sugar for fermentation and improved properties as feedstocks

  19. NREL to request proposals for reducing PV costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Request Proposals for Reducing PV Costs For more information contact: George Douglas, (303) 275-4096 Golden, Colo., May 15, 1997 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invites the photovoltaics and related industries to join its Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) program in looking for ways to improve production processes and reduce the cost of photovoltaic products. NREL will issue in the next 90 days an $8 million request for proposals

  20. Reducing nontemplated 3' nucleotide addition to polynucleotide transcripts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kao, C. Cheng (Bloomington, IN)

    2000-01-01

    Non-template 3' nucleotide addition to a transcript is reduced by transcribing a transcript from a template comprising an ultimate and/or penultimate 5' ribose having a C'2 substituent such as methoxy, which reduces non-template 3' nucleotide addition to the transcript. The methods are shown to be applicable to a wide variety of polymerases, including Taq, T7 RNA polymerase, etc.

  1. EV Everywhere: Reducing Pollution with Electric Vehicles | Department of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Benefits of Electric Vehicles » EV Everywhere: Reducing Pollution with Electric Vehicles EV Everywhere: Reducing Pollution with Electric Vehicles Plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EVs) can help keep your town and your world clean. In general, EVs produce fewer emissions that contribute to climate change and smog than conventional vehicles. There are two general categories of vehicle emissions: direct and life cycle. Direct emissions are emitted through the

  2. Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly Reduced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions and Improved Fuel Efficiency | Department of Energy Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly Reduced Emissions and Improved Fuel Efficiency Complete Fuel Combustion for Diesel Engines Resulting in Greatly Reduced Emissions and Improved Fuel Efficiency An advanced engine design that is 15 percent more efficient than diesel, pollution free, and uses any fuel. PDF icon deer08_zajac.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the

  3. Dense Servers for Reduced Energy Use and Facility Space Requirements |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Dense Servers for Reduced Energy Use and Facility Space Requirements Dense Servers for Reduced Energy Use and Facility Space Requirements Server Architecture Improves Energy Consumption and Utilization Information technology (IT) and telecommunications facilities account for ~3% of all U.S. electricity consumption. In data centers, volume servers account for 68% of the power consumed. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified the main areas where energy use or loss

  4. Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Compression Ignition Engine Applications | Department of Energy and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Skeletal mechanism features reduction by a factor of 37 in size while retaining good accuracy and comprehensiveness, compared with detailed mechanism that consists of 3299 species and 10806 reactions

  5. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  6. Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Time and Fuel Consumption | Department of Energy Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel Consumption Ultra-Lite Diesel Particulate Filter Cartridge for Reduced Regeneration Time and Fuel Consumption Self-cleaning ceramic filter cartridges offer the advantage of better fuel economy, faster regeneration time, improved heat transfer, and reduction in manufacturing steps PDF icon deer09_nixdorf.pdf More Documents & Publications Pleated Ceramic Fiber

  7. New Resin Improves Efficiency, Reduces Costs in Hanford Site Groundwater

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Treatment | Department of Energy RICHLAND, Wash. - A new resin EM, the Richland Operations Office, and contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company are using in contaminated groundwater treatment is expected to increase efficiency and reduce costs in the operation of pump-and-treat facilities along the Columbia River at the Hanford site. The higher performance resin, SIR-700, is expected to reduce DOE's estimated operation and maintenance costs over the lifetime of the 100-DX Groundwater

  8. A rate design to increase efficiency and reduce revenue requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boonin, David Magnus

    2009-05-15

    One decoupling approach, a Straight Fixed Variable (SFV) rate design, is a rational way to recover fixed and variable costs because it aligns pricing with variable and fixed cost causation, thereby removing the utility's profit sensitivity to reduced sales. The problem with SFV is that it reduces the variable charge to short-term variable cost, leading to overconsumption. Revenue-neutral energy efficiency ''feebates'' combining fees and rebates offer an economic incentive for consumer energy efficiency. (author)

  9. Striving to Reduce Environmental Impact Inside and Out | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Striving to Reduce Environmental Impact Inside and Out Striving to Reduce Environmental Impact Inside and Out November 2, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis The 112-panel solar photovoltaic system at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge's visitor center and administrative building generates about 35% of the facility’s average electricity needs. | Photo courtesy of Parker River National Wildlife Refuge The 112-panel solar photovoltaic system at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge's visitor

  10. Reduce Your Heating Bills with Better Insulation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reduce Your Heating Bills with Better Insulation Reduce Your Heating Bills with Better Insulation October 3, 2008 - 11:09am Addthis John Lippert If you pay your own energy bills, you don't need to be reminded that energy prices are escalating. Energy price projections for this coming winter are not encouraging. According to the Energy Information Administration, residential natural gas prices during the upcoming heating season (October though March) are projected to average $14.93 per Mcf, an

  11. Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency, Greenhouse Gases Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency, Greenhouse Gases April 10, 2007 - 12:34pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - In step with the Bush Administration's call to increase the supply of alternative and renewable fuels nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today established the nation's first comprehensive Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program.

  12. New York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption New York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The New York State Homes and Community Renewal (HCR) initiated a weatherization project on a Westbeth Artists Housing complex-home to almost 400 low- and middle-income artists from a variety of artistic disciplines-in New York City's West Village. The Westbeth complex is on the National Register of Historic Places and was designated a New York

  13. Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wins R&D 100 Award | Department of Energy Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award Radio Frequency Diesel Particulate Filter Sensor Reduces Fuel Consumption, Wins R&D 100 Award October 15, 2014 - 4:51pm Addthis Developed jointly by Corning, the FEV Group, Maguffin Microwave, Detroit Diesel, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in cooperation with the New York City Department of Sanitation, the Radio Frequency Diesel

  14. Reducing Cyber Risk to Critical Infrastructure: NIST Framework | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Reducing Cyber Risk to Critical Infrastructure: NIST Framework Reducing Cyber Risk to Critical Infrastructure: NIST Framework Recognizing that the national and economic security of the United States depends on the reliable functioning of critical infrastructure, the President under Executive Order (EO) 13636 "Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity" of February 2013 directed the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to work with stakeholders to

  15. Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Increase Profits | Department of Energy Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste and Increase Profits Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste and Increase Profits April 8, 2014 - 11:30am Addthis ZF North America used Alabama E3 funding to create a recycling program that saves more than $100,000 a year in trash pickup and landfill fees. Pictured here are workers in the Tuscaloosa location, which provides Mercedes with complete axle systems. |

  16. DOE Seeks Reply Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Seeks Reply Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden DOE Seeks Reply Comments on Reducing Regulatory Burden March 22, 2011 - 5:24pm Addthis The Department of Energy today announces the opening of the reply comment period for its Request for Information implementing Executive Order 13563, seeking public comment on how best to review its existing regulations and to identify whether any of its existing regulations should be modified, streamlined, expanded, or repealed. The Department is

  17. DOE Announces Webinars on Reducing Energy Use in Buildings, Integrating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioenergy into the Classroom, and More | Department of Energy Reducing Energy Use in Buildings, Integrating Bioenergy into the Classroom, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Reducing Energy Use in Buildings, Integrating Bioenergy into the Classroom, and More November 30, 2015 - 8:22am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free;

  18. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pollution, Help Americans Save on Energy Bills | Department of Energy Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon Pollution, Help Americans Save on Energy Bills New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon Pollution, Help Americans Save on Energy Bills June 25, 2014 - 9:56am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of President Obama's Climate Action Plan, the Energy Department today announced a new energy efficiency standard for furnace fans, the latest of eight

  19. EERE Success Story-New York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Consumption | Department of Energy New York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption EERE Success Story-New York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The New York State Homes and Community Renewal (HCR) initiated a weatherization project on a Westbeth Artists Housing complex-home to almost 400 low- and middle-income artists from a variety of artistic disciplines-in New York City's West Village. The Westbeth complex is on the National

  20. Identification of Iron-reducing Thermus strains as Thermus scotoductus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balkwill, David L.; Kieft, T L.; Tsukuda, Toyoko; Kostandarithes, Heather M.; Onstott, T C.; Macnaughton, S.; Bownas, J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2004-02-01

    Thermus strain SA-01, previously isolated from a deep (3.2) South African gold mine, is closely related to Thermus strains NMX2 A.1 and VI-7 (previously isolated from thermal springs in New Mexico USA and Portugal, respectively). Thermus strains SA-01 and NMX2 A.1 have also been shown previously to grow using nitrate, Fe(III), , Mn(IV) or So as terminal electron acceptors and to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), U(VI), Co(III), and the quinine-containing compound anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate. The objectives of this study were to determine the phylogenetic positions of the three known metal-reducing Thermus strains and to determine the phylogenetic significance of metal reduction within the genus Thermus. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA sequences, BOX PCR genomic fingerprinting, and DNA-DNA reassociation analyses indicated that these strains belong to the previously described genospecies T. scotoductus. The morphologies and lipid fatty acid profiles of these metal-reducing strains are consistent with their identification as T. scotoductus; however, the T. scotoductus strains tested in this study evinced a wide intraspecies variability in some other phenotypic traits, e.g., carbon substrate utilization and pigmentation. Iron reduction occurred in all strains of T. scotoductus tested except the mixotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing strain IT-7254. Thermus strains belonging to other species did not reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) or reduced it only poorly.

  1. Options to reduce the operating costs at fossil power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, L.; White, T.R.

    1998-12-31

    With the coming of deregulation in the electric power industry, existing power plants will have to evaluate options to reduce their operating costs in methods more commonly used in the industrial sector. Similar to organizations throughout the country, electrical generation companies are looking for ways to reduce their costs. The projected impact of figure deregulation on free enterprise production and trading have further emphasized this need. Historically, the ability to sell or dispatch electrical load based on economic advantages, has existed within local systems. Generating facilities with higher production costs must implement operating cost reductions or expect even lower capacity factors following deregulation. This paper examines various means to reducing operating costs and the methods used in their evaluation.

  2. Cation-exchange fiber reduces iron oxide leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacClure, S.L.

    1993-10-01

    This article describes how addition of new fiber in powdered-resin precoat improves demineralizer crud-retention capability and reduces disposal cost for radioactive spent resin. Various attempts have been made to reduce the concentrations of iron oxide at the outlet of filter/demineralizer (FTD) vessels. Each vessel is fitted with an array of tubular septa that are precoated with powdered ion-exchange resin. The coatings perform filtering and ion-exchange actions on incoming feedwater, removing both suspended and dissolved solids. Experience at Duane Arnold Energy Center (CAED) indicates that use of a powdered-resin precoat containing cation-exchange fibers rather than cellulose fibers can reduce iron oxide levels in FTD effluent significantly.

  3. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

    2011-03-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

  4. Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries Special Feature: Reducing Energy Costs with Better Batteries September 9, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov Electricvehicles8331019248.jpg Electric vehicles lined up in Cascade Locks. Credit: Oregon Department of Transportation A better battery-one that is cheap and safe, but packs a lot of power-could lead to an electric vehicle that performs better than today's gasoline-powered cars, and costs about the same or less to consumers.

