National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for reduced rotor loading

  1. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  2. Methods and apparatus for rotor load control in wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2006-08-22

    A wind turbine having a rotor, at least one rotor blade, and a plurality of generators, of which a first generator is configured to provide power to an electric grid and a second generator is configured to provide power to the wind turbine during times of grid loss. The wind turbine is configured to utilize power provided by the second generator to reduce loads on the wind turbine during times of grid loss.

  3. Methods and apparatus for reduction of asymmetric rotor loads in wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10

    A method for reducing load and providing yaw alignment in a wind turbine includes measuring displacements or moments resulting from asymmetric loads on the wind turbine. These measured displacements or moments are used to determine a pitch for each rotor blade to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading and a favorable yaw orientation to reduce pitch activity. Yaw alignment of the wind turbine is adjusted in accordance with the favorable yaw orientation and the pitch of each rotor blade is adjusted in accordance with the determined pitch to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading.

  4. Separators for flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.C.

    1998-07-07

    A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors. 10 figs.

  5. Separators for flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors.

  6. Prediction of stochastic blade loads for three-bladed, rigid-hub rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.D.; Weber, T.L.; Thresher, R.W.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1989-11-01

    Accurately predicting wind turbine blade loads and response is important for the design of future wind turbines. The need to include turbulent wind inputs in structural dynamics models is widely recognized. In this paper, the Force and Loads Analysis Program (FLAP) code will be used to predict turbulence-induced bending moments for the SERI Combined Experiment rotor blade and the Howden 330-kW blade. FLAP code predictions will be compared to the power spectra of measured blade-bending moments. Two methods will be used to generate turbulent wind inputs to FLAP: a theoretical simulation: the Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) simulation theory; and measured wind-speed data taken from an array of anemometers upwind of the turbine. Turbulent wind-speed time series are input to FLAP for both methods outlined above. Power spectra of predicted flap-bending moments are compared to measured results for different wind conditions. Conclusions are also drawn as to the ability of the turbulence simulation models to provide accurate wind input to FLAP and to FLAP's ability to accurately simulate blade response to turbulence. Finally, suggestions are made as to needed improvements in the theoretical model. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  8. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  9. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torcellini, Paul; Bonnema, Eric; Sheppy, Michael; Pless, Shanti

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  10. NREL Reduces Climate Control Loads in Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    NREL demonstrates that zonal climate control can reduce air conditioning power and improve range while maintaining driver thermal sensation.

  11. NREL Reduces Climate Control Loads in Electric Vehicles (Fact...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demonstrates that zonal climate control can reduce air conditioning power and improve range while maintaining driver thermal sensation. When the climate control system in an...

  12. 3 Easy Tips to Reduce Your Standby Power Loads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Easy Tips to Reduce Your Standby Power Loads 3 Easy Tips to Reduce Your Standby Power Loads November 1, 2012 - 3:35pm Addthis Using a power strip to turn off electronics and appliances when they aren't in use ensures that they are truly off and not using extra electricity. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/DonNichols. Using a power strip to turn off electronics and appliances when they aren't in use ensures that they are truly off and not using extra electricity. | Photo courtesy of

  13. Sweep-twist adaptive rotor blade : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-02-01

    Knight & Carver was contracted by Sandia National Laboratories to develop a Sweep Twist Adaptive Rotor (STAR) blade that reduced operating loads, thereby allowing a larger, more productive rotor. The blade design used outer blade sweep to create twist coupling without angled fiber. Knight & Carver successfully designed, fabricated, tested and evaluated STAR prototype blades. Through laboratory and field tests, Knight & Carver showed the STAR blade met the engineering design criteria and economic goals for the program. A STAR prototype was successfully tested in Tehachapi during 2008 and a large data set was collected to support engineering and commercial development of the technology. This report documents the methodology used to develop the STAR blade design and reviews the approach used for laboratory and field testing. The effort demonstrated that STAR technology can provide significantly greater energy capture without higher operating loads on the turbine.

  14. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  15. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  16. Office Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

  17. Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

  18. Reducing the Heat Load on the LCLS 120 Hz RF Gun with RF Pulse Shaping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmerge, J.

    2005-01-31

    The LCLS injector must operate at 120 Hz repetition frequency but to date the maximum operating frequency of an S-band rf gun has been 50 Hz. The high fields desired for the LCLS gun operation limit the repetition frequency due to thermal expansion causing rf detuning and field redistribution. One method of addressing the thermal loading problem is too reduce the power lost on the cavity walls by properly shaping the rf pulse incident on the gun. The idea is to reach the steady state field value in the gun faster than the time constant of the gun would allow when using a flat incident rf pulse. By increasing the incident power by about a factor of three and then decreasing the incident power when the field reaches the desired value in the gun, the field build up time can be decreased by more than a factor of three. Using this technique the heat load is also decreased by more than a factor of three. In addition the rf coupling coefficient can be increased from the typical critically coupled designs to an overcoupled design which also helps reduce the field build up time. Increasing the coupling coefficient from 1 to 2 reduces the heat load by another 25% and still limits the reflected power and coupling hole size to manageable levels.

  19. Segmented Ultralight Pre-Aligned Rotor for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loth, E.; Steele, A.; Ichter, B.; Selig, M.; Moriarty, P.

    2012-01-01

    To alleviate the mass-scaling issues associated with conventional upwind rotors of extreme-scale turbines, a downwind rotor concept is proposed which employs fixed blade curvature based on force alignment at rated conditions. For a given peak stress constraint, the reduction in downwind cantilever loads allows reduced shell and spar thickness, and thus a reduced blade mass as compared with a conventional upwind rotor, especially as rotor sizes approach extreme-scales. To quantify this mass reduction, a Finite Element Analysis was conducted for a 10 MW rated rotor based on the NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine. The results show that this 'pre-alignment' yields a net downstream deflection of 32 deg, a downward hub-pitch angle of 6 deg, a 20% increase in blade length (to maintain the same radius as the conventional blade), and a net mass savings of about 50% through decreased shell and spar thicknesses. The pre-alignment may also allow a more straightforward and efficient segmentation of the blade since shear stresses near joints are substantially reduced. Segmenting, in turn, can dramatically reduce costs associated with fabrication, transport and assembly for extreme-scale off-shore systems. The pre-aligned geometric curvature can also help alleviate tower wake effects on the blades since blade tips (where shadow effects can be most problematic) are shifted downstream where the tower wake is weaker. In addition, the portion of the tower that is upstream of the blade tips can be faired with an externally-rotating aerodynamic shroud. Furthermore, the downwind rotor can allow a floating off-shore tri-pod platform to reduce tower weight and yaw-control requirements. A simple economic analysis of the segmented ultralight pre-aligned rotor (SUPAR) concept suggests that the overall system cost savings can be as much as 25%, indicating that more detailed (numerical and experimental) investigations are warranted.

  20. Polygonal shaft hole rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hussey, John H. (St. Louis, MO); Rose, John Scott (Alton, IL); Meystrik, Jeffrey J. (Webster Groves, MO); White, Kent Lee (Maryland Heights, MO)

    2001-01-23

    A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

  1. Sandia Energy - SMART Rotor Video

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SMART Rotor Video Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Resources Wind Energy Publications Online Abstracts and Reports SMART Rotor Video SMART Rotor...

  2. Tip cap for a turbine rotor blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimmel, Keith D

    2014-03-25

    A turbine rotor blade with a spar and shell construction, and a tip cap that includes a row of lugs extending from a bottom side that form dovetail grooves that engage with similar shaped lugs and grooves on a tip end of the spar to secure the tip cap to the spar against radial displacement. The lug on the trailing edge end of the tip cap is aligned perpendicular to a chordwise line of the blade in the trailing edge region in order to minimize stress due to the lugs wanting to bend under high centrifugal loads. A two piece tip cap with lugs at different angles will reduce the bending stress even more.

  3. Variable diameter wind turbine rotor blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Peter McKeich; Hornzee-Jones, Chris; Moroz, Emilian M.; Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-12-06

    A system and method for changing wind turbine rotor diameters to meet changing wind speeds and control system loads is disclosed. The rotor blades on the wind turbine are able to adjust length by extensions nested within or containing the base blade. The blades can have more than one extension in a variety of configurations. A cable winching system, a hydraulic system, a pneumatic system, inflatable or elastic extensions, and a spring-loaded jack knife deployment are some of the methods of adjustment. The extension is also protected from lightning by a grounding system.

  4. Unified continuum damage model for matrix cracking in composite rotor blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollayi, Hemaraju; Harursampath, Dineshkumar

    2015-03-10

    This paper deals with modeling of the first damage mode, matrix micro-cracking, in helicopter rotor/wind turbine blades and how this effects the overall cross-sectional stiffness. The helicopter/wind turbine rotor system operates in a highly dynamic and unsteady environment leading to severe vibratory loads present in the system. Repeated exposure to this loading condition can induce damage in the composite rotor blades. These rotor/turbine blades are generally made of fiber-reinforced laminated composites and exhibit various competing modes of damage such as matrix micro-cracking, delamination, and fiber breakage. There is a need to study the behavior of the composite rotor system under various key damage modes in composite materials for developing Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. Each blade is modeled as a beam based on geometrically non-linear 3-D elasticity theory. Each blade thus splits into 2-D analyzes of cross-sections and non-linear 1-D analyzes along the beam reference curves. Two different tools are used here for complete 3-D analysis: VABS for 2-D cross-sectional analysis and GEBT for 1-D beam analysis. The physically-based failure models for matrix in compression and tension loading are used in the present work. Matrix cracking is detected using two failure criterion: Matrix Failure in Compression and Matrix Failure in Tension which are based on the recovered field. A strain variable is set which drives the damage variable for matrix cracking and this damage variable is used to estimate the reduced cross-sectional stiffness. The matrix micro-cracking is performed in two different approaches: (i) Element-wise, and (ii) Node-wise. The procedure presented in this paper is implemented in VABS as matrix micro-cracking modeling module. Three examples are presented to investigate the matrix failure model which illustrate the effect of matrix cracking on cross-sectional stiffness by varying the applied cyclic load.

  5. Interface structure for hub and mass attachment in flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, S.J.; Groves, S.E.

    1998-06-02

    An interface structure is described for hub and mass attachment in flywheel rotors. The interface structure efficiently transmits high radial compression forces and withstands both large circumferential elongation and local stresses generated by mass-loading and hub attachments. The interface structure is comprised of high-strength fiber, such as glass and carbon, woven into an angle pattern which is about 45{degree} with respect to the rotor axis. The woven fiber is bonded by a ductile matrix material which is compatible with and adheres to the rotor material. This woven fiber is able to elongate in the circumferential direction to match the rotor growth during spinning. 2 figs.

  6. Interface structure for hub and mass attachment in flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA)

    1998-06-02

    An interface structure for hub and mass attachment in flywheel rotors. The interface structure efficiently transmits high radial compression forces and withstands both large circumferential elongation and local stresses generated by mass-loading and hub attachments. The interface structure is comprised of high-strength fiber, such as glass and carbon, woven into an angle pattern which is about 45.degree. with respect to the rotor axis. The woven fiber is bonded by a ductile matrix material which is compatible with and adheres to the rotor material. This woven fiber is able to elongate in the circumferential direction to match the rotor growth during spinning.

  7. Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit; Sun, Yannan

    2012-12-12

    Demand Response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the behavior of populations of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of these demand response programs. In this paper, an aggregated model is proposed for a class of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs). The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. However, an accurate characterization of the collective dynamics however requires the aggregate model to have a high state space dimension. Most of the existing model reduction techniques require the stability of the underlying system which does not hold for the proposed aggregated model. In this work, a novel model reduction approach is developed for the proposed aggregated model, which can significantly reduce its complexity with small performance loss. The original and the reducedorder aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D, which is a realistic open source distribution simulation software. Index Terms demand response, aggregated model, ancillary

  8. Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-Scale, Net Zero Office Building (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    Case study highlighting the design, implementation strategies, and continuous performance monitoring of NREL's Research Support Facility data center. In constructing a new research facility for its campus, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) project team identified the opportunity to design a world-class, energy-efficient data center to support its operations. NREL's efforts resulted in a highly efficient data center that demonstrated considerable energy savings in its first 11 months of operations. Using legacy data center performance as a baseline, the new facility cut energy use by nearly 1,450,000 kWh, delivering cost savings of approximately $82,000. The data center's average total load was 165 kW less than the legacy center's average total load, resulting in a 60% reduction in overall power. Finally, the limited use of cooling and fan energy enabled the new data center to achieve a 1.16 average power utilization effectiveness (PUE) rating, compared to the legacy data center's PUE of 2.28. The laboratory had been relying on individual servers with an energy utilization rate of less than 5%. NREL employed building best practices, innovative design techniques and energy-efficient technologies to support its energy goals for the new data center. To counteract the extensive heat generated by data center equipment, the laboratory implemented a cooling system using outdoor air and evaporative cooling to meet most of the center's needs. Inside the data center, NREL replaced much of its legacy equipment with new, energy-efficient technology. By exchanging this infrastructure for virtualized blade servers, NREL reduced its server energy footprint by 96%. Additionally, NREL replaced its 80%-efficient uninterruptible power supply (UPS) with a UPS that is 95% efficient; deployed ultra efficient power distribution units (PDU) to handle higher UPS voltages; and implemented vacancy sensors to drive down lighting loads. Using best practices and energy-efficient technology, NREL was able to successfully design an optimized data center with a minimal energy footprint. At 958,000 kWh, the annual energy use for the RSF data center is approximately 60% less than the legacy data center's annual energy use, surpassing the laboratory's project goal. As specified, the building is equipped with enough onsite renewable energy generation to offset annual energy consumption. The facility has achieved a PUE of 1.16 and ERE of 0.91 in its first 11 months of operation and is using PUE to as a metric to gauge success towards its ultimate goal. Based on the status of its RSF data center project, NREL is advising other government organizations on data center efficiency. The laboratory places great emphasis on the use of key metrics - such as PUE and ERE - to track performance. By carefully monitoring these metrics and making adjustments, NREL is able to continuously improve the performance of its data center operations.

  9. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  10. Flashlamp radiation recycling for enhanced pumping efficiency and reduced thermal load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jancaitis, Kenneth S.; Powell, Howard T.

    1989-01-01

    A method for recycling laser flashlamp radiation in selected wavelength ranges to decrease thermal loading of the solid state laser matrix while substantially maintaining the pumping efficiency of the flashlamp.

  11. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resor, Brian Ray; Maniaci, David Charles; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Richards, Phillip William

    2014-05-01

    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  12. Sandia Energy - Rotor Blade Sensors and Instrumentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Blade Sensors and Instrumentation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Rotor Innovation Rotor Blade Sensors and Instrumentation Rotor Blade Sensors and...

  13. Control for stabilizing the alignment position of the rotor of a synchronous motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donley, Lawrence I. (Lemont, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus for damping oscillations in the rotor load angle of a synchronous motor to provide stable rotational alignment in high precision applications. The damping method includes sensing the angular position of the rotor and utilizing the position signal to generate an error signal in response to changes in the period of rotation of the rotor. The error signal is coupled to phase shift amplifiers which shift the phase of the motor drive signal in a direction to damp out the oscillations in the rotor load angle.

  14. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Holland, G.; Hanada, A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This project was one of several demonstrations of new or underutilized commercial energy technologies. The common goal was to demonstrate and measure the performance and economic benefit of the system while monitoring any ancillary impacts to related standards of service and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In short, demonstrations at naval facilities simultaneously evaluate the benefits and compatibility of the technology with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) mission, and with NAVFAC's design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices, in particular. This project demonstrated the performance of commercially available advanced power strips (APSs) for plug load energy reductions in building A4 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii.

  15. Passive load control for large wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-05-01

    Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

  16. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME THREE: MARKET & TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  17. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME TWO: INNOVATION & COST OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  18. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ZERO: OVERVIEW AND COMMERCIAL PATH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  19. HIGH EFFICIENCY STRUCTURAL FLOWTHROUGH ROTOR WITH ACTIVE FLAP CONTROL: VOLUME ONE: PRELIMINARY DESIGN REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuteck, Michael D.; Jackson, Kevin L.; Santos, Richard A.; Chow, Ray; Nordenholz, Thomas R.; Wamble, John Lee

    2015-05-16

    The Zimitar one-piece rotor primary structure is integrated, so balanced thrust and gravity loads flow through the hub region without transferring out of its composite material. Large inner rotor geometry is used since there is no need to neck down to a blade root region and pitch bearing. Rotor control is provided by a highly redundant, five flap system on each blade, sized so that easily handled standard electric linear actuators are sufficient.

  20. Reference Model 2: %22Rev 0%22 Rotor Design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barone, Matthew F.; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Griffith, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    The preliminary design for a three-bladed cross-flow rotor for a reference marine hydrokinetic turbine is presented. A rotor performance design code is described, along with modifications to the code to allow prediction of blade support strut drag as well as interference between two counter-rotating rotors. The rotor is designed to operate in a reference site corresponding to a riverine environment. Basic rotor performance and rigid-body loads calculations are performed to size the rotor elements and select the operating speed range. The preliminary design is verified with a simple finite element model that provides estimates of bending stresses during operation. A concept for joining the blades and support struts is developed and analyzed with a separate finite element analysis. Rotor mass, production costs, and annual energy capture are estimated in order to allow calculations of system cost-of-energy. Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd Evaluation Only. Created with Aspose.Pdf.Kit. Copyright 2002-2011 Aspose Pty Ltd

  1. SMART Rotor Video

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotor Video - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  2. Single rotor turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a turbine engine with a single rotor which cools the engine, functions as a radial compressor, pushes air through the engine to the ignition point, and acts as an axial turbine for powering the compressor. The invention engine is designed to use a simple scheme of conventional passage shapes to provide both a radial and axial flow pattern through the single rotor, thereby allowing the radial intake air flow to cool the turbine blades and turbine exhaust gases in an axial flow to be used for energy transfer. In an alternative embodiment, an electric generator is incorporated in the engine to specifically adapt the invention for power generation. Magnets are embedded in the exhaust face of the single rotor proximate to a ring of stationary magnetic cores with windings to provide for the generation of electricity. In this alternative embodiment, the turbine is a radial inflow turbine rather than an axial turbine as used in the first embodiment. Radial inflow passages of conventional design are interleaved with radial compressor passages to allow the intake air to cool the turbine blades.

  3. Homopolar motor with dual rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.

    1998-12-01

    A homopolar motor has a field rotor mounted on a frame for rotation in a first rotational direction and for producing an electromagnetic field, and an armature rotor mounted for rotation on said frame within said electromagnetic field and in a second rotational direction counter to said first rotational direction of said field rotor. The two rotors are coupled through a 1:1 gearing mechanism, so as to travel at the same speed but in opposite directions. This doubles the output voltage and output power, as compared to a motor in which only the armature is rotated. Several embodiments are disclosed. 7 figs.

  4. Die Casting Copper Motor Rotors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Though it conducts electricity less efficiently than copper, aluminum is the industry’s preferred fabrication material in electric induction motor rotors. Traditional tool steel casting molds...

  5. Electrofriction method of manufacturing squirrel cage rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2005-04-12

    A method of making a squirrel cage rotor of copper material for use in AC or DC motors, includes forming a core with longitudinal slots, inserting bars of conductive material in the slots, with ends extending out of opposite ends of the core, and joining the end rings to the bars, wherein the conductive material of either the end rings or the bars is copper. Various methods of joining the end rings to the bars are disclosed including electrofriction welding, current pulse welding and brazing, transient liquid phase joining and casting. Pressure is also applied to the end rings to improve contact and reduce areas of small or uneven contact between the bar ends and the end rings. Rotors made with such methods are also disclosed.

  6. Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Pless, S.; Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2011-02-01

    This paper documents the design and operational plug and process load energy efficiency measures needed to allow a large scale office building to reach ultra high efficiency building goals. The appendices of this document contain a wealth of documentation pertaining to plug and process load design in the RSF, including a list of equipment was selected for use.

  7. Rotor and bearing system for a turbomachine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lubell, Daniel; Weissert, Dennis

    2006-09-26

    A rotor and bearing system for a turbomachine. The turbomachine includes a drive shaft, an impeller positioned on the drive shaft, and a turbine positioned on the drive shaft proximate to the impeller. The bearing system comprises one gas journal bearing supporting the drive shaft between the impeller and the turbine. The area between the impeller and the turbine is an area of increased heat along the drive shaft in comparison to other locations along the drive shaft. The section of the drive shaft positioned between impeller and the turbine is also a section of the drive shaft that experiences increased stressed and load in the turbomachine. The inventive bearing machine system positions only one radial bearing in this area of increased stress and load.

  8. Wind turbine rotor aileron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Clint (Warren, VT); Kurth, William T. (Warren, VT)

    1994-06-14

    A wind turbine has a rotor with at least one blade which has an aileron which is adjusted by an actuator. A hinge has two portions, one for mounting a stationary hinge arm to the blade, the other for coupling to the aileron actuator. Several types of hinges can be used, along with different actuators. The aileron is designed so that it has a constant chord with a number of identical sub-assemblies. The leading edge of the aileron has at least one curved portion so that the aileron does not vent over a certain range of angles, but vents if the position is outside the range. A cyclic actuator can be mounted to the aileron to adjust the position periodically. Generally, the aileron will be adjusted over a range related to the rotational position of the blade. A method for operating the cyclic assembly is also described.

  9. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  10. CFD analysis of rotating two-bladed flatback wind turbine rotor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, C.P.; Chao, David D.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    The effects of modifying the inboard portion of the NREL Phase VI rotor using a thickened, flatback version of the S809 design airfoil are studied using a three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method. A motivation for using such a thicker airfoil design coupled with a blunt trailing edge is to alleviate structural constraints while reducing blade weight and maintaining the power performance of the rotor. The calculated results for the baseline Phase VI rotor are benchmarked against wind tunnel results obtained at 10, 7, and 5 meters per second. The calculated results for the modified rotor are compared against those of the baseline rotor. The results of this study demonstrate that a thick, flatback blade profile is viable as a bridge to connect structural requirements with aerodynamic performance in designing future wind turbine rotors.

  11. Fabrication, Integration and Initial Testing of a SMART Rotor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fabrication, Integration, and Initial Testing of a SMART Rotor * Jonathan Berg † , Dale Berg ‡ , and Jon White § Sandia National Laboratories ** , Albuquerque, NM, 87185-1124 Sandia National Laboratories has designed and built a full set of three 9-meter blades (based on the Sandia CX-100 blade design) equipped with active aerodynamic blade load control surfaces on the outboard trailing edges. The fabrication of the blades, modifications to allow integration of the active control modules,

  12. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor.

  13. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  14. Hi-Q Rotor - Low Wind Speed Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd E. Mills; Judy Tatum

    2010-01-11

    The project objective was to optimize the performance of the Hi-Q Rotor. Early research funded by the California Energy Commission indicated the design might be advantageous over state-of-the-art turbines for collecting wind energy in low wind conditions. The Hi-Q Rotor is a new kind of rotor targeted for harvesting wind in Class 2, 3, and 4 sites, and has application in areas that are closer to cities, or 'load centers.' An advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor is that the rotor has non-conventional blade tips, producing less turbulence, and is quieter than standard wind turbine blades which is critical to the low-wind populated urban sites. Unlike state-of-the-art propeller type blades, the Hi-Q Rotor has six blades connected by end caps. In this phase of the research funded by DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, the goal was to improve the current design by building a series of theoretical and numeric models, and composite prototypes to determine a best of class device. Development of the rotor was performed by aeronautical engineering and design firm, DARcorporation. From this investigation, an optimized design was determined and an 8-foot diameter, full-scale rotor was built and mounted using a Bergey LX-1 generator and furling system which were adapted to support the rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor was then tested side-by-side against the state-of-the-art Bergey XL-1 at the Alternative Energy Institute's Wind Test Center at West Texas State University for six weeks, and real time measurements of power generated were collected and compared. Early wind tunnel testing showed that the cut-in-speed of the Hi-Q rotor is much lower than a conventional tested HAWT enabling the Hi-Q Wind Turbine to begin collecting energy before a conventional HAWT has started spinning. Also, torque at low wind speeds for the Hi-Q Wind Turbine is higher than the tested conventional HAWT and enabled the wind turbine to generate power at lower wind speeds. Based on the data collected, the results of our first full-scale prototype wind turbine proved that higher energy can be captured at lower wind speeds with the new Hi-Q Rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor is almost 15% more productive than the Bergey from 6 m/s to 8 m/s, making it ideal in Class 3, 4, and 5 wind sites and has application in the critical and heretofore untapped areas that are closer to cities, 'load centers,' and may even be used directly in urban areas. The additional advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor's non-conventional blade tips, which eliminates most air turbulence, is noise reduction which makes it doubly ideal for populated urban areas. Hi-Q Products recommends one final stage of development to take the Hi-Q Rotor through Technology Readiness Levels 8-9. During this stage of development, the rotor will be redesigned to further increase efficiency, match the rotor to a more suitable generator, and lower the cost of manufacturing by redesigning the structure to allow for production in larger quantities at lower cost. Before taking the rotor to market and commercialization, it is necessary to further optimize the performance by finding a better generator and autofurling system, ones more suitable for lower wind speeds and rpms should be used in all future testing. The potential impact of this fully developed technology will be the expansion and proliferation of energy renewal into the heretofore untapped Class 2, 3, 4, and 5 Wind Sites, or the large underutilized sites where the wind speed is broken by physical features such as mountains, buildings, and trees. Market estimates by 2011, if low wind speed technology can be developed are well above: 13 million homes, 675,000 commercial buildings, 250,000 public facilities. Estimated commercial exploitation of the Hi-Q Rotor show potential increase in U.S. energy gained through the clean, renewable wind energy found in low and very low wind speed sites. This new energy source would greatly impact greenhouse emissions as well as the public sector's growing energy demands.

  15. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Data Analysis and Conclusions SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions Data analysis and conclusions from the SMART Rotor project, a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics. PDF icon SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions More Documents & Publications SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test SMART Wind Turbine Rotor:

  16. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Norman E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90.degree. and 180.degree. excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A UV-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  17. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A uv-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  18. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

    1998-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

  19. Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

    1998-05-26

    A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

  20. Ener G Rotors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rotors Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ener-G-Rotors Place: Schenectady, California Zip: 12305 Product: California-based company converts hot water or steam as an input to...

  1. Experimental evaluation of rotary engine timing gear loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulina, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The function of the timing gear of a rotary engine is to control the angular velocity of the rotor in relation to that of the crankshaft. The only load on the gear consists of the friction load due to the rotor seals, the torsional motion of the rotor and any torque developed on the rotor caused by uneven pressure distribution across the rotor flank. In the design of the gear and attachments an estimate of the loads must be made. In the case of an aircraft engine, knowing the actual loads and designing accordingly would result in the most weight effective configuration. A specially instrumented stationary gear of a Deere 0.67 liter SCORE III rotary engine was used to measure the peak torque during test stand operation. The results of the test confirm that rotor friction and torsional motion (due to drive line dynamics) produce the prime gear load below 70% design speed. At the higher engine speeds, a sub-system resonance of the rotor contributes significantly to the total load on the gear. The results of this test, together with the results of three earlier tests conducted on stationary gears are used to establish a design guide. This design guide relates the stationary gear load to crankshaft mean torque and engine displacement.

  2. Analysis of a teetered, variable-speed rotor: final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, T.L.; Wilson, R.E.; Walker, S.N. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-06-01

    A computer model of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HOOT) with four structural degrees of freedom has been derived and verified. The four degrees of freedom include flapwise motion of the blades, teeter motion, and variable rotor speed. Options for the variable rotor speed include synchronous, induction, and constant-tip speed generator models with either start, stop, or normal operations. Verification is made by comparison with analytical solutions and mean and cyclic ESI-80 data. The Veers full-field turbulence model is used as a wind input for a synchronous and induction generator test case during normal operation. As a result of the comparison, it is concluded that the computer model can be used to predict accurately mean and cyclic loads with a turbulent wind input. 47 refs., 19 figs.

  3. Rotor blades for turbine engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piersall, Matthew R; Potter, Brian D

    2013-02-12

    A tip shroud that includes a plurality of damping fins, each damping fin including a substantially non-radially-aligned surface that is configured to make contact with a tip shroud of a neighboring rotor blade. At least one damping fin may include a leading edge damping fin and at least one damping fin may include a trailing edge damping fin. The leading edge damping fin may be configured to correspond to the trailing edge damping fin.

  4. Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-Scale, Low-Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Lobato, C.; Van Geet, O.; Pless, S.; Donovan, K.; Powers, C.

    2011-12-01

    This publication detailing the design, implementation strategies, and continuous performance monitoring of NREL's Research Support Facility data center. Data centers are energy-intensive spaces that facilitate the transmission, receipt, processing, and storage of digital data. These spaces require redundancies in power and storage, as well as infrastructure, to cool computing equipment and manage the resulting waste heat (Tschudi, Xu, Sartor, and Stein, 2003). Data center spaces can consume more than 100 times the energy of standard office spaces (VanGeet 2011). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that data centers used 61 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) in 2006, which was 1.5% of the total electricity consumption in the U.S. (U.S. EPA, 2007). Worldwide, data centers now consume more energy annually than Sweden (New York Times, 2009). Given their high energy consumption and conventional operation practices, there is a potential for huge energy savings in data centers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is world renowned for its commitment to green building construction. In June 2010, the laboratory finished construction of a 220,000-square-foot (ft{sup 2}), LEED Platinum, Research Support Facility (RSF), which included a 1,900-ft{sup 2} data center. The RSF will expand to 360,000 ft{sup 2} with the opening of an additional wing December, 2011. The project's request for proposals (RFP) set a whole-building demand-side energy use requirement of a nominal 35 kBtu/ft{sup 2} per year. On-site renewable energy generation will offset the annual energy consumption. To support the RSF's energy goals, NREL's new data center was designed to minimize its energy footprint without compromising service quality. Several implementation challenges emerged during the design, construction, and first 11 months of operation of the RSF data center. This document highlights these challenges and describes in detail how NREL successfully overcame them. The IT settings and strategies outlined in this document have been used to significantly reduce data center energy requirements in the RSF; however, these can also be used in existing buildings and retrofits.

  5. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  6. Rotary engine with inserts in rotor faces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, C.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes a rotor for a rotary combustion engine. It comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced apex portions, a plurality of working surfaces extending between adjacent apex portions, each working surface having a recess formed therein, and an insulating plate for each recess, characterized by: a slot formed in the rotor adjacent one end of each recess, the rotor having a lip which radially separates each slot from the working surface; and one end of each plate being rigidly fixed to the rotor and a second end of each plate being slidably received in a corresponding one of the slots.

  7. Blade platform seal for ceramic/metal rotor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wertz, John L.

    1982-01-01

    A combination ceramic and metal turbine rotor for use in high temperature gas turbine engines includes a metal rotor disc having a rim with a plurality of circumferentially spaced blade root retention slots therein to receive a plurality of ceramic blades, each including side platform segments thereon and a dovetail configured root slidably received in one of the slots. Adjacent ones of the platform segments including edge portions thereon closely spaced when the blades are assembled to form expansion gaps in an annular flow surface for gas passage through the blades and wherein the assembly further includes a plurality of unitary seal members on the rotor connected to its rim and each including a plurality of spaced, axially extending, flexible fingers that underlie and conform to the edge portions of the platform segments and which are operative at turbine operating temperatures and speeds to distribute loading on the platform segments as the fingers are seated against the underside of the blade platforms to seal the gaps without undesirably stressing thin web ceramic sections of the platform.

  8. Method for manufacturing a rotor having superconducting coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for manufacturing a rotor for use with a rotating machine is provided that employs a superconducting coil on the rotor. An adhesive is applied to an outer surface of the rotor body, which may include a groove disposed within an outer surface of the rotor body. A superconducting coil is then mounted onto the rotor body such that the adhesive bonds the superconducting coil to the rotor body.

  9. Design, Fabrication, Assembly and Initial Testing of a SMART Rotor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the 29 th ASME Wind Energy Symposium (49 th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting) 4-7 January 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA Design, Fabrication, Assembly and Initial Testing of a SMART Rotor 1 Dale Berg 2 , Jon Berg 3 , David Wilson 3 , Jon White 3 , Brian Resor 3 and Mark Rumsey 3 Sandia National Laboratories 4 Sandia National Laboratories has designed and built a full set of three 9m blades (based on the Sandia CX-100 blade design) equipped with active aerodynamic blade load control surfaces on the

  10. Control system for a wound-rotor motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, James N. (Chatsworth, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A load switching circuit for switching two or more transformer taps under load carrying conditions includes first and second parallel connected bridge rectifier circuits which control the selective connection of a direct current load to taps of a transformer. The first bridge circuit is normally conducting so that the load is connected to a first tap through the first bridge circuit. To transfer the load to the second tap, a switch is operable to connect the second bridge circuit to a second tap, and when the second bridge circuit begins to conduct, the first bridge circuit ceases conduction because the potential at the second tap is higher than the potential at the first tap, and the load is thus connected to the second tap through the second bridge circuit. The load switching circuit is applicable in a motor speed controller for a wound-rotor motor for effecting tap switching as a function of motor speed while providing a stepless motor speed control characteristic.

  11. Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis of Rotor Imbalance and Shear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitivity Analysis of Rotor Imbalance and Shear Web Disbond Detection Strategies for ... the maturity of rotor imbalance and shear web disbond detection strategies developed in ...

  12. Radial-radial single rotor turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platts, David A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-05-16

    A rotor for use in turbine applications has a radial compressor/pump having radially disposed spaced apart fins forming passages and a radial turbine having hollow turbine blades interleaved with the fins and through which fluid from the radial compressor/pump flows. The rotor can, in some applications, be used to produce electrical power.

  13. Substantially parallel flux uncluttered rotor machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, John S.

    2012-12-11

    A permanent magnet-less and brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by polyphase alternating currents. An uncluttered rotor is positioned within the magnetic rotating field and is spaced apart from the stator. An excitation core is spaced apart from the stator and the uncluttered rotor and magnetically couples the uncluttered rotor. The brushless excitation source generates a magnet torque by inducing magnetic poles near an outer peripheral surface of the uncluttered rotor, and the stator currents also generate a reluctance torque by a reaction of the difference between the direct and quadrature magnetic paths of the uncluttered rotor. The system can be used either as a motor or a generator

  14. Active Flow Control on Bidirectional Rotors for Tidal MHK Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiu, Henry; van Dam, Cornelis P.

    2013-08-22

    A marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) tidal turbine extracts energy from tidal currents, providing clean, sustainable electricity generation. In general, all MHK conversion technologies are confronted with significant operational hurdles, resulting in both increased capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs. To counter these high costs while maintaining reliability, MHK turbine designs can be simplified. Prior study found that a tidal turbine could be cost-effectively simplified by removing blade pitch and rotor/nacelle yaw. Its rotor would run in one direction during ebb and then reverse direction when the current switched to flood. We dubbed such a turbine a bidirectional rotor tidal turbine (BRTT). The bidirectional hydrofoils of a BRTT are less efficient than conventional hydrofoils and capture less energy, but the elimination of the pitch and yaw systems were estimated to reduce levelized cost of energy by 7.8%-9.6%. In this study, we investigated two mechanisms for recapturing some of the performance shortfall of the BRTT. First, we developed a novel set of hydrofoils, designated the yy series, for BRTT application. Second, we investigated the use of active flow control via microtabs. Microtabs are small deployable/retractable tabs, typically located near the leading or trailing edge of an air/hydrofoil with height on the order of the boundary layer thickness (1% - 2% of chord). They deploy approximately perpendicularly to the foil surface and, like gurney flaps and plain flaps, globally affect the aerodynamics of the airfoil. By strategically placing microtabs and selectively deploying them based on the direction of the inflow, performance of a BRTT rotor can be improved while retaining bidirectional operation. The yy foils were computationally designed and analyzed. They exhibited better performance than the baseline bidirectional foil, the ellipse. For example, the yyb07cn-180 had 14.7% higher (l/d)max than an ellipse of equal thickness. The yyb07cn family also had higher c{sub p,min} than equivalently thick ellipses, indicating less susceptibility to cavitation. Microtabs applied on yy foils demonstrated improved energy capture. A series of variable speed and constant speed rotors were developed with the yyb07cn family of hydrofoils. The constant speed yyb07cn rotor (yy-B02-Rcs,opt) captured 0.45% more energy than the equivalent rotor with ellipses (e-B02-Rcs,opt). With microtabs deployed (yyμt-B02-Rcs,opt), the energy capture increase over the rotor with ellipses was 1.05%. Note, however, that microtabs must be applied judiciously to bidirectional foils. On the 18% thick ellipse, performance decreased with the addition of microtabs. Details of hydrofoil performance, microtab sizing and positioning, rotor configurations, and revenue impacts are presented herein.

  15. Vacuum coupling of rotating superconducting rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoykhet, Boris A.; Zhang, Burt Xudong; Driscoll, David Infante

    2003-12-02

    A rotating coupling allows a vacuum chamber in the rotor of a superconducting electric motor to be continually pumped out. The coupling consists of at least two concentric portions, one of which is allowed to rotate and the other of which is stationary. The coupling is located on the non-drive end of the rotor and is connected to a coolant supply and a vacuum pump. The coupling is smaller in diameter than the shaft of the rotor so that the shaft can be increased in diameter without having to increase the size of the vacuum seal.

  16. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, S.E.; Deteresa, S.J.

    1998-07-14

    An interlayer toughening mechanism is described to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0{degree} to 90{degree} to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles. 2 figs.

  17. Interlayer toughening of fiber composite flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA); Deteresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    An interlayer toughening mechanism to mitigate the growth of damage in fiber composite flywheel rotors for long application. The interlayer toughening mechanism may comprise one or more tough layers composed of high-elongation fibers, high-strength fibers arranged in a woven pattern at a range from 0.degree. to 90.degree. to the rotor axis and bound by a ductile matrix material which adheres to and is compatible with the materials used for the bulk of the rotor. The number and spacing of the tough interlayers is a function of the design requirements and expected lifetime of the rotor. The mechanism has particular application in uninterruptable power supplies, electrical power grid reservoirs, and compulsators for electric guns, as well as electromechanical batteries for vehicles.

  18. Wind turbine rotor hub and teeter joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Clint (Warren, VT); Kurth, William T. (Warren, VT); Jankowski, Joseph (Stowe, VT)

    1994-10-11

    A rotor hub is provided for coupling a wind turbine rotor blade and a shaft. The hub has a yoke with a body which is connected to the shaft, and extension portions which are connected to teeter bearing blocks, each of which has an aperture. The blocks are connected to a saddle which envelops the rotor blade by one or two shafts which pass through the apertures in the bearing blocks. The saddle and blade are separated by a rubber interface which provides for distribution of stress over a larger portion of the blade. Two teeter control mechanisms, which may include hydraulic pistons and springs, are connected to the rotor blade and to the yoke at extension portions. These control mechanisms provide end-of-stroke damping, braking, and stiffness based on the teeter angle and speed of the blade.

  19. LOADED WAVEGUIDES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

    1958-06-24

    >Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

  20. Combined Effects of Gravity, Bending Moment, Bearing Clearance, and Input Torque on Wind Turbine Planetary Gear Load Sharing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; LaCava, W.

    2012-09-01

    This computational work investigates planetary gear load sharing of three-mount suspension wind turbine gearboxes. A three dimensional multibody dynamic model is established, including gravity, bending moments, fluctuating mesh stiffness, nonlinear tooth contact, and bearing clearance. A flexible main shaft, planetary carrier, housing, and gear shafts are modeled using reduced degrees-of-freedom through modal compensation. This drivetrain model is validated against the experimental data of Gearbox Reliability Collaborative for gearbox internal loads. Planet load sharing is a combined effect of gravity, bending moment, bearing clearance, and input torque. Influences of each of these parameters and their combined effects on the resulting planet load sharing are investigated. Bending moments and gravity induce fundamental excitations in the rotating carrier frame, which can increase gearbox internal loads and disturb load sharing. Clearance in carrier bearings reduces the bearing load carrying capacity and thus the bending moment from the rotor can be transmitted into gear meshes. With bearing clearance, the bending moment can cause tooth micropitting and can induce planet bearing fatigue, leading to reduced gearbox life. Planet bearings are susceptible to skidding at low input torque.

  1. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Design and Field Test SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test Design and field test results from the SMART Rotor project, a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics. PDF icon Smart Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test More Documents & Publications SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

  2. Dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally-wound, permanent-magnet machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Ronghai; Lipo, Thomas A.

    2005-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel dual-rotor, radial-flux, toroidally-wound, permanent-magnet machine. The present invention improves electrical machine torque density and efficiency. At least one concentric surface-mounted permanent magnet dual-rotor is located inside and outside of a torus-shaped stator with back-to-back windings, respectively. The machine substantially improves machine efficiency by reducing the end windings and boosts the torque density by at least doubling the air gap and optimizing the machine aspect ratio.

  3. Testing Controls to Mitigate Fatigue Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamics of wind turbines is nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated three-dimensional (3D) turbulent wind inflow field with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. Design of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for multiple control objectives. Future large multi-megawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, maximize energy capture, and add active damping to maintain stability for these dynamically active structures operating in a complex environment. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. This paper describes testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control methods. The controller uses independent blade pitch to regulate the turbine's speed in Region 3, mitigate the effects of shear across the rotor disk, and add active damping to the tower's first fore-aft bending mode. Additionally, a separate generator torque control loop is designed to add active damping to the tower's first side-side mode and the first drivetraintorsion mode. This paper discusses preliminary implementation and field tests of this controller in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Also included are preliminary comparisons of the performance of this controller to results from a typical baseline Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller designed with just Region 3 speed regulation as the goal.

  4. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  5. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  6. PN Rotor GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PN Rotor GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: PN Rotor GmbH Place: Lower Saxony, Germany Sector: Wind energy Product: Germany-based subsidiary of Prokon Nord Energiesysteme GmbH...

  7. Rotor bore and turbine rotor wheel/spacer heat exchange flow circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caruso, Philip M. (Selkirk, NY); Eldrid, Sacheverel Quentin (Saratoga Springs, NY); Ladhani, Azad A. (Niskayuna, NY); DeMania, Alan Richard (Niskayuna, NY); Palmer, Gene David (Clifton Park, NY); Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY); Rathbun, Lisa Shirley (Scotia, NY); Akin, Robert Craig (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    In a turbine having closed-circuit steam-cooling passages about the rim of the rotor during steady-state operation, compressor discharge air is supplied to the rotor bore for passage radially outwardly into the wheel space cavities between the wheels and spacers. Communicating slots and channels in the spacers and wheels at circumferentially spaced positions enable egress of the compressor discharge air into the hot gas flow path. At turbine startup, cooling air flows through the closed-circuit steam passages to cool the outer rim of the rotor while compressor discharge air pre-warms the wheels and spacers. At steady-state, cooling steam is supplied in the closed-circuit steam-cooling passages and compressor discharge air is supplied through the bore and into the wheel space cavities to cool the rotor.

  8. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  9. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  10. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1992-12-22

    A rotor assembly is described for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water. It includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and includes a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses. 34 figs.

  11. Rotor assembly and method for automatically processing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A rotor assembly for performing a relatively large number of processing steps upon a sample, such as a whole blood sample, and a diluent, such as water, includes a rotor body for rotation about an axis and including a network of chambers within which various processing steps are performed upon the sample and diluent and passageways through which the sample and diluent are transferred. A transfer mechanism is movable through the rotor body by the influence of a magnetic field generated adjacent the transfer mechanism and movable along the rotor body, and the assembly utilizes centrifugal force, a transfer of momentum and capillary action to perform any of a number of processing steps such as separation, aliquoting, transference, washing, reagent addition and mixing of the sample and diluent within the rotor body. The rotor body is particularly suitable for automatic immunoassay analyses.