  5. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  6. A novel cantharidin analog N-Benzylcantharidinamide reduces the expression

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of MMP-9 and invasive potentials of Hep3B via inhibiting cytosolic translocation of HuR (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A novel cantharidin analog N-Benzylcantharidinamide reduces the expression of MMP-9 and invasive potentials of Hep3B via inhibiting cytosolic translocation of HuR Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A novel cantharidin analog N-Benzylcantharidinamide reduces the expression of MMP-9 and invasive potentials of Hep3B via inhibiting cytosolic translocation of HuR

  7. Smart Phone Technologies Reduce Risks to Eagles from Wind Turbines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Phone Technologies Reduce Risks to Eagles from Wind Turbines Smart Phone Technologies Reduce Risks to Eagles from Wind Turbines January 10, 2013 - 2:12pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2012 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. A DOE Success Story A team of researchers led by Dr. Todd Katzner at the West Virginia University (WVU) is using a global positioning system (GPS) similar to that found in a smart phone to track movements of golden

  8. Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA Study shows clean diesel programs slashed black carbon, a powerful short-term contributor to global warming June 13, 2013 Jon Weiner 510-486-4014 jrweiner@lbl.gov CA-BC-graphic.jpg Sacramento - Reductions in emissions of black carbon since the late 1980s, mostly from diesel engines as a result of air quality programs, have resulted in a measurable reduction of concentrations of

  9. Chicago Joins President Obama's Better Buildings Challenge to Reduce

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Use and Save Money | Department of Energy Chicago Joins President Obama's Better Buildings Challenge to Reduce Energy Use and Save Money Chicago Joins President Obama's Better Buildings Challenge to Reduce Energy Use and Save Money June 5, 2012 - 2:26pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 CHICAGO - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu joined Mayor Rahm Emanuel at an event in Chicago today to announce that the city is joining the Obama Administration's Better Buildings Challenge,

  10. Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos reduces water use Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014 The Lab decreased its water usage by 26 percent, with about one-third of the reduction attributable to using reclaimed water to cool a supercomputing center. March 16, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and

  11. Energy Lab Reduces Impact on Environment - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Lab Reduces Impact on Environment April 18, 2003 Golden, CO. - Employees at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are "walking the talk" by reducing their impact on the environment at work through the Laboratory's "Sustainable NREL" program. "Our mission has always focused on a sustainable energy future for our nation and the world," said Bob Westby, leader of the Sustainable NREL program. "Sustainability at NREL, in

  12. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, J.K.

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  13. Reducing Waste and Saving Energy with Composting | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reducing Waste and Saving Energy with Composting Reducing Waste and Saving Energy with Composting January 16, 2012 - 9:29am Addthis Erin R. Pierce Erin R. Pierce Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs "Hey, don't throw that away!" This a phrase I heard quite often when I visited my parents over the holidays. What were they referring to? All the banana and carrot peelings I would discard, nonchalantly into the garbage bin. My father, an avid gardener for as

  14. Chicago Solar Express Reduces Costs, Wait Times | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chicago Solar Express Reduces Costs, Wait Times Chicago Solar Express Reduces Costs, Wait Times October 28, 2014 - 10:48am Addthis The Solar Express program in Chicago, Illinois-funded through a SunShot Initiative Rooftop Solar Challenge (RSC) I award of $750,000-is making it faster, easier, and cheaper for residents to go solar by cutting long wait times and fees for solar permits. Residents of Chicago can now acquire permits for their residential solar installations in one day, compared to 30

  15. Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs Energy Department Announces New Investment to Reduce Fuel Cell Costs August 1, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis In support of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above strategy to develop clean, domestic energy sources, the Energy Department today announced a $4.5 million investment in two projects-led by Minnesota-based 3M and the Colorado School of Mines-to lower the cost, improve the durability, and increase the efficiency of

  16. Iowa: Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community Iowa: Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community November 6, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Utilizing funding from EERE and cost shares from other federal agencies, the City of West Union, Iowa, drilled geothermal wells in order to install a closed-loop geothermal heating and cooling system. The system is designed to serve 330,000 square feet of mixed used space in the downtown area,

  17. Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the Risk along the Columbia River | Department of Energy Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River Highly Radioactive Sludge Removal Complete: Historic Cleanup Effort Reduces the Risk along the Columbia River September 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Cameron Salony, DOE Cameron.Salony@rl.doe.gov 509-376-0402 Dee Millikin, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company Dee_Millikin@rl.gov 509-376-1297 RICHLAND, WASH. - The

  18. Iowa: Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community Iowa: Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community November 6, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Utilizing funding from EERE and cost shares from other federal agencies, the City of West Union, Iowa, drilled geothermal wells in order to install a closed-loop geothermal heating and cooling system. The system is designed to serve 330,000 square feet of mixed used space in the downtown area,

  19. Method to reduce dislocation density in silicon using stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buonassisi, Anthony; Bertoni, Mariana; Argon, Ali; Castellanos, Sergio; Fecych, Alexandria; Powell, Douglas; Vogl, Michelle

    2013-03-05

    A crystalline material structure with reduced dislocation density and method of producing same is provided. The crystalline material structure is annealed at temperatures above the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature of the crystalline material structure. One or more stress elements are formed on the crystalline material structure so as to annihilate dislocations or to move them into less harmful locations.

  20. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  1. Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Jason Lai Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University June 10, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Project ID: APE011 2 Outline * Overview * Objectives * Milestones * Approaches * Accomplishments * Future Work * Summary 3 Overview * Start - Sep 2007 * Finish - Sep 2010 * 75% Complete * Barriers addressed - Inverter Cost - Inverter Weight and

  2. Could a Common Household Fungus Reduce Oil Imports?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Imagine if the same mold that ruins old grapes and onions could double as a key ingredient in the recipe to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are working to harness the natural process that spoils fruits and vegetables as a way to make fuel and other petroleum substitutes.

  3. WIPP Uses Recovery Act Funding to Reduce Nuclear Waste Footprint

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CARLSBAD, N.M., August 1, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) reduced the nuclear waste footprint by using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds to expedite the clean up of five transuranic (TRU) waste storage sites and to make important infrastructure improvements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  4. Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases

  5. Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bredemann, Michael V

    2014-11-04

    The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

  6. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

  7. Improving Vehicle Efficiency, Reducing Dependence on Foreign Oil (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. Today, the United States spends about $400 billion each year on imported oil. To realize a secure energy future, America must break its dependence on imported oil and its volatile costs. The transportation sector accounts for about 70% of U.S. oil demand and holds tremendous opportunity to increase America's energy security by reducing oil consumption. That's why the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research and development (R and D) on vehicle technologies which can stem America's dependence on oil, strengthen the economy, and protect the environment. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles can significantly improve fuel economy, displacing petroleum. Researchers are making batteries more affordable and recyclable, while enhancing battery range, performance, and life. This research supports President Obama's goal of putting 1 million electric vehicles on the road by 2015. The program is also working with businesses to develop domestic battery and electric-drive component plants to improve America's economic competitiveness globally. The program facilitates deployment of alternative fuels (ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, electricity, propane, and natural gas) and fuel infrastructures by partnering with state and local governments, universities, and industry. Reducing vehicle weight directly improves vehicle efficiency and fuel economy, and can potentially reduce vehicle operating costs. Cost-effective, lightweight, high-strength materials can significantly reduce vehicle weight without compromising safety. Improved combustion technologies and optimized fuel systems can improve near-and mid-term fuel economy by 25% for passenger vehicles and 20% for commercial vehicles by 2015, compared to 2009 vehicles. Reducing the use of oil-based fuels and lubricants in vehicles has more potential to improve the nation's energy security than any other action; even a 1% improvement in vehicle fuel efficiency would save consumers more than $4 billion annually.

  8. Construction of energy-stable Galerkin reduced order models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalashnikova, Irina; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf

    2013-05-01

    This report aims to unify several approaches for building stable projection-based reduced order models (ROMs). Attention is focused on linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The model reduction procedure consists of two steps: the computation of a reduced basis, and the projection of the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) onto this reduced basis. Two kinds of reduced bases are considered: the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis and the balanced truncation basis. The projection step of the model reduction can be done in two ways: via continuous projection or via discrete projection. First, an approach for building energy-stable Galerkin ROMs for linear hyperbolic or incompletely parabolic systems of PDEs using continuous projection is proposed. The idea is to apply to the set of PDEs a transformation induced by the Lyapunov function for the system, and to build the ROM in the transformed variables. The resulting ROM will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. It is shown that, for many PDE systems, the desired transformation is induced by a special weighted L2 inner product, termed the %E2%80%9Csymmetry inner product%E2%80%9D. Attention is then turned to building energy-stable ROMs via discrete projection. A discrete counterpart of the continuous symmetry inner product, a weighted L2 inner product termed the %E2%80%9CLyapunov inner product%E2%80%9D, is derived. The weighting matrix that defines the Lyapunov inner product can be computed in a black-box fashion for a stable LTI system arising from the discretization of a system of PDEs in space. It is shown that a ROM constructed via discrete projection using the Lyapunov inner product will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. Connections between the Lyapunov inner product and the inner product induced by the balanced truncation algorithm are made. Comparisons are also made between the symmetry inner product and the Lyapunov inner product. The performance of ROMs constructed using these inner products is evaluated on several benchmark test cases.

  9. Comment On: DOE-HQ-2011-0014-0001 Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Comments on reducing regulatory burden

  10. Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Harvey, Michael N. (DeSoto, TX)

    2001-01-30

    A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

  11. Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloch, Jeffrey J. (Los Alamos, NM); Roussel-Dupre', Diane (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Barham W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

  12. Reduced circuit implementation of encoder and syndrome generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trager, Barry M; Winograd, Shmuel

    2014-05-27

    An error correction method and system includes an Encoder and Syndrome-generator that operate in parallel to reduce the amount of circuitry used to compute check symbols and syndromes for error correcting codes. The system and method computes the contributions to the syndromes and check symbols 1 bit at a time instead of 1 symbol at a time. As a result, the even syndromes can be computed as powers of the odd syndromes. Further, the system assigns symbol addresses so that there are, for an example GF(2.sup.8) which has 72 symbols, three (3) blocks of addresses which differ by a cube root of unity to allow the data symbols to be combined for reducing size and complexity of odd syndrome circuits. Further, the implementation circuit for generating check symbols is derived from syndrome circuit using the inverse of the part of the syndrome matrix for check locations.

  13. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David

    2015-09-01

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap having an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and tube bundles extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface. A divider inside a tube bundle defines a diluent passage that extends axially through the downstream surface, and a diluent supply in fluid communication with the divider provides diluent flow to the diluent passage. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing a fuel through tube bundles, flowing a diluent through a diluent passage inside a tube bundle, wherein the diluent passage extends axially through at least a portion of the end cap into a combustion chamber, and forming a diluent barrier in the combustion chamber between the tube bundle and at least one other adjacent tube bundle.

  14. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David

    2013-08-20

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap having an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and tube bundles extend through the end cap. A diluent supply in fluid communication with the end cap provides diluent flow to the end cap. Diluent distributors circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle extend downstream from the downstream surface and provide fluid communication for the diluent flow through the end cap. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing fuel through tube bundles that extend axially through an end cap, flowing a diluent through diluent distributors into a combustion chamber, wherein the diluent distributors are circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle and each diluent distributor extends downstream from the end cap, and forming a diluent barrier in the combustion chamber between at least one pair of adjacent tube bundles.