  12. Double-ended ceramic helical-rotor expander

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohr, P.B.; Myers, W.B.

    1995-02-28

    A ceramic helical rotor expander is disclosed using a double-ended or tandem herringbone type rotor arrangement with bearing and seal assemblies remote from the hot gas inlets and especially capable of operating at an inlet temperature of above 1,100 C. The rotors are solid or hollow and bonded to hollow metal shafts, and mounted in a composite or simple prismatic casing. The rotors, casing and shafts are constructed from low expansivity materials. In the preferred embodiment the rotors are constructed of silicon nitride and the shafts constructed of an molybdenum alloy, with the metal shafts being supported in bearings and secured to synchronizing gears. The rotors and casing may be provided with coolant channels therein, and are constructed to eliminate the problem of end leakages at inlet temperature and pressure, and the need for high temperature bearings and seals. 3 figs.

  13. Double-ended ceramic helical-rotor expander

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohr, Peter B. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Wendell B. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A ceramic helical rotor expander using a double-ended or tandem herringbone type rotor arrangement with bearing and seal assemblies remote from the hot gas inlets and especially capable of operating at an inlet temperature of above 1100.degree. C. The rotors are solid or hollow and bonded to hollow metal shafts, and mounted in a composite or simple prismatic casing. The rotors, casing and shafts are constructed from low expansivity materials. In the preferred embodiment the rotors are constructed of silicon nitride and the shafts constructed of an molybdenum alloy, with the metal shafts being supported in bearings and secured to synchronizing gears. The rotors and casing may be provided with coolant channels therein, and are constructed to eliminate the problem of end leakages at inlet temperature and pressure, and the need for high temperature bearings and seals.

  14. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-07-17

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.

  15. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

  16. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-05-30

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

  17. Sandia Energy - Structural and Mechanical Adaptive Rotor Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Mechanical Adaptive Rotor Technology (SMART) Final Project Reports Published Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy News & Events Systems Analysis Structural and...

  18. Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors - Sandia Energy ... Lab Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation Laboratory PV Regional ... Facility Geomechanics and Drilling Labs National ...

  19. Sandia Energy - National Rotor Testbed Functional Scaling Presented...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Renewable Energy Energy SWIFT Facilities Partnership News Wind Energy News & Events Systems Analysis National Rotor Testbed Functional Scaling Presented at American Institute...

  20. DOE and Sandia National Laboratories Develop National Rotor Testbed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rotor innovation and to conduct complex flow and turbine-to-turbine interaction research that will increase the efficiency of wind power plants and lower the cost of ...

  1. Substantially Parallel Flux Uncluttered Rotor Machines (U-Machine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rotor machines A permanent magnet-less and brushless synchronous system includes a stator that generates a magnetic rotating field when sourced by polyphase alternating currents. ...

  2. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Jun (Glastonbury, CT); Bombara, David (New Hartford, CT); Green, Kevin E. (Broad Brook, CT); Bird, Connic (Rocky Hill, CT); Holowczak, John (South Windsor, CT)

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  3. Refinements and Tests of an Advanced Controller to Mitigate Fatigue Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.; Fleming, P.

    2010-12-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamics of wind turbines are nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated 3-D turbulent wind inflow field, with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. Design of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for multiple control objectives. Future large multi-megawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, while maximizing energy capture. Active damping should be added to these dynamic structures to maintain stability for operation in a complex environment. At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), we have designed, implemented, and tested advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads. These control designs are based on linear models of the turbine that are generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we present field test results of an advanced control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads in Region 3.

  4. SMART wind turbine rotor. Design and field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Resor, Brian Ray; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan Randall

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This report begins with an overview of active control research at Sandia and the objectives of this project. The SMART blade, based on the DOE / SNL 9-meter CX-100 blade design, is then documented including all modifications necessary to integrate the trailing edge flaps, sensors incorporated into the system, and the fabrication processes that were utilized. Finally the test site and test campaign are described.

  5. SMART wind turbine rotor. Data analysis and conclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.

  6. Disc rotors with permanent magnets for brushless DC motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawsey, Robert A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bailey, J. Milton (Knoxville, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A brushless dc permanent magnet motor drives an autonomous underwater vehe. In one embodiment, the motor comprises four substantially flat stators in stacked relationship, with pairs of the stators axially spaced, each of the stators comprising a tape-wound stator coil, and first and second substantially flat rotors disposed between the spaced pairs of stators. Each of the rotors includes an annular array of permanent magnets embedded therein. A first shaft is connected to the first rotor and a second, concentric shaft is connected to the second rotor, and a drive unit causes rotation of the two shafts in opposite directions. The second shaft comprises a hollow tube having a central bore in which the first shaft is disposed. Two different sets of bearings support the first and second shafts. In another embodiment, the motor comprises two ironless stators and pairs of rotors mounted on opposite sides of the stators and driven by counterrotating shafts.

  7. Double-rotor rotary engine and turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, A.S.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes a double-rotor engine. It comprises: a base; a housing rotatably mounted to the base and forming a radial cylinder; an output shaft rotatably mounted concentric with the housing and having an arm rigidly extending therefrom within the housing; a piston slidingly engaging the cylinder and forming a combustion chamber with the cylinder; means for admitting a fuel-air mixture into the cylinder; means for releasing combustion products from the cylinder following operation of the expanding means; turbine means operatively connected between the base and the housing, the turbine means providing a torque reaction against the housing in response to flow of the combustion products from the releasing means; and stop means on the shaft for limiting the relative movement between the shaft and the housing.

  8. DOE and Sandia National Laboratories Develop National Rotor Testbed |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DOE and Sandia National Laboratories Develop National Rotor Testbed DOE and Sandia National Laboratories Develop National Rotor Testbed August 1, 2013 - 3:05pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Second Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are designing a modern, research-quality wind turbine rotor for use at the new Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) site at Texas Tech

  9. Control coil arrangement for a rotating machine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manoj R. (Latham, NY); Lewandowsk, Chad R. (Amsterdam, NY)

    2001-07-31

    A rotating machine (e.g., a turbine, motor or generator) is provided wherein a fixed solenoid or other coil configuration is disposed adjacent to one or both ends of the active portion of the machine rotor for producing an axially directed flux in the active portion so as to provide planar axial control at single or multiple locations for rotor balance, levitation, centering, torque and thrust action. Permanent magnets can be used to produce an axial bias magnetic field. The rotor can include magnetic disks disposed in opposed, facing relation to the coil configuration.

  10. Characterization of winds through the rotor plane using a phased array SODAR and recommendations for future work.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deola, Regina Anne

    2010-02-01

    Portable remote sensing devices are increasingly needed to cost effectively characterize the meteorology at a potential wind energy site as the size of modern wind turbines increase. A short term project co-locating a Sound Detection and Ranging System (SODAR) with a 200 meter instrumented meteorological tower at the Texas Tech Wind Technology Field Site was performed to collect and summarize wind information through an atmospheric layer typical of utility scale rotor plane depths. Data collected identified large speed shears and directional shears that may lead to unbalanced loads on the rotors. This report identifies suggestions for incorporation of additional data in wind resource assessments and a few thoughts on the potential for using a SODAR or SODAR data to quantify or investigate other parameters that may be significant to the wind industry.

  11. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Jonathan C.; Resor, Brian R.; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers.

  12. Assessment of Scaled Rotors for Wind Tunnel Experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maniaci, David Charles; Kelley, Christopher Lee; Chiu, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    Rotor design and analysis work has been performed to support the conceptualization of a wind tunnel test focused on studying wake dynamics. This wind tunnel test would serve as part of a larger model validation campaign that is part of the Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Programs Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) initiative. The first phase of this effort was directed towards designing a functionally scaled rotor based on the same design process and target full-scale turbine used for new rotors for the DOE/SNL SWiFT site. The second phase focused on assessing the capabilities of an already available rotor, the G1, designed and built by researchers at the Technical University of Mnchen.

  13. Methods and apparatus for rotor blade ice detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeMieux, David Lawrence

    2006-08-08

    A method for detecting ice on a wind turbine having a rotor and one or more rotor blades each having blade roots includes monitoring meteorological conditions relating to icing conditions and monitoring one or more physical characteristics of the wind turbine in operation that vary in accordance with at least one of the mass of the one or more rotor blades or a mass imbalance between the rotor blades. The method also includes using the one or more monitored physical characteristics to determine whether a blade mass anomaly exists, determining whether the monitored meteorological conditions are consistent with blade icing; and signaling an icing-related blade mass anomaly when a blade mass anomaly is determined to exist and the monitored meteorological conditions are determined to be consistent with icing.

  14. Field Test Results from the Sandia SMART Rotor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Field Test Results from the Sandia SMART Rotor Jonathan C. Berg * and Matthew F. Barone † and Brian R. Resor ‡ Sandia National Laboratories ** , Albuquerque, NM, 87185-1124 Sandia National Laboratories has concluded field testing of its wind turbine rotor equipped with trailing-edge flaps. The blade design, fabrication, and integration which have been described in previous papers are briefly reviewed and then a portion of the data is presented and analyzed. Time delays observed in the

  15. Rigid-rotor, field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conti, F. Giammanco, F.; Plasma Diagnostics and Technologies Ltd., Via Giuntini 63, 56023 Navacchio ; Wessel, F. J.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Bolte, N.; Morehouse, M.; Qerushi, A.; Rahman, H. U.; Roche, T.; Slepchenkov, M.

    2014-02-15

    The radial profiles, n(r), B{sub z}(r), and E{sub r}(r), for a Flux-Coil (“inductively driven”), Field-Reversed Configuration (FC-FRC) are measured and compared to the predictions of the Rigid-Rotor Model (RRM), which is an analytic, one-dimensional, time-independent, equilibrium description for the FRC. Injectors mounted on both ends of the confinement vessel provide a pre-fill plasma. Coaxial coils mounted outside the vacuum boundaries of the annular-confinement vessel accelerate the plasma and produce the FRC. The density profile is measured by laser interferometry, the magnetic-field profile using an in-situ probe array, and the electric-field profile using an in-situ, floating-probe array. Free parameters for each profile are measured, which also allow other intrinsic-plasma parameters to be determined, using computer-fit algorithms: null radius, radial thickness, plasma temperature, rotation frequencies, the latter of which are independently verified by spectroscopy. All radial profiles agree with the RRM predictions, for the experimental configuration, parameter regime, and specified-time interval studied here.

  16. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of incoming wind speeds that could be provided by LIDAR. Non-causal series expansion and Preview Control methods reduce blade root loads but increase tower bending in simulation results. The optimized FIR filter reduces loads overall, keeps pitch rates low, and maintains rotor speed regulation and power capture, while using imperfect wind measurements provided by the spinning continuous-wave LIDAR model.

  17. Plug Load

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture Smart Power Strips Smart Power Strips are a conservation measure aimed at reducing...

  18. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  19. Coplanar Doppler Lidar Retrieval of Rotors from T-REX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Michael; Calhoun, Ron; Fernando, H. J. S.; Wieser, Andreas; Dornbrack, Andreas; Weissmann, Martin; Mayr, G.; Newsom, Rob K.

    2010-03-01

    Two coherent Doppler lidars were deployed during the Terrain-induced Rotor EXperiment (T-REX). Coplanar Range Height Indicator (RHI) scans by the lidars (along the same azimuthal angle) allowed retrieval of two-dimensional velocity vectors on a vertical/cross-barrier plane using the least squares method. Vortices are shown to evolve and advect in the flow field, allowing analysis of their behavior in the mountain-wave-boundary layer system. The locations, magnitudes, and evolution of the vortices can be studied through calculated fields of velocity, vorticity, streamlines, and swirl. Two classes of vortical motions are identified: rotors and sub-rotors, which differ in scale and behavior. The level of coordination of the two lidars and the nature of the output (i.e., in range-gates) creates inherent restrictions on the spatial and temporal resolution of retrieved fields.

  20. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    1999-06-22

    A permanent magnet assembly for assembly in large permanent magnet motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier that can be slid into a slot in the rotor and then secured in place using a set screw. The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device with guide rails that line up with the teeth of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly can be pushed first into a slot, and then down the slot to its proper location. An auxiliary tool is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly into position in the slot before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies in the rotor are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Adams, Donald J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly (22) for assembly in large permanent magnet (PM) motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier (23, 24) that can be slid into a slot (13) in the rotor (10) and then secured in place using a set screw (37). The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device (50) with guide rails (51) that line up with the teeth (12) of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly (22) can be pushed first into a slot (13), and then down the slot (13) to its proper location. An auxiliary tool (50) is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly (22) into position in the slot (13) before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies (22) in the rotor (10) are also disclosed.

  2. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design and Field Test SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Wind Turbine Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers. PDF icon smart_wind_turbine_design_pdf. More Documents & Publications SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions SMART Wind

  3. NRT Rotor Structural / Aeroelastic Analysis for the Preliminary Design Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ennis, Brandon Lee; Paquette, Joshua A.

    2015-10-01

    This document describes the initial structural design for the National Rotor Testbed blade as presented during the preliminary design review at Sandia National Laboratories on October 28- 29, 2015. The document summarizes the structural and aeroelastic requirements placed on the NRT rotor for satisfactory deployment at the DOE/SNL SWiFT experimental facility to produce high-quality datasets for wind turbine model validation. The method and result of the NRT blade structural optimization is also presented within this report, along with analysis of its satisfaction of the design requirements.

  4. National Rotor Testbed Targets Future Wind Plant Research Needs |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy National Rotor Testbed Targets Future Wind Plant Research Needs National Rotor Testbed Targets Future Wind Plant Research Needs May 18, 2015 - 4:12pm Addthis Two illustrated graphs. The graph on the top shows a single line repeating in four quadrants, the bottom graph shows all colors The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) initiative has identified the evolution of wakes in turbulent inflow as a key physical process affecting power

  5. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  6. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of ... (JHCM) technology Factors affecting waste loadings Waste loading requirements ...

  7. Data analysis and conclusions from the SMART Rotor project, a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics.

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    681 Unlimited Release Printed January 2014 SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test Jonathan C. Berg, Brian R. Resor, Joshua A. Paquette, and Jonathan R. White Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  8. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Jonathan C.; Barone, Matthew F.; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.

  9. Application of ceramics to turbocharger rotors for passenger cars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katano, Y.; Ando, M.; Itoh, T.; Sasaki, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Nissan has been developing and marketing ceramic turbocharger rotors for five years. This paper outlines the major theories and techniques used in ceramic fabrication, joining of ceramic and metal components, and machining of ceramics. It also presents a dynamic stress analysis using DYNA3D and describes techniques used in performing impact damage experiments, reliability evaluation, and lifetime preprediction.

  10. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  11. Structural health and prognostics management for offshore wind turbines : case studies of rotor fault and blade damage with initial O&M cost modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrent, Noah J.; Kusnick, Joshua F.; Barrett, Natalie C.; Adams, Douglas E.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2013-04-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Based on simulations of damage in the turbine model, the operational measurements that demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the damage/faults were the blade tip accelerations and local pitching moments for both imbalance and shear web disbond. The initial cost model provided a great deal of insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs due to the implementation of an effective SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability, revenue, and overall profit.

  12. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2014-09-23

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is described. The adaptor assembly includes a turbine blade having a blade root and an adaptor body having an adaptor root. The adaptor body defines a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root of the turbine blade such that the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are adjacent to one another when the blade root of the turbine blade is positioned within the slot. Both the adaptor root of the adaptor body and the blade root of the turbine blade are configured to be received within the root slot of the rotor disk.

  13. Aeroacoustics and aerodynamic performance of a rotor with flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Christiansen, Monica; Simley, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance and aeroacoustic noise sources of a rotor employing flatback airfoils have been studied in field test campaign and companion modeling effort. The field test measurements of a sub-scale rotor employing nine meter blades include both performance measurements and acoustic measurements. The acoustic measurements are obtained using a 45 microphone beamforming array, enabling identification of both noise source amplitude and position. Semi-empirical models of flatback airfoil blunt trailing edge noise are developed and calibrated using available aeroacoustic wind tunnel test data. The model results and measurements indicate that flatback airfoil noise is less than drive train noise for the current test turbine. It is also demonstrated that the commonly used Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model for blunt trailing edge noise may be over-conservative in predicting flatback airfoil noise for wind turbine applications.

  14. Small-scale self-excited-rotor electrostatic generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalganov, A.F.

    1985-04-15

    Electrostatic generators, as sources of high direct-current voltage, are being used more and more extensively in science and technology. Rotor electrostatic generators with conductor-carriers occupy a significant place among these generators; rotor electrostatic generators develop a voltage in the hundreds of kV and have the advantage that they can be made self-exciting. This considerably simplifies servicing and operation of the generators and is especially important in a small-scale design. Theoretical and experimental works on electrostatic generators with conductor-carriers in the last 20 years have led to the development of various types of such generators. Soviet scientists have made a great contribution to these works. However, the procedure for engineering calculation of certain types of generators still has not been adequately developed. In particular, the Zan calculation does not take into account the effect of parasitic capacitances in generators of disc and cylinder types.

  15. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livingston, Jamie T. (Simpsonville, SC); Driver, Howard D. (Greer, SC); van Breugel, Sjef (Enschede, NL); Jenkins, Thomas B. (Cantonment, FL); Bakhuis, Jan Willem (Nijverdal, NL); Billen, Andrew J. (Daarlerveen, NL); Riahi, Amir (Pensacola, FL)

    2011-07-12

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  16. Offshore Wind RD&D: Large Offshore Rotor Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Offshore Rotor Development - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  17. Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  18. A new day: SWiFT reaches rotor mounting milestone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    day: SWiFT reaches rotor mounting milestone - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  19. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    712 Unlimited Release Printed January 2014 SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions Jonathan C. Berg, Matthew F. Barone, and Nathanael C. Yoder Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration

  20. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Data Analysis and Conclusions SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an

  1. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  2. Preliminary structural design conceptualization for composite rotor for verdant power water current turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquette, J. A.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Verdant Power Inc. (VPI) have partnered under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a new kinetic hydropower rotor. The rotor features an improved hydrodynamic and structural design which features state-of-the-art technology developed for the wind industry. The new rotor will have higher energy capture, increased system reliability, and reduction of overall cost of energy. This project was divided into six tasks: (1) Composite Rotor Project Planning and Design Specification; (2) Baseline Fatigue Testing and Failure analysis; (3) Develop Blade/Rotor Performance Model; (4) Hydrofoil Survey and Selection; (5) FEM Structural Design; and (6) Develop Candidate Rotor Designs and Prepare Final Report.

  3. Investigating Aeroelastic Performance of Multi-Mega Watt Wind Turbine Rotors Using CFD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Aeroelastic Performance of Multi-MegaWatt Wind Turbine Rotors Using CFD David A. Corson 1 Altair Engineering, Inc., Clifton Park, NY, 12065 D. Todd Griffith 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185 Tom Ashwill 3 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87185 Farzin Shakib 4 Altair Engineering, Inc., Mountain View, CA, 94043 Recent trends in wind power technology are focusing on increasing power output through an increase in rotor diameter. As the rotor diameter

  4. Tuning thermal mismatch between turbine rotor parts with a thermal medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

    2001-01-01

    In a turbine rotor, an aft shaft wheel and the final-stage wheel of the rotor are coupled together, including by a rabbeted joint. During shutdown and startup of the turbine, a thermal mismatch between the aft shaft wheel and final-stage wheel is avoided by respectively heating and cooling the aft shaft wheel to maintain the thermal mismatch within acceptable limits, thereby avoiding opening of the rabbeted joint and the potential for unbalancing the rotor and rotor vibration. The thermal medium may be supplied by piping in the aft bearing cavity into the cavity between the forward closure plate and the aft shaft wheel.

  5. Sandia Energy - The Influence of Rotor Blade Design on Wake Developmen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influence of Rotor Blade Design on Wake Development Home Renewable Energy Energy SWIFT Facilities News Wind Energy News & Events Systems Analysis Systems Engineering The Influence...

  6. Inverse Load Calculation of Wind Turbine Support Structures - A Numerical Verification Using the Comprehensive Simulation Code FAST: Preprint (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahn, T.; Jonkman, J.; Rolges, R.; Robertson, A.

    2012-11-01

    Physically measuring the dynamic responses of wind turbine support structures enables the calculation of the applied loads using an inverse procedure. In this process, inverse means deriving the inputs/forces from the outputs/responses. This paper presents results of a numerical verification of such an inverse load calculation. For this verification, the comprehensive simulation code FAST is used. FAST accounts for the coupled dynamics of wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity and turbine controls. Simulations are run using a 5-MW onshore wind turbine model with a tubular tower. Both the applied loads due to the instantaneous wind field and the resulting system responses are known from the simulations. Using the system responses as inputs to the inverse calculation, the applied loads are calculated, which in this case are the rotor thrust forces. These forces are compared to the rotor thrust forces known from the FAST simulations. The results of these comparisons are presented to assess the accuracy of the inverse calculation. To study the influences of turbine controls, load cases in normal operation between cut-in and rated wind speed, near rated wind speed and between rated and cut-out wind speed are chosen. The presented study shows that the inverse load calculation is capable of computing very good estimates of the rotor thrust. The accuracy of the inverse calculation does not depend on the control activity of the wind turbine.

  7. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  8. Advanced steelmaking processes for rotor forgings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, J.E.; Busby, P.E.; Jaffee, R.I.; Murphy, E.L.; Newhouse, D.L.; Wriedt, H.A.

    1983-12-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the current status and trends in advanced steelmaking for the production of large low-alloy steel ingots for large steam-turbine and generator-rotor forgings. The study reviews the essential chemistry of steelmaking and describes the equipment and processes that are state of the art or in development. Pertinent emerging technologies are reviewed. Emphasis is on processes related to steel refining and the casting of large ingots. The advantages and limitations, effects on quality, and economics of the processes are discussed.

  9. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  10. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    expanded in an infinite sum involving products of Legendre polynomials and azimuthal Fourier components. The aerodynamic blade loads are similarly expanded in a spectral basis,...

  11. Adaptor assembly for coupling turbine blades to rotor disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delvaux, John McConnel; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Joyce, Kilmer Joseph; Tindell, Allan Randall

    2014-06-03

    An adaptor assembly for coupling a blade root of a turbine blade to a root slot of a rotor disk is disclosed. The adaptor assembly may generally include an adaptor body having a root configured to be received within the root slot. The adaptor body may also define a slot having an open end configured to receive the blade root. The adaptor body may further define a channel. The adaptor assembly may also include a plate having an outwardly extending foot. The foot may be configured to be received within the channel. Additionally, the plate may be configured to cover at least a portion of the open end of the slot when the foot is received within the channel.

  12. Cooling system for a bearing of a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher

    2002-01-01

    In a gas turbine, a bore tube assembly radially inwardly of an aft bearing conveys cooling steam to the buckets of the turbine and returns the cooling steam to a return. To cool the bearing and thermally insulate the bearing from the cooling steam paths, a radiation shield is spaced from the bore tube assembly by a dead air gap. Additionally, an air passageway is provided between the radiation shield and the inner surface of an aft shaft forming part of the rotor. Air is supplied from an inlet for flow along the passage and radially outwardly through bores in the aft shaft disk to cool the bearing and insulate it from transfer of heat from the cooling steam.

  13. Final project report: High energy rotor development, test and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    Under the auspices of the {open_quotes}Government/Industry Wind Technology Applications Project{close_quotes} [{open_quotes}Letter of Interest{close_quotes} (LOI) Number RC-1-11101], Flo Wind Corp. has successfully developed, tested, and delivered a high-energy rotor upgrade candidate for their 19-meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. The project included the demonstration of the innovative extended height-to-diameter ratio concept, the development of a continuous span single-piece composite blade, the demonstration of a continuous blade manufacturing technique, the utilization of the Sandia National Laboratories developed SNLA 2150 natural laminar flow airfoil and the reuse of existing wind turbine and wind power plant infrastructure.

  14. Assessment of research needs for wind turbine rotor materials technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Wind-driven power systems is a renewable energy technology that is still in the early stages of development. Wind power plants installed in early 1980s suffered structural failures chiefly because of incomplete understanding of wind forces (turbulent), in some cases because of poor product quality. Failures of rotor blades are now somewhat better understood. This committee has examined the experience base accumulated by wind turbines and the R and D programs sponsored by DOE. It is concluded that a wind energy system such as is described is within the capability of engineering practice; however because of certain gaps in knowledge, and the presence of only one major integrated manufacturer of wind power machines in the USA, a DOE R and D investment is still required.

  15. Method and system for controlling a rotational speed of a rotor of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2008-12-30

    A system and method controls a rotational speed of a rotor or shaft of a turbogenerator in accordance with a present voltage level on a direct current bus. A lower threshold and a higher threshold are established for a speed of a rotor or shaft of a turbogenerator. A speed sensor determines speed data or a speed signal for the rotor or shaft associated with a turbogenerator. A voltage regulator adjusts a voltage level associated with a direct current bus within a target voltage range if the speed data or speed signal indicates that the speed is above the higher threshold or below the lower threshold.

  16. WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study: June 2000--June 2002 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm, D. J.; Hansen, A. C.

    2006-04-01

    This report presents the results of the turbine rotor study completed by Global Energy Concepts (GEC) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) project. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy from wind turbines to fall to a target of 3.0 cents/kilowatt-hour in low wind speed sites. The study focused on different rotor configurations and the effect of scale on those rotors.

  17. Rotor spectra, berry phases, and monopole fields: From antiferromagnets to QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekharan, S.; Jiang, F.-J.; Wiese, U.-J.; Pepe, M.

    2008-10-01

    The order parameter of a finite system with a spontaneously broken continuous global symmetry acts as a quantum mechanical rotor. Both antiferromagnets with a spontaneously broken SU(2){sub s} spin symmetry and massless QCD with a broken SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R} chiral symmetry have rotor spectra when considered in a finite volume. When an electron or hole is doped into an antiferromagnet or when a nucleon is propagating through the QCD vacuum, a Berry phase arises from a monopole field and the angular momentum of the rotor is quantized in half-integer units.

  18. Turbulence loads on the Howden 26-m-diameter wind turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, P.H.; Hock, S.M.; Hausfeld, T.E.

    1987-11-01

    Conducted in Palm Springs, California, a joint effort between SERI and James Howden and Company involved a comprehensive test program on the 330-kW Howden wind turbine with a three-bladed, fixed-hub rotor 26 m in diameter. Part of the measurement analysis is to quantify the turbulence loads during the steady-state production modes of operation. Assuming wind turbulence to be the cause of the random loads, the turbulence loads in terms of blade root-bending moments have been determined empirically by isolating the random or nonperiodic part of the load signals using azimuthal averaging. Standard deviations as functions of wind speed, as well as power spectra of the loads, are presented. The measured turbulence loads are compared to a recently developed model for turbulence loading of wind turbines. The model works in the frequency domain and uses the standard engineering representation of turbulence in terms of a coherence function and a wind-power spectrum at a fixed point in space. The turbulence load model accounts for the dominant mode of vibration for the load in question and is intended to be simple enough to be used for a preliminary load estimate for practical design purposes.

  19. Indirect sensing for rotor flux position of permanent magnet AC motors operating over a wide speed range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreira, J.C.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes an indirect sensing, or sensorless, method for rotor flux position for brushless permanent magnet (BPM) motors operating over a wide speed range, while keeping maximum torque per ampere and/or maximum efficiency capabilities. The method described is particularly applicable to trapezoidal back emf type of BPM motors. The typical trapezoidal waveform of the motor internal voltages (or back emf) contains a fundamental and higher order frequency harmonics. In particular, the third harmonic component is extracted from the stator phase voltages while the fundamental and other polyphase components are eliminated via a simple summation of the three phase voltages. The resulting third harmonic signal keeps a constant phase relationship with the rotor flux for any motor speed and load condition, and is practically free of noise that can be introduced by the inverter switching, making this a robust sensing method. In contrast with indirect sensing methods based on detection of the back-emf signal that require heavy filtering, the third harmonic signal needs only a small amount of filtering to eliminate the switching frequency and its side bands. As a result, the method described here is not sensitive to filtering delays, allowing the motor to achieve a good performance over a wide speed range. Motor starting is also superior with this method since the third harmonic signal can be detected and processed at lower speeds than for the conventional method of back-emf sensing. Moreover, an alternative way to acquire the third harmonic signal without the need to access the stator neutral terminal is discussed. This is particularly interesting with the motor neutral connection is not available or expensive to have access. The third harmonic indirect sensing scheme is implemented in the laboratory and compared to a conventional back-emf sensing method.

  20. Sandia Energy - New Facility Tool at SWiFT Makes Rotor Work More...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility Tool at SWiFT Makes Rotor Work More Efficient Home Renewable Energy Energy SWIFT Facilities Partnership News Wind Energy News & Events New Facility Tool at SWiFT Makes...

  1. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  2. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  3. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  4. Turning Waste Heat into Power: Ener-G-Rotors and the Entrepreneurial Mentorship Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you’ve ever driven by an industrial plant, you’ve probably noticed big white plumes rising from the tops of the facilities. While it might look like smoke or pollution at first glance, most of the time those white plumes are comprised of steam and heat, or what Ener-G-Rotors CEO Michael Newell calls waste heat. Mike and the researchers of Ener-G-Rotors are finding ways to use this escaped steam and turn it into energy.

  5. Advanced Wind Turbine Controls Reduce Loads (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    NREL's National Wind Technology Center provides the world's only dedicated turbine controls testing platforms.

  6. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    inspection, and overhead SIR savings to investment ratio TRL technology readiness level UL Underwriters Laboratories W Watt vi This report is available at no cost from the...

  7. RAMGEN ROTOR CARTRIDGE FOR THE PRE-PROTOTYPE RAMGEN ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron Koopman

    2003-09-01

    The research and development of a unique combustion engine is presented. The engine converts the thrust from ramjet modules located on the rim of a disk into shaft torque, which in turn can be used for electrical power generation or mechanical drive applications. A test program was undertaken that included evaluation of the pre-prototype engine and incorporation of improvements to the thrust modules and supporting systems. Fuel mixing studies with vortex generators and bluff body flame holders demonstrated the importance of increasing the shear-layer area and spreading angle to augment flame volume. Evaluation of flame-holding configurations (with variable fuel injection methods) concluded that the heat release zone, and therefore combustion efficiency, could be manipulated by judicious selection of bluff body geometry, and is less influenced by fuel injection distribution. Finally, successful operation of novel fuel and cooling air delivery systems have resolved issues of gas (fuel and air) delivery to the individual rotor segments. The lessons learned from the pre-prototype engine are currently being applied to the development of a 2.8MW engine.

  8. Cable load sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beus, Michael J. (Spokane, WA); McCoy, William G. (Spokane, WA)

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  9. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  10. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  11. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  12. Sealed rotors for in situ high temperature high pressure MAS NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Zhao, Zhenchao; Xu, Souchang; Vjunov, Aleksei; Shi, Hui; Camaioni, Donald M.; Peden, Charles H. F.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2015-07-06

    Magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations on heterogeneous samples containing solids, semi-solids, liquid and gases or a mixture of them under non-conventional conditions of a combined high pressure and high temperature, or cold temperature suffer from the unavailability of a perfectly sealed rotor. Here, we report the design of reusable and perfectly-sealed all-zircornia MAS rotors. The rotors are easy to use and are suitable for operation temperatures from below 0 to 250 °C and pressures up to 100 bar. As an example of potential applications we performed in situ MAS NMR investigations of AlPO₄-5 molecular sieve crystallization, a kinetic study of the cyclohexanol dehydration reaction using 13C MAS NMR, and an investigation of the metabolomics of intact biological tissue at low temperature using 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. The in situ MAS NMR experiments performed using the reported rotors allowed reproduction of the results from traditional batch reactions, while offering more detailed quantitative information at the molecular level, as demonstrated for the molecular sieve synthesis and activation energy measurements for cyclohexanol dehydration. The perfectly sealed rotor also shows promising application for metabolomics studies using 1H HR-MAS NMR.

  13. Dynamic Rotor Deformation and Vibration Monitoring Using a Non-Incremental Laser Doppler Distance Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfister, Thorsten; Guenther, Philipp; Dreier, Florian; Czarske, Juergen

    2010-05-28

    Monitoring rotor deformations and vibrations dynamically is an important task for improving the safety and the lifetime as well as the energy efficiency of motors and turbo machines. However, due to the high rotor speed encountered in particular at turbo machines, this requires concurrently a high measurement rate and high accuracy, which can not be fulfilled by most commercially available sensors. To solve this problem, we developed a non-incremental laser Doppler distance sensor (LDDS), which is able to measure simultaneously the in-plane velocity and the out-of-plane position of moving rough solid objects with micrometer precision. In addition, this sensor concurrently offers a high temporal resolution in the microsecond range, because its position uncertainty is in principle independent of the object velocity in contrast to conventional distance sensors, which is a unique feature of the LDDS. Consequently, this novel sensor enables precise and dynamic in-process deformation and vibration measurements on rotating objects, such as turbo machine rotors, even at very high speed. In order to evidence the capability of the LDDS, measurements of rotor deformations (radial expansion), vibrations and wobbling motions are presented at up to 50,000 rpm rotor speed.

  14. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  15. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  16. Axial seal system for a gas turbine steam-cooled rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An axial seal assembly is provided at the interface between adjacent wheels and spacers of a gas turbine rotor and disposed about tubes passing through openings in the rotor adjacent the rotor rim and carrying a thermal medium. Each seal assembly includes a support bushing for supporting a land of the thermal medium carrying tube, an axially registering seat bushing disposed in the opposed opening and a frustoconical seal between the seal bushing and seat. The seal bushing includes a radial flange having an annular recess for retaining the outer diameter edge of the seal, while the seat bushing has an axially facing annular surface forming a seat for engagement by the inner diameter edge of the seal.

  17. A numerical investigation of transonic axial compressor rotor flow using a low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arima, T.; Sonoda, T.; Shirotori, M.; Tamura, A.; Kikuchi, K.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer simulation code for three-dimensional viscous flow in turbomachinery based on the time-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations and a low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model. It is described in detail in this paper. The code is used to compute the flow fields for two types of rotor (a transonic fan NASA Rotor 67 and a transonic axial compressor NASA rotor 37), and numerical results are compared to experimental data based on aerodynamic probe and laser anemometer measurements. In the case of Rotor 67, calculated and experimental results are compared under the design speed to validate the code. The calculated results show good agreement with the experimental data, such as the rotor performance map and the spanwise distribution of total pressure, total temperature, and flow angle downstream of the rotor. In the case of Rotor 37, detailed comparisons between the numerical results and the experimental data are made under the design speed condition to assess the overall quality of the numerical solution. Furthermore, comparisons under the part-speed condition are used to investigate a flow field without passage shock. The results are well predicted qualitatively. However, considerable quantitative discrepancies remain in predicting the flow near the tip. In order to assess the predictive capabilities of the developed code, computed flow structures are presented with the experimental data for each rotor and the cause of the discrepancies is discussed.

  18. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corren, Dean; Colby, Jonathan; Adonizio, Mary Ann

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  19. LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treshow, M.

    1960-08-16

    A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

  20. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Leland, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-12-24

    A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

  1. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  2. Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaylock, Myra L.; Maniaci, David Charles; Resor, Brian R.

    2015-04-01

    New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.

  3. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  4. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  5. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  6. commercial load | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  7. residential load | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  8. load profile | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: applicationzip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data...

  9. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings tomore » investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  10. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  11. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel M. (Oliver Springs, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  12. Building America System Research Plan for Reduction of Miscellaneous Electrical Loads in Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Haley, C.; Anderson, R.; Pratsch, L.

    2008-11-01

    This research plan describes the overall scope of system research that is needed to reduce miscellaneous electrical loads (MEL) in future net zero energy homes.

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due to Reduced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flow Room Air Mixing | Department of Energy Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due to Reduced Flow Room Air Mixing Technology Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due to Reduced Flow Room Air Mixing Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that

  14. Hydrodynamic Effects on Modeling and Control of a High Temperature Active Magnetic Bearing Pump with a Canned Rotor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Embedding instrumentation and control Embedding instrumentation and control (I\\&C) at the component level in nuclear power plants can improve component performance, lifetime, and resilience by optimizing operation, reducing the constraints on physical design, and providing on-board prognostics and diagnostics. However, the extreme environments that many nuclear power plant components operate in makes embedding instrumentation and control at the component level difficult. Successfully utilizing embedded I\\&C requires developing a deep understanding of the system's dynamics and using that knowledge to overcome material and physical limitations imposed by the environment. In this paper, we will develop a coupled dynamic model of a high temperature (700 $^\\circ$C) canned rotor pump that incorporates rotordynamics, hydrodynamics, and active magnetic bearing dynamics. Then we will compare two control design methods, one that uses a simplified decoupled model of the system and another that utilizes the full coupled system model. It will be seen that utilizing all the available knowledge of the system dynamics in the controller design yield an order of magnitude improvement in the magnitude of the magnetic bearing response to disturbances at the same level of control effort, a large reduction in the settling time of the system, and a smoother control action.

  15. Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.

    2006-12-19

    An apparatus for use in separating, at least in part, a mixture, including at least one chamber and at least one microwave generation device configured for communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber is disclosed. The rotor assembly may comprise an electric generator for generating electricity for operating the microwave generation device. At least one microwave generation device may be positioned within a tubular interior shaft extending within the rotor assembly. At least a portion of the tubular interior shaft may be substantially transparent to microwave energy. Microwave energy may be emitted in an outward radial direction or toward an anticipated boundary surface defined between a mixture and a separated constituent thereof. A method including flowing a mixture through at least one chamber and communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber while rotating same is disclosed. Methods of operating a centrifugal separator and design thereof are disclosed.

  16. Risk assessment of turbine rotor failure using probabilistic ultrasonic non-destructive evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, S. Kevin; Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed A.

    2014-02-18

    The study presents a method and application of risk assessment methodology for turbine rotor fatigue failure using probabilistic ultrasonic nondestructive evaluations. A rigorous probabilistic modeling for ultrasonic flaw sizing is developed by incorporating the model-assisted probability of detection, and the probability density function (PDF) of the actual flaw size is derived. Two general scenarios, namely the ultrasonic inspection with an identified flaw indication and the ultrasonic inspection without flaw indication, are considered in the derivation. To perform estimations for fatigue reliability and remaining useful life, uncertainties from ultrasonic flaw sizing and fatigue model parameters are systematically included and quantified. The model parameter PDF is estimated using Bayesian parameter estimation and actual fatigue testing data. The overall method is demonstrated using a realistic application of steam turbine rotor, and the risk analysis under given safety criteria is provided to support maintenance planning.

  17. Rotor whirl forces induced by the tip clearance effect in axial flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrich, F. )

    1993-10-01

    It is now widely recognized that destabilizing forces, tending to generate forward rotor whirl, are generated in axial flow turbines as a result of the nonuniform torque induced by the nonuniform tip-clearance in a deflected rotor--the so called Thomas/Alford force. It is also recognized that there will be a similar effect in axial flow compressors, but qualitative considerations cannot definitively establish the magnitude or even the direction of the induced whirling forces--that is, if they will tend to forward or backward whirl. Applying a parallel compressor model to simulate the operation of a compressor rotor deflected radially in its clearance, it is possible to derive a quantitative estimate of the proportionality factor [beta] which relates the Thomas/Alford force in axial flow compressors (i.e., the tangential force generated by a radial deflection of the rotor) to the torque level in the compressor. The analysis makes use of experimental data from the GE Aircraft Engines Low Speed Research Compressor facility comparing the performance of three different axial flow compressors, each with four stages (typical of a mid-block of an aircraft gas turbine compressor) at two different clearances. It is found that the value of [beta] is in the range of +0.27 to [minus]0.71 in the vicinity of the stages' nominal operating line and +0.08 to [minus]1.25 in the vicinity of the stages' operation at peak efficiency. The value of [beta] reaches a level of between [minus]1.16 and [minus]3.36 as the compressor is operated near its stalled condition.

  18. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  19. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  20. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  1. Libra: Scalable Load Balance Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-16

    Libra is a tool for scalable analysis of load balance data from all processes in a parallel application. Libra contains an instrumentation module that collects model data from parallel applications and a parallel compression mechanism that uses distributed wavelet transforms to gather load balance model data in a scalable fashion. Data is output to files, and these files can be viewed in a GUI tool by Libra users. The GUI tool associates particular load balancemore » data with regions for code, emabling users to view the load balance properties of distributed "slices" of their application code.« less

  2. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groll, Todd A. (Idaho Falls, ID); White, James P. (Pocatelo, ID)

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  3. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  4. Characterizing Inflow Conditions Across the Rotor Disk of a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Kelley, N.; Scott, G.; Jager, D.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-megawatt utility-scale wind turbines operate in a turbulent, thermally-driven atmosphere where wind speed and air temperature vary with height. Turbines convert the wind's momentum into electrical power, and so changes in the atmosphere across the rotor disk influence the power produced by the turbine. To characterize the inflow into utility scale turbines at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Boulder, Colorado, NREL recently built two 135-meter inflow monitoring towers. This poster introduces the towers and the measurements that are made, showing some of the data obtained in the first few months of operation in 2011.

  5. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  6. FINAL REPORT ON CONTROL ALGORITHM TO IMPROVE THE PARTIAL-LOAD EFFICIENCY OFSURFACE PM MACHINES WITH FRACTIONAL-SLOT CONCENTRATED WINDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, P.B.; Jahns, T.M.

    2007-04-30

    Surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings are being investigated as candidates for high-performance traction machines for automotive electric propulsion systems. It has been shown analytically and experimentally that such designs can achieve very wide constant-power speed ratios (CPSR) [1,2]. This work has shown that machines of this type are capable of achieving very low cogging torque amplitudes as well as significantly increasing the machine power density [3-5] compared to SPM machines using conventional distributed windings. High efficiency can be achieved in this class of SPM machine by making special efforts to suppress the eddy-current losses in the magnets [6-8], accompanied by efforts to minimize the iron losses in the rotor and stator cores. Considerable attention has traditionally been devoted to maximizing the full-load efficiency of traction machines at their rated operating points and along their maximum-power vs. speed envelopes for higher speeds [9,10]. For example, on-line control approaches have been presented for maximizing the full-load efficiency of PM synchronous machines, including the use of negative d-axis stator current to reduce the core losses [11,12]. However, another important performance specification for electric traction applications is the machine's efficiency at partial loads. Partial-load efficiency is particularly important if the target traction application requires long periods of cruising operation at light loads that are significantly lower than the maximum drive capabilities. While the design of the machine itself is clearly important, investigation has shown that this is a case where the choice of the control algorithm plays a critical role in determining the maximum partial-load efficiency that the machine actually achieves in the traction drive system. There is no evidence that this important topic has been addressed for this type of SPM machine by any other authors. This topic takes on even greater significance for fractional-slot concentrated-winding SPM machine designs. In particular, maximizing the torque/power density of this class of SPM machines typically leads to machine designs with high numbers of poles. The resulting high electrical frequencies can easily result in high stator core losses unless special care is taken during the machine design process. The purpose of this report is to discuss a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated winding SPM machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. For purposes of this discussion, a 55 kW (peak) SPM machine designed to meet requirements established in the US FreedomCar program [13] is used as the basis for demonstrating the proposed technique. A combination of closed-form analysis [14] and finite element analysis (FEA) is used during this investigation.