  15. Biogeochemical Mechanisms Controlling Reduced Radionuclide Particle Properties and Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jim K. Fredrickson; John M. Zachara; Matthew J. Marshall; Alex S. Beliaev

    2006-06-01

    Uranium and Technetium are the major risk-driving contaminants at Hanford and other DOE sites. These radionuclides have been shown to be reduced by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) under anoxic conditions. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that reduction results in the formation of poorly soluble hydrous oxides, UO2(s) and TcO2n?H2O(s), that are believed to limit mobility in the environment. The mechanisms of microbial reduction of U and Tc have been the focus of considerable research in the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP). In spite of equal or greater importance in terms of controlling the environmental fate of the contaminants relatively little is known regarding the precipitation mechanism(s), reactivity, persistence, and transport of biogenic UO2(s) and TcO2(s).

  16. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  17. Reduced Lorenz models for anomalous transport and profile resilience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rypdal, K.; Garcia, O. E.

    2007-02-15

    The physical basis for the Lorenz equations for convective cells in stratified fluids, and for magnetized plasmas imbedded in curved magnetic fields, are reexamined with emphasis on anomalous transport. It is shown that the Galerkin truncation leading to the Lorenz equations for the closed boundary problem is incompatible with finite fluxes through the system in the limit of vanishing diffusion. An alternative formulation leading to the Lorenz equations is proposed, invoking open boundaries and the notion of convective streamers and their back-reaction on the profile gradient, giving rise to resilience of the profile. Particular emphasis is put on the diffusionless limit, where these equations reduce to a simple dynamical system depending only on one single forcing parameter. This model is studied numerically, stressing experimentally observable signatures, and some of the perils of dimension-reducing approximations are discussed.

  18. Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Harvey, Michael N. (DeSoto, TX)

    2000-02-15

    A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

  19. Coatings and Process Development for Reduced Energy Automotive OEM Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Furar, PPG Industries, Inc. U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28-29, 2015 1 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Develop coatings, processes and facility design to reduce energy consumption in automotive OEM paint shops  Technical Barriers  Maintaining coating properties at lower temperature cure  Low temperature cross-link chemistries not commercial

  20. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Santa Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  1. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-10-27

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  2. Quantum Dot Materials Can Reduce Heat, Boost Electrical Output - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Quantum Dot Materials Can Reduce Heat, Boost Electrical Output May 23, 2005 Golden, Colo. - Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have shown that nanotechnology may greatly increase the amount of electricity produced by solar cells. In a paper published in a May issue of the American Chemical Society's Nano Letters journal, an NREL team found that tiny "nanocrystals," also known as "quantum dots,"

  3. Respiratory Protection Requirements Reduced in Parts of WIPP Underground

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WIPP UPDATE: January 29, 2016 Respiratory Protection Requirements Reduced in Parts of WIPP Underground As a result of radiological risk mitigation efforts by WIPP Radiological Control teams, this week requirements for respiratory protection were lifted for a significant portion of the WIPP underground. The change in respiratory protection requirements applies to all areas south of S-2520 and represents a significant milestone in the contamination mitigation efforts. While the use of protective

  4. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions Alternative to Exhaust Gas Recirculation that involves the nitrogen enrichment of intake air. Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Schematic representation of the air separation process through a membrane module</p> Schematic representation of the air separation process through

  5. Petroleum-derived additive reduces coke on hydrotreating catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-27

    Upgrading heavy oils is becoming increasingly important as the world crude slate gets heavier and demand for light products increases. But most upgrading processes must contend with problems related to coke formation during hydrotreating. Three researchers have found that materials having high radical-scavenging ability can reduce coke formation when applied to hydrotreating heavy oils. And these materials can be produced from heavy petroleum fractions. The paper discusses coke formation, the research program, and the pilot plant.

  6. Thermostatic/orifice trap reduces fuel, repair costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This article is an evaluation of a steam trap that combines the continuous drain oriface with a thermostatically controlled trap oriface to efficiently remove condensate from virtually any steam system within its operating limits. This trap effectively reduces fuel and repair costs and has a capacity of 6000 il/hr, handles various pressures up to 600 psig, and operates against back pressures up to 90% of inlet pressure.

  7. Reducing Waste and Harvesting Energy This Halloween | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste and Harvesting Energy This Halloween Reducing Waste and Harvesting Energy This Halloween October 30, 2013 - 9:57am Addthis This graphic shows how seasonal waste can be used to generate power. | Graphic by BCS for the Energy Department This graphic shows how seasonal waste can be used to generate power. | Graphic by BCS for the Energy Department Paul Grabowski Demonstration and Deployment, Bioenergy Technologies Office This Halloween, think of turning seasonal municipal solid waste (MSW) to

  8. Gas Exploration Software for Reducing Uncertainty in Gas Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimates - Energy Innovation Portal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Gas Exploration Software for Reducing Uncertainty in Gas Concentration Estimates Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryEstimating reservoir parameters for gas exploration from geophysical data is subject to a large degree of uncertainty. Seismic imaging techniques, such as seismic amplitude versus angle (AVA) analysis, can

  9. Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Vehicles Reduce Tailpipe Emissions While

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maintaining Fuel Economy - News Releases | NREL Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Vehicles Reduce Tailpipe Emissions While Maintaining Fuel Economy February 23, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a yearlong technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric (gHEV) trucks compared with conventional diesel vehicles. A report released this week details NREL's efforts to determine the impact of hybridization on performance,

  10. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  11. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Codes Assistance Project Maureen Guttman, AIA Executive Director, BCAP Alliance to Save Energy 202-530-2211 mguttman@ase.org Tuesday, April 2, 2013 - Thursday, April 4, 2013 Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes - Providing Technical Support and Assistance to States - 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Buildings = largest sector of energy consumption in America * Energy codes are a ready-made regulatory mechanism

  12. Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines Formation of droplets was minimized through optimization of fuel vaporization and distribution avoiding air/fuel zones richer than stoichiometric and temperatures that promote particle formation PDF icon deer10_klindt.pdf More Documents & Publications Bosch Powertrain Technologies Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and

  13. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolution Rates - Energy Innovation Portal Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and Dissolution Rates Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Electrodeposition of Pt onto RuO2 (110) Single-crystal Surface. (437 KB) Scanning tunneling micrograph showing atoms of platinum on an oxide surface. Scanning tunneling micrograph showing atoms of platinum on an oxide surface. Technology Marketing Summary

  14. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolution Rates - Energy Innovation Portal Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and Dissolution Rates Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Electrodeposition of Pt onto RuO2 (110) Single-Crystal Surface (437 KB) <p> Results of a density functional theory calculation of atomic positions of platinum on an oxide surface, showing good agreement with experimental results.</p> Results of a density

  15. Effective Methods in Reducing Communication Overheads in Solving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0/2002 Yun (Helen) He, GHC2002 1 Effective Methods in Reducing Communication Overheads in Solving PDE Problems on Distributed-Memory Computer Architectures Chris Ding and Yun (Helen) He Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 10/10/2002 Yun (Helen) He, GHC2002 2 Outline n Introduction n Traditional Method n Ghost Cell Expansion (GCE) Method n GCE Algorithm n Diagonal Communication Elimination (DCE) Technique n Analysis of GCE Method n Message Volume n Communication Time

  16. NREL: Technology Deployment - Renewable Energy Project Helps Tribe Reduce

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Footprint by 20,000 Tons Renewable Energy Project Helps Tribe Reduce Carbon Footprint by 20,000 Tons News DOE Supports Renewable Energy Deployment Projects for Forest County Potawatomi Community Publications Advancing Energy Development in Indian Country Renewable Energy Development in Indian Country: A Handbook for Tribes Sponsors U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Key Partners Forest County Potawatomi Tribe Contact Sarah Booth, 303-275-4383 A photo of a

  17. Method for Reducing Background Clutter in a Camera Image - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Method for Reducing Background Clutter in a Camera Image Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (832 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia has developed an eye-safe, robust, lightweight, and low-cost 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad

  18. Tribal Facilities Retrofits: Freeing Up Resources through Reduced Demand

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    up resources through reduced demand" Elias Duran - Facilities Manager ¡ Day to day operations of facilities ¡ Budget control over facilities ¡ Project needs for future space requirements ¡ Maintenance ¡ Capital improvements ¡ Brief history of the Tlingit & Haida Tribes ¡ Tour of our existing facilities ¡ Historical utility cost data ¡ Summary of Project Objectives ¡ Expected cost and emission reductions ¡ Strategic planning for future implementation Two separate Tribes United

  19. GTRI: Reducing Nuclear Threats | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reducing Nuclear Threats | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working

  20. Technical approaches for reducing cost of power support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Methods for reducing the cost of Chinese-made power supports are discussed. A reasonable selection of functions is proposed, including protection from side collapse, anti-sliding and anti-toppling, prop extension, loading capacity and hydraulic pressure. Material costs constitute 34-44% of the total cost, and so optimisation of design and materials is required. Standardisation of hydraulic components is recommended; and the use of appropriate and effective technological and managerial techniques is advocated. (In Chinese)

  1. Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LED Costs Through Innovation Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation November 19, 2013 - 3:49pm Addthis A combination solid-state laser turret cutter and stamping machine cuts a thin steel plate that will be formed into lighting fixture housing. Wisconsin-based Eaton Corporation is developing a new manufacturing process that streamlines LED fixture designs. | Photo courtesy of Eaton Corporation A combination solid-state laser turret cutter and stamping machine cuts a thin steel plate that will be

  2. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma Located in the heart of "Tornado Alley," Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company's (OG&E) electric grid faces significant challenges from severe weather, hot summers, and about 2% annual load growth. To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid technologies, tools, and techniques from

  3. Reducing the Cost of Energy in Northwest Alaska

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in Reducing the Cost of Northwest Alaska NANA Regional Corporation, Inc. Shopping Trip in Alaska Shopping list: Anchorage Northwest Alaska (average) $20 $60 Diapers Sugar Flour Milk Eggs Bread Keeping the Lights On * This increasing cost of living impacts every aspect of economic life. * Families are choosing between food and fuel. * Organizations make tough choices about maintaining essential services under cost pressure. Real Risks, Real People * There are real risks if we don't find long-

  4. Reducing the High Energy Costs of Alaska's Rural Water Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reducing the High Energy Costs of Alaska's Rural Water Systems Gavin Dixon Senior Project Manager ANTHC Rural Energy Initiative The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium's (ANTHC) Rural Energy Initiative works with communities to implement innovative energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions to make public sanitation affordable for the people we serve across Alaska. Our Purpose ANTHC Rural Energy Initiative We believe basic sanitation should be efficient, sustainable and affordable The

  5. Wind Program Manufacturing Research Advances Processes and Reduces Costs |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Tower sections being installed for a 2-MW wind turbine. Knowing that reducing the overall cost of wind energy begins on the factory floor, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Program supports research and development efforts and funding opportunities that integrate new designs, materials, and advanced techniques into the manufacturing process, making wind a more affordable source of renewable energy for communities nationwide. Numerous facilities specializing in the

  6. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Keene - Cummins Power Generation Kevin.Keene@cummins.com 763-574-5966 U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Increase the adoption rate for high-efficiency small- scale Combined Heat and Power systems via development of a flexible, containerized 330 kWe unit.  Simplifies installation  Reduces total cost of ownership

  7. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  8. Reduced order modeling of fluid/structure interaction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Kalashnikova, Irina; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Brake, Matthew Robert

    2009-11-01

    This report describes work performed from October 2007 through September 2009 under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development project titled 'Reduced Order Modeling of Fluid/Structure Interaction.' This project addresses fundamental aspects of techniques for construction of predictive Reduced Order Models (ROMs). A ROM is defined as a model, derived from a sequence of high-fidelity simulations, that preserves the essential physics and predictive capability of the original simulations but at a much lower computational cost. Techniques are developed for construction of provably stable linear Galerkin projection ROMs for compressible fluid flow, including a method for enforcing boundary conditions that preserves numerical stability. A convergence proof and error estimates are given for this class of ROM, and the method is demonstrated on a series of model problems. A reduced order method, based on the method of quadratic components, for solving the von Karman nonlinear plate equations is developed and tested. This method is applied to the problem of nonlinear limit cycle oscillations encountered when the plate interacts with an adjacent supersonic flow. A stability-preserving method for coupling the linear fluid ROM with the structural dynamics model for the elastic plate is constructed and tested. Methods for constructing efficient ROMs for nonlinear fluid equations are developed and tested on a one-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction equation. These methods are combined with a symmetrization approach to construct a ROM technique for application to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  9. Swimming motility reduces Azotobacter vinelandii deposition to silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Nanxi; Massoudieh, Arash; Liang, Xiaomeng; Hu, Dehong; Kamai, Tamir; Ginn, Timothy R.; Zilles, Julie L.; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2015-09-16

    The role of swimming motility on bacterial transport and fate in porous media was evaluated. We present microscopic evidence showing that strong swimming motility reduces attachment of Azotobacter vinelandii cells to silica surfaces. Applying global and cluster statistical analyses to microscopic videos taken under non-flow conditions, wild type, flagellated A. vinelandii strain DJ showed strong swimming ability with an average speed of 13.1 ?m/s, DJ77 showed impaired swimming averaged at 8.7 ?m/s, and both the non-flagellated JZ52 and chemically treated DJ cells were non-motile. Quantitative analyses of trajectories observed at different distances above the collector of a radial stagnation point flow cell (RSPF) revealed that both swimming and non-swimming cells moved with the flow when at a distance of at least 20 ?m from the collector surface. Near the surface, DJ cells showed both horizontal and vertical movement diverging them from reaching surfaces, while chemically treated DJ cells moved with the flow to reach surfaces, suggesting that strong swimming reduced attachment. In agreement with the RSPF results, the deposition rates obtained for two-dimensional multiple-collector micromodels were also lowest for DJ, while DJ77 and JZ52 showed similar values. Strong swimming specifically reduced deposition on the upstream surfaces of the micromodel collectors.

  10. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  11. Automated Pre-processing for NMR Assignments with Reduced Tedium

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-05-11

    An important rate-limiting step in the reasonance asignment process is accurate identification of resonance peaks in MNR spectra. NMR spectra are noisy. Hence, automatic peak-picking programs must navigate between the Scylla of reliable but incomplete picking, and the Charybdis of noisy but complete picking. Each of these extremes complicates the assignment process: incomplete peak-picking results in the loss of essential connectivities, while noisy picking conceals the true connectivities under a combinatiorial explosion of false positives.more » Intermediate processing can simplify the assignment process by preferentially removing false peaks from noisy peak lists. This is accomplished by requiring consensus between multiple NMR experiments, exploiting a priori information about NMR spectra, and drawing on empirical statistical distributions of chemical shift extracted from the BioMagResBank. Experienced NMR practitioners currently apply many of these techniques "by hand", which is tedious, and may appear arbitrary to the novice. To increase efficiency, we have created a systematic and automated approach to this process, known as APART. Automated pre-processing has three main advantages: reduced tedium, standardization, and pedagogy. In the hands of experienced spectroscopists, the main advantage is reduced tedium (a rapid increase in the ratio of true peaks to false peaks with minimal effort). When a project is passed from hand to hand, the main advantage is standardization. APART automatically documents the peak filtering process by archiving its original recommendations, the accompanying justifications, and whether a user accepted or overrode a given filtering recommendation. In the hands of a novice, this tool can reduce the stumbling block of learning to differentiate between real peaks and noise, by providing real-time examples of how such decisions are made.« less

  12. Use of comprehensive NEPA documents to reduce program risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolff, T.A.; Hansen, R.P.

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates DOE`s Kauai Test Facility (KTF) on the western coast of the Hawaiian island of Kauai. In July 1992, DOE approved a comprehensive Environmental Assessment (EA) covering ongoing and future rocket launches of experimental payloads. The KTF EA fulfilled two basic objectives: Consideration of environmental values early in the planning and decision making process; and public disclosure. These objectives can also be considered to be benefits of preparing comprehensive NEPA documents. However, proponents of an action are not as dedicated to these twin NEPA objectives as they are motivated by NEPA`s ability to reduce program risks. Once the KTF environmental assessment was underway, it was apparent that reducing risks to the program, budget, and schedule was the main incentive for successful completion of the EA. The comprehensive or ``omnibus`` environmental assessment prepared for the KTF is a de facto ``detailed statement,`` and it is also a good example of a ``mitigated FONSI,`` i.e., mitigation measures are essential to render some potential impacts not significant. Because the KTF EA is a broad scope, umbrella-like, site-wide assessment, it ``bounds`` the impacts of continuing and proposed future actions. The successful completion of this document eliminated the need to review, document, and gain approval individually for numerous related actions. Also, because it supported a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) after identifying appropriate mitigation, it also eliminated the need for an environmental impact statement (EIS). This paper discusses seven specific ways in which the KTF EA reduced program risks and supported budget and schedule objectives.

  13. Method for reducing energy losses in laser crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Roberts, D.H.

    1992-03-24

    A process for reducing energy losses in crystals is disclosed which comprises: a. heating a crystal to a temperature sufficiently high as to cause dissolution of microscopic inclusions into the crystal, thereby converting said inclusions into point-defects, and b. maintaining said crystal at a given temperature for a period of time sufficient to cause said point-defects to diffuse out of said crystal. Also disclosed are crystals treated by the process, and lasers utilizing the crystals as a source of light. 12 figs.

  14. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1984-08-01

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

  15. Path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, John K.P.; Wang, Kai-Ting Amy; Yamashita, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2014-07-22

    A mechanism is provided for path-sensitive analysis for reducing rollback overheads. The mechanism receives, in a compiler, program code to be compiled to form compiled code. The mechanism divides the code into basic blocks. The mechanism then determines a restore register set for each of the one or more basic blocks to form one or more restore register sets. The mechanism then stores the one or more register sets such that responsive to a rollback during execution of the compiled code. A rollback routine identifies a restore register set from the one or more restore register sets and restores registers identified in the identified restore register set.

  16. Edison Electric Institute (EEI) Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, 76 Fed.

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reg. 75798 (Dec. 5, 2011) | Department of Energy 6 Fed. Reg. 75798 (Dec. 5, 2011) Edison Electric Institute (EEI) Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, 76 Fed. Reg. 75798 (Dec. 5, 2011) The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) is submitting these comments in response to the above-referenced request for information (RFI) issued by the Department of Energy (DOE). PDF icon Reg review - DOE RFI - EEI cmts 2-3-12.pdf More Documents & Publications EEI Comments in response to DOE regulatory review RFI, 76

  17. Damping element for reducing the vibration of an airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X; Marra, John J

    2013-11-12

    An airfoil (10) is provided with a tip (12) having an opening (14) to a center channel (24). A damping element (16) is inserted within the opening of the center channel, to reduce an induced vibration of the airfoil. The mass of the damping element, a spring constant of the damping element within the center channel, and/or a mounting location (58) of the damping element within the center channel may be adjustably varied, to shift a resonance frequency of the airfoil outside a natural operating frequency of the airfoil.

  18. Method for reducing energy losses in laser crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atherton, L. Jeffrey (Pleasanton, CA); DeYoreo, James J. (Livermore, CA); Roberts, David H. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A process for reducing energy losses in crystals is disclosed which comprises: a. heating a crystal to a temperature sufficiently high as to cause dissolution of microscopic inclusions into the crystal, thereby converting said inclusions into point-defects, and b. maintaining said crystal at a given temperature for a period of time sufficient to cause said point-defects to diffuse out of said crystal. Also disclosed are crystals treated by the process, and lasers utilizing the crystals as a source of light.

  19. Dissipation and reconnection in boundary-driven reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Minping; Rappazzo, Antonio Franco; Matthaeus, William H.; Servidio, Sergio; Oughton, Sean

    2014-12-10

    We study the statistics of coherent current sheets, the population of X-type critical points, and reconnection rates in a coronal loop geometry, via numerical simulations of reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. Current sheets and sites of reconnection (magnetic X-points) are identified in two-dimensional planes of the three-dimensional simulation domain. The geometry of the identified current sheetsincluding area, length, and widthand the magnetic dissipation occurring in the current sheets are statistically characterized. We also examine the role of magnetic reconnection, by computing the reconnection rates at the identified X-points and investigating their association with current sheets.

  20. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  1. Method for cleaning bomb-reduced uranium derbies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banker, John G. (Boulder, CO); Wigginton, Hubert L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beck, David E. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of carbon in uranium metal ingots induction cast from derbies prepared by the bomb-reduction of uranium tetrafluoride in the presence of magnesium is effectively reduced to less than 100 ppm by removing residual magnesium fluoride from the surface of the derbies prior to casting. This magnesium fluoride is removed from the derbies by immersing them in an alkali metal salt bath which reacts with and decomposes the magnesium fluoride. A water quenching operation followed by a warm nitric acid bath and a water rinse removes the residual salt and reaction products from the derbies.

  2. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  3. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  5. Energy spectrum, dissipation, and spatial structures in reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Gomez, D. O.

    2012-05-15

    We analyze the effect of the Hall term in the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence under a strong externally supported magnetic field, seeing how this changes the energy cascade, the characteristic scales of the flow, and the dynamics of global magnitudes, with particular interest in the dissipation. Numerical simulations of freely evolving three-dimensional reduced magnetohydrodynamics are performed, for different values of the Hall parameter (the ratio of the ion skin depth to the macroscopic scale of the turbulence) controlling the impact of the Hall term. The Hall effect modifies the transfer of energy across scales, slowing down the transfer of energy from the large scales up to the Hall scale (ion skin depth) and carrying faster the energy from the Hall scale to smaller scales. The final outcome is an effective shift of the dissipation scale to larger scales but also a development of smaller scales. Current sheets (fundamental structures for energy dissipation) are affected in two ways by increasing the Hall effect, with a widening but at the same time generating an internal structure within them. In the case where the Hall term is sufficiently intense, the current sheet is fully delocalized. The effect appears to reduce impulsive effects in the flow, making it less intermittent.