  7. Final Report on Control Algorithm to Improve the Partial-Load Efficiency of Surface PM Machines with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, John W; Reddy, Patel; Jahns, Thomas M

    2007-05-01

    Surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings are being investigated as candidates for high-performance traction machines for automotive electric propulsion systems. It has been shown analytically and experimentally that such designs can achieve very wide constant-power speed ratios (CPSR) [1,2]. This work has shown that machines of this type are capable of achieving very low cogging torque amplitudes as well as significantly increasing the machine power density [3-5] compared to SPM machines using conventional distributed windings. High efficiency can be achieved in this class of SPM machine by making special efforts to suppress the eddy-current losses in the magnets [6-8], accompanied by efforts to minimize the iron losses in the rotor and stator cores. Considerable attention has traditionally been devoted to maximizing the full-load efficiency of traction machines at their rated operating points and along their maximum-power vs. speed envelopes for higher speeds [9,10]. For example, on-line control approaches have been presented for maximizing the full-load efficiency of PM synchronous machines, including the use of negative d-axis stator current to reduce the core losses [11,12]. However, another important performance specification for electric traction applications is the machine's efficiency at partial loads. Partial-load efficiency is particularly important if the target traction application requires long periods of cruising operation at light loads that are significantly lower than the maximum drive capabilities. While the design of the machine itself is clearly important, investigation has shown that this is a case where the choice of the control algorithm plays a critical role in determining the maximum partial-load efficiency that the machine actually achieves in the traction drive system. There is no evidence that this important topic has been addressed for this type of SPM machine by any other authors. This topic takes on even greater significance for fractional-slot concentrated-winding SPM machine designs. In particular, maximizing the torque/power density of this class of SPM machines typically leads to machine designs with high numbers of poles. The resulting high electrical frequencies can easily result in high stator core losses unless special care is taken during the machine design process. The purpose of this report is to discuss a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated winding SPM machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. For purposes of this discussion, a 55 kW (peak) SPM machine designed to meet requirements established in the US FreedomCar program [13] is used as the basis for demonstrating the proposed technique. A combination of closed-form analysis [14] and finite element analysis (FEA) is used during this investigation.

  8. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  9. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  10. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  11. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, James F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.

  12. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1995-08-22

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  13. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  14. Evaluation of lightning accommodation systems for wind-driven turbine rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankaitis, H

    1982-03-01

    Several concepts of lightning accommodation systems for wind-driven turbine rotor blades were evaluated by submitting them to simulated lightning tests. Test samples representative of epoxy-fiberglass and wood-epoxy composite structural materials were submitted to a series of high-voltage and high-current damage tests. The high-voltage tests were designed to determine the strike points and current paths through the sample and the need for, and the most proper type of, lightning accommodation. The high-current damage tests were designed to determine the capability of the potential lightning accommodation system to sustain the 200-kA lightning current without causing damage to the composite structure. The observations and data obtained in the series of tests of lightning accommodation systems clearly led to the conclusions that composite-structural-material rotor blades require a lightning accommodation system; that the concepts tested prevent internal streamering; and that keeping discharge currents on the blade surface precludes structure penetration. Induced voltage effects or any secondary effects on the integral components of the total system could not be addressed. Further studies should be carried out to encompass effects on the total system design.

  15. Rotor dynamic analysis of GCEP (Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant) Tails Withdrawal Test Facility AC-12 compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.W.

    1982-01-22

    The reliable operation of the centrifugal compressors utilized in the gaseous diffusion process is of great importance due to the critical function of these machines in product and tails withdrawal, cascade purge and evacuation processes, the purge cascade and product booster applications. The same compressors will be used in equally important applications within the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP). In response to concern over the excessive vibration exhibited by the AC-12 compressor in the No. 3 position of the GCEP Tails Withdrawal Test Facility, a rotor-bearing dynamic analysis was performed on the compressor. This analysis included the acquisition and reduction of compressor vibration data, characterization and modeling of the rotorbearing system, a computer dynamic study, and recommendations for machine modification. The compressor dynamic analysis was performed for rotor speeds of 9000 rpm and 7200 to 7800 rpm, which includes all possible opreating speeds of the compressor in the GCEP Test Facility. While the analysis was performed on this particular AC-12 compressor, the results should be pertinent to other AC-12 applications as well. Similar diagnostic and analytical techniques can be used to evaluate operation of other types of centrifugal compressors.

  16. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marusich, R.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-06

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.

  17. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marusich, R.M.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads.

  18. building load | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    building load Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 13:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load...

  19. load data | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load building...

  20. electric load data | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electric load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load...

  1. building load data | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    building load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI building load...

  2. Rotor Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... numerical methods-such as vortex methods like CACTUS, ... Sandia has demonstrated many sensor technologies in flight ... developed to simplify the process of creating structural ...

  3. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To compare the operating costs of an existing standard motor with an appropriately-sized energy-efficient replacement, you need to determine operating hours, efficiency improvement values, and load. Part-load is a term used to describe the actual load served by the motor as compared to the rated full-load capability of the motor. Motor part-loads may be estimated through using input power, amperage, or speed measurements. This fact sheet briefly discusses several load estimation techniques.

  4. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-08-22

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

  5. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energys (DOEs) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  6. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  7. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    controls on the load-side is growing. Driven by improved and widely available communications systems, load participation is becoming easier and more reliable; and there...

  8. Sandia Energy - Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Resources Wind Software Downloads Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database Sandia Wind...

  9. Wind turbine rotor blade with in-plane sweep and devices using the same, and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Kyle Kristopher

    2014-06-24

    A wind turbine includes a rotor having a hub and at least one blade having a torsionally rigid root, an inboard section, and an outboard section. The inboard section has a forward sweep relative to an elastic axis of the blade and the outboard section has an aft sweep.

  10. Wind turbine rotor blade with in-plane sweep and devices using same, and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Kyle Kristopher (Lawrence, KS)

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine includes a rotor having a hub and at least one blade having a torsionally rigid root, an inboard section, and an outboard section. The inboard section has a forward sweep relative to an elastic axis of the blade and the outboard section has an aft sweep.

  11. Turbine blade damping device with controlled loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J.

    2015-09-29

    A damping structure for a turbomachine rotor. The damping structure including an elongated snubber element including a first snubber end rigidly attached to a first blade and extending toward an adjacent second blade, and an opposite second snubber end positioned adjacent to a cooperating surface associated with the second blade. The snubber element has a centerline extending radially inwardly in a direction from the first blade toward the second blade along at least a portion of the snubber element between the first and second snubber ends. Rotational movement of the rotor effects relative movement between the second snubber end and the cooperating surface to position the second snubber end in frictional engagement with the cooperating surface with a predetermined damping force determined by a centrifugal force on the snubber element.

  12. Turbine blade damping device with controlled loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J

    2013-09-24

    A damping structure for a turbomachine rotor. The damping structure including an elongated snubber element including a first snubber end rigidly attached to a first blade and extending toward an adjacent second blade, and an opposite second snubber end positioned adjacent to a cooperating surface associated with the second blade. The snubber element has a centerline extending radially inwardly in a direction from the first blade toward the second blade along at least a portion of the snubber element between the first and second snubber ends. Rotational movement of the rotor effects relative movement between the second snubber end and the cooperating surface to position the second snubber end in frictional engagement with the cooperating surface with a predetermined damping force determined by a centrifugal force on the snubber element.

  13. COE Reductions through Active Aerodynamic Control of Rotor Aerodynamics and Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, D. A.; McCoy, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates potential cost of energy reductions that might be achieved by designing active systems to mitigate loads throughout the wind turbine system.

  14. Photovoltaic power converter system with a controller configured to actively compensate load harmonics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de Rooij, Michael Andrew (Clifton Park, NY); Steigerwald, Robert Louis (Burnt Hills, NY); Delgado, Eladio Clemente (Burnt Hills, NY)

    2008-12-16

    Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.

  15. {alpha} decay and shape coexistence in the {alpha}-rotor model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, J.D.; Bingham, C.R.; Nazarewicz, W.; Wauters, J.; Berggren, T.; Berggren, T.; Bingham, C.R.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-09-01

    The particle-plus-rotor model was employed to study the fine structure seen in the {alpha} decay of even-even neutron-deficient nuclei in the Hg-Po region. The configuration mixing resulting from the shape coexistence between well-deformed prolate bands and spherical (or quasirotational oblate) structures in the daughter nuclei was considered. Experimental {alpha}-decay branching ratios are reproduced within one order of magnitude, except for the case of {sup 180}Hg, where the daughter nucleus {sup 176}Pt is expected to be triaxial in its ground state. The effect of configuration mixing on the relative intensities is discussed in detail, together with the sensitivity of results to the choice of the {alpha}-nucleus optical model parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge you an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system's distribu- tion capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system's capacity. REDUCING POWER FACTOR COST To understand power factor, visualize a

  17. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  18. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois

    2015-06-01

    Super-insulated homes offer many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for super insulated homes.

  19. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Infiltration in Furnaces Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing air infiltration in industrial furnaces; tips include repairing leaks and increasing insulation. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #5 PDF icon Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (January 2006) More Documents & Publications Furnace Pressure Controllers Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System

  20. Influence of plasma loading in a hybrid muon cooling channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freemire, B.; Stratakis, D.; Yonehara, K.

    2015-05-03

    In a hybrid 6D cooling channel, cooling is accomplished by reducing the beam momentum through ionization energy loss in wedge absorbers and replenishing the momentum loss in the longitudinal direction with gas-filled rf cavities. While the gas acts as a buffer to prevent rf breakdown, gas ionization also occurs as the beam passes through the pressurized cavity. The resulting plasma may gain substantial energy from the rf electric field which it can transfer via collisions to the gas, an effect known as plasma loading. In this paper, we investigate the influence of plasma loading on the cooling performance of a rectilinear hybrid channel. With the aid of numerical simulations we examine the sensitivity in cooling performance and plasma loading to key parameters such as the rf gradient and gas pressure.

  1. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine Loads Database - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  2. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across U.S. Regions of the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles for demand response that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study.

  3. OPF incorporating load models maximizing net revenue. [Optimal Power Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dias, L.G.; El-Hawary, M.E. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-02-01

    Studies of effects of load modeling in optimal power flow studies using minimum cost and minimum loss objective reveal that a main disadvantage of cost minimization is the reduction of the objective via a reduction in the power demand. This inevitably results in lowering the total revenue and in most cases, reducing net revenue as well. An alternative approach for incorporating load models in security-constrained OPF (SCOPF) studies apparently avoids reducing the total power demand for the intact system, but reduces the voltages. A study of the behavior of conventional OPF solutions in the presence of loads not controlled by ULTC's shows that this result in a reducing the total power demand for the intact system. In this paper, the authors propose an objective that avoids the tendency to lower the total power demand, total revenue and net revenue, for OPF neglecting contingencies (normal OPF), as well as for security-constrained OPF. The minimum cost objective is modified by subtracting the total power demand from the total fuel cost. This is equivalent to maximizing the net revenue.

  4. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  5. Reduced shear power spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  6. Transportation Electrification Load Development For a Renewable Future Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, Tony; Mai, Trieu; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30

    Electrification of the transportation sector offers the opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of US petroleum consumption. The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. In support of a recent US Department of Energy funded activity that analyzed a future generation scenario with high renewable energy technology contributions, a set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles were developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. These load profiles with their underlying assumptions will be presented in this paper. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Two market saturation scenarios of 30% of sales and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average {approx}6 kWh per day were considered. Results were generated for 3109 counties and were consolidated to 134 Power Control Areas (PCA) for the use NREL's's regional generation planning analysis tool ReEDS. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across 4 daily time slices under optimal control from the utility perspective. No other literature has addressed the potential flexibility in energy delivery to electric vehicles in connection with a regional power generation study. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios. EVS25 Copyright.

  7. Refrigeration Recovery for Experiment Hall High Target Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Errol Yuksek, Jonathan Creel

    2010-04-01

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is a 3000 W hydrogen target scheduled for the summer of 2010 and running for two years until the planned shut-down for 12GeV. The End Station Refrigerator (ESR) supports the three experiment halls, two of which may normally have a hydrogen target. The refrigerator for the ESR is a CTI/Helix 1500 W 4.5-K refrigerator nominally capable of supporting a 1250 W target load at 12 bar and 15-K (plus 1100 W of 4.5-K refrigeration). As such, this refrigerator is not capable of supporting the Qweak experiment target load in its present condition. Additionally, since the installation of an ambient air vaporizer for a single use, two week run duration of a high target load in the summer of 2003 there has been a consistent usage of the Central Helium Liquefier’s (CHL’s) 3 bar 4.5-K helium, supplied via an existing transfer-line to the ESR, for other high target loads. By the fall of 2004, it was apparent that this continued use of CHL’s supercritical helium was routinely being sought by the hall experimenters. As such, a method of refrigeration recovery was proposed to reduce the support required of CHL for these high target loads, including the anticipated Qweak experiment, while utilizing the recovered CHL refrigeration from the target to increase ESR’s 12 bar 15-K capacity.

  8. Controlling a rabbet load and air/oil seal temperatures in a turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

    2002-01-01

    During a standard fired shutdown of a turbine, a loaded rabbet joint between the fourth stage wheel and the aft shaft of the machine can become unloaded causing a gap to occur due to a thermal mismatch at the rabbet joint with the bearing blower turned on. An open or unloaded rabbet could cause the parts to move relative to each other and therefore cause the rotor to lose balance. If the bearing blower is turned off during a shutdown, the forward air/oil seal temperature may exceed maximum design practice criterion due to "soak-back." An air/oil seal temperature above the established maximum design limits could cause a bearing fire to occur, with catastrophic consequences to the machine. By controlling the bearing blower according to an optimized blower profile, the rabbet load can be maintained, and the air/oil seal temperature can be maintained below the established limits. A blower profile is determined according to a thermodynamic model of the system.

  9. Integration of MHD load models with circuit representations the Z generator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Jones, Brent Manley; McBride, Ryan D.; Bailey, James E.; Jones, Michael C.; Gomez, Matthew Robert.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Nakhleh, Charles; Stygar, William A.; Savage, Mark Edward; Wagoner, Timothy C.; Moore, James K.

    2013-03-01

    MHD models of imploding loads fielded on the Z accelerator are typically driven by reduced or simplified circuit representations of the generator. The performance of many of the imploding loads is critically dependent on the current and power delivered to them, so may be strongly influenced by the generators response to their implosion. Current losses diagnosed in the transmission lines approaching the load are further known to limit the energy delivery, while exhibiting some load dependence. Through comparing the convolute performance of a wide variety of short pulse Z loads we parameterize a convolute loss resistance applicable between different experiments. We incorporate this, and other current loss terms into a transmission line representation of the Z vacuum section. We then apply this model to study the current delivery to a wide variety of wire array and MagLif style liner loads.

  10. Transverse electromagnetic horn antenna with resistively-loaded exterior surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aurand, John F. (Edgewood, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An improved transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antenna comprises a resistive loading material on the exterior surfaces of the antenna plates. The resistive loading material attenuates or inhibits currents on the exterior surfaces of the TEM horn antenna. The exterior electromagnetic fields are of opposite polarity in comparison to the primary and desired interior electromagnetic field, thus inherently cause partial cancellation of the interior wave upon radiation or upon reception. Reducing the exterior fields increases the radiation efficiency of the antenna by reducing the cancellation of the primary interior field (supported by the interior surface currents). This increases the transmit gain and receive sensitivity of the TEM horn antenna, as well as improving the transient (time-domain) response.

  11. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DETERMINING ELECTRIC MOTOR LOAD AND EFFICIENCY Most likely your operation's motors account for a large part of your monthly electric bill. Far too often motors are mismatched-or oversized-for the load they are intended to serve, or have been re- wound multiple times. To compare the operating costs of an existing standard motor with an appropriately-sized energy- efficient replacement, you need to determine operating hours, efficiency improvement values, and load. Part-load is a term used to

  12. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  13. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  14. Evaluation of Manufacturability of Embedded Sensors and Controls with Canned Rotor Pump System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Melin, Alexander M; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wilson, Dane F; Silva, Pamela C; Cruz Molina, Carola

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the current status of fabrication and assembly planning for the magnetic bearing, canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating I&C into nuclear power plant components. The report identifies material choices and fabrication sequences for all of the required parts and the issues that need to be either resolved or accommodated during the manufacturing process. Down selection between material options has not yet been performed. Potential suppliers for all of the necessary materials have also been identified. The assembly evaluation begins by logically subdividing the pump into modules, which are themselves decomposed into individual parts. Potential materials and fabrication processes for each part in turn are then evaluated. The evaluation process includes assessment of the environmental compatibility requirements and the tolerances available for the selected fabrication processes. A description of the pump power/control electronics is also provided. The report also includes exploded views of the modules that show the integration of the various parts into modules that are then assembled to form the pump. Emphasis has been placed on thermal environment compatibility and the part dimensional changes during heat-up. No insurmountable fabrication or assembly challenges have been identified.

  15. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  16. APS high heat load monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, W.K.; Mills, D.

    1993-02-01

    This document contains the design specifications of the APS high heat load (HHL) monochromator and associated accessories as of February 1993. It should be noted that work is continuing on many parts of the monochromator including the mechanical design, crystal cooling designs, etc. Where appropriate, we have tried to add supporting documentation, references to published papers, and calculations from which we based our decisions. The underlying philosophy behind performance specifications of this monochromator was to fabricate a device that would be useful to as many APS users as possible, that is, the design should be as generic as possible. In other words, we believe that this design will be capable of operating on both bending magnet and ID beamlines (with the appropriate changes to the cooling and crystals) with both flat and inclined crystal geometries and with a variety of coolants. It was strongly felt that this monochromator should have good energy scanning capabilities over the classical energy range of about 4 to 20 keywith Si (111) crystals. For this reason, a design incorporating one rotation stage to drive both the first and second crystals was considered most promising. Separate rotary stages for the first and second crystals can sometimes provide more flexibility in their capacities to carry heavy loads (for heavily cooled first crystals or sagittal benders of second crystals), but their tuning capabilities were considered inferior to the single axis approach.

  17. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  18. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  19. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-01-01

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  20. reduce CFRP embodied energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduce CFRP embodied energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  1. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Howard L. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1991-10-01

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  2. Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems This fact sheet describes ten effective ways to save energy and money in industrial process heating systems by making some changes in equipment, operations, and maintenance. PDF icon Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Process Heating Systems (September 2007) More Documents & Publications Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired

  3. Wind Turbine Control Design to Reduce Capital Costs: 7 January 2009 - 31 August 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrow, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    This report first discusses and identifies which wind turbine components can benefit from advanced control algorithms and also presents results from a preliminary loads case analysis using a baseline controller. Next, it describes the design, implementation, and simulation-based testing of an advanced controller to reduce loads on those components. The case-by-case loads analysis and advanced controller design will help guide future control research.

  4. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  5. Bulk Modulus Capacitor Load Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Measurement of forces present at various locations within the SSC Model Dipole collared coil assembly is of great practical interest to development engineers. Of particular interest are the forces between coils at the parting plane and forces that exist between coils and pole pieces. It is also desired to observe these forces under the various conditions that a magnet will experience such as: during the collaring process, post-collaring, under the influence of cryogens, and during field excitation. A twenty eight thousandths of an inch thick capacitor load cell which utilizes the hydrostatic condition of a stressed plastic dielectric has been designed. These cells are currently being installed on SSC Model Dipoles. The theory, development, and application of these cells will be discussed.

  6. peak_load_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Noncoincident Peak Load, by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Megawatts) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 FRCC 27,266 28,818 30,601 32,823 32,904 34,524 35,444 35,375 38,730 37,493 37,194 39,062 40,696 40,475 42,383 46,396 45,751 46,676 44,836 NPCC 44,116 46,594 43,658 46,706 47,581 47,705 45,094 49,269 49,566 52,855

  7. An Analysis of Dual Zone Loading for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, William Christopher; Yim, Man-Sung

    2007-07-01

    The bumps current fuel assembly designs can achieve exceeds the fuel assembly burnups the current fleet of shipping casks can ship. One method of handling this situation which has been proposed is regionalized loading. This concept involves administratively separating the fuel basket of a shipping cask into two or more regions and loading fuel with different burnup, cooling times and enrichments into these regions. To evaluate how regionalized loading patterns might affect shipping spent nuclear fuel in comparison to uniform loading, a test case study was performed using fuel assemblies discharged from an actual nuclear plant and a shipping cask licensed by the NRC. Using the same fuel assemblies and shipping cask, results were obtained assuming a uniform loading pattern and compared to the results obtained assuming a dual zone loading pattern. Source terms for the analysis were generated using SAS2 and the dose levels were calculated using MCNPS. The analysis showed that the dual zone loading reduced the amount of time required to ship the given quantity of fuel by roughly thirty percent compared to the uniform loading. The average dose rate to the transportation workers and the public due to the implementation of dual zone loading increased. Implications of these increases are discussed. (authors)

  8. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  9. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  10. Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-Scale, Net Zero Office...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    strategies, and continuous performance monitoring of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Research Support Facility data center. PDF icon nreldatacentercs.pdf...

  11. Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-scale, Low Energy Office...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The project's request for proposals (RFP) set a whole-building demand-side energy use ... use intensity FEMP Federal Energy Management Program FLOPS Floating point ...

  12. Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Proposals (RFP) set a whole-building demand-side energy use requirement of a nominal 25 ... IT and management put in place policies that have eliminated shared and personal ...

  13. Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-Scale, Net Zero Office Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study describes the design, implementation strategies, and continuous performance monitoring of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Research Support Facility data center.

  14. Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-Scale, Net Zero Office Building Case Study

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ersed e Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Executive summary In constructing a new research facility for its campus, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) project team identified the opportunity to design a world-class, energy- efficient data center to support its operations. NREL's efforts resulted in a highly efficient data center that demonstrated considerable energy savings in its first 11 months of operations. Using legacy data center

  15. Reducing Office Plug Loads through Simple and Inexpensive Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Sheppy, M.; Cutler, D.