  6. Methods and apparatus for reducing corrosion in refractory linings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Greenberg, Sherman (Oak Lawn, IL); Diercks, Dwight R. (Plainfield, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for reducing corrosion in a refractory lining of a liquid-containing vessel used in direct steelmaking processes. The vessel operates at between about 1600.degree. C. and about 1800.degree. C. and an oxygen partial pressure of about 10.sup.-12 atmospheres, creating slag which is rich in FeO. The refractory lining includes a significant level of chromium oxide (Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3), and has small interconnected pores which may be filled with a gas mixture having a higher total pressure and oxygen partial pressure than the total pressure and oxygen partial pressure associted with the liquid against the lining of the vessel. The gas mixture is forced through the pores of the lining so that the pores are continuously filled with the mixture. In this manner, the gas mixture creates a blanket which increases the oxygen partial pressure at the lining enough to maintain the chromium in the lining in a selected valence state in which the chromium has decreased solubility in the FeO slag, thereby reducing corrosion by the FeO and increasing the useful life of the refractory lining.

  7. Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood III, David L; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  8. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  9. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  10. A surety engineering framework to reduce cognitive systems risks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Thomas P.; Peercy, David Eugene; Caldera, Eva O.; Shaneyfelt, Wendy L.

    2008-12-01

    Cognitive science research investigates the advancement of human cognition and neuroscience capabilities. Addressing risks associated with these advancements can counter potential program failures, legal and ethical issues, constraints to scientific research, and product vulnerabilities. Survey results, focus group discussions, cognitive science experts, and surety researchers concur technical risks exist that could impact cognitive science research in areas such as medicine, privacy, human enhancement, law and policy, military applications, and national security (SAND2006-6895). This SAND report documents a surety engineering framework and a process for identifying cognitive system technical, ethical, legal and societal risks and applying appropriate surety methods to reduce such risks. The framework consists of several models: Specification, Design, Evaluation, Risk, and Maturity. Two detailed case studies are included to illustrate the use of the process and framework. Several Appendices provide detailed information on existing cognitive system architectures; ethical, legal, and societal risk research; surety methods and technologies; and educing information research with a case study vignette. The process and framework provide a model for how cognitive systems research and full-scale product development can apply surety engineering to reduce perceived and actual risks.

  11. Pathway of Fermentative Hydrogen Production by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2015-02-16

    Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Such biofuels are intermediate products of microbial metabolism of renewable substrates, in particular, plant biomass. Not only are alcohols and solvents produced in this degradative process but energy-rich hydrogen as well. Non photosynthetic microbial hydrogen generation from compounds other than sugars has not been fully explored. We propose to examine the capacity of the abundant soil anaerobes, sulfate-reducing bacteria, for hydrogen generation from organic acids. These apparently simple pathways have yet to be clearly established. Information obtained may facilitate the exploitation of other microbes not yet readily examined by molecular tools. Identification of the flexibility of the metabolic processes to channel reductant to hydrogen will be useful in consideration of practical applications. Because the tools for genetic and molecular manipulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are developed, our efforts will focus on two strains, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio G20.Therefore total metabolism, flux through the pathways, and regulation are likely to be limiting factors which we can elucidate in the following experiments.

  12. The reduced environmental liability of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie, A.C.D.; McMillen, M.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the authors will discuss the waste stream minimization that future commercially operated clean coal technologies can effect. They will explore the ability of these now-beginning-to-mature technologies to reduce those aspects of the emission streams that have greatest potential for what the authors term as environmental liability. Environmental liability is manifested in a variety of forms. There are both current liabilities and future liabilities. In addition, uncertainties may reside in future anticipated regulatory compliance and the costs of such compliance. Exposure to liability translates into perceived risk which creates an air of uncertainty to the power industry and its lenders who provide the capital to build new power plants. In the context of electric power generation, newer, high efficiency power generation technologies developed in the course of the Clean Coal Technology Program of the US Department of Energy result in reduced waste stream emissions when compared against more aging conventional combustion technologies. This paper will discuss how the introduction of new clean coal technologies will help balance the conflict between adverse environmental impact and the global demand for increased energy. The authors will discuss how clean coal technologies will facilitate compliance with future air standards that may otherwise expose power producers to modification and cleanup costs, noncompliance penalties, or premature shut down.

  13. Mathematically Reduced Chemical Reaction Mechanism Using Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziaul Huque

    2007-08-31

    This is the final technical report for the project titled 'Mathematically Reduced Chemical Reaction Mechanism Using Neural Networks'. The aim of the project was to develop an efficient chemistry model for combustion simulations. The reduced chemistry model was developed mathematically without the need of having extensive knowledge of the chemistry involved. To aid in the development of the model, Neural Networks (NN) was used via a new network topology known as Non-linear Principal Components Analysis (NPCA). A commonly used Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP-NN) was modified to implement NPCA-NN. The training rate of NPCA-NN was improved with the GEneralized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) based on kernel smoothing techniques. Kernel smoothing provides a simple way of finding structure in data set without the imposition of a parametric model. The trajectory data of the reaction mechanism was generated based on the optimization techniques of genetic algorithm (GA). The NPCA-NN algorithm was then used for the reduction of Dimethyl Ether (DME) mechanism. DME is a recently discovered fuel made from natural gas, (and other feedstock such as coal, biomass, and urban wastes) which can be used in compression ignition engines as a substitute for diesel. An in-house two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was developed based on Meshfree technique and time marching solution algorithm. The project also provided valuable research experience to two graduate students.

  14. Organic ligands reduce copper toxicity in Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azenha, M.; Vasconcelos, M.T.; Cabral, J.P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Pseudomonas syringae cells were exposed to 100 {mu}M copper alone, or to previously equilibrated copper sulfate-ligand solutions. Ligand concentrations were determined experimentally as those that reduced the free copper concentration to 5 {mu}M (determined with a Cu{sup 2+}-selective electrode). These values were in agreement with those calculated by computational equilibrium simulation based on published stability constants. Exposure of P. syringae cells to copper sulfate, chloride, or nitrate resulted in similar high mortality, suggesting that copper was responsible for cell death. Acetate, succinate, proline, lysine, cysteine, and EDTA significantly reduced both the amount of copper bound to the cells and cell death, indicating that not only strong chelating agents but also weak and moderate copper ligands can effectively antagonize copper toxicity. However, cysteine and EDTA were considerably more effective than acetate, succinate, proline, and lysine, indicating that copper toxicity is not simply a function of free copper concentration but depends on the nature of the ligand. The results suggested that a significant fraction of copper bound to acetate, succinate, proline, or lysine was displaced to the bacteria or, alternatively, mixed copper-ligand-cell complexes could be formed. On the contrary, none of these phenomena occurred for the copper complexes with cysteine or EDTA.

  15. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  16. Partial encapsulation of Pd particles by reduced ceria-zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, H P.; Pan, X Q.; Graham, George W.; Jen, H. W.; McCabe, Robert W.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Peden, Charles HF.

    2005-11-14

    The interaction between metal particles and their oxide support can be strong so as to affect the reactivity of a catalyst system by, for example, encapsulation of the particles by the oxide. Direct observation of metal-oxide interfaces with atomic resolution is a challenge and can only be achieved by cross sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). With this approach, we found partial encapsulation of Pd particles by reduced ceria-zirconia in a model, single-crystal thin film auto catalyst, indicating a strong interaction between Pd and the oxide. Besides obtaining HRTEM images, the valence of cerium was determined by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The effect of reduction and oxidation conditions on this interaction provides a qualitative explanation for a previously observed reversible reactivation of oxygen storage in model powder auto catalysts. The technique of cross sectional HRTEM can be applied to the study of other metal-particle-on-oxide systems.

  17. Reducing 68Ge Background in Dark Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-03-01

    Experimental searches for dark matter include experiments with sub-0.5 keV-energy threshold high purity germanium detectors. Experimental efforts, in partnership with the CoGeNT Collaboration operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, are focusing on energy threshold reduction via noise abatement, reduction of backgrounds from cosmic ray generated isotopes, and ubiquitous environmental radioactive sources. The most significant cosmic ray produced radionuclide is 68Ge. This paper evaluates reducing this background by freshly mining and processing germanium ore. The most probable outcome is a reduction of the background by a factor of two, and at most a factor of four. A very cost effective alternative is to obtain processed Ge as soon as possible and store it underground for 18 months.

  18. Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

  19. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  20. Electronic structure of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutar, D. S.; Singh, Gulbagh; Divakar Botcha, V.

    2012-09-03

    Graphene oxide (GO) monolayers obtained by Langmuir Blodgett route and suitably treated to obtain reduced graphene oxide (RGO) monolayers were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. Upon reduction of GO to form RGO C1s x-ray photoelectron spectra showed increase in graphitic carbon content, while ultraviolet photoelectron spectra showed increase in intensity corresponding to C2p-{pi} electrons ({approx}3.5 eV). X-ray excited Auger transitions C(KVV) and plasmon energy loss of C1s photoelectrons have been analyzed to elucidate the valence band structure. The effective number of ({pi}+{sigma}) electrons as obtained from energy loss spectra was found to increase by {approx}28% on reduction of GO.

  1. Reducing backgrounds in the higgs factory muon collider detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary design of the 125-GeV Higgs Factory (HF) Muon Collider (MC) has identified an enormous background loads on the HF detector. This is related to the twelve times higher muon decay probability at HF compared to that previously studied for the 1.5-TeV MC. As a result of MARS15 optimization studies, it is shown that with a carefully designed protection system in the interaction region, in the machine-detector interface and inside the detector one can reduce the background rates to a manageable level similar to that achieved for the optimized 1.5-TeV case. The main characteristics of the HF detector background are presented for the configuration found.

  2. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-12-13

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency improvement over equivalent gasoline-fueled trucks. (2) Develop by 2004 the enabling technology for a Class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) that will meet prevailing emission standards, using either diesel or a liquid alternative fuel. (3) Develop by 2006 diesel engines with fuel flexibility and a thermal efficiency of 55% with liquid alternative fuels, and a thermal efficiency of 55% with dedicated gaseous fuels. (4) Develop a methodology for analyzing and evaluating the operation of a heavy vehicle as an integrated system, considering such factors as engine efficiency; emissions; rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; friction, wear, and lubrication effects; auxiliary power units; material substitutions for reducing weight; and other sources of parasitic energy losses. Overarching these considerations is the need to preserve system functionality, cost, competitiveness, reliability, durability, and safety.

  3. Reducing collective quantum state rotation errors with reversible dephasing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Kevin C.; Norcia, Matthew A.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Bohnet, Justin G.; Thompson, James K.

    2014-12-29

    We demonstrate that reversible dephasing via inhomogeneous broadening can greatly reduce collective quantum state rotation errors, and observe the suppression of rotation errors by more than 21?dB in the context of collective population measurements of the spin states of an ensemble of 2.110{sup 5} laser cooled and trapped {sup 87}Rb atoms. The large reduction in rotation noise enables direct resolution of spin state populations 13(1) dB below the fundamental quantum projection noise limit. Further, the spin state measurement projects the system into an entangled state with 9.5(5) dB of directly observed spectroscopic enhancement (squeezing) relative to the standard quantum limit, whereas no enhancement would have been obtained without the suppression of rotation errors.

  4. Focused cathode design to reduce anode heating during vircator operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Curtis F.; Dickens, James C.; Neuber, Andreas A.

    2013-10-15

    Virtual cathode oscillators, or vircators, are a type of high power microwave device which operates based on the instability of a virtual cathode, or cloud of electrons, which forms when electron current injected into the drift tube exceeds the space charge limited current within the drift tube. Anode heating by the electron beam during vircator operation ultimately limits achievable pulse lengths, repetition rates, and the duration of burst mode operation. This article discusses a novel cathode design that focuses electrons through holes in the anode, thus significantly reducing anode heating by the electrons emitted from the cathode during the first transit through the A-K gap. Reflexing electrons continue to deposit energy on the anode; however, the discussed minimization of anode heating by main beam electrons has the potential to enable higher repetition rates as well as efficiency and longer diode lifetime. A simulation study of this type of cathode design illustrates possible advantages.

  5. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  6. Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

  7. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  8. Superconducting shielded core reactor with reduced AC losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Yung S.; Hull, John R.

    2006-04-04

    A superconducting shielded core reactor (SSCR) operates as a passive device for limiting excessive AC current in a circuit operating at a high power level under a fault condition such as shorting. The SSCR includes a ferromagnetic core which may be either closed or open (with an air gap) and extends into and through a superconducting tube or superconducting rings arranged in a stacked array. First and second series connected copper coils each disposed about a portion of the iron core are connected to the circuit to be protected and are respectively wound inside and outside of the superconducting tube or rings. A large impedance is inserted into the circuit by the core when the shielding capability of the superconducting arrangement is exceeded by the applied magnetic field generated by the two coils under a fault condition to limit the AC current in the circuit. The proposed SSCR also affords reduced AC loss compared to conventional SSCRs under continuous normal operation.

  9. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  10. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2013-12-03

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  11. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2014-05-13

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  12. Silicon photonics thermal phase shifter with reduced temperature range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L; Kekatpure, Rohan D; DeRose, Christopher; Davids, Paul; Watts, Michael R

    2013-12-17

    Optical devices, phased array systems and methods of phase-shifting an input signal are provided. An optical device includes a microresonator and a waveguide for receiving an input optical signal. The waveguide includes a segment coupled to the microresonator with a coupling coefficient such that the waveguide is overcoupled to the microresonator. The microresonator received the input optical signal via the waveguide and phase-shifts the input optical signal to form an output optical signal. The output optical signal is coupled into the waveguide via the microresonator and transmitted by the waveguide. At an operating point of the optical device, the coupling coefficient is selected to reduce a change in an amplitude of the output optical signal and to increase a change in a phase of the output optical signal, relative to the input optical signal.

  13. Cascaded'' pilot regulators help reduce LPG loss in hot weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-08

    Fina Oil and Chemical Co. and Fisher Controls International used engineering resourcefulness to overcome heat-induced product loss from LPG storage bullets at Fina's Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. Fina had installed Fisher's Easy Joe 399A-6365, a pilot-operated, back-pressure-type regulator, on its LPG storage facility in 1991 as part of a fuel products modernization project. The regulators helped control the accumulation of noncondensible vapors, which collect in the storage bullets above the LPG. But summer heat extremes and surges in the tanks and lines made it possible for the operating pressure to increase so that the safety relief valve was activated before the pilot regulator was able to stabilize the pressure. The installation of pilot-type regulators, in cascaded, or series, formation, reduced product venting through relief valves.

  14. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

    2002-01-01

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  15. Reducing cold-start emissions by catalytic converter thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A; Brady, M J; Michaels, K F

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m{sup 2}K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146{degrees}C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27{degrees}C. Compared to the same converter at ambient conditions, overall emissions of CO and HC were reduced by 52 % and 29 %, to 0.27 and 0.037 g/mile, respectively. The maximum converter temperature during the FTP cycle was 720{degrees}C. This limited testing was performed with a nearly-fresh palladium-only catalyst, but demonstrates the potential of this vacuum insulation approach for emissions reduction and thermal control. Further testing is ongoing. An initial assessment of several production issues is made, including high-volume fabrication challenges, durability, and cost.

  16. Central vacuum system with programmable controller reduces energy costs 40%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Silva, R.; Varnes, W.; Gaines, A.

    1985-11-01

    The B.F. Goodrich Company needed a more efficient vacuum source for the pilot plant facilities in Avon Lake, OH where new products and manufacturing procedures are developed and evaluated. Fourteen multi-stage steam jet ejector vacuum systems were installed in one building, since a number of vacuum users could be operating concurrently at different levels in the range of 15 to 150 Torr. Ejectors were normally turned on or off to provide the desired vacuum and to conserve steam. Steam is wasted, however, if all stages are on and the amount of vacuum is regulated by bleeding inert gas into the system. Water can also enter the system by kick back, if steam to the ejectors is abruptly shut off. The jet ejector vacuum systems required a steady supply of high pressure steam day and night, but fluctuating demands could create problems in the quality of vacuum obtained. Steam and maintenance costs were also significant. Goodrich decided to replace most of the steam-operated vacuum units because of the high energy requirements, and concurrently reduce hydrocarbon emissions. A major manufacturer or mechanical vacuum equipment was asked to design a vacuum system that could provide steady vacuum in the range of 10 to 250 Torr. The system had to have sufficient capacity for a number of concurrently operating processes, and handle a wide variety of hydrocarbons. The system, designed to meet these requirements and installed in June 1984, consists of a Roots-type vacuum booster with bypass valves, discharging into an intercondenser. The progammable-controlled vacuum system has reduced energy requirements by approximately 40%, and has helped in minimizing emissions. The projected pay-back for the entire system is 1 1/2 years.

  17. Technetium Sorption By Cementitious Materials Under Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Estes, Shanna L.; Arai, Yuji; Powell, Brian A.

    2013-07-18

    The objective of this study was to measure Tc sorption to cementitious materials under reducing conditions to simulate Saltstone Disposal Facility conditions. Earlier studies were conducted and the experimental conditions were found not to simulate those of the facility. Through a five month subcontract with Clemson University, sorption of {sup 99}Tc to four cementitious materials was examined within an anaerobic glovebag targeting a 0.1% H{sub 2}(g)/ 99.9% N{sub 2}(g) atmosphere. Early experiments based on Tc sorption and Eh indicated that 0.1% H{sub 2}(g) (a reductant) was necessary to preclude experimental impacts from O{sub 2}(g) diffusion into the glovebag. Preliminary data to date (up to 56 days) indicates that sorption of {sup 99}Tc to cementitious materials increased with increasing slag content for simulated saltstone samples. This is consistent with the conceptual model that redox active sulfide groups within the reducing slag facilitate reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). These experiments differ from previous experiments where a 2% H{sub 2}(g) atmosphere was maintained (Kaplan et al., 2011 (SRNL-STI-2010-00668)). The impact of the 2% H{sub 2}(g) reducing atmosphere on this data was examined and determined to cause the reduction of Tc in experimental samples without slag. In the present ongoing study, after 56 days, Tc sorption by the 50-year old cement samples (no slag) was undetectable, whereas Tc sorption in the cementitious materials containing slag continues to increase with contact time (measured after 1, 4, 8, 19 and 56 days). Sorption was not consistent with spike concentrations and steady state has not been demonstrated after 56 days. The average conditional K{sub d} value for the Vault 2 cementitious material was 873 mL/g (17% slag), for the TR547 Saltstone (45% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 168 mL/g, and for TR545 (90% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 1,619 mL/g. It is anticipated that additional samples will be collected until steady state conditions are established to permit measuring more representative K{sub d} and solubility values under these experimental conditions. The purpose of this revision is to correct K{sub d} values reported in the original document. This document reports results for the first 56 days of a 319 day experiment. After the experiment had finished and all the data were compiled for QA/QC analysis, a mistake in the K{sub d} calculations was found. The K{sub d} values reported in revision 0 of this report were essentially one order of magnitude higher than the actual values. In this revision, the text references to K{sub d} values have been updated along with the data in Figure 2 and Appendix B. Between the time the original document was issued, Janurary 2012, and this document was issued, a final report (Estes et al. 2012; SRNL-STI-2012-00596, Rev. 0) describing all the corrected data for the 319 day experiment was issued. This document does not contain any data that is not already reported in the final report (SRNL-STI-2012-00596, Rev. 0).

  18. Aperture-Tolerant, Chemical-Based Methods to Reduce Channeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall S. Seright

    2007-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004, through May 16, 2007, for the project, 'Aperture-Tolerant, Chemical-Based Methods to Reduce Channeling'. We explored the potential of pore-filling gels for reducing excess water production from both fractured and unfractured production wells. Several gel formulations were identified that met the requirements--i.e., providing water residual resistance factors greater than 2,000 and ultimate oil residual resistance factors (F{sub rro}) of 2 or less. Significant oil throughput was required to achieve low F{sub rro} values, suggesting that gelant penetration into porous rock must be small (a few feet or less) for existing pore-filling gels to provide effective disproportionate permeability reduction. Compared with adsorbed polymers and weak gels, strong pore-filling gels can provide greater reliability and behavior that is insensitive to the initial rock permeability. Guidance is provided on where relative-permeability-modification/disproportionate-permeability-reduction treatments can be successfully applied for use in either oil or gas production wells. When properly designed and executed, these treatments can be successfully applied to a limited range of oilfield excessive-water-production problems. We examined whether gel rheology can explain behavior during extrusion through fractures. The rheology behavior of the gels tested showed a strong parallel to the results obtained from previous gel extrusion experiments. However, for a given aperture (fracture width or plate-plate separation), the pressure gradients measured during the gel extrusion experiments were much higher than anticipated from rheology measurements. Extensive experiments established that wall slip and first normal stress difference were not responsible for the pressure gradient discrepancy. To explain the discrepancy, we noted that the aperture for gel flow (for mobile gel wormholing through concentrated immobile gel within the fracture) was much narrower than the width of the fracture. The potential of various approaches were investigated for improving sweep in parts of the Daqing Oil Field that have been EOR targets. Possibilities included (1) gel treatments that are directed at channeling through fractures, (2) colloidal dispersion gels, (3) reduced polymer degradation, (4) more viscous polymer solutions, and (5) foams and other methods. Fractures were present in a number of Daqing wells (both injectors and producers). Because the fractures were narrow far from the wellbore, severe channeling did not occur. On the contrary, fractures near the wellbore aided reservoir sweep. In the February 2006 issue of the Journal of Petroleum Technology, a 'Distinguished-Author-Series' paper claimed that a process using aqueous colloidal dispersion gels (CDG gels) performed superior to polymer flooding. Unfortunately, this claim is misleading and generally incorrect. Colloidal dispersion gels, in their present state of technological development, should not be advocated as an improvement to, or substitute for, polymer flooding.

  19. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas...