    2013-07-01

    This paper documents the process (and results) of applying Advanced Power Strips with various control approaches.

  16. Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-11-12

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

  17. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Iton, Lennox E. (Downers Grove, IL); Pasterczyk, James W. (Westmont, IL); Winterer, Markus (Westmont, IL); Krause, Theodore R. (Lisle, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  18. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

    1994-04-26

    A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  19. Explicit spatial scattering for load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel discrete-event simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thulasidasan, Sunil; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Romero, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel, discrete-event simulations executed on high-performance computing clusters, focusing on simulations where computational and messaging load tend to be spatially clustered. Such domains are frequently characterized by the presence of geographic 'hot-spots' - regions that generate significantly more simulation events than others. Examples of such domains include simulation of urban regions, transportation networks and networks where interaction between entities is often constrained by physical proximity. Noting that in conservatively synchronized parallel simulations, the speed of execution of the simulation is determined by the slowest (i.e most heavily loaded) simulation process, we study different partitioning strategies in achieving equitable processor-load distribution in domains with spatially clustered load. In particular, we study the effectiveness of partitioning via spatial scattering to achieve optimal load balance. In this partitioning technique, nearby entities are explicitly assigned to different processors, thereby scattering the load across the cluster. This is motivated by two observations, namely, (i) since load is spatially clustered, spatial scattering should, intuitively, spread the load across the compute cluster, and (ii) in parallel simulations, equitable distribution of CPU load is a greater determinant of execution speed than message passing overhead. Through large-scale simulation experiments - both of abstracted and real simulation models - we observe that scatter partitioning, even with its greatly increased messaging overhead, significantly outperforms more conventional spatial partitioning techniques that seek to reduce messaging overhead. Further, even if hot-spots change over the course of the simulation, if the underlying feature of spatial clustering is retained, load continues to be balanced with spatial scattering leading us to the observation that spatial scattering can often obviate the need for dynamic load balancing.

  20. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  1. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low Load Homes

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Simplified Space Conditioning in Low Load Homes Andrew Poerschke IBACOS, Inc. BA Webinar October, 2014 Overview * Define the problem * Define thermal comfort * Discuss solutions * Case Studies - Cold Climate Unoccupied Lab House - Hot Climate Occupied Test House Smaller Loads, same size home 7 Tons 2800 CFM 3663 sq ft 3 Tons 1200 CFM 3663 sq ft Benchmark ZERH Here is the problem - Though loads are smaller, same floor plan and geometry makes it difficult to condition space with less CFM. -

  2. Active Load Control Techniques for Wind Turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active Load Control Techniques for Wind Turbines Scott J. Johnson and C. P. "Case" van Dam Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering University of California One ...

  3. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  4. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan; O'Malley, Mark; Ma, Ookie; Cappers, Peter; Corbus, Dave; Kiliccote, Sila; Onar, Omer; Starke, Michael; Steinberg, Dan

    2011-10-25

    Developing load participation in ancillary services to the electric grid. Challenges: coordination among multiple entities, targeted R&D for market conditions and regulatory and policy environments.

  5. Combi Systems for Low Load homes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Context Technical Approach * A condensing water heater and hydronic air handler will used to provide space and water heating loads in almost 300 weatherized homes. * System ...

  6. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Islanding Risk", inverters may fail to detect the island within 2 seconds, if total generation exceeds 67% of the load and reactive power match falls within 1% ...

  7. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  8. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  9. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  10. Apparatus and methods for aligning holes through wheels and spacers and stacking the wheels and spacers to form a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Robert Randolph (Greenville, SC); Palmer, Gene David (Clifton Park, NY); Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A gas turbine rotor stacking fixture includes upstanding bolts for reception in aligned bolt holes in superposed aft disk, wheels and spacers and upstanding alignment rods received in openings of the disk, wheels and spacers during the rotor stacking assembly. The axially registering openings enable insertion of thin-walled tubes circumferentially about the rim of the rotor, with tight tolerances to the openings to provide supply and return steam for cooling buckets. The alignment rods have radial dimensions substantially less than their dimensions in a circumferential direction to allow for radial opening misalignment due to thermal expansion, tolerance stack-up and wheel-to-spacer mismatch due to rabbet mechanical growth. The circumferential dimension of the alignment rods affords tightly toleranced alignment of the openings through which the cooling tubes are installed.

  11. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  12. Load As A Reliability Resource in the Restructured Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, J.D.

    2002-06-10

    Recent electricity price spikes are painful reminders of the value that meaningful demand-side responses could bring to the restructuring US electricity system. Review of the aggregate offers made by suppliers confirms that even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. There is a strong need for dramatically increased customer participation in these markets to enhance system reliability and reduce price volatility. Indeed, allowing customers to manage their loads in response to system conditions might be thought of as the ultimate reliability resource. Most would agree that meaningful demand-side responses to price are the hallmark of a well-functioning competitive market [1]. Yet, in today's markets for electricity, little or no such response is evident. The reason is simple: customers currently do not experience directly the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Consequently, they have no incentive to modify these decisions in ways that might enhance system reliability or improve the efficiency of the markets in which electricity is traded. Increased customer participation is a necessary step in the evolution toward more efficient markets for electricity and ancillary services. This scoping report provides a three-part assessment of the current status of efforts to enhance the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets with a specific focus on the role of customer loads in enhancing electricity system reliability. First, this report considers the definitions of electricity-reliability-enhancing ancillary services (Section 2) and a preliminary assessment of the ability of customer's loads to provide these services. Second, is a review a variety of programs in which load has been called on as a system reliability resource (Section 3). These experiences, drawn from both past and current utility and ISO programs, focus on programs triggered by system condition (e.g., forecast reserves fall below a threshold), rather than those triggered by price (e.g., real-time prices). Third, the report examines the status of the underlying metering, communication, and control technologies required to enable customer loads to participate in competitive electricity markets (Section 4). Following the three-part assessment, we offer preliminary thoughts on directions for future research (Section 5).

  13. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  14. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Steven R. (49 Williams Ave., West Valley, NY 14171)

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  15. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  16. Wake of the MOD-0A1 wind turbine at two rotor diameters downwind on December 3, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connell, J.R.; George, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    The wake of the MOD-0A1 wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico has been measured using a vertical plane array of anemometers in a crosswind plane at a distance of two rotor diameters directly downwind of the turbine. Rotor blade vortices were well mixed into the wake turbulence and were not separately detectable. Wake swirl about the along-wind axis had a value not greater than 0.025 rad/s. Extra turbulence energy existed in the edge of the wake at a frequency of about n=0.025 Hz. The cross-wake plane analyses of wind speeds revealed a nearly circular inner portion and a strongly elliptical portion. The elliptical portion major axis was horizontal. An estimate of the average rate of reenergizing of the wake, using measurements of mean wind energy flow and turbine power, suggests that entrainment with ambient air may have been rapid. Some wake characteristics were compared with the corresponding ones for several simple wake models based upon concepts of mixing of ambient air into a wake or an equivalent coaxial jet. (LEW)

  17. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  18. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  19. Enclosure Requirements to Protect Personnel from Spinning Rotor Frailures at the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, John W

    2007-08-01

    Performance evaluation of electric motors is a major function of the Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC). Normally these motors have a fixed wire-wound stator and a rotating rotor, which may have conductors embedded in a ferromagnetic core (induction motors), magnets mounted on the surface of the ferromagnetic core with a thin metal or composite cylinder or ring to hold them in place, or magnets embedded in the ferromagnetic core. Most of the work currently involves the last two permanent magnet (PM) configurations. Although the stator of a radial-gap motor can absorb energy from many of the fragments ejected from the rotor during operation, the stator of an axial-gap motor is not positioned to provide significant protection. The housing of each motor can also absorb some of the energy. The most conservative approach, however, is to assume that all fragments from the rotor must be contained by a protective enclosure. An ideal enclosure is transparent. Manufacturers of such plastics as Lexan, Tuffak, and Cyrolon sell different variations of transparent enclosure material. Lexan is a polycarbonate sheet. Lexgard{reg_sign} is a penetration resistant material made by layering polycarbonate material between pieces of ordinary glass. A fragment striking a sheet of enclosure material will pierce the surface layer, but the layered polycarbonate-glass material is able to absorb the fragment's energy before it completes penetration. Tuffak{reg_sign} is Lexan polycarbonate. Cyrolon{reg_sign} bullet resistant material is acrylic sheet. The ability of the enclosure to stop a fragment depends on its thickness as well as the penetration capability of the fragment; for example, a lead fragment has much less penetrating capability than a steel fragment. Enclosure thicknesses are commercially available to provide several levels of protection. These levels depend on the momentum of the fragments and have been evaluated for some common types of ammunition. This summary quantifies four typical worst-case fragments which have maximum translational kinetic energy when ejected from a rotating annulus. (1) The first fragment is released from a rotating annular titanium ring. (2) The second fragment is a magnet released from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) 30-kW axial-gap PM motor. Analysis of the second fragment which is like a segment of half-angle, {alpha}, from a thin annular ring is similar to that of the titanium ring segment except that the angle is 10{sup o} instead of 133{sup o}. (3) The third fragment is a magnet from the radial-gap 6-kW fractional-slot surface-mounted PM (SPM) motor with concentrated windings. Analysis of the third fragment is similar to the analysis of the second fragment. (4) The fourth fragment is a 133{sup o} segment of an entire rotor which assumes that the laminates and magnets in the rotor fail as a single fragment, truly a worst case assumption.

  20. Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

  1. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-03-07

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pair of pliable opposing flat sheets having an outside edge portion attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides thereof and an upper edge with a predetermined curve; the opposing flat sheets being bent and attached to the struts to form effective curved airfoil shapes, and a top pliable flat sheet disposed adjacent the top of the flat front face and having predetermined curved side edges, which, when the top sheet is bent and attached to the struts to form an effective curved airfoil shape, mate with the curved upper edges of the opposing sheets to complete the aerodynamic device.

  2. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  3. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  4. Reducing gas generators and methods for generating a reducing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scotto, Mark Vincent; Perna, Mark Anthony

    2015-11-03

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  5. Preliminary Structural Design Conceptualization for Composite Rotor for Verdant Power Water Current: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-296

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, S.

    2011-02-01

    The primary thrust of the CRADA will be to develop a new rotor design that will allow higher current flows (>4m/s), greater swept area (6-11m), and in the process, will maximize performance and energy capture.

  6. Method and apparatus for controlling current in inductive loads such as large diameter coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riveros, Carlos A.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling electric current in loads that are essentially inductive, such that sparking and "ringing" current problems are reduced or eliminated. The circuit apparatus employs a pair of solid state switches (each of which switch may be an array of connected or parallel solid state switching devices such as transistors) and means for controlling those switches such that a power supply supplying two d.c. voltages (e.g. positive 150 volts d.c. and negative 150 volts d.c.) at low resistance may be connected across an essentially inductive load (e.g. a 6 gauge wire loop one hundred meters in diameter) alternatively and such that the first solid state switch is turned off and the second is turned on such that both are not on at the same time but the first turned on and the other on in less time than the inductive time constant (L/R) so that the load is essentially always presented with a low resistance path across its input. In this manner a steady AC current may be delivered to the load at a frequency desired. Shut-off problems are avoided by gradually shortening the period of switching to less than the time constant so that the maximum energy contained in the inductive load is reduced to approximately zero and dissipated in the inherent resistance. The invention circuit may be employed by adjusting the timing of switching to deliver a desired waveform (such as sinusoidal) to the load.

  7. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  8. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads. The load forecast is derived by using econometric models and analysis to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPA's Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit I) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. The PNCA defines the planning and operation of the regional hydrosystem. The 1999 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix (available electronically only) detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 2000-01 through 2009-10. The study shows the Federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electricity demand, monthly energy demand, monthly energy generation, and monthly maximum generating capability--capacity--for OY 2000-01, 2004-05, and 2009-10. The Federal system and regional monthly capacity surplus/deficit projections are summarized for 10 operating years. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system.

  9. Web Login Service - Loading Session State...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Login Service - Loading Session State... Since your browser does not support JavaScript, you must press the Continue button once to proceed. Continue Insert your footer text here....

  10. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A high density peg which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  11. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  12. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  13. Customer Load Eligibility Guidelines (CLEG), April 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.2. Mixed Residential and Commercial Uses (50% Rule). Load related to commercial enterprises metered through a bona fide residence is eligible for REP benefits as long as the...

  14. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  15. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  16. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  17. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, Jr., Brent J.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Ward, Michael B.; Epstein, Jonathan S.

    1997-01-01

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

  18. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain rate Contact Eric Loomis (505) 665-3196 Email Dynamic materials experiments over a wide range of strain rates are essential to studying constitutive relations (e.g., plasticity), damage (e.g., spall), equations of state, phase transitions and kinetics, and novel materials. The Trident laser facility supplies unique,

  19. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minimum Daytime Load Calculation and Screening Page 1 of 30 Kristen Ardani, Dora Nakfuji, Anthony Hong, and Babak Enayati Page 1 of 30 [Speaker: Kristen Ardani] Cover Slide: Thank you everyone for joining us today for our DG interconnection collaborative informational webinar. Today we are going to talk about minimum day time load calculation and screening procedures and their role in the distributed PV interconnection process. We're going to hear from Babak Enayati of the Massachusetts

  20. Bioenergy Impacts … Self-Loading Trailer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FDC Enterprises, which partnered with Kelderman Manufacturing to develop a self- loading trailer. Biofuels company Abengoa purchased the self-loading trailer to streamline the movement of corn plant residues to its biorefinery, where they are converted into biofuel. Biorefineries are cutting their costs by using more efficient harvesting equipment BIOENERGY To learn more, visit bioenergy.energy.gov. BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE Photo courtesy of Dave Jordan, MacDon Industries Ltd.

  1. Technical approaches for reducing cost of power support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    Methods for reducing the cost of Chinese-made power supports are discussed. A reasonable selection of functions is proposed, including protection from side collapse, anti-sliding and anti-toppling, prop extension, loading capacity and hydraulic pressure. Material costs constitute 34-44% of the total cost, and so optimisation of design and materials is required. Standardisation of hydraulic components is recommended; and the use of appropriate and effective technological and managerial techniques is advocated. (In Chinese)

  2. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma Located in the heart of "Tornado Alley," Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company's (OG&E) electric grid faces significant challenges from severe weather, hot summers, and about 2% annual load growth. To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid technologies, tools, and techniques from

  3. Ex-ante modeling, Load Scheduling and Differentiated Service Models for Populations of Flexible Loads

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ex-ante modeling, Load Scheduling and Differentiated Service Models for Populations of Flexible Loads Anna Scaglione (UC Davis) GSR: Mahnoosh Alizadeh CERTS Review Meeting 2014 1 / 42 Main objectives of the project Objectives: Modeling control mechanisms and economic value for aggregated load flexibility Evaluation: Theory and validation by simulations 2 / 42 Residential/personal appliances potential Observation: Costs include that of recruiting customers The "Internet of things" will

  4. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger PNW regional power system loads and resources that include the Federal system as well other PNW entities.

  5. Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13

    A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.

  6. Reduced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova, Italy a P. Martin Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova, Italy a and Dipartimento di Fisica ...

  7. Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger waste packages. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management...

  8. Bacman LowLoad GEPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Home Bacman LowLoad GEPP General Information Name Bacman LowLoad GEPP Facility Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Coordinates 11.152427744569,...

  9. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes This presentation was given at the...

  10. Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect to Fracture of Solar Cells Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect to Fracture of Solar ...

  11. Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beam Loading by Distributed...

  12. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience In this study, we examine the ...

  13. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  14. Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Load Profiling (WELP) Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool AgencyCompany Organization: California Public...

  15. Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Blog Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading...

  16. Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Effect of Compression Ratio and Piston Geometry on RCCI load limit Explores the effect of compression ratio and piston ...

  17. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  18. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the first step of HVAC system design. Accurate load calculations have a direct impact on energy efficiency, occupant comfort, indoor air quality, and building durability. The load...

  19. Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy of USPS Step Vans Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy of USPS Step Vans An ...

  20. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads ...

  1. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  2. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  3. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  4. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  5. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L; Ford, Justin R; Spires, Shannon V; Goldsmith, Steven Y

    2015-11-05

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  6. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  7. New method developed for LPG offshore loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    An innovative concept for refrigerated LPG offshore loading has been developed by TOTAL and Enterprise D'Equipments Mecaniques at Hydrauliques. Known as CHAGAL, the system integrates with the catenary anchor leg mooring offshore loading system commonly used for crude oil. CHAGAL provides a suitable answer to short-term development schemes of LPG trade. It can be adapted for possible extrapolation to cryogenic temperatures of LNG and it opens a new way to the development of offshore liquefaction projects for which the offloading of production is still an unsolved key problem.

  8. INVESTING IN NEW BASE LOAD GENERATING CAPACITY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INVESTING IN NEW BASE LOAD GENERATING CAPACITY Paul L. Joskow April 8, 2008 The views expressed here are my own. They do not reflect the views of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, MIT or any other organization with which I am affiliated. THE 25-YEAR VIEW * Significant investment in base-load generating capacity is required over the next 25 years to balance supply and demand efficiently - ~ 200 to 250 Gw (Gross) - Depends on retirements of older steam and peaking units - Depends on demand growth *

  9. net_energy_load_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2006 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2006 3,911,914 230,115 222,748 294,319 926,279 1,011,173 201,521 305,672 720,087 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC

  10. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Request for information on reducing regulatory burden PDF icon Reducing Regulatory Burden More Documents & Publications Reducing Regulatory Burden Reducing Regulatory Burden

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  12. Technology Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due to Reduced Flow Room Air Mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. In this project, IBACOS studied when HVAC equipment is downsized and ducts are unaltered to determine conditions that could cause a supply air delivery problem and to evaluate the feasibility of modifying the duct systems using minimally invasive strategies to improve air distribution.

  13. Influence of mutual coupling between ICRH antenna straps on the load resilience of hybrid couplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamalle, P. U.; Messiaen, A.

    2007-09-28

    The mutual coupling present between ICRF antenna straps can strongly reduce the performance of quadrature hybrid couplers when used as 'ELM dump' circuits. An analytical study of this effect shows that during resistive ELM-like load perturbations of a matched circuit configuration, the fraction of the reflected power returned to the generator through the hybrid has a lower bound that rapidly increases with the ratio {xi}{approx} (mutual reactance between straps)/(strap input resistance). At very low levels of mutual the reflected power is efficiently diverted to the dummy load. However when {xi} becomes of order 1, which readily occurs at low resistive loading, the load resilience of the quadrature hybrid coupler becomes inhibited. Illustrations based on matching circuit simulations for the JET ITER-like ICRF antenna are presented. The behaviour of the hybrids is found the same with the load resilient 'conjugate T' circuit as in the case of 'classic' tuners. The insertion of decoupling circuits between the tuners and the antenna significantly improves the load resilience.

  14. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop was held October 25-26, 2011, in Washington, DC. This U.S. Department of Energy workshop was attended by members of the electric power industry, researchers, and policy makers. The results of the workshop informed the Demand Response and Energy Storage Study.

  15. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a larger number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  16. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.; Peierls, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a large number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  17. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The study establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. The study presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, and serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.

  18. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energys Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  19. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  20. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

  1. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  2. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  3. 2003 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. The forecasted annual energy electricity retail load plus contract obligations are subtracted from the sum of the projected annual energy capability of existing resources and contract purchases to determine whether BPA and/or the region will be surplus or deficit. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Deficits occur when resources are less than loads. Energy deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of a load (i.e., due to economic conditions or closures), additional contract purchases, and/or new generating resources. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The PNCA defines the planning and operation of seventeen U.S. Pacific Northwest utilities and other parties with generating facilities within the region's hydroelectric (hydro) system. The hydroregulation study used for the 2003 White Book incorporates measures from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) Biological Opinion dated December 2000, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's 2000 Biological Opinion (2000 FCRPS BiOps) for the Snake River and Columbia River projects. These measures include: (1) Increased flow augmentation for juvenile fish migrations in the Snake and Columbia rivers in the spring and summer; (2) Mandatory spill requirements at the Lower Snake and Columbia dams to provide for non-turbine passage routes for juvenile fish migrants; and (3) Additional flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon in the spring. The hydroregulation criteria for this analysis includes: an updated Detailed Operation Plan for Treaty reservoirs for Operating Year (OY) 2004, updated PNCA planning criteria for OY 2003, and revised juvenile fish bypass spill levels for 2000 FCRPS BiOps implementation. The 2003 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information regarding marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2003 White Book analysis updates the December 2002 White Book. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability

  4. Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-08-01

    Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.

  5. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  6. PROJECT PROFILE: Dynamic Building Load Control to Facilitate High Penetration of Solar Photovoltaic Generation (SuNLaMP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project aims to develop, demonstrate, and validate a sensing and control mechanism for using power loads to address variable photovoltaic (PV) generation, which will reduce two-way power flow and mitigate voltage instability on distribution level circuits. The availability of this technology will enable increased penetration of renewables while weakening the challenges that arise due to their intermittency in generation by using flexibility on load side.

  7. Options to reduce the operating costs at fossil power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehl, L.; White, T.R.

    1998-12-31

    With the coming of deregulation in the electric power industry, existing power plants will have to evaluate options to reduce their operating costs in methods more commonly used in the industrial sector. Similar to organizations throughout the country, electrical generation companies are looking for ways to reduce their costs. The projected impact of figure deregulation on free enterprise production and trading have further emphasized this need. Historically, the ability to sell or dispatch electrical load based on economic advantages, has existed within local systems. Generating facilities with higher production costs must implement operating cost reductions or expect even lower capacity factors following deregulation. This paper examines various means to reducing operating costs and the methods used in their evaluation.