  20. Reduced Switching Frequency Active Harmonic Elimination for Multilevel Converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Zhong; Tolbert, Leon M; Chiasson, John N; Ozpineci, Burak

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a reduced switching-frequency active-harmonic-elimination method (RAHEM) to eliminate any number of specific order harmonics of multilevel converters. First, resultant theory is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate low-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for a fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Next, based on the number of harmonics to be eliminated, Newton climbing method is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate high-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for the fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Third, the magnitudes and phases of the residual lower order harmonics are computed, generated, and subtracted from the original voltage waveform to eliminate these low-order harmonics. Compared to the active-harmonic-elimination method (AHEM), which generates square waves to cancel high-order harmonics, RAHEM has lower switching frequency. The simulation results show that the method can effectively eliminate all the specific harmonics, and a low total harmonic distortion (THD) near sine wave is produced. An experimental 11-level H-bridge multilevel converter with a field-programmable gate-array controller is employed to experimentally validate the method. The experimental results show that RAHEM does effectively eliminate any number of specific harmonics, and the output voltage waveform has low switching frequency and low THD.

  1. Rotating machinery surveillance system reduces plant downtime and radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohanick, J.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating machinery surveillance system (RMSS) was permanently installed at Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) as part of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy whose goal was to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from the inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating machinery. The RMSS was installed at GGNS in 1983 to continuously monitor 173 analog vibration signals from proximity probes mounted on 26 machine trains and {approximately}450 process data points via a computer data link. Vibration frequency spectra, i.e., the vibration amplitude versus frequency of vibration, and various characterizations of these spectra are the fundamental data collected by the RMSS for performing machinery diagnostics. The RMSS collects vibration frequency spectra on a daily basis for all the monitored rotating equipment and automatically stores the collected spectra for review by the vibration engineer. Vibration spectra automatically stored by the RMSS fall into categories that include the last normal, alarm, minimum and maximum, past three-day data set, baseline, current, and user-saved spectra. During first and second fuel-cycle operation at GGNS, several significant vibration problems were detected by the RMSS. Two of these are presented in this paper: recirculation pumps and turbine-generator bearing degradation. The total reduction in personnel radiation exposure at GGNS from 1985 to 1987 due to the presence of the RMSS was estimated to be in the range from 49 to 54 person-rem.

  2. Quantifying and Reducing Curve-Fitting Uncertainty in Isc: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campanelli, Mark; Duck, Benjamin; Emery, Keith

    2015-09-28

    Current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements of photovoltaic (PV) devices are used to determine performance parameters and to establish traceable calibration chains. Measurement standards specify localized curve fitting methods, e.g., straight-line interpolation/extrapolation of the I-V curve points near short-circuit current, Isc. By considering such fits as statistical linear regressions, uncertainties in the performance parameters are readily quantified. However, the legitimacy of such a computed uncertainty requires that the model be a valid (local) representation of the I-V curve and that the noise be sufficiently well characterized. Using more data points often has the advantage of lowering the uncertainty. However, more data points can make the uncertainty in the fit arbitrarily small, and this fit uncertainty misses the dominant residual uncertainty due to so-called model discrepancy. Using objective Bayesian linear regression for straight-line fits for Isc, we investigate an evidence-based method to automatically choose data windows of I-V points with reduced model discrepancy. We also investigate noise effects. Uncertainties, aligned with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), are quantified throughout.

  3. Reducing uncertainty in geostatistical description with well testing pressure data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, A.C.; He, Nanqun; Oliver, D.S.

    1997-08-01

    Geostatistics has proven to be an effective tool for generating realizations of reservoir properties conditioned to static data, e.g., core and log data and geologic knowledge. Due to the lack of closely spaced data in the lateral directions, there will be significant variability in reservoir descriptions generated by geostatistical simulation, i.e., significant uncertainty in the reservoir descriptions. In past work, we have presented procedures based on inverse problem theory for generating reservoir descriptions (rock property fields) conditioned to pressure data and geostatistical information represented as prior means for log-permeability and porosity and variograms. Although we have shown that the incorporation of pressure data reduces the uncertainty below the level contained in the geostatistical model based only on static information (the prior model), our previous results assumed did not explicitly account for uncertainties in the prior means and the parameters defining the variogram model. In this work, we investigate how pressure data can help detect errors in the prior means. If errors in the prior means are large and are not taken into account, realizations conditioned to pressure data represent incorrect samples of the a posteriori probability density function for the rock property fields, whereas, if the uncertainty in the prior mean is incorporated properly into the model, one obtains realistic realizations of the rock property fields.

  4. Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarma, Balu (Airmont, NY); Downing, Kenneth B. (Greenville, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (i) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (ii) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (iii) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: e) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550.degree. C. and f) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 tonne per square meter.

  5. Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarma, B.; Downing, K.B.

    1999-03-23

    A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: (a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; (b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (1) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (2) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (3) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; (c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and (d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: (1) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550 C and (2) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 ton per square meter. 13 figs.

  6. Characteristics of the positive ion source at reduced gas feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S. K. Bharathi, P.; Prahlad, V.; Patel, P. J.; Choksi, B.; Jana, M. R.; Bansal, L. K.; Qureshi, K.; Sumod, C. B.; Vadher, V.; Thakkar, D.; Gupta, L. N.; Rambabu, S.; Parmar, S.; Contractor, N.; Sahu, A. K.; Pandya, B.; Sridhar, B.; Pandya, S.; Baruah, U. K.

    2014-11-15

    The neutral beam injector of steady state superconducting tokamak (SST1-NBI) at IPR is designed for injecting upto 1.7 MW of neutral beam (H, 3055 keV) power to the tokamak plasma for heating and current drive. Operations of the positive ion source (PINI or Plug-In-Neutral-Injector) of SST1-NBI were carried out on the NBI test stand. The PINI was operated at reduced gas feed rate of 23 Torr l/s, without using the high speed cryo pumps. Experiments were conducted to achieve a stable beam extraction by optimizing operational parameters namely, the arc current (120300 A), acceleration voltage (1640 kV), and a suitable control sequence. The beam divergence, power density profiles, and species fractions (H{sup +}:H{sub 2}{sup +}:H{sub 3}{sup +}) were measured by using the diagnostics such as thermal calorimetry, infrared thermography, and Doppler shift spectroscopy. The maximum extracted beam current was about 18 A. A further increase of beam current was found to be limited by the amount of gas feed rate to the ion source.

  7. Platinum-Coated Nickel Nanowires as Oxygen-Reducing Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, Shaun M; Larsen, Brian A; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Cullen, David A; Diercks, David R; Neyerlin, Kenneth C; Kocha, Shyam S; Pivovar, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Platinum (Pt)-coated nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) are synthesized by the partial spontaneous galvanic displacement of NiNWs, with a diameter of 150 250 nm and a length of 100 200 m. PtNiNWs are electrochemically characterized for oxygen reduction (ORR) in rotating disk electrode half-cells with an acidic electrolyte and compared to carbon-supported Pt (Pt/HSC) and a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Like other extended surface catalysts, the nanowire morphology yields significant gains in ORR specific activity compared to Pt/HSC. Unlike other extended surface approaches, the resultant materials have yielded exceptionally high surface areas, greater than 90 m2 gPt 1. These studies have found that reducing the level of Pt displacement increases Pt surface area and ORR mass activity. PtNiNWs produce a peak mass activity of 917 mA mgPt 1, 3.0 times greater than Pt/HSC and 2.1 times greater than the U.S. Department of Energy target for proton-exchange membrane fuel cell activity.

  8. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    In the Santa Maria Basin, Santa Barbara County, California, four wells were processed and examined to determine the age and environment parameters in the oil producing sections. From west to east, we examined Cabot No. 1 Ferrero-Hopkins,from 3917.7 m (12850 ft) to 4032 m (13225 ft); Sun No. 5 Blair, from 3412 m (11190 ft) to 3722.5 m (12210 ft); Triton No. 10 Blair, from 1552 m (5090 ft) to 1863 m (6110 ft); and OTEC No. 1 Boyne, from 2058 m (6750 ft) to 2528 m (8293 ft). Lithic reports with lithic charts were prepared and submitted on each well. These tested for Sisquoc Fm lithology to be found in the Santa Maria area. This was noted in the OTEC No. 1 Boyne interval studied. The wells also tested for Monterey Fm. lithology, which was noted in all four wells examined. Composite samples of those intervals [combined into 9.15 m (30 foot) intervals] were processed for paleontology. Although the samples were very refractory and siliceous, all but one (Sun 5 Blair) yielded index fossil specimens, and as Sun 5 Blair samples below 3686 m (12090 ft) were processed previously, we were able to make identifications that would aid this study. The intervals examined were of the Sisquoc Formation, the Low Resistivity and the High Resistivity sections of the Monterey Formation. The Lower Sisquoc and the top of the late Miocene were identified by six index fossils: Bolivina barbarana, Gyroidina soldanii rotundimargo, Bulimina montereyana, Prunopyle titan, Axoprunum angelinum and Glyphodiscus stellatus. The Low Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, late Mohnian: Nonion goudkoffi, Brizalina girardensis, Cibicides illingi, Siphocampe nodosaria, Stephanogonia hanzawai, Uvigerina modeloensis, Buliminella brevior, Tytthodiscus sp.and the wide geographic ranging index pelagic fossil, Sphaeroidinellopsis subdehiscens. The High Resistivity Monterey Fm. was identified by eight index fossils, all of which died out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

  9. Hybrid Solar Lighting Provides Energy Savings and Reduces Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Maxey, L Curt; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Beshears, David L; Ward, Christina D; Parks, James Edgar

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Artificial lighting is the largest component of electricity use in commercial U.S. buildings. Hybrid solar lighting (HSL) provides an exciting new means of reducing energy consumption while also delivering significant ancillary benefits associated with natural lighting in buildings. As more than half of all federal facilities are in the Sunbelt region (defined as having an average direct solar radiation of greater than 4 kWh/m2/day) and as more than half of all square footage available in federal buildings is also in the Sunbelt, HSL is an excellent technology fit for federal facilities. The HSL technology uses a rooftop, 4-ft-wide dish and secondary mirror that track the sun throughout the day (Fig. 1). The collector system focuses the sunlight onto 127 optical fibers. The fibers serve as flexible light pipes and are connected to hybrid light fixtures that have special diffusion rods that spread out the light in all directions. One collector powers about eight hybrid light fixtures-which can illuminate about 1,000 square feet. The system tracks at 0.1 accuracy, required by the two-mirror geometry to keep the focused beam on the fiber bundle. When sunlight is plentiful, the optical fibers in the luminaires provide all or most of the light needed in an area. During times of little or no sunlight, a sensor controls the intensity of the artificial lamps to maintain a desired illumination level. Unlike conventional electric lamps, the natural light produces little to no waste heat and is cool to the touch. This is because the system's solar collector removes the infrared light-the part of the spectrum that generates a lot of the heat in conventional bulbs-from the sunlight.

  10. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil volume estimate and the associated contingency costs. (authors)

  11. Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

    2011-01-01

    Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

  12. New Way to Reduce Plant Lignin Could Lead to Cheaper Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Way to Reduce Plant Lignin Could Lead to Cheaper Biofuels

  13. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  14. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilsenbeck, Shane J. (Ames, IA); McCarley, Robert E. (Ames, IA); Schrader, Glenn L. (Ames, IA); Xie, Xiaobing (College Station, TX)

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (L.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M.sub.6 S.sub.8).sup.0 cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na.sub.2x (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 by disproportionation at 800.degree. C. and well-crystallized NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 at .gtoreq. 900.degree. C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M.sup.2+ and M.sup.3+ salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8+x (MeOH).sub.y MMOS! (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as "Chevrel phase-like" in that both contain Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8 cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst showed to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts.

  15. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilsenbeck, S.J.; McCarley, R.E.; Schrader, G.L.; Xie, X.B.

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(L{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M{sub 6}S{sub 8}){sup 0} cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na{sub 2x}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} by disproportionation at 800 C and well-crystallized NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} at {>=} 900 C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M{sup 2+} and M{sup 3+} salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8+x}(MeOH){sub y}[MMOS] (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as ``Chevrel phase-like`` in that both contain Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8} cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst is shown to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts. 9 figs.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Republic Services Reduces Waste with 87 CNG Vehicles on

  17. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

  18. TODAY: ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar to Host Live Chat on Reducing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar to Host Live Chat on Reducing America's Oil Dependence Through Innovation TODAY: ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar to Host Live Chat on Reducing America's ...

  19. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 5:07pm Addthis...

  20. Human-Induced Climate Change Reduces Chance of Flooding in Okavango...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human-Induced Climate Change Reduces Chance of Flooding in Okavango Delta Human-Induced Climate Change Reduces Chance of Flooding in Okavango Delta Africa.gif Why it Matters: The...

  1. Human-induced climate change reduces chance of flooding in Okavango...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human-induced climate change reduces chance of flooding in Okavango Delta Human-induced climate change reduces chance of flooding in Okavango Delta March 27, 2014 University of...

  2. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 5:07pm Addthis ...

  3. Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Abengoa, under the Thermal Storage FOA, is looking at innovative ways to reduce thermal energy storage (TES) system costs.

  4. Parameterized reduced-order models using hyper-dual numbers. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Parameterized reduced-order models using hyper-dual numbers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Parameterized reduced-order models using hyper-dual numbers. The goal of most computational simulations is to accurately predict the behavior of a real, physical system. Accurate predictions often require very computationally expensive analyses and so reduced order models (ROMs) are commonly used. ROMs aim to reduce the computational cost of the simulations while

  5. NEMA Comments on DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI NEMA Comments on DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) thanks you for the opportunity to provide comments on the Department of Energy's efforts to make its regulatory program more effective and less burdensome in achieving its regulatory objectives. PDF icon NEMA Comments on Reducing REgulatory Burden July 2014 More Documents & Publications NEMA Comments on DOE Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI NEMA

  6. Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with hydrogen labeled reducing agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tinnacher, Ruth M.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2011-10-18

    Methods to radiolabel natural organic matter by reduction with a hydrogen labeled reducing agent, and compositions, are provided.

  7. Strategies for the Commercialization & Deployment of GHG Intensity-Reducing Technologies & Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report looks at the best methods of commercializing and deploying energy technologies that reduce greenhouse gas intensity.

  8. Appendix A, Field Sampling Data and Appendix B, Field Reduced Data |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy A, Field Sampling Data and Appendix B, Field Reduced Data Appendix A, Field Sampling Data and Appendix B, Field Reduced Data Docket No. EO-05-01: Appendix A, Field Sampling Data and Appendix B, Field Reduced Data from Final Report: Particulate Emissions Testing, Unit 1, Potomac River Generating Station, Alexandria, Virginia PDF icon Appendix A, Field Sampling Data and Appendix B, Field Reduced Data More Documents & Publications Appendix D: Facility Process Data and

  9. Solar Projects to Reduce Non-Hardware Balance of System Costs | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Soft Costs » Solar Projects to Reduce Non-Hardware Balance of System Costs Solar Projects to Reduce Non-Hardware Balance of System Costs Seven projects are focused on creating tools and developing methods to reduce the cost of non-hardware components for installed solar energy systems and reducing market barriers. These projects will develop software design tools and databases that can be used by local jurisdictions and installers, and tools to streamline building codes, zoning

  10. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by splitting a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operations or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.

  11. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Impacts | Department of Energy Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts Presentation from the 33rd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Aiken, South Carolina on April 22-24, 2014. PDF icon Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts More Documents & Publications Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Requirements for Remediated FUSRAP

  12. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Cummins Power Generation, in collaboration with Cummins Engine Business Unit, is developing a flexible, packaged CHP system that produces 330 kW of electrical power output and 410 kW of thermal output while increasing efficiency and reducing emissions and cost. The project will result in the highest-efficiency and lowest-emissions system

  13. Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, 77 Fed. Reg. 28518 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RFI, 77 Fed. Reg. 28518 Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, 77 Fed. Reg. 28518 The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) is submitting these comments in response to the above-referenced request for information (RFI) issued by the Department of Energy (DOE). In the RFI, DOE is again asking for information on ways to streamline and to reduce the burden imposed by its regulations. PDF icon Reg_review_ EEI_cmts.pdf More Documents & Publications Edison Electric Institute (EEI) Reducing Regulatory Burden

  14. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS (Conference) | SciTech Connect HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed

  15. How America Can Look Within to Achieve Energy Security and Reduce Global

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Warming (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect How America Can Look Within to Achieve Energy Security and Reduce Global Warming Citation Details In-Document Search Title: How America Can Look Within to Achieve Energy Security and Reduce Global Warming Making major gains in energy efficiency is one of the most economical and effective ways our nation can wean itself off its dependence on foreign oil and reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. Transportation and buildings, which account for two

  16. Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electric Vehicle Chargers | Department of Energy 7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers Energy Department Awards Nearly $7 Million for Research to Reduce Costs of Electric Vehicle Chargers December 21, 2011 - 12:49pm Addthis As part of the Obama Administration's commitment to reduce America's dependence on oil through advanced vehicle technologies, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced awards totaling nearly $7 million in research and development

  17. Construction of energy-stable projection-based reduced order models

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Construction of energy-stable projection-based reduced order models « Prev Next » Title: Construction of energy-stable projection-based reduced order models Our paper aims to unify and extend several approaches for building stable projection-based reduced order models (ROMs) using the energy method and the concept of "energy-stability". Attention is focused on linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. First, an approach for building energy stable Galerkin

  18. Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce Steel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Costs | Department of Energy Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce Steel Production Costs Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce Steel Production Costs Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce Steel Production Costs One-page factsheet describing how ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler was constructed and installed with DOE Recovery Act Funding. PDF icon Blast Furnace Gas

  19. DOE Awards Grants to Evaluate Technologies that Reduce Truck Idling - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL DOE Awards Grants to Evaluate Technologies that Reduce Truck Idling January 29, 2004 Golden, Colo. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity has awarded separate project grants to Caterpillar Inc. and Schneider National Inc. to investigate technologies that reduce truck idling. According to industry experts, truck idling consumes more than 800 million gallons of fuel each year. Reducing the amount of fuel needed to support idling activities, such as

  20. Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce Steel

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Production Costs | Department of Energy Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce Steel Production Costs Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce Steel Production Costs March 17, 2014 - 2:24pm Addthis Steelmaker Matches Recovery Act Funds to Save Energy & Reduce Steel Production Costs One-page factsheet describing how ArcelorMittal Indiana Harbor Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler was constructed and installed with DOE Recovery Act

  1. Replacing the Whole BarrelTo Reduce U.S. Dependence on Oil | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Replacing the Whole BarrelTo Reduce U.S. Dependence on Oil Replacing the Whole BarrelTo Reduce U.S. Dependence on Oil Converting domestic biomass into affordable fuels, products, and power supports our national strategy to diversify energy resources and reduce dependence on imported oil. PDF icon replacing_barrel_overview.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermochemical Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysis to Make Biofuels and Bioproducts Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion

  2. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications | Department of Energy the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications Document provides information on the use of energy savings performance contracts to reduce

  3. IRS Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Reduces Annual Energy Use by 76% |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy IRS Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Reduces Annual Energy Use by 76% IRS Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Reduces Annual Energy Use by 76% IRS Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Reduces Annual Energy Use by 76% Document provides an overview of how the IRS and MC Realty Group, its property management firm, achieved a 76% reduction in lighting energy use at an IRS facility parking garage in Kansas City, Missouri. The retrofit resulted in annual energy savings of 2

  4. Reduced Gravity Education Flight Opportunity for Students at Minority Serving Institutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NASA is offering undergraduate students from Minority Serving Institutions an opportunity to test experiments in microgravity aboard NASA's reduced gravity aircraft.

  5. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-activation ferriticmartensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed in recent years because of their ...

  6. How America Can Look Within to Achieve Energy Security and Reduce...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ways our nation can wean itself off its dependence on foreign oil and reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. Transportation and buildings, which account for two thirds of...

  7. NREL: Technology Deployment - U.S. Coast Guard Sees Reduced Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guard Sees Reduced Energy Costs and Usage After NREL's Energy Assessment Training A man with a notebook references the machinery and equipment he is standing next to NREL...

  8. Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1 Citation Details...

  9. 'Top 25' City Aims to Reduce Energy Use | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    According to Julie Smith, manager of McKinney's Office of Environmental Stewardship, the ... Smith believes that providing citizens with the tools to reduce their energy demand is ...

  10. Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in the Cement Sector |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    similar analyses of the iron and steel, electric power, and aluminum industries in China, Brazil and Mexico." References "CCAP-Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in...

  11. USDA Helps Reduce High Energy Costs in Tribal Lands | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    USDA Helps Reduce High Energy Costs in Tribal Lands USDA Helps Reduce High Energy Costs in Tribal Lands September 17, 2015 - 3:08pm Addthis On Sept. 16, 2015, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced five grants to help reduce energy costs for tribes in Alaska, Arizona, and South Dakota where the cost of producing electricity is extremely high. Through the High Energy Cost Grant program, the USDA will provide $7.9 million to nine grantees to help improve the environment by reducing

  12. Low-Cost Packaged Combined Heat and Power System with Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Fact sheet overviewing how this project will develop a flexible, packaged CHP system that increases efficiency and reduces emissions and cost.

  13. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a new technology with the potential to reduce operating costs and increase productivity in bar and flat-rolled products for the steel industry.

  14. DOEs Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag through Joint...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag through Joint Experiments and Computations 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and...

  15. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts Dennis Jackson P.E. - Savannah River National Laboratory Gerald Blount, Leslie Wells, Joao...

  16. How Do You Reduce the Time You Spend Idling? | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reduce the Time You Spend Idling? How Do You Reduce the Time You Spend Idling? November 4, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Tuesday, Shannon discussed some efforts by Clean Cities, parents, and students to reduce the time that parents spend idling in school parking lots. Some schools have even become idle-free zones. The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center offers a few tips for reducing idling, including turning off your engine if you are parked for more than a minute, switching to a

  17. Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2015-09-15

    Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinearmore » normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clamped–clamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.« less

  18. Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2015-09-15

    Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinear normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clampedclamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.

  19. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boopathy, R.; Kulpa, C.F.

    1994-06-01

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO{sub 2}. Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions.

  20. Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.