  8. Sensitivity of transitions in internal rotor molecules to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, Paul; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Kleiner, Isabelle; Xu, Li-Hong

    2011-12-15

    Recently, methanol was identified as a sensitive target system to probe variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio {mu}[Jansen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 100801 (2011)]. The high sensitivity of methanol originates from the interplay between overall rotation and hindered internal rotation of the molecule; that is, transitions that convert internal rotation energy into overall rotation energy, or vice versa, have an enhanced sensitivity coefficient, K{sub {mu}}. As internal rotation is a common phenomenon in polyatomic molecules, it is likely that other molecules display similar or even larger effects. In this paper we generalize the concepts that form the foundation of the high sensitivity in methanol and use this to construct an approximate model which makes it possible to estimate the sensitivities of transitions in internal rotor molecules with C{sub 3v} symmetry, without performing a full calculation of energy levels. We find that a reliable estimate of transition sensitivities can be obtained from the three rotational constants (A, B, and C) and three torsional constants (F, V{sub 3}, and {rho}). This model is verified by comparing obtained sensitivities for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetamide, methyl formate, and acetic acid with a full analysis of the molecular Hamiltonian. Of the molecules considered, methanol is by far the most suitable candidate for laboratory and cosmological tests searching for a possible variation of {mu}.

  9. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Chen

    2014-01-20

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions. The nickel based Alloy 282 is selected for this project because it is one of the leading candidate materials for the high temperature/pressure section of an A-USC steam turbine. The methods developed in the project are expected to be applicable to other metal alloys in similar steam/oxidation environments. The major developments are: ? failure mechanism and microstructural characterization ? atomistic and first principles modeling of crack tip oxygen embrittlement ? modeling of gamma prime microstructures and mesoscale microstructure-defect interactions ? microstructure and damage-based creep prediction ? multi-scale crack growth modeling considering oxidation, viscoplasticity and fatigue The technology developed in this project is expected to enable more accurate prediction of long service life of advanced alloys for A-USC power plants, and provide faster and more effective materials design, development, and implementation than current state-of-the-art computational and experimental methods. This document is a final technical report for the project, covering efforts conducted from January 2011 to January 2014.

  10. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The PNCA defines the planning and operation of seventeen U.S. Pacific Northwest utilities and other parties with generating facilities within the region's hydroelectric (hydro) system. The hydroregulation study used for the 2004 White Book incorporates measures from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) Biological Opinion dated December 2000, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's 2000 Biological Opinion (2000 FCRPS BiOps) for the Snake River and Columbia River projects. These measures include: (1) Increased flow augmentation for juvenile fish migrations in the Snake and Columbia rivers in the spring and summer; (2) Mandatory spill requirements at the Lower Snake and Columbia dams to provide for non-turbine passage routes for juvenile fish migrants; and (3) Additional flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon in the spring; The hydroregulation criteria for this analysis includes the following: (1) Detailed Operation Plan operation for Treaty reservoirs for Operating Year (OY) 2004; (2) PNCA planning criteria for OY 2004; and (3) Juvenile fish bypass spill levels for 2000 FCRPS BiOps implementation. The 2004 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2004 White Book analysis updates the 2003 White Book. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2006 through 2015. The study shows the Federal system's and the region's expected monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2006, 2010, and 2015. The Federal system and regional monthly capacity surplus/deficit projections are summarized for the 10 operating years of the study period. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger PNW regional power system loads and resources that include the Federal system as well other PNW entities.

  11. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  12. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  13. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Reduce air, reduce compliance cost new patented spray booth technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, F.

    1997-12-31

    A New Paint Spray Booth System that dramatically reduces air volumes normally required for capturing and controlling paint overspray that contains either Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), or both. In turn, a substantial reduction in capital equipment expenditures for air abatement systems and air make-up heaters as well as related annual operating expenses is realized.

  15. explicit representation of uncertainty in system load

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system load - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  16. Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency An adjustable speed drive (ASD) is a device that controls the rotational speed of motor-driven equipment. Variable frequency drives (VFDs), the most common type of ASD, are solid-state electronic motor controllers that effciently meet varying process requirements by adjusting the frequency and voltage of power supplied to an alternating current (AC) motor to enable it to operate over a wide speed range. External sensors monitor fow, liquid levels, or

  17. Decades of Wind Turbine Load Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decades of Wind Turbine Load Simulation Matthew Barone ∗ , Joshua Paquette † , Brian Resor ‡ Sandia National Laboratories § , Albuquerque, NM 87185 Lance Manuel ¶ University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 A high-performance computer was used to simulate ninety-six years of operation of a five megawatt wind turbine. Over five million aero-elastic simulations were performed, with each simulation consisting of wind turbine operation for a ten minute period in turbulent wind conditions. These

  18. Containment Unidirectional Resource Loading System (CURLS) | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Containment Unidirectional Resource Loading System (CURLS) Technology available for licensing: CURLS is a "tunnel" that installs in an existing glove port along with various co-designed resource cartridges that allow easy and rapid changeover of resources without losing containment. Allows for easy and rapid glovebox resource changes, while maintaining containment Can be mounted in existing glove ports, offering an array of fail-safe cartridges for all resource

  19. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-04-15

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ?50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  20. Isorropia Partitioning and Load Balancing Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    Isorropia is a partitioning and load balancing package which interfaces with the Zoltan library. Isorropia can accept input objects such as matrices and matrix-graphs, and repartition/redistribute them into a better data distribution on parallel computers. Isorropia is primarily an interface package, utilizing graph and hypergraph partitioning algorithms that are in the Zoltan library which is a third-party library to Tilinos.

  1. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening" Dora Nakafuji and Anthony Hong, Hawaiian Electric Co. Babak Enayati, DG Techincal Standards Review Group April 30, 2014 2 Speakers Babak Enayati Chair of Massachusetts DG Technical Standards Review Group Dora Nakafuji Director of Renewable Energy Planning Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) Kristen Ardani Solar Analyst, (today's moderator) NREL Anthony Hong Director of Distribution Planning Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) Standardization of

  2. Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) "Minimum Day Time Load Calculation and Screening" Dora Nakafuji and Anthony Hong, Hawaiian Electric Co. Babak Enayati, DG Techincal Standards Review Group April 30, 2014 2 Speakers Babak Enayati Chair of Massachusetts DG Technical Standards Review Group Dora Nakafuji Director of Renewable Energy Planning Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) Kristen Ardani Solar Analyst, (today's moderator) NREL Anthony Hong Director of

  3. Microbial methods of reducing technetium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wildung, Raymond E. [Richland, WA; Garland, Thomas R. [Greybull, WY; Gorby, Yuri A. [Richland, WA; Hess, Nancy J. [Benton City, WA; Li, Shu-Mei W. [Richland, WA; Plymale, Andrew E. [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a method for microbial reduction of a technetium compound to form other compounds of value in medical imaging. The technetium compound is combined in a mixture with non-growing microbial cells which contain a technetium-reducing enzyme system, a stabilizing agent and an electron donor in a saline solution under anaerobic conditions. The mixture is substantially free of an inorganic technetium reducing agent and its reduction products. The resulting product is Tc of lower oxidation states, the form of which can be partially controlled by the stabilizing agent. It has been discovered that the microorganisms Shewanella alga, strain Bry and Shewanelia putrifacians, strain CN-32 contain the necessary enzyme systems for technetium reduction and can form both mono nuclear and polynuclear reduced Tc species depending on the stabilizing agent.

  4. End-use load control for power system dynamic stability enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Winiarski, D.W.; Donnelly, M.K.

    1997-02-01

    Faced with the prospect of increasing utilization of the transmission and distribution infrastructure without significant upgrade, the domestic electric power utility industry is investing heavily in technologies to improve network dynamic performance through a program loosely referred to as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS). Devices exploiting recent advances in power electronics are being installed in the power system to offset the need to construct new transmission lines. These devices collectively represent investment potential of several billion dollars over the next decade. A similar development, designed to curtail the peak loads and thus defer new transmission, distribution, and generation investment, falls under a category of technologies referred to as demand side management (DSM). A subset of broader conservation measures, DSM acts directly on the load to reduce peak consumption. DSM techniques include direct load control, in which a utility has the ability to curtail specific loads as conditions warrant. A novel approach has been conceived by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to combine the objectives of FACTS and the technologies inherent in DSM to provide a distributed power system dynamic controller. This technology has the potential to dramatically offset major investments in FACTS devices by using direct load control to achieve dynamic stability objectives. The potential value of distributed versus centralized grid modulation has been examined by simulating the western power grid under extreme loading conditions. In these simulations, a scenario is analyzed in which active grid stabilization enables power imports into the southern California region to be increased several hundred megawatts beyond present limitations. Modeling results show distributed load control is up to 30 percent more effective than traditional centralized control schemes in achieving grid stability.

  5. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  6. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  7. Resolved: "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so.0" with serial codes on login nodes Resolved: "error while loading shared libraries: libalpslli.so.0" with serial codes on...

  8. Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available September 25, 2014 - 11:43am Addthis OE's...

  9. California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentcalifornia-customer-load-reductions-d Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: MandatesTargets This report details the...

  10. ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e. Historical Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,,,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident...

  11. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Dimos, Duane B. (6105 Innsbrook Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Pike, Gordon E. (1609 Cedar Ridge, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  12. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  13. Demonstration of Advanced Technologies for Multi-Load Washers in Hospitality and Healthcare -- Wastewater Recycling Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg; Goetzler, W.; Foley, K. J.; Sutherland, T. A.

    2014-08-14

    The objective of this demonstration project was to evaluate market-ready retrofit technologies for reducing the energy and water use of multi-load washers in healthcare and hospitality facilities. Specifically, this project evaluated laundry wastewater recycling technology in the hospitality sector and ozone laundry technology in both the healthcare and hospitality sectors. This report documents the demonstration of a wastewater recycling system installed in the Grand Hyatt Seattle.

  14. MapReduce SVM Game

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, Craig M.; Verzi, Stephen J.; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2015-08-10

    Despite technological advances making computing devices faster, smaller, and more prevalent in today's age, data generation and collection has outpaced data processing capabilities. Simply having more compute platforms does not provide a means of addressing challenging problems in the big data era. Rather, alternative processing approaches are needed and the application of machine learning to big data is hugely important. The MapReduce programming paradigm is an alternative to conventional supercomputing approaches, and requires less stringent data passing constrained problem decompositions. Rather, MapReduce relies upon defining a means of partitioning the desired problem so that subsets may be computed independently and recom- bined to yield the net desired result. However, not all machine learning algorithms are amenable to such an approach. Game-theoretic algorithms are often innately distributed, consisting of local interactions between players without requiring a central authority and are iterative by nature rather than requiring extensive retraining. Effectively, a game-theoretic approach to machine learning is well suited for the MapReduce paradigm and provides a novel, alternative new perspective to addressing the big data problem. In this paper we present a variant of our Support Vector Machine (SVM) Game classifier which may be used in a distributed manner, and show an illustrative example of applying this algorithm.

  15. MapReduce SVM Game

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vineyard, Craig M.; Verzi, Stephen J.; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2015-08-10

    Despite technological advances making computing devices faster, smaller, and more prevalent in today's age, data generation and collection has outpaced data processing capabilities. Simply having more compute platforms does not provide a means of addressing challenging problems in the big data era. Rather, alternative processing approaches are needed and the application of machine learning to big data is hugely important. The MapReduce programming paradigm is an alternative to conventional supercomputing approaches, and requires less stringent data passing constrained problem decompositions. Rather, MapReduce relies upon defining a means of partitioning the desired problem so that subsets may be computed independently andmore » recom- bined to yield the net desired result. However, not all machine learning algorithms are amenable to such an approach. Game-theoretic algorithms are often innately distributed, consisting of local interactions between players without requiring a central authority and are iterative by nature rather than requiring extensive retraining. Effectively, a game-theoretic approach to machine learning is well suited for the MapReduce paradigm and provides a novel, alternative new perspective to addressing the big data problem. In this paper we present a variant of our Support Vector Machine (SVM) Game classifier which may be used in a distributed manner, and show an illustrative example of applying this algorithm.« less

  16. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Burden Reducing Regulatory Burden Request for information on reducing regulatory burden PDF icon Reducing Regulatory Burden More Documents & Publications Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 Reducing Regulatory Burden Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden (Reply Comments)

  17. SAPHIRE 8 Volume 7 - Data Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood; C. L. Smith; S. R. Prescott

    2011-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE Version 8 is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 8. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.

  18. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  19. Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huayamave, Victor; Divo, Eduardo; Ceballos, Andres; Barriento, Carolina; Stephen, Barkaszi; Hubert, Seigneur

    2014-03-21

    The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals of reducing the total installed cost of solar energy systems by 75%. The largest percentage of the total installed cost of solar energy system is associated with balance of system cost, with up to 40% going to soft costs; which include customer acquisition, financing, contracting, permitting, interconnection, inspection, installation, performance, operations, and maintenance. The calculator that is being developed will provide wind loads in real-time for any solar system designs and suggest the proper installation configuration and hardware; and therefore, it is anticipated to reduce system design, installation and permitting costs.

  20. Cold collisions of highly rotationally excited CO{sub 2} with He: The prospects for cold chemistry with super-rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Qady, W. H.; Forrey, R. C.; Yang, B. H.; Stancil, P. C.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2011-11-15

    Building on recent advances in ultrafast lasers and methods to slow molecules, an experiment is proposed to produce translationally cold CO{sub 2} super-rotors (j{approx}200) by combining an optical centrifuge with helium-buffer-gas cooling. Quantum mechanical calculations of the complex scattering length for He-CO{sub 2} collisions demonstrate that the efficiency of rotational quenching decreases rapidly with increasing rotational excitation j in the ultracold regime. Extrapolating to helium cryogenic temperatures, rotational quenching is predicted to remain inefficient up to {approx}1 K, allowing for the possible creation of a beam of translationally cold, rotationally hot molecules.

  1. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, George R. (Norris, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  2. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  3. Aging of Iodine-Loaded Silver Mordenite in NO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Patton, Kaara K.; Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin

    2014-04-01

    Used nuclear fuel facilities need to control and minimize radioactive emissions. Off-gas systems are designed to remove radioactive contaminants, such as 85Kr, 14C, 3H, and 129I. In an off-gas system, any capture material will be exposed to a gas stream for months at a time. This gas stream may be at elevated temperature and could contain water, NOx gas, or a variety of other constituents comprising the dissolver off-gas stream in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the effects of long-term exposure, or aging, on proposed capture materials. One material under consideration is reduced silver mordenite (Ag0Z), which is recognized for its efficient iodine capture properties. Iodine is immobilized on Ag0Z as AgI, a solid with low volatility (m.p. ? 500C). The aim of this study was to determine whether extended aging at elevated temperature in a nominally 2% NO2 environment would result in a loss of immobilized iodine from this material due to either physical or chemical changes that might occur during aging. Charges of iodine-loaded reduced silver mordenite (I2-Ag0Z) were exposed to a 2% NO2 environment for 1, 2, 3, and 4 months at 150C, then analyzed for iodine losses The aging study was completed successfully. The material did not visibly change color or form. The results demonstrate that no significant iodine loss was observed over the course of 4 months of 2% NO2 aging of I2-Ag0Z at elevated temperature within the margin of error and the variability (~10%) in the loading along the beds. This provides assurance that iodine will remain immobilized on Ag0Z during extended online use in an off-gas capture treatment system. Future tests should expose I2-Ag0Z to progressively more complex feed gases in an effort to accurately replicate the conditions expected in a reprocessing facility.

  4. Final Report Recommended Actions to Reduce Electrical Peak Loads at the Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hail, John C.; Brown, Daryl R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2001-05-08

    PNNL conducted a walk-through audit of Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton. The audit inspected a significant portion of the site and identified a large number of similar energy saving opportunities across all building types.

  5. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1988-03-15

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  6. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, J.R.

    1989-04-18

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are doweled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector. 3 figs.

  7. Piezoelectric film load cell robot collision detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lembke, John R.

    1989-04-18

    A piezoelectric load cell which can be utilized for detecting collisions and obstruction of a robot arm end effector includes a force sensing element of metallized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. The piezoelectric film sensing element and a resilient support pad are clamped in compression between upper and lower plates. The lower plate has a central recess in its upper face for supporting the support pad and sensing element, while the upper plate has a corresponding central projection formed on its lower face for bearing on the sensing element and support pad. The upper and lower plates are dowelled together for concentric alignment and screwed together. The upper and lower plates are also adapted for mounting between the robot arm wrist and end effector.

  8. Fracture of surface cracks loaded in bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Y.J.; Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical background of the constraint effect in brittle fracture of solids is reviewed. Fracture test data from D6-aC, a high strength steel, using three-point-bend (SE(B)) specimens and surface cracked plate (SC(B)) specimens under bending are presented. It is shown that the SE(B) data has an elevated fracture toughness for increasing a/W, i.e., a crack geometry with a larger T/K corresponds to a higher K{sub c} which is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The fundamental fracture properties, i.e., the critical strain and the critical distance, determined from the SE(B) test data are then applied to the interpretation and prediction of the SC(B) test data. Reasonable agreement is achieved for the crack growth initiation site and the load.

  9. net_energy_load_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2003 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 2,886,496 442,507 142,502 221,099 197,326 127,102 250,681 485,205 252,037 209,789 558,248 1991 2,941,669 450,586 146,903 228,588 205,880 129,826 253,701 501,794 257,434 211,568 555,389 1992 2,942,910 450,853 147,464

  10. net_energy_load_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2004 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year ECAR FRCC MAAC MAIN MAPP/MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 1990 2,886,496 442,507 142,502 221,099 197,326 127,102 250,681 485,205 252,037 209,789 558,248 1991 2,941,669 450,586 146,903 228,588 205,880 129,826 253,701 501,794 257,434 211,568 555,389 1992 2,942,910 450,853

  11. net_energy_load_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 (Thousands of Megawatthours and 2005 Base Year) Net Energy For Load (Annual) Contiguous U.S. Eastern Power Grid Texas Power Grid Western Power Grid Projected Year Base Year FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) 2005 3,900,461 226,544 216,633 303,607 1,005,226 962,054 201,548 299,225 685,624 Projected Contiguous U.S. FRCC MRO (U.S.) NPCC (U.S.) RFC SERC SPP ERCOT WECC (U.S.) In 2005 for 2006 3,926,389 232,561 220,006 301,893 992,742

  12. net_energy_load_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 1990-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected (Thousands of Megawatthours) Interconnection NERC Regional Assesment Area 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 FRCC 142,502 146,903 147,464 153,468 159,861 169,021 173,377 175,557 188,384 188,598 196,561 200,134 211,116 NPCC 250,681 253,701 252,256 257,447 259,947 261,235 263,125 264,464 268,309 277,902 281,518 282,670

  13. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  14. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, Charles J. (Rexford, NY); Rhudy, Ralph G. (Scotia, NY); Bushman, Ralph E. (Lathem, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  15. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  16. Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2015-09-15

    Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinearmore » normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clamped–clamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.« less

  17. Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2015-09-15

    Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinear normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clampedclamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.

  18. Minor Actinides Loading Optimization for Proliferation Resistant Fuel Design - BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-09-01

    One approach to address the United States Nuclear Power (NP) 2010 program for the advanced light water reactor (LWR) (Gen-III+) intermediate-term spent fuel disposal need is to reduce spent fuel storage volume while enhancing proliferation resistance. One proposed solution includes increasing burnup of the discharged spent fuel and mixing minor actinide (MA) transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel. Thus, we can reduce the spent fuel volume while increasing the proliferation resistance by increasing the isotopic ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, MAs are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. A typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of adding MAs (237Np and/or 241Am) to enhance proliferation resistance and improve fuel cycle performance for the intermediate-term goal of future nuclear energy systems. However, adding MAs will increase plutonium production in the discharged spent fuel. In this work, the Monte-Carlo coupling with ORIGEN-2.2 (MCWO) method was used to optimize the MA loading in the UO2 fuel such that the discharged spent fuel demonstrates enhanced proliferation resistance, while minimizing plutonium production. The axial averaged MA transmutation characteristics at different burnup were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality and the ratio of 238Pu/Pu discussed.

  19. Reducing Your Electricity Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appliances & Electronics » Reducing Your Electricity Use Reducing Your Electricity Use An energy audit can help you find the most effective ways to save money and reduce energy use in your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. An energy audit can help you find the most effective ways to save money and reduce energy use in your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Reducing energy use in your home saves you money, increases our energy security, and reduces the

  20. PROJECT PROFILE: Scientific Approach to Reducing Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROJECT PROFILE: Scientific Approach to Reducing Photovoltaic Module Material Costs While Increasing Durability PROJECT PROFILE: Scientific Approach to Reducing Photovoltaic Module ...

  1. Reducing Photovoltaic Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Photo of gloved hands pouring liquid from a glass bottle to glass beaker. The development of more ...

  2. Rotor Design Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility ... Predictive Simulation of Engines Transportation Energy ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  3. Rotor Aerodynamic Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Energy Safety Technologies Facilities Battery ... Integrating Wake Effects into the Design Process Models of ... A free-wake, blade element vortex method is being used for ...

  4. National Rotor Testbed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  5. Rotor Aerodynamic Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerodynamic Design - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  6. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed (Framingham, MA); Schwall, Robert E. (Northborough, MA); Driscoll, David I. (South Euclid, OH); Shoykhet, Boris A. (Beachwood, OH)

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  7. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2004-11-02

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  8. Optical based tactile shear and normal load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salisbury, Curt Michael

    2015-06-09

    Various technologies described herein pertain to a tactile sensor that senses normal load and/or shear load. The tactile sensor includes a first layer and an optically transparent layer bonded together. At least a portion of the first layer is made of optically reflective material. The optically transparent layer is made of resilient material (e.g., clear silicone rubber). The tactile sensor includes light emitter/light detector pair(s), which respectively detect either normal load or shear load. Light emitter(s) emit light that traverses through the optically transparent layer and reflects off optically reflective material of the first layer, and light detector(s) detect and measure intensity of reflected light. When a normal load is applied, the optically transparent layer compresses, causing a change in reflected light intensity. When shear load is applied, a boundary between optically reflective material and optically absorptive material is laterally displaced, causing a change in reflected light intensity.

  9. CoolCalc: A Long-Haul Truck Thermal Load Estimation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Rugh, J. P.; Rister, B. R.; Venson, T. S.

    2011-05-01

    In the United States, intercity long-haul trucks idle approximately 1,800 hrs annually for sleeper cab hotel loads, consuming 838 million gallons of diesel fuel per year. The objective of the CoolCab project is to work closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling. Truck engine idling is primarily done to heat or cool the cab/sleeper, keep the fuel warm in cold weather, and keep the engine warm for cold temperature startup. Reducing the thermal load on the cab/sleeper will decrease air conditioning system requirements, improve efficiency, and help reduce fuel use. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches. It is intended for rapid trade-off studies, technology impact estimation, and preliminary HVAC sizing design and to complement more detailed and expensive CAE tools by exploring and identifying regions of interest in the design space. This paper describes the CoolCalc tool, provides outdoor long-haul truck thermal testing results, shows validation using these test results, and discusses future applications of the tool.

  10. AN INVESTIGATION TO RESOLVE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FUEL CELL, POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPLICATION LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudip K. Mazumder; Chuck McKintyre; Dan Herbison; Doug Nelson; Comas Haynes; Michael von Spakovsky; Joseph Hartvigsen; S. Elangovan

    2003-11-03

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry. However, this is not true for the thermal, mechanical, and chemical balance-of-plant subsystem (BOPS), where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy diminishes the reliability and performance of the electrode with increasing demand of load. Because these unwanted phenomena are not well understood, the manufacturers of SOFC use conservative schemes (such as, delayed load-following to compensate for slow BOPS response or expensive inductor filtering) to control stack responses to load variations. This limits the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications from a cost standpoint. Thus, a need exists for the synthesis of component- and system-level models of SOFC power-conditioning systems and the development of methodologies for investigating the system-interaction issues (which reduce the lifetime and efficiency of a SOFC) and optimizing the responses of each subsystem, leading to optimal designs of power-conditioning electronics and optimal control strategies, which mitigate the electrical-feedback effects. Equally important are ''multiresolution'' finite-element modeling and simulation studies, which can predict the impact of changes in system-level variables (e.g., current ripple and load-transients) on the local current densities, voltages, and temperature (these parameters are very difficult or cumbersome, if not impossible to obtain) within a SOFC cell. Towards that end, for phase I of this project, sponsored by the U.S. DOE (NETL), we investigate the interactions among fuel cell, power-conditioning system, and application loads and their effects on SOFC reliability (durability) and performance. A number of methodologies have been used in Phase I to develop the steady-state and transient nonlinear models of the SOFC stack subsystem (SOFCSS), the power-electronics subsystem (PES), and the BOPS. Such an approach leads to robust and comprehensive electrical, electrochemical, thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, and geometric models of the SOFSS, PES and application loads, and BOPS. A comprehensive methodology to resolve interactions among SOFCSS, PES and application loads and to investigate the impacts of the fast- and slow-scale dynamics of the power-conditioning system (PCS) on the SOFCSS has been developed by this team. Parametric studies on SOFCSS have been performed and the effects of current ripple and load transients on SOFC material properties are investigated. These results are used to gain insights into the long-term performance and reliability of the SOFCSS. Based on this analysis, a novel, efficient, and reliable PES for SOFC has been developed. Impacts of SOFC PCS control techniques on the transient responses, flow parameters, and current densities have also been studied and a novel nonlinear hybrid controller for single/parallel DC-DC converter has been developed.

  11. CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review | Department of Energy Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue University View the Presentation PDF icon CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review More Documents & Publications CBEI: FDD for Advanced RTUs - 2015 Peer Review Control and Diagnostics for Rooftop Units - 2014 BTO Peer Review CBEI: Coordinating

  12. LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    materials. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials. Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure (grain structure, porosity, inclusions, defects). An example critically important to Sandia's mission is dynamic strength of polycrystalline

  13. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dynamic Neutron Radiography | Department of Energy Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Quantitative analysis of the soot loading and soot distribution for Cordierite type DPFs are studied under controlled conditions. PDF icon deer10_harvel.pdf More Documents & Publications Neutron Imaging of Diesel Particulate Filters

  14. LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    materials. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LDRD final report : mesoscale modeling of dynamic loading of heterogeneous materials. Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure (grain structure, porosity, inclusions, defects). An example critically important to Sandia's mission is dynamic strength of polycrystalline metals where

  15. CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Truck Thermal Load Reduction CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon vssp_09_proc.pdf More Documents & Publications CoolCab Test and Evaluation CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development

  16. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability | Department of Energy Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability Project demonstrates and promotes the use of responsive load to provide ancillary services; helps ISOsand grid operators understand the resource and how best to apply it. PDF icon Technical

  17. Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary Report |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary Report Thermal Cycling Combined with Dynamic Mechanical Load: Preliminary Report This PowerPoint presentation summarizes the efforts of the team led by ESPEC Corp. to investigate thermal cycling combined with dynamic mechanical load, a solar project funded by the SunShot Initiative. PDF icon pvmrw13_tmf_espec_tanahashi.pdf More Documents & Publications Failure and Degradation Modes of PV Modules in a

  18. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Materials | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Materials Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Materials In October 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), hosted a two-day workshop in Washington, DC to examine technical, institutional, economic, regulatory, and policy issues regarding the participation of load as a provider of ancillary services

  19. Strategy Guideline. Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  20. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  1. Repository Reference Disposal Concepts and Thermal Load Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These help inform development of waste management strategies and decision making. PDF icon RepositoryReferenceDisposalConceptsThermalLoadManagementAnalysis More Documents & ...

  2. Load Expansion with Diesel/Gasoline RCCI for Improved Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions Load Expansion with DieselGasoline RCCI for Improved Engine Efficiency and Emissions This poster will...

  3. Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wiki Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki Abstract Provides information on...

  4. scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script scriptEnv - loading modules before starting a script In some cases a script needs to load modules before the script can be executed, but it can often be inconvenient or impossible to provide wrapper scripts which load the needed modules. CGI scripts on the gpweb resources or in the NERSC portal environment which require the genepool-specific python/perl/R or databases configuration modules are a strong example of this. NERSC provides the

  5. DOE Workshop. Load Participation in Capacity and Ancillary Services Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boston, Terry

    2011-10-26

    Presents profile of PJM demand-side resources. PJM provides 24% of generation, 27% of load, and 19% of transmission assets in Eastern Interconnection. Includes case studies.

  6. Development of a Stiffness-Based Chemistry Load Balancing Scheme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a Stiffness-Based Chemistry Load Balancing Scheme, and Optimization of IO and Communication, to Enable Massively Parallel High-Fidelity Internal Combustion Engine Simulations...

  7. HVAC Loads in High-Performance Homes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Winkler, J.

    2010-06-27

    This presentation was delivered at the ASHRAE 2010 Annual Summer Conference on June 27, 2010, and addresses humidity and AC loads in energy efficient houses.

  8. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading, and effects on subsequent geometry, criticality, and retrievability . PDF icon UNFLoadingStructuralPerformanceUnderNorma...

  9. Comverge contribution to load participation of ancillary services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyaji, Wendell

    2011-10-25

    Presents Comverge demand response program summary. Discusses advantages of residential aggregation and real-time load management. Compares residential and commercial.

  10. Renewable Energy Load Matching Software - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Renewable Energy Load Matching Software National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This...

  11. Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a ...

  12. CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensing and Load Metering - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue University View the Presentation PDF icon CBEI: Virtual Refrigerant...

  13. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007 ...

  14. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006 ...

  15. Analysis and Representation of Miscellaneous Electric Loads in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) comprise a growing portion of delivered energy ... Miscellaneous end uses, including televisions, personal computers, security systems, data ...

  16. SE Idaho Load Service Update - June 10, 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SE-Idaho-Load-Service-Update---June-10,-2015 Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Doing Business Expand Doing Business Customer Involvement Expand...

  17. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air...

  18. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation Presentation given at...

  19. NUCLEAR REACTORS; PIPES; SEISMIC EFFECTS; SUPPORTS; DYNAMIC LOADS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Limit analysis of pipe clamps Flanders, H.E. Jr. 22 GENERAL STUDIES OF NUCLEAR REACTORS; PIPES; SEISMIC EFFECTS; SUPPORTS; DYNAMIC LOADS; HEAT TRANSFER; HYDRAULICS; REACTOR SAFETY;...

  20. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011" ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 "...

  1. ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    f. Historical Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, 2005 through 2010 " ,"(Megawatts)" ,"Winter Noncoincident Peak...

  2. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2007 and Projected 2008 through 2012 " ,"(Megawatts and 2007...

  3. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010" ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2008 and Projected 2009 through 2013 "...

  4. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 and Projected 2005 through 2009 " ,"(Megawatts and 2004 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power...

  5. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 and Projected 2004 through 2008 " ,"(Megawatts and 2003 Base Year)",,,," " ,"Summer Noncoincident Peak Load",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,"Texas Power...

  6. ,"Table 2a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Noncoincident Summer Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2006 and Projected 2007 through 2011 " ,"(Megawatts and 2006...

  7. net_energy_load_1990_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    for this table format Table 1a . Historical Net Energy For Load, Actual by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, 1990 through 2004. (Thousands of Megawatthours)...

  8. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2007" ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, " ,"2005 and Projected 2006 through 2010 "...

  9. ,"Table 2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2b. Noncoincident Winter Peak Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region, " ,"2009 and Projected 2010 through 2014 " ,"(Megawatts and 2009...

  10. How loads affect coiled tubing life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, E.J. Inc., AK )

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue testing was performed on 1-3/4-in OD, 0.125 in. wall thickness (WT) coiled tubing using a standard coiled tubing unit (CTU) as shown in this paper. Testing was conducted under Prudhoe Bay, Alaska oil well, conditions to determine the effects of axial load, internal pressure and bending stress on the longevity, or usable running footage, that can be expected with larger diameter tubing. The CTU was rigged up in a standard configuration with injector head 50 ft off the ground, the worst case for bending on most currently available North Slope units. Internal pressure was supplied by a small triplex pump and the end of tubing was closed off with a fishing neck and bull plug. Weight, for the first four tests, was suspended from the coiled tubing by a special clamp. The tubing was cycled up and over the guide arch until a loss of internal coiled tubing pressure (CTP) occurred, or until the tubing became stuck in the stripper brass.

  11. Experimental determination of lateral vibration of the 708 MVA Westinghouse vertical hydro generators at Grand Coulee Dam, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, R.L.

    1981-09-01

    The damped rotor bearing system of large vertical shaft systems presents special problems for high speed storage installations. The results of the first test of its kind have given experimental data contributing to this technology. Synchronous and non-synchronous vibrations were found to contribute to runout loading. Measurements on the pivot pad hydrodynamic bearings gave stiffness characteristics. Measurements showed that balancing the rotor reduced vibration levels. 1 ref.

  12. Better Building Alliance, Plug and Process Loads in Commercial Buildings: Capacity and Power Requirement Analysis (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This brochure addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that can help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. This brochure should be used to make these decisions so systems can operate more energy efficiently; upfront capital costs will also decrease. This information can also be used to drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands. It should enable brokers and tenants to agree about lower PPL capacities. Owner-occupied buildings will also benefit. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems.

  13. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve

  14. Variable gas spring for matching power output from FPSE to load of refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, G.; Beale, W.T.

    1990-04-03

    The power output of a free piston Stirling engine is matched to a gas compressor which it drives and its stroke amplitude is made relatively constant as a function of power by connecting a gas spring to the drive linkage from the engine to the compressor. The gas spring is connected to the compressor through a passageway in which a valve is interposed. The valve is linked to the drive linkage so it is opened when the stroke amplitude exceeds a selected limit. This allows compressed gas to enter the spring, increase its spring constant, thus opposing stroke increase and reducing the phase lead of the displacer ahead of the piston to reduce power output and match it to a reduced load power demand. 6 figs.

  15. Variable gas spring for matching power output from FPSE to load of refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Gong (Athens, OH); Beale, William T. (Athens, OH)

    1990-01-01

    The power output of a free piston Stirling engine is matched to a gas compressor which it drives and its stroke amplitude is made relatively constant as a function of power by connecting a gas spring to the drive linkage from the engine to the compressor. The gas spring is connected to the compressor through a passageway in which a valve is interposed. The valve is linked to the drive linkage so it is opened when the stroke amplitude exceeds a selected limit. This allows compressed gas to enter the spring, increase its spring constant, thus opposing stroke increase and reducing the phase lead of the displacer ahead of the piston to reduce power output and match it to a reduced load power demand.

  16. A practical strategy for reducing the future security risk of United States spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chodak, P. III; Buksa, J.J.

    1997-06-01

    Depletion calculations show that advanced oxide (AOX) fuels can be used in existing light water reactors (LWRs) to achieve and maintain virtually any desired level of US (US) reactor-grade plutonium (R-Pu) inventory. AOX fuels are composed of a neutronically inert matrix loaded with R-Pu and erbium. A 1/2 core load of 100% nonfertile, 7w% R-Pu AOX and 3.9 w% UO{sub 2} has a net total plutonium ({sup TOT}Pu) destruction rate of 310 kg/yr. The 20% residual {sup TOT}Pu in discharged AOX contains > 55% {sup 242}Pu making it unattractive for nuclear explosive use. A three-phase fuel-cycle development program sequentially loading 60 LWRs with 100% mixed oxide, 50% AOX with a nonfertile component displacing only some of the {sup 238}U, and 50% AOX, which is 100% nonfertile, could reduce the US plutonium inventory to near zero by 2050.

  17. Reducing Power Factor Cost | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Power Factor Cost Reducing Power Factor Cost Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system's distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system's capacity. PDF icon Reducing

  18. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  19. Reducing backgrounds in the higgs factory muon collider detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary design of the 125-GeV Higgs Factory (HF) Muon Collider (MC) has identified an enormous background loads on the HF detector. This is related to the twelve times higher muon decay probability at HF compared to that previously studied for the 1.5-TeV MC. As a result of MARS15 optimization studies, it is shown that with a carefully designed protection system in the interaction region, in the machine-detector interface and inside the detector one can reduce the background rates to a manageable level similar to that achieved for the optimized 1.5-TeV case. The main characteristics of the HF detector background are presented for the configuration found.

  20. Overview of High Power Vacuum Dry RF Load Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2015-08-27

    A specific feature of RF linacs based on the pulsed traveling wave (TW) mode of operation is that only a portion of the RF energy is used for the beam acceleration. The residual RF energy has to be terminated into an RF load. Higher accelerating gradients require higher RF sources and RF loads, which can stably terminate the residual RF power. RF feeders (from the RF source though the accelerating section to the load) are vacuumed to transmit multi-megawatt high power RF. This overview will outline vacuumed RF loads only. A common method to terminate multi-MW RF power is to use circulated water (or other liquid) as an absorbing medium. A solid dielectric interface (a high quality ceramic) is required to separate vacuum and liquid RF absorber mediums. Using such RF load approaches in TW linacs is troubling because there is a fragile ceramic window barrier and a failure could become catastrophic for linac vacuum and RF systems. Traditional loads comprising of a ceramic disk have limited peak and average power handling capability and are therefore not suitable for high gradient TW linacs. This overview will focus on ''vacuum dry'' or ''all-metal'' loads that do not employ any dielectric interface between vacuum and absorber. The first prototype is an original design of RF loads for the Stanford Two-Mile Accelerator.

  1. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  2. Spinning Reserve from Pump Load: A Technical Findings Report to the California Department of Water Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, BJ

    2005-05-06

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), at the request of the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating opportunities for electrical load to provide the ancillary service of spinning reserve to the electric grid. The load would provide this service by stopping for a short time when there is a contingency on the grid such as a transmission line or generator outage. There is a possibility that a significant portion of the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO's) spinning reserve requirement could be supplied from the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) pumping load. Spinning reserve has never been supplied from load before, and rule changes would be needed to allow it. In this report, we are presenting technical findings on the possibility of supplying spinning reserve from pumping system load. In parallel, we are pursuing the needed rule changes with the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), and the CAISO. NERC and FERC have agreed that they have no prohibition against supplying spinning reserve from load. The WECC Minimum Operability Reliability Criteria working group has agreed that the concept should be considered, and they are presently discussing the needed tariff and rule changes. Presently, spinning reserve is provided by generation that is actually spinning but is operating at low power levels and can be ramped up quickly to provide reserve power. In a sense, this is an inefficient and environmentally unfriendly way of providing reserves because it requires the generator to operate at a low power level that may be inefficient and may discharge more pollutants per kW than operating at rated power. It would be better if this generation capacity were in a position to bid into the energy market. Providing an additional supply of spinning reserve would tend to reduce prices for both reserves and the regular electric energy market. The CAISO is presently in the process of redesigning its market rules for ancillary services. The time is right to pursue this opportunity to supply spinning reserve from load. It is our hope that the CDWR will endorse this recommendation. ORNL will then work with FERC, NERC, WECC, and the CAISO to obtain the needed rule changes. This project would provide the CDWR with another option in the complex process of obtaining its energy at the lowest possible cost, while at the same time providing more flexibility to the ISO and relief to the energy market. After this project is implemented in California, we hope that the practice spreads across the nation, allowing much more flexibility in energy markets and increasing the availability of reserve services.

  3. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects; An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing; A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution; and Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions, in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  4. Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Cuesta

    2004-09-01

    This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.

  5. Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Patrick; Colman, Jesse; Kalendra, Eric

    2015-07-28

    Our purpose is to develop a methodology to quantify the impact of climate change on electric loads in the United States. We perform simple linear regression, assisted by geospatial smoothing, on paired temperature and load time-series to estimate the heating- and coolinginduced sensitivity to temperature across 300 transmission zones and 16 seasonal and diurnal time periods. The estimated load sensitivities can be coupled with climate scenarios to quantify the potential impact of climate change on load, with a primary application being long-term electricity scenarios. The method allows regional and seasonal differences in climate and load response to be reflected in the electricity scenarios. While the immediate product of this analysis was designed to mesh with the spatial and temporal resolution of a specific electricity model to enable climate change scenarios and analysis with that model, we also propose that the process could be applied for other models and purposes.

  6. Electrostatic generator/motor having rotors of varying thickness and a central stator electrically connected together into two groups

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2010-11-16

    A sub-module consists of a set of two outer sets of stationary fan-blade-shaped sectors. These outer sectors include conductive material and are maintained at ground potential in several examples. Located midway between them is a set of stationary sector plates with each plate being electrically insulated from the others. An example provides that the inner sector plates are connected together alternately, forming two groups of parallel-connected condensers that are then separately connected, through high charging circuit resistances, to a source of DC potential with respect to ground, with an additional connecting lead being provided for each group to connect their output as an AC output to a load. These same leads can he used, when connected to a driver circuit, to produce motor action.

  7. Carbon monoxide tolerant electrocatalyst with low platinum loading and a process for its preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Brankovic, Stanko; Wang, Jia

    2003-12-30

    An electrocatalyst is provided for use in a fuel cell that has low platinum loading and a high tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning. The fuel cell anode includes an electrocatalyst that has a conductive support material, ruthenium nanoparticles reduced in H.sub.2 and a Group VIII noble metal in an amount of between about 0.1 and 25 wt % of the ruthenium nanoparticles, preferably between about 0.5 and 15 wt %. The preferred Group VIII noble metal is platinum. In one embodiment, the anode can also have a perfluorinated polymer membrane on its surface.

  8. Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-11-01

    Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.

  9. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

  10. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, Jim; Forsberg, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

  11. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1996-03-26

    A method is described for energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt.% phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably ``fully charged``. In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboards that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degrees. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort. 7 figs.

  12. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stovall, Therese K.; Tomlinson, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A method of energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt. % a phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably "fully charged". In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboard that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degree. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort.

  13. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  14. Dynamic load measurement on an LPG carrier during voyage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamoi, Noriyuki; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Kiso, Takashi; Kada, Kazuo; Motoi, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Shinichi

    1994-12-31

    There are few actual ship measurement data showing the propriety of the design loads given by classification societies rules or other relevant rules. Therefore, the authors measured acceleration of ship motion and fluctuating loads on tank supports and chocks of a 75,000 m{sup 3} LPG carrier during her voyage. This paper introduces the subject ship and typical measurement results over about 1.3 years. From the analysis of these data, the authors have made clear the amount of frequency of fluctuating loads during actual navigation and ascertained the propriety of the ship`s design base.

  15. Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of USPS Step Vans | Department of Energy Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy of USPS Step Vans Comparison of Different Load Road Implementation Strategies on Fuel Economy of USPS Step Vans An alternative form of measuring road loads, instead of using a chassis dynamometer and a method described in 40 CFR section 86.1229-85, was conducted on on-road coastdowns, and regression analysis was used to determine the characteristics of the two U.S. Postal Service step vans,

  16. Ion funnel with extended mass range and reduced conductance limit aperture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

    2008-04-01

    An improved ion funnel design is disclosed that decreases the axial RF (parasite) fields at the ion funnel exit. This is achieved by addition of one or more compensation electrodes after the conductance limit electrode. Various RF voltage profiles may be applied to the various electrodes minimizing the parasite axial potential wells. The smallest RF aperture that serves as the conductance limiting electrode is further reduced over standard designs. Overall, the ion funnel improves transmission ranges of both low m/z and high m/z ions, reducing RF activation of ions and decreasing the gas load to subsequent differential pumping stages.

  17. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  18. Reducing Idle Power Consumption in Office Spaces Saves U.S. Navy in Energy Costs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of a two-year project to demonstrate energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has identified advanced plug load controls as a promising technology for reducing energy use and related costs in the U.S. Navy's Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) office spaces.

  19. Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Question | OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Question Home Hi, I saw that you were actively replying to the questions on that page, so thought I'd contact you to ask about the data...

  20. Property:Geothermal/LoadFactor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Pages using the property "GeothermalLoadFactor" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR...