Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this project is to investigate the possibilities of minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin. Kraft lignin contains about 1.5 to… (more)

Svensson, Sara

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Modification of lignin content and composition in plants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Plants and methods of preparing plants having reduced lignin content and/or altered lignin composition are provided. The activities of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase and/or caffeic acid O-methyltransferase enzymes in the modified plants are reduced.

Ye, Zheng-Hua (Athens, GA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

4

Differential detection of genetic loci underlying stem and root lignin content in Populus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For simultaneous applications directed towards improved pulp yields, enhanced bioethanol production and increased carbon sequestration, it would be desirable to reduce lignin in the harvested stem while increasing the lignin content in nonharvested roots. In this study, we established a comprehensive genetic map with a large number of progeny from a three-generation hybrid Populus intercross, and phenotyped the lignin content, S/G ratio and 28 cell wall subcomponents both in stems and roots for the mapping individuals. Phenotypic analysis revealed that lignin content and syringyl-to-guaiacyl (S/G) ratio using pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectroscopy (pyMBMS) varied among mapping individuals. Phenotypic analysis revealed that stem lignin content is significantly higher than that in root and the quantified traits can be classified into four distinct groups, with strong correlations observed among components within organs. Altogether, 179 coordinating QTLs were detected, and they were co-localized into 49 genetic loci, 27 of which appear to be pleiotropic. Many of the detected genetic loci were detected differentially in stem and root. This is the first report of separate genetic loci controlling cell wall phenotypes above and below ground. These results suggest that it may be possible to modify lignin content and composition via breed and/or engineer as a means of simultaneously improving Populus for cellulosic ethanol production and carbon sequestration.

Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL; Zhang, Xinye [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Ranjan, Priya [ORNL; Sykes, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Davis, Dr. Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Lignin studies of transgenic Norway spruce.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An attractive objective in tree breeding is to reduce the content of lignin, or increase its extractability, to favor delignification during pulping. This study investigates… (more)

Wadenbäck, Johan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

An advanced understanding of the specific effects of xylan and surface lignin contents on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A deep understanding of biomass recalcitrance has been hampered by the intricate and heterogeneous nature of pretreated biomass substrates obtained from random deconstruction methods. In this study, we established a unique methodology based on chemical pulping principles to create "reference substrates" with intact cellulose fibers and controlled morphological and chemical properties that enable us to investigate the individual effect of xylan, bulk, and surface lignin content on enzymatic hydrolysis. We also developed and demonstrated an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique for quantifying surface lignin content on biomass substrates. The results from this study show that, apart from its hindrance effect, xylan can facilitate cellulose fibril swelling and thus create more accessible surface area, which improves enzyme and substrate interactions. Surface lignin has a significant impact on enzyme adsorption kinetics and hydrolysis rate. Advanced understanding of xylan, bulk, and surface lignin effects provides critical information for an effective biomass conversion process.

Ju, Xiaohui; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Xiao

2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

7

Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

2004-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

8

Modulating lignin in plants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

9

Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cellulase to cellulose and lignin for poplar solids producedB, Keller M, et al. Lignin content in natural Populus15):6300-5. Chen F, Dixon RA. Lignin modification improves

Li, Hongjia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for highly-valued aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This article presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstocks for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: 1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics), 2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples), 3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstocks (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at bench-scale to produce the 1 50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Moscow, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

DNA constructs are provided for the production of Streptomyces lignin peroxidase. The enzyme finds use in the degradation of lignin and oxidation of organic substrates.

Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Wilmington, DE)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

DNA constructs are provided for the production of Streptomyces lignin peroxidase. The enzyme finds use in the degradation of lignin and oxidation of organic substrates.

Crawford, D.L.; Ramachandra, M.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

15

Composition and biological degradability of lignin modified transgenic plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Composition and biological degradability of lignin modified transgenic plants MA Bernard Vailhé, JM The influence of lignin quality on cell wall degradation was studied using, as model plants, control (C matter (DM) and lignin content were determined according to Jarrige (1961, Ann Biol Anim Biophys, 1, 163

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes, Bulgaria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes, Bulgaria M. Stefanova, O. Maman, B, Orleans Cedex 2, France Abstract Contents of preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes were determined. Phenol aldehydes, ketones and acids released from lignin by CuO oxidative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Solvent Fractionation of Lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Development of Lignin-Based Polyurethane Thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In our continued effort to develop value-added thermoplastics from lignin, here we report utilizing a tailored feedstock to synthesize mechanically robust thermoplastic polyurethanes at very high lignin contents (75 65 wt %). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature (Tg) of lignin were altered through cross-linking with formaldehyde. The cross-linked lignin was coupled with diisocyanate-based telechelic polybutadiene as a network-forming soft segment. The appearance of two Tg s, around 35 and 154 C, for the polyurethanes indicates the existence of two-phase morphology, a characteristic of thermoplastic copolymers. A calculated Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of 7.71 also suggests phase immiscibility in the synthesized lignin polyurethanes. An increase in lignin loading increased the modulus, and an increase in crosslink-density increased the modulus in the rubbery plateau region of the thermoplastic. This path for synthesis of novel lignin-based polyurethane thermoplastics provides a design tool for high performance lignin-based biopolymers.

Saito, Tomonori [ORNL] [ORNL; Perkins, Joshua H [ORNL] [ORNL; Jackson, Daniel C [ORNL] [ORNL; Trammell, Neil E [ORNL] [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

French, R. J.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Direct fuel cell for the production of electricity from lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the use of an anthraquinone mediated fuel cell for the direct production of electrical energy from sulfonated lignin and Kraft Black Liquor. The cell produces the equivalent of one kWh for each 2-3 lb sulfonated lignin and 5-8 lb black liquor combustibles. In the case of the sulfonated lignin, chain session occurs during the oxidation process, reducing the molecular weight from ca. 2 x 10/sup 4/ to less than 1000 D.

Weetall, H.H.; Forsyth, B.D.; Hertl, W.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

p-Hydroxyphenyl (H) Units Lower the Degree of Polymerization in Lignin: Chemical Control in Lignin Biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin, composed predominantly of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) subunits, is a major component of plant cell walls that imparts resistance toward chemical and microbial deconstruction of plant biomass, rendering its conversion inefficient and costly. Previous studies have shown that alterating lignin composition, i.e., the relative abundance of H, G and S subunits, promises more efficient extraction of sugars from plant biomass. Smaller and less branched lignin chains are more easily extracted during pretreatment, making cellulose more readily degradable. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we show that the incorporation of H subunits into lignin via b-b and b-5 interunit linkages reduces the degree of polymerization in lignin. Frontier molecular orbital analyses of lignin dimers and trimers show that H as a terminal subunit on a growing lignin polymer linked via b-b and b-5 linkage cannot undergo radical formation, preventing further chain growth by endwise polymerization resulting in lignin polymers with lower degree of polymerization. These results indicate that, for endwise polymerization in lignin synthesis, there exists a chemical control that may lay a significant role in determining the structure of lignin.

Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Davis, M. F.; Smith, J. C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Lignin Fast Pyrolysis: Results from an International Collaboration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An international study of fast pyrolysis of lignin was undertaken. Fourteen laboratories in eight different countries contributed. Two lignin samples were distributed to the laboratories for analysis and bench-scale process testing in fast pyrolysis. Analyses included proximate and ultimate analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and analytical pyrolysis. The bench-scale test included bubbling fluidized bed reactors and entrained flow systems. Based on the results of the various analyses and tests it was concluded that a concentrated lignin (estimated at about 50% lignin and 50% cellulose) behaved like a typical biomass, producing a slightly reduced amount of a fairly typical bio-oil, while a purified lignin material was difficult to process in the fast pyrolysis reactors and produced a much lower amount of a different kind of bio-oil. It was concluded that for highly concentrated lignin feedstocks new reactor designs will be required other than the typical fluidized bed fast pyrolysis systems.

Nowakowski, Daniel J.; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; de Wild, Paul

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access The fate of lignin during hydrothermalbiomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/ormay all influence these lignin changes. To better understand

Trajano, Heather L; Engle, Nancy L; Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wyman, Charles E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Catalytic Hydrolytic Cleavage and Oxy-Cleavage of Lignin Linkages  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, new strategies involving organic bases were evaluated to depolymerize lignin to reduced molecular fragments in aqueous medium. NaOH as an inorganic base was also investigated as a reference. Full nature lignin samples are used for the study. As research tools to unravel the complexity of the macro lignin structure and bulky molecular size under this study, size exclusion chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometric analysis, typically used for protein characterizations, were used to follow the progress of lignin depolymerisation by measuring the molecular weight distribution of the products and determining the key molecular fingerprints, respectively. The results show that sodium phenoxide and guanidine carbonate are effective catalysts for lignin depolymerization. It is observed that there exists a synergism between H2O2 and the organic base, which is strongest with guanidine carbonate.

Xia, Guanguang; Chen, Baowei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2014-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

26

EgMYB2, a new transcriptional activator from Eucalyptus xylem, regulates secondary cell wall formation and lignin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

formation and lignin biosynthesis Monica Goicoechea1, , Eric Lacombe1, , Sylvain Legay1 , Snjezana-localizes with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for lignin content. Recombinant EgMYB2 protein was able to bind specifically the cis-regulatory regions of the promoters of two lignin biosynthetic genes, cinnamoyl

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Fluorescence analyzer for lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Berthold, John W. (Salem, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Hubbard, OH); Jeffers, Larry (Alliance, OH)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Lignin blockers and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

Yang, Bin (West Lebanon, NH); Wyman, Charles E. (Norwich, VT)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fluorescence analyzer for lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus for measuring lignin concentration with time resolved fluorescence in an undiluted wood pulp or black liquor sample, on a real-time, in situ basis is described, comprising: light source means for applying excitation light pulses at a selected wavelength and at known time intervals to the undiluted sample for causing the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light with a fluorescence intensity that monotonically decreases in a quenched fluorescence regime; light detector means for measuring the emission light at the known time intervals and establishing signals indicative thereof; switching means for turning said light detector means on at precise specified time intervals after each excitation light pulse; and signal processing means connected to the light source means and the light detector means for comparing intensities of the emission light from the lignin in the quenched fluorescence regime to the intensities of the excitation light pulses on a time resolved basis for providing a measurement of the lignin concentration in the undiluted sample as a function of the time resolved emission light intensity.

Berthold, J.W.; Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Lignin blockers and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein.

Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

31

Lignin Valorization-final-sm  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Discovering effective methods of depolymerizing lignin will improve economics of biorefineries and create a renewable resource for chemicals Biofuels: Increasing the Value of...

32

Lignin Valorization: Improving Lignin Processing in the Biorefinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research and development activities directed toward commercial production of cellulosic ethanol have created the opportunity to dramatically increase the transformation of lignin to value-added products. Here we highlight recent advances in this lignin valorization effort. Discovery of genetic variants in native populations of bioenergy crops and direct manipulation of biosynthesis pathways have produced lignin feedstocks with favorable properties for recovery and downstream conversion. Advances in analytical chemistry and computational modeling detail the structure of the modified lignin and direct bioengineering strategies for future targeted properties. Refinement of biomass pretreatment technologies has further facilitated lignin recovery, and this coupled with genetic engineering will enable new uses for this biopolymer, including low-cost carbon fibers, engineered plastics and thermoplastic elastomers, polymeric foams, fungible fuels, and commodity chemicals.

Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Beckham, Gregg [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Biddy, Mary J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Chandra, Richard [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chen, Fang [University of North Texas; Davis, Dr. Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Davison, Brian H [ORNL; Dixon, Richard [University of North Texas; Gilna, Paul [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Langan, Paul [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Saddler, Jack N [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Wyman, Charles E, [University of California, Riverside; Harber, Karen S [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Turning Renewable Resources into Recyclable Polymer: Development of Lignin-Based Thermoplastic  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Productive uses of lignin, the third most abundant natural polymer, have been sought for decades. One especially attractive possibility is that of developing value-added products including thermoplastics based on lignin. This possibility warrants special attention due to growth of the modern biofuel industries. However, the polydisperse molecular weight and hyper-branched structure of lignin has hindered the creation of high-performance biopolymers. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of novel lignin-based, partially carbon-neutral thermoplastics. We first altered the molecular weight of lignin, either by fractionation with methanol, or by formaldehyde crosslinking. A crosslinking of lignin increases the molecular weight, exhibiting Mn = 31000 g/mol, whereas that of native lignin is 1840 g/mol. Tuning the molecular weight of lignin enabled successful preparation of novel lignin-derived thermoplastics, when coupled with telechelic polybutadiene soft-segments at proper feed ratios. Characteristic to thermoplastic rubbers, free-standing films of the resulting copolymers exhibit two-phase morphology and associated relaxations in the dynamic mechanical loss spectrum. To our knowledge this article is the first report to demonstrate phase immiscibility, melt-processibility, and biphasic morphology of soft and hard segments in a lignin-based copolymer for all feed ratios of two macromolecular components. The use of higher molecular weight lignin enhanced the resulting shear modulus due to efficient network formation of telechelic polybutadiene bridges. The storage modulus in the rubbery plateau region increased with increasing lignin content. The successful synthesis of novel lignin-based thermoplastics will open a new pathway to biomass utilization and will help conserve petrochemicals.

Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Rebecca H [ORNL; Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Pickel, Deanna L [ORNL; Pickel, Joseph M [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Article original Apports de lignines et alimentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ alimentation 1 lignines / croissance 1 mortalité Summary — Dietary lignin in growing rabbits. li lignin on growth performance and mortality were studied in 5 experimental stations on 2 045 growing.0-7.9%) and the origin of the lignin (dehydrated lucerne meal or grape-pip meal) were given ad libitum from weaning (28

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil. Abstract: Lignin is often the most...

36

Functionalized lignin, rubber containing functionalized lignin and products containing such rubber composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to functionalized lignin, rubber compositions which contain functionalized lignin and to products which have at least one component comprised of such rubber composition.

Benko, David Andrew; Hahn, Bruce Raymond; Cohen, Martin Paul; Dirk, Shawn Matthew; Cicotte, Kirsten Nicole

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

37

The Effect of Aluminum Content on the Corrosion Behavior of Fe-Al Alloys in Reducing Environments at 700 C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Effect of Aluminum Content on the Corrosion Behavior of Fe-Al Alloys in Reducing Environments with the observance and/or duration of each stage directly related to the aluminum content of the alloy. The first by relatively high corrosion rates. Further decreasing the aluminum content to 5 wt pct and below lead

DuPont, John N.

38

Catalysis of 6? Electrocyclizations & Catalytic Disproportionation of Lignin Model Compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

groups. 13 Finally, the organosolv process extracts ligninWhile a 70% conversion of organosolv lignin to alkanols such

Bishop, Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermotogae VHS-B5-50 Table S4, cont?d T1 T2 T3 T4 no ligninligninno lignin lignin no lignin lignin no lignin lignin n.d. n.d.

DeAngelis, K.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Supramolecular self-assembled chaos: polyphenolic lignin's barrier to cost-effective lignocellulosic biofuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Attempts  at  isolating  lignin,  analogous  to  specific  bonds  in  lignin-­?carbohydrate  complexes  (a  better  grasp  of  lignin.  Supramolecular  self-­?

Achyuthan, Komandoor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

44

Separation and characterization of lignins from the black liquor of oil palm trunk fiber pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Six lignin preparations, isolated by a novel two-step precipitation method instead of the traditional one-step precipitation method from the oil palm trunk fiber pulping (OPTFP) black liquor, were found to be relatively free of nonlignin materials such as polysaccharide degradation products, ash, and salts. A lignin fraction with a purity of 99.5% was obtained at an optimum precipitation pH 1.5 after isolation of the nonlignin materials in ethanol. About 94% of the total lignin was recovered by this novel method at this condition, and the value of COD in the treated black liquor reduced significantly to lower 250. The isolated lignin fractions contained syringyl, guaiacyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl units in an approximate molar ratio of 16--20:5:1 on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis. Small amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acids were found to be esterified to lignin, while ferulic acids were associated to lignin by ether linkage. {sup 13}C-NMR indicated the presence of {beta}-O-4 ether bonds, and {beta}-5 and 5-5{prime} carbon-carbon linkages between the lignin molecules.

Sun, R.; Tomkinson, J.; Bolton, J.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Varanasi, Patanjali [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Singh, Seema [Joint Bioenergy Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Method of altering lignin in trees  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented. 16 figs.

MacKay, J.; O`Malley, D.; Whetten, R.; Sederoff, R.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

47

Method of altering lignin in trees  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of providing and breeding trees having more easily extractable lignin due to the presence of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (Cad) null gene are presented.

MacKay, John (Raleigh, NC); O'Malley, David (Cary, NC); Whetten, Ross (Raleigh, NC); Sederoff, Ronald (Raleigh, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

RESEARCH Open Access The fate of lignin during hydrothermal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH Open Access The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment Heather L Trajano1 lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better

California at Riverside, University of

49

Lignin Gels: SOL-GEL NANOPOROUS CARBONS & COMPOSITES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lignin Gels: SOL-GEL NANOPOROUS CARBONS & COMPOSITES FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES FOR SUPERCAPACITOR using amine bases, resorcinol and furfural 3.gels produce with lignin Surface Chemistry Modification NAC. Lignin is a byproduct of ethanol and other wood related T

Cao, Guozhong

50

LIGNIN BIODEGRADATION AND THE PRODUCTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL FROM CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Moore, W. E. , Removing lignin from wood with white-rotof carbohydrates on lignin degradation by the white-rotP. and Eriksson, K. -E. , Lignin degradation and utilization

Rosenberg, S.L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Catalysis of 6? Electrocyclizations & Catalytic Disproportionation of Lignin Model Compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. D. ; McNally, T. J. Lignin. In Kirk-Othmer EncyclopediaK. ; Gellerstedt, G. Lignin. In Analytical Methods in Woodof a 1-phenylpropane-1,3-diol lignin model compound via ?-

Bishop, Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

19 2.3.3. Lignin………………………………………………………. ……………..22 2.3.4.S, Ragauskas A. Pseudo-lignin and pretreatment chemistry.ME, Vinzant TB. Visualizing lignin coalescence and migration

McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with ~50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts for the C-O bond hydrogenolysis in model compounds, which mimic the b-O-4, a-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages of natural lignin. The versatile IRMOF-74(n) series is proposed as a platform for creating efficient hydrogenolysis catalysts as it not only displays tunable pore sizes, but also has the required thermal and chemical stability. The catalytic C-O bond cleavage occurs at 10 bar hydrogen pressure and temperatures as low as 120 degC. The conversion efficiency of the aromatic ether substrates into the corresponding hydrocarbons and phenols varies as PhCH 2 CH 2 OPh > PhCH 2 OPh > PhOPh (Ph = phenyl), while the catalytic activity generally follows the following trend Ni%40IRMOF-74>Ti%40IRMOF-74>IRMOF-74. Conversions as high as 80%, coupled with good selectivity for hydrogenolysis vs. hydrogenation, highlight the potential of MOF-based catalysts for the selective cleavage of recalcitrant aryl-ether bonds found in lignin and other biopolymers. This project supports the DOE Integrated Biorefinery Program goals, the objective of which is to convert biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals, by addressing an important technology gap: the lack of low-temperature catalysts suitable for industrial lignin degradation. Biomass, which is ~30 wt% lignin, constitutes a potentially major source of platform chemicals that could improve overall profitability and productivity of all energy-related products, thereby benefiting consumers and reducing national dependence on imported oil. Additionally, DoD has a strong interest in low-cost drop-in fuels (Navy Biofuel Initiative) and has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with DOE and USDA to develop a sustainable biofuels industry.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Method for regulation of plant lignin composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for the regulation of lignin composition in plant tissue. Plants are transformed with a gene encoding an active F5H gene. The expression of the F5H gene results in increased levels of syringyl monomer providing a lignin composition more easily degraded with chemicals and enzymes.

Chapple, Clint (West Lafayette, IN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Methanol Fractionation of Softwood Kraft Lignin: Impact on the Lignin Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of technologies to tune lignin properties for high-performance lignin-based materials is crucial for the utilization of lignin in various applications. Here, the effect of methanol (MeOH) fractionation on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition, and chemical structure of lignin were investigated. Repeated MeOH fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin successfully removed the low-molecular-weight fraction. The separated high-molecular-weight lignin showed a Tg of 211 C and a char yield of 47%, much higher than those of asreceived lignin (Tg 153 C, char yield 41%). The MeOH-soluble fraction of lignin showed an increased low-molecular-weight fraction and a lower Tg (117 C) and char yield (32%). The amount of low-molecular-weight fraction showed a quantitative correlation with both 1/Tg and char yield in a linear regression. This study demonstrated the efficient purification or fractionation technology for lignin; it also established a theoretical and empirical correlation between the physical characteristics of fractionated lignins.

Saito, Tomonori [ORNL] [ORNL; Perkins, Joshua H [ORNL] [ORNL; Vautard, Frederic [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL] [ORNL; Tolnai, Balazs [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Dosage de la lignine insoluble en milieu acide : influence du prtraitement par hydrolyse acide sur la lignine Kla-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dosage de la lignine insoluble en milieu acide : influence du prétraitement par hydrolyse acide sur la lignine Kla- son de bois et de paille Bernard MONTIES LN.R.A., Laboratoire de Chimie biologique et la lignine insoluble dans l'acide sulfurique concentré, lignine Klason, est décrit : il comporte une

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

Production of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin and Process Optimization.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Commercialization of Lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resins (LPF) has been limited due to the increase in curing temperatures and decrease in adhesive strength of LPF compared… (more)

Siddiqui, Homaira

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

HPLC Purification of Higher Plant-Dervied Lignin Phenols for Compound Specific Radiocarbon Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

purification scheme for lignin phenol CSRA is feasible. Thebased method are that (1) lignin phenols can be purifiedobtain semipure fractions of lignin phenols. The subsequent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photoionization and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapyl Alcohols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Biosynthesis of Lignin; Springer?Verlag: Berlin, 1968. (Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapylfragmentation Introduction Lignin is the second most

Takahashi, Lynelle K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes inCharacterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes inCharacterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in

DeAngelis, Kristen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

PATTERNS OF DIFFUSIBILITY OF LIGNIN AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADING SYSTEMS IN WOOD-ROTTING FUNGI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Biochem. 57: 405-409. lignins by Bacillus megaterium.microorganisms, Berg, B, 1975, Lignin degradation andEffects of microorganisms on lignin. Phytopathol. ~: Kirk.

Rosenberg, S. L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Sequestration and Transport of Lignin Monomeric Precursors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer after cellulose. It is essential for the viability of vascular plants. Lignin precursors, the monolignols, are synthesized within the cytosol of the cell. Thereafter, these monomeric precursors are exported into the cell wall, where they are polymerized and integrated into the wall matrix. Accordingly, transport of monolignols across cell membranes is a critical step affecting deposition of lignin in the secondarily thickened cell wall. While the biosynthesis of monolignols is relatively well understood, our knowledge of sequestration and transport of these monomers is sketchy. In this article, we review different hypotheses on monolignol transport and summarize the recent progresses toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol sequestration and transport across membranes. Deciphering molecular mechanisms for lignin precursor transport will support a better biotechnological solution to manipulate plant lignification for more efficient agricultural and industrial applications of cell wall biomass.

Liu, C.J.; Miao, Y.-C.; Zhang, K.-W.

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

65

Computational Design of Lignin Depolymerization Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive, for which quantum mechanical calculations can offer fundamental insights. In this work, a computational approach has been used to elucidate the reductive deconstruction pathway of a ruthenium-catalyzed system. Transition states have been computed to determine the rate-limiting steps for a catalyst that cleaves arylether linkages. Our calculations are supported by experimental synthesis and kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the deconstruction of model lignin dimers by a ruthenium catalyst with the ultimate objective of designing new catalysts to eventually utilize lignin in biorefineries.

Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Manipulation Of Lignin Biosynthesis To Maximize Ethanol Production From Populus Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our research focuses on transgenic strategies for modifying lignification to improve biomass quality, without leading to deleterious effects on plant performance. In order to accomplish this objective, we designed molecular strategies and selected appropriate transgenes for manipulating the expression of lignification-associated genes; we generated poplar engineered for altered lignin content and/or monomer composition, and field-tested them for fitness; we analyzed the impact of these transgenic strategies on metabolism in general and lignin biosynthesis in particular; and evaluated the ease with which cell wall deconstruction can be accomplished using both chemical and enzymatic means using wild-type and high syringyl poplar.

Dr. Clint Chapple; Dr. Rick Lindroth; Dr. Burce Dien; Dr. Glen Stanosz; Dr. Alex Wiedenhoeft; Dr. Fu Zhao; Dr. Duane Wegener; Dr. Janice Kelly; Dr. Leigh Raymond; Dr. Wallace Tyner

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a complex, branched polymer that reinforces plant tissue. Understanding the factors that govern lignin structure is of central importance to the development of technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuels because lignin imparts resistance to chemical, enzymatic and mechanical deconstruction. Lignin is formed by enzymatic oxidation of phenolic monomers (monolignols) of three main types, guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S) and p- hydroxyphenyl (H). It is known that increasing the relative abundance of H subunits results in lower molecular-weight lignin polymers, and hence more easily deconstructed biomass, but it is not known why. Here, we report an analysis of frontier molecular orbitals in mono-, di- and trilignols, calculated using density functional theory, which points to a requirement of strong p- electron density on the reacting phenolic oxygen atom of the neutral precursor for enzymatic oxidation to occur. This model is consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism and for the first time explains why H subunits in certain linkages ( - or -5) react poorly and tend to cap the polymer. In general, -5 linkages with either a G or H terminus are predicted to inhibit elongation. More broadly, the model correctly accounts for the reactivity of the phenolic groups in a diverse set of dilignols comprising H and G subunits. Thus, we provide a coherent framework for understanding the propensity toward growth or termination of different terminal subunits in lignin.

Sangha, Amandeep K [ORNL] [ORNL; Davison, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL; Standaert, Robert F [ORNL] [ORNL; Davis, Dr. Mark F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

developed to reduce the weight of cars and trucks, innovative approaches for protecting fish as they navigate power- producing dams, and a discovery that makes it possible to turn...

69

Reduced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST 800-53 RevisionDivisionReduced intermittency in

70

Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling price of $1.33 for the 2012 goal case process as reported in the 2007 State of Technology Model (NREL 2008). Hence, pyrolysis oil does not appear to be an economically attractive product in this scenario. Further research regarding fast pyrolysis of raw lignin from a cellulosic plant as an end product is not recommended. Other processes, such as high-pressure liquefaction or wet gasification, and higher value products, such as gasoline and diesel from fast pyrolysis oil should be considered in future studies.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Carbon Fiber Production from a Kraft Hardwood Lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a renewable resource material that is being evaluated for the low cost production of carbon fiber for automotive and other applications. Solvent extraction of a commercial hardwood lignin product yielded a purified lignin free of the contaminants typical of lignins derived from the Kraft chemical pulping of wood. The purified lignin was highly melt-spinnable into fibers, from which carbon fiber was subsequently produced. The lignin has been evaluated in terms of its rheological properties, fiber melt spinning ability, and potential for manufacture of low cost carbon fiber without the need for plasticizing agents or chemical modifications.

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Reactor Physics Studies of Reduced-Tantaulum-Content Control and Safety Elements for the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some of the unirradiated High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) control elements discharged during the late 1990s were observed to have cladding damage--local swelling or blistering. The cladding damage was limited to the tantalum/europium interface of the element and is thought to result from interaction of hydrogen and europium to form a compound of lower density than europium oxide, thus leading to a ''blistering'' of the control plate cladding. Reducing the tantalum loading in the control plates should help preclude this phenomena. The impact of the change to the control plates on the operation of the reactor was assessed. Regarding nominal, steady-state reactor operation, the impact of the change in the power distribution in the core due to reduced tantalum content was calculated and found to be insignificant. The magnitude and impact of the change in differential control element worth was calculated, and the differential worths of reduced tantalum elements vs the current elements from equivalent-burnup critical configurations were determined to be unchanged within the accuracy of the computational method and relevant experimental measurements. The location of the critical control elements symmetric positions for reduced tantalum elements was found to be 1/3 in. less withdrawn relative to existing control elements regardless of the value of fuel cycle burnup (time in the fuel cycle). The magnitude and impact of the change in the shutdown margin (integral rod worth) was assessed and found to be unchanged. Differential safety element worth values for the reduced-tantalum-content elements were calculated for postulated accident conditions and were found to be greater than values currently assumed in HFIR safety analyses.

Primm, R.T., III

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Factors affecting properties of pork sausage patties made with reduced salt contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Packaging methods included polyvinyl chloride f1lm overwrap (PVC) or vacuum packaging in oxygen impermeable bags (VP). Patt1es were assigned to frozen (-9. 4 C) storage 0 periods of 0, 2, 4 or 8 weeks. Use of phosphates (STP or Lem-0-Fos) in fresh... scores and improved b1nd. The prooxidant effect of NaCl may be masked by the antioxidant effect of STP or Lem-0-Fos. Extended periods of frozen storage reduced frying yield, lowered juiciness and texture scores and allowed development of off...

Matlock, Robert Gerard

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

76

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Identification of lignin genes and regulatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3 wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database

77

How is ferulic acid transported into the Golgi apparatus? Lignin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How is ferulic acid transported into the Golgi apparatus? Lignin polymerization is also influenced]. These ferulic acid residues are thought to initiate lignin polymerization. It is not known how ferulic acid in the cell wall field, but also creates novel opportunities for the manipulation of lignin in crop plants

78

Original article Lignin-carbohydrate complexes in forages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Lignin-carbohydrate complexes in forages: structure and consequences) Summary ― Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCS) are recognised as key structures in forage microorganisms are discussed. lignin-carbohydrate complexes I cell wall I forage I digestibility Résumé

Boyer, Edmond

79

Structural modifications of timothy lignin by in vitro rumen fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural modifications of timothy lignin by in vitro rumen fermentation T Kondo, T Ohshita, T Kyuma Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Shimokuriyagawa, Morioka 020-01, Japan Lignin degradation of forage fibers. The nutritional effect of forage lignin is closely related to its structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

REGULAR ARTICLE European corn borer injury effects on lignin, carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REGULAR ARTICLE European corn borer injury effects on lignin, carbon and nitrogen in corn tissues herbivores often stimulate lignin deposition in injured plant tissue, but it is not known whether corn (Zea (Bacillus thuringiensis) genetic modifica- tion is also reported to affect lignin in corn. This study

Beaudoin, Georges

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Structural Characterization of a Serendipitously Discovered Bioactive Macromolecule, Lignin Sulfate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural Characterization of a Serendipitously Discovered Bioactive Macromolecule, Lignin Sulfate was identified through a battery of biophysical and chemical analyses as a sulfated form of lignin, a three lignin and its sulfated derivative indicates the presence of p-coumaryl monomers interconnected through

Desai, Umesh R

82

Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion Rajeev Kumar degradation products, collectively termed as chars and/or pseudo-lignin. In order to understand the factors derived pseudo-lignin on cellulose conversion at the moderate to low enzyme loadings necessary

California at Riverside, University of

83

BSA Treatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Lignin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BSA Treatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Lignin Containing Substrates Bin Yang cellulose and solids containing 56% cellulose and 28% lignin from dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn of cellulase and particularly beta-glucosidase on lignin. Of particular note, BSA treatment of pretreated corn

California at Riverside, University of

84

Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

Agblevor, F.A.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Molecular structure and biochemical properties of lignins in relation to possible self-organization of lignin networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular structure and biochemical properties of lignins in relation to possible self-organization of lignin networks B. Monties Laboratoire de Chimie Biologique, INRA (CBAI), Institut National Agronomique recalls chemical data related to the variations in the molecular structure of lignin and mainly discusses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

Yang, Bin (Hanover, NH); Wyman, Charles E. (Norwich, VT)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

87

Kinetic Model Development for Lignin Pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin pyrolysis poses a significant barrier to the formation of liquid fuel products from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at higher temperatures than other biomass components (e.g. cellulose and hemi-cellulose) and tends to form radicals species that lead to cross-linking and ultimately char formation. A first step in the advancement of biomass-to-fuel technology is to discover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of lignin at lower temperatures into more stable and usable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin (B-O4, a-O4, B-B, B-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to bond homolysis reactions, a variety of concerted elimination pathways are under investigation that tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

Clark, J.; Robichaud, D.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Computational Mechanistic Studies of Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Model Dimers for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a heterogeneous alkyl-aromatic polymer that constitutes up to 30% of plant cell walls, and is used for water transport, structure, and defense. The highly irregular and heterogeneous structure of lignin presents a major obstacle in the development of strategies for its deconstruction and upgrading. Here we present mechanistic studies of the acid-catalyzed cleavage of lignin aryl-ether linkages, combining both experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations. Quantum mechanical calculations provide a detailed interpretation of reaction mechanisms including possible intermediates and transition states. Solvent effects on the hydrolysis reactions were incorporated through the use of a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with cluster models including explicit water molecules in the first solvation shell. Reaction pathways were computed for four lignin model dimers including 2-phenoxy-phenylethanol (PPE), 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-ethanol (HPPE), 2-phenoxy-phenyl-1,3-propanediol (PPPD), and 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-1,3-propanediol (HPPPD). Lignin model dimers with a para-hydroxyphenyl ether (HPPE and HPPPD) show substantial differences in reactivity relative to the phenyl ether compound (PPE and PPPD) which have been clarified theoretically and experimentally. The significance of these results for acid deconstruction of lignin in plant cell walls will be discussed.

Kim, S.; Sturgeon, M. R.; Chmely, S. C.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Reactions of Lignin Model Compounds in Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin, a readily available form of biomass, awaits novel chemistry for converting it to valuable aromatic chemicals. Recent work has demonstrated that ionic liquids are excellent solvents for processing woody biomass and lignin. Seeking to exploit ionic liquids as media for depolymerization of lignin, we investigated reactions of lignin model compounds in these solvents. Using Brønsted acid catalysts in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate at moderate temperatures, we obtained up to 11.6% yield of the dealkylation product guaiacol from the model compound eugenol and cleaved phenethyl phenyl ether, a model for lignin ethers. Despite these successes, acid catalysis failed in dealkylation of the unsaturated model compound 4-ethylguaiacol and did not produce monomeric products from organosolv lignin, demonstrating that further work is required to understand the complex chemistry of lignin depolymerization.

Holladay, John E.; Binder, Joseph B.; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg-1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%. Using lignin-derived carbon fiber in 15 million vehicles per year in the US could reduce fossil fuel consumption by 2-5 billion liters year-1, reduce CO2 emissions by about 6.7 million Mg year-1, and realize fuel savings through vehicle lightweighting of $700 to $1,600 per Mg biomass processed. The value of fuel savings from vehicle lightweighting becomes economical at carbon fiber price of $6.60 kg-1 under current fuel prices, or $13.20 kg-1 under fuel prices of about $1.16 l-1.

Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Baker, Fred S [ORNL; Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL; Boeman, Raymond G [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Synchrotron Vacuum-Ultraviolet Postionization Mass Spectrometry with Laser and Ion Probes for Intact Molecular Spatial Mapping of Lignin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Biosynthesis of Lignin; Springer-Verlag: Berlin, 1968. (chemical imaging studies of lignin and related compounds.and Alkali and Organosolv Lignins with Synchrotron Vacuum-UV

Takahashi, Lynelle Kazue

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of kraft lignins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kraft lignins are the lignin degradation products from kraft pulping. They are complex, heterogeneous polymers with some polar character. The molecular weight of kraft lignins greatly affect the physical properties of black liquors, and are of primary importance in separation from black liquor and in evaluating potential uses. Several purified kraft lignins from slash pine were analyzed for number average molecular weight by vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), for weight average molecular weight by low angle laser light scattering (LALLS), and for the molecular weight distribution by high temperature size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The lignins were run in tetrahydrofuran (THF), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), DMF with 0.1M LiBr, and pyridine at conditions above the Theta temperature. Experimental methods are discussed. The results show that VPO may be used to determine M[sub n] for kraft lignins if the purity of the lignins and the identity of the impurities are known. LALLS can be used to determine M[sub w] for kraft lignins if measurements are made at or above the Theta temperature of the lignin-solvent pair. SEC should be used at temperatures at, or above, the Theta temperature of the lignin-solvent pair. Size separation is highly dependent on the solvent used, and DMF is a much better solvent than THF for high temperature SEC. Future work using moment resolution procedures to derive an accurate calibration curve are also discussed.

Schmidl, W.; Dong, D.; Fricke, A.L. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Molecular Evolution and Diversity of Lignin Degrading Heme Peroxidases in the Agaricomycetes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular Evolution and Diversity of Lignin Degrading Heme Peroxidases in the Agaricomycetes Ingo peroxidases, including the lignin degrading enzymes manganese per- oxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (Li Lignin peroxidase Á Versatile peroxidase Á Lignin degradation Á Agaricomycetes Á Fungi Introduction Heme

Hibbett, David S.

95

Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sugars in high quantities at low costs from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (4, 5

California at Riverside, University of

96

Modification of Lignin Content of Plant Cell Walls - Energy Innovation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource ProgramModification and Application of a New Method forPortal

97

Redistribution of Lignin Caused by Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research conducted at NREL has shown that lignin undergoes a phase transition during thermochemical pretreatments conducted above its glass transition temperature. The lignin coalesces within the plant cell wall and appears as microscopic droplets on cell surfaces. It is clear that pretreatment causes significant changes in lignin distribution in pretreatments at all scales from small laboratory reactors to pilot scale reactors. A method for selectively extracting lignin droplets from the surfaces of pretreated cell walls has allowed us to characterize the chemical nature and molecular weight distribution of this fraction. The effect of lignin redistribution on the digestibility of pretreated solids has also been tested. It is clear that removal of the droplets increases the digestibility of pretreated corn stover. The improved digestibility could be due to decreased non-specific binding of enzymes to lignin in the droplets, or because the droplets no longer block access to cellulose.

Johnson, D. K.; Donohoe, B. S.; Katahira, R.; Tucker, M. P.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: April 2008 Revision Date: August 2012 (Version 08-03-2012) A....

99

New Engineered Materials from Biobased Plastics and Lignin .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The blending of lignin as a component in a thermoplastic blend poses a challenge in the form of dispersion and compatibility. Polyesters such as poly(lactic… (more)

Chen, Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Experimental Study of Mechanistic Acid Deconstruction of Lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a major component of biomass, which remains highly underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in studying the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. Model dimers, imitating H, S, and G lignins, were synthesized with the most abundant {beta} - O - 4 linkage in lignin. These compounds were then depolymerized using various acids and at different operating conditions. The deconstruction products were analyzed to complement the QM studies and investigate proposed mechanisms.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Katahira, R.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Preparation and characterization of lignin-protein covalent linkages.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Lignin is a natural aromatic polymer that is bio-synthesized in the cell walls of almost all land plants. Great strides have been made in understanding… (more)

Diehl, Brett

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

DECOMPOSITION OF LIGNIN AND CELLOBIOSE IN RELATION TO THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R. Wilke, "Studies of Lignin-Degrading Fungi and EnzymaticApril 1976). Kirk, T. Kent, "Lignin-degrading Enzyme System"and John M. Harkin, "Lignin Biodegradation and Bioconversion

Yamanaka, Y.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Understanding the Nature and Reactivity of Residual Lignin for Improved Pulping and Bleaching Efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most formidable challenges in kraft pulping to produce bleached chemical pulps is how to effectively remove the last 5-10% of lignin while maintaining the fiber quality. To avoid a severe fiber degradation, kraft pulping is usually terminated in the 25-30 kappa number range and then followed by an elementally chlorine free (ECF) or a totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequence to reduce the environmental impacts.

Yuan-Zong Lai

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

104

Article original Apports de lignines et alimentation du lapin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

— Dietary lignin in growing rabbits. 1. Consequences on digestibility and rate of pas- sage. The effect of the origin and level of dietary lignin on the digestibility and rate of passage of growing origins, lucerne (L 1, L2) or grape-pip meal (P1, P2). Organic matter digestibility decreased linearly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

106

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B&W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Investigation of Catalytic Pathways and Separations fro Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis of the energy and material consumption for three different lignin conversion pathways has been carried out in order to assess their relative promise. Recommendations to allow for improved performance based on the current state of the art have been made, with particular focus on the use of heterogeneous nanocatalysts. Lignin is currently burned for heat and power in industrial processes, but its aromaticity and high energy content make it a good source for fuels and chemical feedstocks. The conversion of lignin to value added products has been the subject of a number of excellent reviews, and it is upon this literature as well as recent publications that the processes were selected. The analysis includes consideration of the thermodynamics of conversion, the technical feasibility of each process, and the energy and material balance. For each of the processes, improvements to future research activities have been suggested to move the processes from the bench-scale to large-scale demonstrations. This analysis is not meant to be comprehensive, in terms of process, feedstock, or selected criteria. However, this work illustrates a path forward following pre-established goals of thermodynamic efficiency, selectivity, and feasibility.

McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Gluckstein, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Sturgeon, Matthew R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

Simo Sarkanen

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

110

Computational Study of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies for Substituted $\\beta$-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The biopolymer lignin is a potential source of valuable chemicals. Phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) is representative of the dominant $\\beta$-O-4 ether linkage. Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the Boltzmann-weighted carbon-oxygen and carbon-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of substituted PPE. These values are important in order to understand lignin decomposition. Exclusion of all conformers that have distributions of less than 5\\% at 298 K impacts the BDE by less than 1 kcal mol$^{-1}$. We find that aliphatic hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents introduce only small changes to the BDEs (0-3 kcal mol$^{-1}$). Substitution on the phenyl ring at the $ortho$ position substantially lowers the C-O BDE, except in combination with the hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents, where the effect of methoxy substitution is reduced by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding between the aliphatic substituents and the ether oxygen in the PPE derivatives has a significant influence on the BDE. CCSD(T)-calculated BDEs and hydrogen bond strengths of $ortho$-substituted anisoles when compared with M06-2X values confirm that the latter method is sufficient to describe the molecules studied and provide an important benchmark for lignin model compounds.

Younker, Jarod M [ORNL; Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Catalytic C-O Bond Cleavage of 2-Aryloxy-1-arylethanols and Its Application to the Depolymerization of Lignin-Related Polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5) For variations in lignin structure, see: (a) Bunzel, M. ;of native milled wood lignin isolated from M. giganteusas applications to natural lignin and other model systems.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Hydrothermal Processing of Lignin for Bio-crude Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. There are a wide range of biomass feedstocks on the globe that can be converted through a variety of technologies of the biomass feedstock when the reactor was at the desired conditions. HTL conversion of Alkali lignin produced

Toor, Saqib

113

NREL Overcomes Obstacles in Lignin Valorization (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This NREL Highlight is being produced for the 2015 February Alliance S&T Board meeting, and describes research that shows lignin can be converted into renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials.

Not Available

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Molecular simulation as a tool for studying lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass provides a sustainable source of sugars for biofuel and biomaterial production. However, biomass resistance to degradation imposes difficulties for economical conversion of plant carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. One of the key contributors to recalcitrance is lignin. Understanding the properties of lignin macromolecules in the cell wall matrix is useful for manipulating biomass structure to generate more easily degradable biomass. Along with experimental techniques such as 2D-NMR and mass spectrometry, computational techniques can be useful for characterizing the structural and energetic properties of the biomass assembly and its individual constituents. Here, we provide a brief introduction to lignin, review some of the recent, relevant scientific literature, and give our perspectives on the role of molecular simulation in understanding lignin structure.

Sangha, Amandeep K [ORNL; Petridis, Loukas [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Ziebell, Angela L [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Cellulase-lignin interactions in the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Lignin, a major non-carbohydrate polymer in lignocellulosic plant biomass, restricts the action of hydrolytic enzymes in the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Non-productive enzyme adsorption… (more)

Rahikainen, Jenni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Sandia National Laboratories: "Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy and ClimateECEnergyRenewable EnergyBiofuels"Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results Pave the Way for Closed-Loop Biofuel Refineries "Bionic" Liquids...

117

Apparatus for reducing the moisture content in combustible material by utilizing the heat from combustion of such material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes apparatus for preparing moisture containing fuel material for combustion to produce heat energy and for applying the heat energy from the combustion for lowering the moisture content in the fuel material prior to combustion, the improvement comprising: boiler means for the combustion of the fuel material to produce heat energy, grinding apparatus for preparing the fuel material to produce heat energy; means for collecting prepared fuel material and for feeding the collected fuel material to the boiler means; a main gaseous fluid and fuel material conduit system; a second conduit system connecting the boiler means and the grinding apparatus to conduct heat energy to the grinding apparatus; connecting means between the returning side of the main conduit system and the boiler means for maintaining the main conduit system at a negative pressure to promote the flow of hot gaseous medium from the boiler means to the gringing apparatus.

Williams, R.M.

1992-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

118

Label-free in situ imaging of lignification in the cell wall of low lignin transgenic Populus trichocarpa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the cell wall of low lignin transgenic Populus trichocarpaand 1,700 cm ¡1 , diVerences in lignin signal intensity andSpatial heterogeneity in the lignin composition, in particu-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Photochemical and microbial degradation of dissolved lignin phenols: Implications for the fate of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photochemical and microbial degradation of dissolved lignin phenols: Implications for the fate level characterizations of dissolved lignin were conducted in Mississippi River plume waters to study degradation were the primary factors affecting lignin concentrations. At salinities >25 psu, photooxidation

Hernes, Peter J.

120

Synchrotron Vacuum-Ultraviolet Postionization Mass Spectrometry with Laser and Ion Probes for Intact Molecular Spatial Mapping of Lignin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alcohol and Alkali and Organosolv Lignins with SynchrotronAlcohol and Alkali and Organosolv Lignins with Synchrotronof ~6.6 MW/cm 2 , (b) organosolv lignin (Sigma Aldrich)

Takahashi, Lynelle Kazue

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Methods for simultaneous control of lignin content and composition, and cellulose content in plants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method of concurrently introducing multiple genes into plants and trees is provided. The method includes simultaneous transformation of plants with multiple genes from the phenylpropanoid pathways including 4CL, CAld5H, AldOMT, SAD and CAD genes and combinations thereof to produce various lines of transgenic plants displaying altered agronomic traits. The agronomic traits of the plants are regulated by the orientation of the specific genes and the selected gene combinations, which are incorporated into the plant genome.

Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Kraft lignin recovery by ultrafiltration: economic feasibility and impact on the kraft recovery system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The widespread use of the kraft pulping process could provide a ready supply of lignin materials for many uses. Simulation studies demonstrate that recovery of the high-molecular-weight kraft lignin by ultrafiltration of a fraction of the black liquor flow is attractive from both an economic and an operational standpoint. Benefits are derived from relief of a furnace-limited recovery system and from the marketing of the lignin or modified lignin products. 10 references.

Kirkman, A.G.; Gratzl, J.S.; Edwards, L.L.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Preliminary feasibility study of pulping catalyst production from lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A preliminary evaluation of the economic feasibility of preparing anthraquinone, a pulping catalyst, from readily available lignin has been performed. The proposed process begins with a fractionation of lignin from a black liquor stream by means of a supercritical fluid or conventional solvent extraction to give a low molecular weight fraction conductive to further chemical treatment. This fraction is sequentially oxidized with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, treated with a diene and dehydrogenated to give anthraquinone. The cost of the proposed process is most dependent on the overall yield of the chemical processing steps with a smaller contribution noted for lignin processing. The projections indicate that anthraquinone could be produced for as low as $1.00--$1.25/lb using this process. Details of the process, chemical reactions and calculations are included.

Power, A.J. (Power (Arthur J.) and Associates, Boulder, CO (USA)); Bozell, J.J.; Chum, H.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Evidence for Complex Molecular Architectures for Solvent-Extracted Lignins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin, an abundant, naturally occurring biopolymer, is often considered 'waste' and used as a simple fuel source in the paper-making process. However, lignin has emerged as a promising renewable resource for engineering materials, such as carbon fibers. Unfortunately, the molecular architecture of lignin (in vivo and extracted) is still elusive, with numerous conflicting reports in the literature, and knowledge of this structure is extremely important, not only for materials technologies, but also for production of biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol due to biomass recalcitrance. As such, the molecular structures of solvent-extracted (sulfur-free) lignins, which have been modified using various acyl chlorides, have been probed using small-angle X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution along with hydrodynamic characterization using dilute solution viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in THF. Mass spectrometry shows an absolute molecular weight {approx}18-30 kDa ({approx}80-140 monomers), while GPC shows a relative molecular weight {approx}3 kDa. A linear styrene oligomer (2.5 kDa) was also analyzed in THF using SANS. Results clearly show that lignin molecular architectures are somewhat rigid and complex, ranging from nanogels to hyperbranched macromolecules, not linear oligomers or physical assemblies of oligomers, which is consistent with previously proposed delignification (extraction) mechanisms. Future characterization using the methods discussed here can be used to guide extraction processes as well as genetic engineering technologies to convert lignin into value added materials with the potential for high positive impact on global sustainability.

Rials, Timothy G [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Langan, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Characterization and analysis of the molecular weight of lignin for biorefining studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular weight of lignin is a fundamental property that infl uences the recalcitrance of biomass and the valorization of lignin. The determination of the molecular weight of lignin in native biomass is dependent on the bioresources used and the isolation and purifi cation procedures employed. The three most commonly employed isolation methods are milled wood lignin (MWL), cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL), and enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL). Common characterization techniques for determining the molecular weight of lignin will be addressed, with an emphasis on gel permeation chromatography (GPC). This review also examines the mechanisms behind several biological, physical, and chemical pre-treatments and their impact on the molecular weight of lignin. The number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (D) all vary in magnitude depending on the biomass source, pre-treatment conditions, and isolation method. Additionally, there is a growing body of literature that supports changes in the molecular weight of lignin in response to genetic modifi cations in the lignin biosynthetic pathways. This review summarizes different procedures for obtaining the molecular weight of lignin that have been used in recent years and highlight future opportunities for applications of lignin.

Tolbert, Allison [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Akinosho, Hannah [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Khunsupat, Taya Ratayakorn [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Lignin Deposition on Cellulose During Hydrothermal Pretreatment, Its Effect Ridge, Tennessee ABSTRACT: In dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, lignin has been shown formed by hydrothermal pretreatment of a mixture of Avicel cellulose and poplar wood showed that lignin

California at Riverside, University of

127

Enhanced Expression and Hydrogen Peroxide Dependence of Lignin Peroxidase from Streptomyces viridosporus T7A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced Expression and Hydrogen Peroxide Dependence of Lignin Peroxidase from Streptomyces of Streptomyces viridosporus T7A lignin peroxidase isoform ALiP-P3 were increased by formulating a novel corn analysis. In addition, the lignin peroxidase activity was found to be highly dependent upon

Wood, Thomas K.

128

Studies on a brittle stem mutant of rice, Oryza sativa L. ; characterization of lignin fractions,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studies on a brittle stem mutant of rice, Oryza sativa L. ; characterization of lignin fractions 78850 Thiverva!-Grignon SUMMARY Lignin fractions, associated p-coumaric and ferulic acids and polysaccharides have been characterized in the straw and in three lignin fractions isolated from the rice cultivar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

Early diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in mangrove sediments subject to variable redox  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Early diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in mangrove sediments subject to variable redox Abstract A comparative study of lignin and neutral carbohydrate compositions, combined with C, N and 13C and lignin in brackish to hypersaline fine-grained mangrove sediments characterized by great changes in redox

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Lignin-degrading peroxidases in Polyporales: an evolutionary survey based on 10 sequenced genomes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lignin-degrading peroxidases in Polyporales: an evolutionary survey based on 10 sequenced genomes genes from the manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and versatile peroxidase (VP. Incorporation of an exposed tryptophan residue involved in oxidative degradation of lignin in a short Mn

Hibbett, David S.

131

Lignin degradation in wood-feeding insects Scott M. Geib*, Timothy R. Filley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lignin degradation in wood-feeding insects Scott M. Geib*, Timothy R. Filley , Patrick G. Hatcher, Deerfield, WI, and approved July 7, 2008 (received for review May 30, 2008) The aromatic polymer lignin lignocellulose degraded passes through arthropod guts, the fate of lignin in these systems is not known. Using

132

Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Xylan and Lignin Removal by Batch and Flowthrough Pretreatment on the Enzymatic understand these trade-offs, comparative data are reported on xylan and lignin removal and enzymatic with just water enhanced the xylan dissolution rate, more than doubled total lignin removal, and increased

California at Riverside, University of

133

2,4-Dichlorophenol Degradation Using Streptomyces viridosporus T7A Lignin Peroxidase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2,4-Dichlorophenol Degradation Using Streptomyces viridosporus T7A Lignin Peroxidase Dennis C. Yee, California 92697-2575 The Streptomyces viridosporus T7A bacterium produces the extracellular lignin from the ping- pong bireactant system that is typically used for horseradish peroxidase and lignin

Wood, Thomas K.

134

Influence de la teneur en lignines des aliments sur la composition des digesta et la production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Note Influence de la teneur en lignines des aliments sur la composition des digesta et la essentiellement par leur teneur en lignines Van Soest : 7,4 ; 12,8 et 16 p. 100. Les contenus de l'estomac, de l trois heures, durant 24 heures. L'accroissement de la teneur en lignines des aliments augmente la teneur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Author's personal copy Fate of CuO-derived lignin oxidation products during plant combustion natural chars originating from combustion of angiosperm/gymnosperm and woody/non-woody plants. The lignin to study the impact of combustion on lignins and their commonly used parameters. Our results show

Louchouarn, Patrick

136

Isolation and Quantification of Dissolved Lignin from Natural Waters Using Solid-Phase Extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Isolation and Quantification of Dissolved Lignin from Natural Waters Using Solid-Phase Extraction) was tested for the isolation of dissolved lignin from diverse natural waters (fresh, estuarine, and marine and quantification of trace levels of lignin in seawater. The low blanks and quick cleanup of C18 cartridges support

Louchouarn, Patrick

137

Access of Cellulase to Cellulose and Lignin for Poplar Solids Produced by Leading Pretreatment Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Access of Cellulase to Cellulose and Lignin for Poplar Solids Produced by Leading Pretreatment and adsorption of b-glucosidase for lignin left after enzymatic digestion of the solids from these pretreatments effectiveness was determined. Furthermore, Avicel hydrolysis inhibition by enzymatic and acid lignin of poplar

California at Riverside, University of

138

A comparative genomic analysis of the oxidative enzymes potentially involved in lignin degradation by Agaricus bisporus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A comparative genomic analysis of the oxidative enzymes potentially involved in lignin degradation an important role in lignin degradation. On the other hand, the expression patterns of the related CROs suggest of the global carbon cycle. This substrate is composed of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose and is degraded

Fried, Jeremy S.

139

Lignin biomarkers as tracers of mercury sources in lakes water column  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lignin biomarkers as tracers of mercury sources in lakes water column Jean-Franc¸ois Ouellet � Marc the autochthonous from the allochthonous organic matter (OM), lignin derived biomarker signa- tures [Lambda, S/V, C/V, P/(V ? S), 3,5-Bd/V and (Ad/Al)v] were used. Since lignin is exclusively produced by terrigenous

Long, Bernard

140

A Tomato Peroxidase Involved in the Synthesis of Lignin and Suberin1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Tomato Peroxidase Involved in the Synthesis of Lignin and Suberin1 Mo´nica Quiroga, Consuelo´laga, Spain (A.B.) The last step in the synthesis of lignin and suberin has been proposed to be catalyzed in the synthesis of lignin and suberin, five peroxidases from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) roots, representing

Málaga, Universidad de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Radiocarbon Dating of Individual Lignin Phenols: A New Approach for Establishing Chronology of Late  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiocarbon Dating of Individual Lignin Phenols: A New Approach for Establishing Chronology of Late- ered to sediments. We demonstrate that lignin phenols isolated from lake sediments using reversed phase for establishing chronology during the late Quaternary. We developed a procedure to purify lignin phenols, building

Hu, Feng Sheng

142

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil Kristen M. DeAngelis1 Abstract Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents

Hazen, Terry

143

Rumen microbial degradation of modified lignin plants observed by electron microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rumen microbial degradation of modified lignin plants observed by electron microscopy C Mign6, E-Genès-Champanelle, France The microbial degradation of modified lignin tobacco (Samson variety) plants (homozygous line 40 to the corresponding cinnamyl alcohols which are the direct monomeric precursors of the lignin. Only the stems were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

144

Lignin-derived thermoplastic co-polymers and methods of preparation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a crosslinked lignin comprising a lignin structure having methylene or ethylene linking groups therein crosslinking between phenyl ring carbon atoms, wherein said crosslinked lignin is crosslinked to an extent that it has a number-average molecular weight of at least 10,000 g/mol, is melt-processible, and has either a glass transition temperature of at least 100.degree. C., or is substantially soluble in a polar organic solvent or aqueous alkaline solution. Thermoplastic copolymers containing the crosslinked lignin are also described. Methods for producing the crosslinked lignin and thermoplastic copolymers are also described.

Naskar, Amit K.; Saito, Tomonori; Pickel, Joseph M.; Baker, Frederick S.; Eberle, Claude Clifford; Norris, Robert E.; Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

145

Solvent-Driven Preferential Association of Lignin with Regions of Crystalline Cellulose in Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The precipitation of lignin onto cellulose after pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an obstacle to economically viable cellulosic ethanol production. Here, 750 ns nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are reported of a system of lignin and cellulose in aqueous solution. Lignin is found to strongly associate with itself and the cellulose. However, noncrystalline regions of cellulose are observed to have a lower tendency to associate with lignin than crystalline regions, and this is found to arise from stronger hydration of the noncrystalline chains. The results suggest that the recalcitrance of crystalline cellulose to hydrolysis arises not only from the inaccessibility of inner fibers but also due to the promotion of lignin adhesion.

Lindner, Benjamin [ORNL] [ORNL; Petridis, Loukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Schulz, Roland [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

PII S0016-7037(99)00100-3 Lignin biomarkers and pollen in postglacial sediments of an Alaskan lake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PII S0016-7037(99)00100-3 Lignin biomarkers and pollen in postglacial sediments of an Alaskan lake of lignin polymers and compared their composition with pollen data from the same core to assess lignin from lignin-phenol composition agree with vegetational reconstructions based on pollen assemblages

Hu, Feng Sheng

147

Soda-anthraquinone lignin sacrificial agents in oil recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A supplemental oil recovery method comprising injecting into a subterranean formation a fluid containing soda-anthraquinone lignin which is adsorbed by adsorptive sites therein and functions as a sacrificial agent and thereafter injecting a micellar dispersion containing a surfactant into the subterranean formation to displace the oil contained therein.

Dardis, R. E.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

148

Computational Analysis of the Pyrolysis of ..beta..-O4 Lignin Model Compounds: Concerted vs. Homolytic Fragmentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels is a very attractive technology for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes and reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources. As with all such emerging technologies, biomass conversion through gasification or pyrolysis has a number of obstacles that need to be overcome to make these processes cost competitive with the refining of fossil fuels. Our current efforts have focused on the investigation of the thermochemistry of the linkages between lignin units using ab initio calculations on dimeric lignin model compounds. All calculations were carried out using M062X density functional theory at the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The M062X method has been shown to be consistent with the CBS-QB3 method while being significantly less computationally expensive. To date we have only completed the study on the b-O4 compounds. The theoretical calculations performed in the study indicate that concerted elimination pathways dominate over bond homolysis reactions under typical pyrolysis conditions. However, this does not mean that concerted elimination will be the dominant loss process for lignin. Bimolecular radical chemistry could very well dwarf the unimolecular pathways investigated in this study. These concerted pathways tend to form stable, reasonably non-reactive products that would be more suited producing a fungible bio-oil for the production of liquid transportation fuels.

Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Countercurrent Process for Lignin Separation from Biomass Matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project was to test the concept of using a twin-screw extruder to conduct autohydrolysis pretreatment of wheat straw in countercurrent fashion, demonstrate in situ solid/liquid separation, and produce a low-lignin cellulose product using ethanol as an extractant. The resultant solid product is suitable for sugar production through enzymatic hydrolysis and for pulp applications. Pilot-scale equipment was used to successfully demonstrate the process both for sugar and pulp applications.

Kiran Kadam; Ed Lehrburger

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

Jeffers, L.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Mechanistic Study of the Acid Degradation of Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a major constituent of biomass, which remains underutilized in selective biomass conversion strategies to renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we are interested in understanding the mechanisms related to the acid deconstruction of lignin with a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Two model dimers with a b-O-4 aryl ether linkage (2-phenoxy-1-phenethanol and 2-phenoxy-1-phenyl-1,3 propanediol) and model dimmers with an a-O-4 aryl ether linkage were synthesized and deconstructed in H2SO4. The major products of the acidolysis of the b-O-4 compounds consisted of phenol and two aldehydes, phenylacetaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Quantum mechanical calculations were employed to elucidate possible deconstruction mechanisms with transition state theory. To confirm proposed mechanisms several possible intermediates were studied under similar acidolysis conditions. Although the resonance time for cleavage was on the order several hours, we have shown that the cleavage of the aryl ether linkage affords phenol and aldehydes. We would next like to utilize our mechanism of aryl ether cleavage in actual lignin.

Sturgeon, M.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Synthesis and Characterization of Transition Metal Complexes Useful for the Catalytic Deconstruction of Lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is an earth-abundant biopolymer that is grossly underutilized as a source of fuels and value-added chemicals. However, lignin is an intractable heteropolymer, which makes it difficult to deconstruct and upgrade in many chemically selective biomass conversion routes. The development of new catalytic routes to depolymerize this recalcitrant biopolymer is required to more effectively utilize lignin. To that end, our group aims to synthesize and characterize a collection of inorganic and organometallic catalysts to promote atom-economical catalytic lignin depolymerization. These catalysts have been screened against a continuum of model compounds and biomass-derived lignin for their usefulness in the deconstruction of these substrates. In addition, we have coupled our experimental efforts with quantum mechanical calculations to elucidate the mechanisms of catalysts to identify the mechanisms of lignin depolymerization. Detailed synthetic procedures, as well as spectroscopic and crystallographic characterization and DFT calculations will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; Kim, S.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

154

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

155

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

Jeffers, Larry A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Liberty Township, Trumbull County, OH)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian L.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry C.

2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

158

Revue sur les mthodes de dosage de la lignine utilises en alimentation animale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Revue sur les méthodes de dosage de la lignine utilisées en alimentation animale Sylvie GIGER I 75231 Paris Cedex 05 Résumé La lignine est un composé pariétal de nature non glucidique dont la lignine dans le contexte de l'alimentation animale sont rares. Avec les données actuellement disponibles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Utilisation digestive de rations riches en lignines chez le lapin en croissance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilisation digestive de rations riches en lignines chez le lapin en croissance: mesures de flux et digestion de la ration sont mal connus chez le lapin. L'effet de hautes teneurs en lignines sur la digestion), caractérisé essentiellement par sa teneur variable en lignines VAN SOEST: 7,4 (lot B) ; 12,8 (lot M) et 16,0 p

Boyer, Edmond

160

Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose of sustainable products such as nanocellulose and biocomposites from forest biomass; biorefining to develop high

Li, Mo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Optimizing Noncovalent Interactions Between Lignin and Synthetic Polymers to Develop Effective Compatibilizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments are designed and completed to identify an effective polymeric compatibilizer for lignin polystyrene blends. Copolymers of styrene and vinylphenol are chosen as the structure of the compatibilizer as the VPh unit can readily form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lignin molecule. Electron microscopy, thermal analysis, and neutron refl ectivity results demonstrate that among these compatibilizers, a copolymer of styrene and VPh with 20% 30% VPh most readily forms intermolecular interactions with the lignin molecule and results in the most well-dispersed blends with lignin. This behavior is explained by invoking the competition of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding and functional group accessibility in forming intermolecular interactions.

Henry, Nathan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Harper, David [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), Center for Renewable Carbon; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

LIGNIN UNLOCKING PROCESS IN WOOD-FEEDING TERMITES FOR EFFECTIVE BIOMASS SUGAR RELEASE .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study explored a unique lignin unlocking process in wood-feeding termite (WFT) Coptotermes formosanus (Shiraki) for subsequent effective polysaccharide utilization during the digestion of woody… (more)

[No author

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Lignin biosynthesis in Norway spruce: from a model system to the tree.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Lignin is a hydrophobic polymer that is synthesised in the secondary cell walls of all vascular plants. It enables water conduction through the stem, supports… (more)

Koutaniemi, Sanna

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Deciphering the Enigma of Lignification: Precursor Transport, Oxidation, and the Topochemistry of Lignin Assembly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plant lignification is a tightly regulated complex cellular process that occurs via three sequential steps: the synthesis of monolignols within the cytosol; the transport of monomeric precursors across plasma membrane; and the oxidative polymerization of monolignols to form lignin macromolecules within the cell wall. Although we have a reasonable understanding of monolignol biosynthesis, many aspects of lignin assembly remain elusive. These include the precursors transport and oxidation, and the initiation of lignin polymerization. This review describes our current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol transport and oxidation, discusses the intriguing yet least-understood aspects of lignin assembly, and highlights the technologies potentially aiding in clarifying the enigma of plant lignification.

Liu C. J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Lignin dynamics in arable soils as determined by 13C natural abundance.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Lignin is the second most abundant polymer in nature after the polysaccharides cellulose and hemicellulose. It is a main component in plant cell walls, where… (more)

Hofmann, A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Effect of raw material and Kraft Pulping Conditions on Characteristics of Dissolved Lignin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Lignin is one of the main components in wood and during the chemical pulping processes it is degraded and dissolved into the cooking liquor.… (more)

Svärd, Antonia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Lignin as Both Fuel and Fusing Binder in Briquetted Anthracite Fines for Foundry Coke Substitute.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Lignin that had been extracted from Kraft black liquor was investigated as a fusing binder in briquetted anthracite fines for a foundry coke substitute. Cupola… (more)

Lumadue, Matthew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Final Report: Investigation of Catalytic Pathways for Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a biopolymer that comprises up to 35% of woody biomass by dry weight. It is currently underutilized compared to cellulose and hemicellulose, the other two primary components of woody biomass. Lignin has an irregular structure of methoxylated aromatic groups linked by a suite of ether and alkyl bonds which makes it difficult to degrade selectively. However, the aromatic components of lignin also make it promising as a base material for the production of aromatic fuel additives and cyclic chemical feed stocks such as styrene, benzene, and cyclohexanol. Our laboratory research focused on three methods to selectively cleave and deoxygenate purified lignin under mild conditions: acidolysis, hydrogenation and electrocatalysis. (1) Acidolysis was undertaken in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. (2) Hydrogenation was carried out by dissolving lignin and a rhodium catalyst in 1:1 water:methoxyethanol under a 1 atm H2 environment. (3) Electrocatalysis of lignin involved reacting electrically generated hydrogen atoms at a catalytic palladium cathode with lignin dissolved in a solution of aqueous methanol. In all of the experiments, the lignin degradation products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and flame ionization detection. Yields were low, but this may have reflected the difficulty in recovering the various fractions after conversion. The homogeneous hydrogenation of lignin showed fragmentation into monomers, while the electrocatalytic hydrogenation showed production of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and substituted benzenes. In addition to the experiments, promising pathways for the conversion of lignin were assessed. Three conversion methods were compared based on their material and energy inputs and proposed improvements using better catalyst and process technology. A variety of areas were noted as needing further experimental and theoretical effort to increase the feasibility of lignin conversion to fuels.

Gluckstein, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Sturgeon, Matthew R [ORNL

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Gamma irradiation effects on the biodegradation of lignin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parts: biological utilization of irradiated Calcium Lignosulphonate (CLS) and irradiation effects on the composition of CLS. The CLS used in this study was a commercially available lignin compound which is produced by flash evaporation of spent... 4/ X / 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 5. 0 6. 0 7. 0 Wavelength in microns 8. 0 9. 0 28 CHAPTER VI RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS A commercia I CLS was irradiated in a dry state to various total dose levels of Co-60 gamma rays. The effects on the structure...

Krysinski, Thomas Leon

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Lignin Utilization Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty LeanDepartment of EnergyLignin

171

Imaging Lignin-Downregulated Alfalfa Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Imaging Lignin-Downregulated Alfalfa Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy Yining-downregulated alfalfa lines were imaged using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. The 1,600-cm-1 (CARS) . Lignin-downregulated alfalfa Introduction Lignocellulosic biomass is under consideration

Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

172

Conversion of lignin precursors to carbon fibers with nanoscale graphitic domains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fiber, monolithic structures or powders that could be used directly in the production of anodes for lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we report processing parameters relevant for the conversion of lignin precursors into electrochemically active carbon fibers, the impact of lignin precursor modification on melt processing and the microstructure of the final carbon material. The conversion process encompasses melt spinning of the lignin precursor, oxidative stabilization and a low temperature carbonization step in a nitrogen/hydrogen atmosphere. To assess electrochemical performance, we determined resistivities of individual carbon fiber samples and characterized the microstructure by scanning electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. The chemical modification and subsequent thermomechanical processing methods reported here are effective for conversion into carbon fibers while preserving the macromolecular backbone structure of lignin. Modification of softwood lignin produced functionalities and rheological properties that more closely resemble hardwood lignin thereby enabling the melt processing of softwood lignin in oxidative atmospheres (air). Structural characterization of the carbonized fibers reveals nanoscale graphitic domains that are linked to enhanced electrochemical performance.

Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL; Jones, Eric B [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Keffer, David J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Johs, Alexander [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

The Effect of Flow Rate of Very Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Xylan, Lignin, and Total Mass Removal from Corn Stover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Effect of Flow Rate of Very Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Xylan, Lignin, and Total Mass Removal from mass, xylan, and lignin and increases cellulose digestibility compared to batch operations at otherwise at a constant residence time also significantly accelerated xylan solubilization. Although lignin removal

California at Riverside, University of

174

Transformations of 14C lignin cell walls of wheat by a fungus and by bacteria from the rumen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transformations of 14C lignin cell walls of wheat by a fungus and by bacteria from the rumen MA but little is known about the fate of lignins. The aim of this work was to study the transformation of 14C lignins of wheat straw by ruminal bacteria and fungi. Cell walls of wheat straw apical internodes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

Origin and diagenesis of lignin and carbohydrates in mangrove sediments of Guadeloupe (French West Indies): Evidence for a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Origin and diagenesis of lignin and carbohydrates in mangrove sediments of Guadeloupe (French West the molecular composition (carbohydrates and lignin-derived phenols) of these organic deposits in relationship synthesized by bacteria. On the other hand, lignin phenols were lost rather slowly, i.e. at a similar or lower

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

VIRAL INHIBITION STUDIES ON SULFATED LIGNIN, A CHEMICALLY MODIFIED BIOPOLYMER AND A POTENTIAL MIMIC OF HEPARAN SULFATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VIRAL INHIBITION STUDIES ON SULFATED LIGNIN, A CHEMICALLY MODIFIED BIOPOLYMER AND A POTENTIAL MIMIC; HSV, herpes simplex virus; IdoAp, iduronic acid residue; LS, lignin sulfate; MoS, morin sulfate; Keywords: Lignin sulfate; Heparan sulfate mimics; Anti-viral activity; Molecular modeling; HIV; HSV #12

Desai, Umesh R

177

Separation of kraft lignin from kraft black liquor: Final report, July 1984-April 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of this work is related to the fact that with over 16 million tons of kraft lignin available annually, practically all of it is burned just for its heat value. In essence, kraft lignin has no real value except its heat value. The major accomplishments of this research has shown that it is possible to produce high purity kraft lignin from kraft black liquor. This patented technology represents a way of producing a material that can be utilized in a wide variety of markets. Kraft lignin that was produced using this technology was sent to major corporations who used this kraft lignin as a starting material in their chemical processes. 3 figs.

Kurple, K.R.

1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

178

Experimental Investigation of the Kinetics of a Ruthenium-Catalyzed Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive. In this work, we have investigated the kinetics of the catalytic deconstruction of lignin model compounds using a ruthenium catalyst reported by Bergman et al. in 2010. A series of investigations using NMR spectroscopy and GC/MS will be presented. In addition, we propose detailed mechanisms for lignin depolymerization with ruthenium catalysts. We have also used DFT to compute transition state geometries of catalytic cycle intermediates and compare the values determined computationally with those observed experimentally. Ultimately, our objective is to apply our methods to the design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts for the effective deconstruction and valorization of lignin.

Bu, L.; Nimlos, M. R.; Shirts, M. R.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

180

The Paleozoic origin of enzymatic mechanisms for lignin degradation reconstructed using 31 fungal genomes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood is a major pool of organic carbon that is highly resistant to decay, owing largely to the presence of lignin. The only organisms capable of substantial lignin decay are white rot fungi in the Agaricomycetes, which also contains non?lignin-degrading brown rot and ectomycorrhizal species. Comparative analyses of 31 fungal genomes (12 generated for this study) suggest that lignin-degrading peroxidases expanded in the lineage leading to the ancestor of the Agaricomycetes, which is reconstructed as a white rot species, and then contracted in parallel lineages leading to brown rot and mycorrhizal species. Molecular clock analyses suggest that the origin of lignin degradation might have coincided with the sharp decrease in the rate of organic carbon burial around the end of the Carboniferous period.

Floudas, Dimitrios; Binder, Manfred; Riley, Robert; Barry, Kerrie; Blanchette, Robert A; Henrissat, Bernard; Martinez, Angel T.; Otillar, Robert; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Yadav, Jagit S.; Aerts, Andrea; Benoit, Isabelle; Boyd, Alex; Carlson, Alexis; Copeland, Alex; Coutinho, Pedro M.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Findley, Keisha; Foster, Brian; Gaskell, Jill; Glotzer, Dylan; Gorecki, Pawel; Heitman, Joseph; Hesse, Cedar; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Jurgens, Joel A.; Kallen, Nathan; Kersten, Phil; Kohler, Annegret; Kues, Ursula; Kumar, T. K. Arun; Kuo, Alan; LaButti, Kurt; Larrondo, Luis F.; Lindquist, Erika; Ling, Albee; Lombard, Vincent; Lucas, Susan; Lundell, Taina; Martin, Rachael; McLaughlin, David J.; Morgenstern, Ingo; Morin, Emanuelle; Murat, Claude; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Nolan, Matt; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Rokas, Antonis; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Salamov, Asaf; Samejima, Masahiro; Schmutz, Jeremy; Slot, Jason C.; St. John, Franz; Stenlid, Jan; Sun, Hui; Sun, Sheng; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Tsang, Adrian; Wiebenga, Ad; Young, Darcy; Pisabarro, Antonio; Eastwood, Daniel C.; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Estimation de la digestibilit de l'herbe pture par le mouton adulte au moyen de la lignine selon Christian. Essais prliminaires (1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimation de la digestibilité de l'herbe pâturée par le mouton adulte au moyen de la lignine selon determined in grazing sheep by independent methods : nitrogen and lignin faecal indexes and by the lignin ratio technique (oesophageal fistulas). Lignin determined by Christian's method, was previously shown

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation in Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 was initially cultivated based on anaerobic growth on lignin as sole carbon source. The source of the isolated bacteria was from tropical forest soils that decompose litter rapidly with low and fluctuating redox potentials, making it likely that bacteria using oxygen-independent enzymes play an important role in decomposition. We have examined differential expression of the anaerobic isolate Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 during growth on lignin. After 48 hours of growth, we used transcriptomics and proteomics to define the enzymes and other regulatory machinery that these organisms use to degrade lignin, as well as metabolomics to measure lignin degradation and monitor the use of lignin and iron as terminal electron acceptors that facilitate more efficient use of carbon. Proteomics revealed accelerated xylose uptake and metabolism under lignin-amended growth, and lignin degradation via the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation pathway, catalase/peroxidase enzymes, and the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase proteins. We also observed increased production of NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, other electron transport chain proteins, and ATP synthase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Our data shows the advantages of a multi-omics approach, where incomplete pathways identified by genomics were completed, and new observations made on coping with poor carbon availability. The fast growth, high efficiency and specificity of enzymes employed in bacterial anaerobic litter deconstruction makes these soils useful templates for improving biofuel production.

DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Sharma, Deepak; Varney, Rebecca; Simmons, Blake A.; Isern, Nancy G.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Robinson, Errol W.

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

183

Synthesis and characterization of lignin-based carbon materials with tunable microstructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin-based carbons can be used as a low-cost alternative to graphite and petroleum-based carbons enabling the production of sustainable, functional carbon materials for various applications. The microstructure development of these carbons can be controlled through chemical modification of the lignin precursor and choice of carbonization parameters. In this work, microstructured carbon materials are synthesized from lignin using a combination of chemical modification and carbon fiber processing techniques. Lignin is modified by incorporating different ester groups which results in a precursor highly compatible with melt processing using the fiber extrusion technique and conversion into microstructured carbons by oxidative stabilization and subsequent carbonization. Furthermore, the impact of esterifications on precursor chemistry and carbonizations is investigated. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of modified lignins shows characteristic spectral changes as a result of esterifications. Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry shows the modification process does not affect the polymeric character of the lignin backbone. Esterifications result in moderate shifts in O:C and H:C ratios. Thermogravimetric analysis of lignins reveals distinct differences in mass loss trends during oxidations and carbonizations.

Chatterjee, Sabornie [ORNL] [ORNL; Clingenpeel, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida] [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; McKenna, Amy [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida] [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (Magnet Lab), Florida; Rios, Orlando [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Structural Analysis of Novel Lignin-derived Carbon Composite Anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of novel lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains motivates the understanding of a relationship of the structural properties characterizing these materials, such as crystallite size, intracrystallite dspacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density, with their pair distribution functions (PDF), obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering. A model for these composite materials is developed as a function of experimentally measurable parameters and realized in fifteen composite systems, three of which directly match all parameters of their experimental counterparts. The accurate reproduction of the experimental PDFs using the model systems validates the model. The decomposition of the simulated PDFs provides an understanding of each feature in the PDF and allows for the development of a mapping between the defining characteristics of the PDF and the material properties of interest.

McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL; Keffer, David J [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Lignin biosynthesis perturbations affect secondary cell wall composition and saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Background Second-generation biofuels are generally produced from the polysaccharides in the lignocellulosic plant biomass, mainly cellulose. However, because cellulose is embedded in a matrix of other polysaccharides and lignin, its...

Van Acker, Rebecca; Vanholme, Ruben; Storme, Véronique; Mortimer, Jennifer C; Dupree, Paul; Boerjan, Wout

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

187

Determination of absolute molecular mass distribution and other structural properties of kraft lignin samples.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Lignin is an aromatic macromolecule present in wood and also a by-product in the process of making paper. For a long time, this by-product… (more)

Chedid, Fadia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Batch Microreactor Studies of Lignin Depolymerization by Bases. 2. Aqueous Solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass feedstocks contain roughly 15-30% lignin, a substance that can not be converted to fermentable sugars. Hence, most schemes for producing biofuels assume that the lignin coproduct will be utilized as boiler fuel. Yet, the chemical structure of lignin suggests that it will make an excellent high value fuel additive, if it can be broken down into smaller compounds. From Fiscal year 1997 through Fiscal year 2001, Sandia National Laboratories participated in a cooperative effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of Utah to develop and scale a base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) process for lignin conversion. SNL's primary role in the effort was to perform kinetic studies, examine the reaction chemistry, and to develop alternate BCD catalyst systems. This report summarizes the work performed at Sandia during Fiscal Year 1999 through Fiscal Year 2001 with aqueous systems. Work with alcohol based systems is summarized in part 1 of this report. Our study of lignin depolymerization by aqueous NaOH showed that the primary factor governing the extent of lignin conversion is the NaOH:lignin ratio. NaOH concentration is at best a secondary issue. The maximum lignin conversion is achieved at NaOH:lignin mole ratios of 1.5-2. This is consistent with acidic compounds in the depolymerized lignin neutralizing the base catalyst. The addition of CaO to NaOH improves the reaction kinetics, but not the degree of lignin conversion. The combination of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CaO offers a cost saving alternative to NaOH that performs identically to NaOH on a per Na basis. A process where CaO is regenerated from CaCO{sub 3} could offer further advantages, as could recovering the Na as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} or NaHCO{sub 3} by neutralization of the product solution with CO2. Model compound studies show that two types of reactions involving methoxy substituents on the aromatic ring occur: methyl group migration between phenolic groups (making and breaking ether bonds) and the loss of methyl/methoxy groups from the aromatic ring (destruction of ether linkages). The migration reactions are significantly faster than the demethylation reactions, but ultimately demethylation processes predominates.

MILLER, JAMES E.; EVANS, LINDSEY; MUDD, JASON E.; BROWN, KARA A.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Self-similar multiscale structure of lignin revealed by neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin, a major polymeric component of plant cell walls, forms aggregates in vivo and poses a barrier to cellulosic ethanol production. Here, neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations reveal that lignin aggregates are characterized by a surface fractal dimension that is invariant under change of scale from ~1 1000 . The simulations also reveal extensive water penetration of the aggregates and heterogeneous chain dynamics corresponding to a rigid core with a fluid surface.

Petridis, Loukas [ORNL; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Heller, William T [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Foston, Marcus [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ragauskas, A J [Georgia Institute of Technology; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Complexes to be Employed in the Catalytic Depolymerization of Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is an earth-abundant biopolymer that is grossly underutilized as a value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading to fuels and chemicals. The development of new mild and selective catalytic routes to depolymerize this recalcitrant biopolymer is required to more effectively utilize lignin. To that end, our group aims to synthesize and characterize a collection of organometallic catalysts to promote atom-economical catalytic lignin deconstruction. These catalysts have been screened against dimeric lignin model compounds in order to gain mechanistic insights into their modes of action. In addition, experimental efforts have been coupled with quantum mechanical calculations to elucidate solution behavior of the catalysts as well as the mechanisms of lignin depolymerization. Detailed synthetic procedures, as well as spectroscopic and crystallographic characterization and DFT calculations will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; Kim, S.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

O-Dmthylation et mtabolisme du groupe mthoxyle de l'acide vanillique, monomre modle de la lignine,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lignine, par la bactérie du rumen Syntrophococcus sucromutans J Doré MP Bryant2 1 Laboratoire de Sciences, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Summary ― The O-demethylation of a lignin monomer by washed cells'assurer une des pre- mières étapes de la dégradation des mo- nomères aromatiques dérivés de la lignine : la

Boyer, Edmond

192

Phenotypic classes of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the isolation of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the results of a survey of idiophasic functions among these mutants. The mutant strains were isolated from a medium containing o-anisidine after gamma irradiation of wild-type spores and fell into four classes, divided by the manner in which they mineralized /sup 14/C-lignin wheat lignocellulose. Examples are strain LMT7, which degraded lignin at a rate similar to that of the wild type; strain LMT26, in which degradation was enhanced; strain LMT16, whose degradation rate was apparently unaffected, although the onset of lignin attack was delayed compared with that in the wild type; and strain LMT24, which was unable to evolve significant amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from the radiolabeled substrate. The mutants were not necessarily defective in other functions associated with idiophasic activities (intracellular cyclic AMP levels, sporulation, extracellular glucan production, veratryl alcohol synthesis). The authors conclude that phenoloxidase activity as detected by the o-anisidine plate test is not necessary for lignin degradation. In addition, mutations resulting in the loss of lignin-degrading ability were not necessarily pleiotropic with other idiophasic functions.

Liwicki, R.; Paterson, A.; MacDonald, M.J.; Broda, P.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Determining the Effect of Concerted Elimination Reactions in the Pyrolysis of Lignin Using Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin pyrolysis is a significant impediment in forming liquid fuel from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at a higher temperature than other biomass components (ie cellulose, hemicellulose) and tends to form radicals which lead to cross linking and ultimately char formation. A primary step in advances biomass-to-fuel technology will be to discover mechanisms that can disassemble lignin at lower temperatures and depolymerize lignin into more stable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin ({beta}-O4, {alpha}-O4, {beta}-{beta}, {beta}-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to the usually-assumed bond homolysis reactions, we have investigated a variety of concerted elimination pathways that will tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

Robichaud, D.; Clark, J.; Nimlos, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Experimental and Computational Methods for the Deconstruction and Valorization of Lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is among the most abundant natural heteropolymers on Earth. While lignin represents an abundant feedstock material for the production of renewable fuels and value-added chemicals, it is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. My work at NREL has focused on elucidating deconstruction pathways of this recalcitrant polymer using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. This entails testing putative catalyst species against a library of model compounds as well as using computational modeling of the substrates and catalysts to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. From these preliminary studies, I hope to develop strategies for the selective conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Synthetic techniques applicable to a model compound library, synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of catalyst species, as well as DFT studies of all of the aforementioned will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Computational Study of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies for Lignin Model Compounds: $\\beta$-5 Arylcoumaran  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The biopolymer lignin is a potential source of valuable chemicals. The $\\beta$-5 linkage comprises $\\sim$10\\% of the linkages in lignin. Density Functional Theory (DFT) was used to calculate the $\\alpha$C-O and $\\alpha$C-$\\beta$C bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) for $\\beta$-5 models with varied substituents, which are important for understanding initial lignin decomposition. The $\\alpha$C-O ($\\alpha$C-$\\beta$C) BDEs were in the range of 40-44 (57-62) kcal/mol. The products resulting from either homolysis are bi-radicals with multi-determinant character in the singlet electronic state. Multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF) theory results were used to verify that unrestricted DFT and broken-symmetry DFT were sufficient to study these reactions.

Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL; Younker, Jarod M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Top Value-Added Chemicals from Biomass - Volume II—Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Biorefinery Lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates lignin’s role as a renewable raw material resource. Opportunities that arise from utilizing lignin fit into one of three categories: 1)power, fuel and syngas (generally near-term opportunities) 2) macromolecules (generally medium-term opportunities) 3) aromatics and miscellaneous monomers (long-term opportunities). Biorefineries will receive and process massive amounts of lignin. For this reason, how lignin can be best used to support the economic health of the biorefinery must be defined. An approach that only considers process heat would be shortsighted. Higher value products present economic opportunities and the potential to significantly increase the amount of liquid transportation fuel available from biomass. In this analysis a list of potential uses of lignin was compiled and sorted into “product types” which are broad classifications (listed above as power—fuel—syngas; macromolecules; and aromatics). In the first “product type” (power—fuel—gasification) lignin is used purely as a carbon source and aggressive means are employed to break down its polymeric structure. In the second “product type” (macromolecules) the opposite extreme is considered and advantage of the macromolecular structure imparted by nature is retained in high-molecular weight applications. The third “product type” (aromatics) lies somewhere between the two extremes and employs technologies that would break up lignin’s macromolecular structure but maintain the aromatic nature of the building block molecules. The individual opportunities were evaluated based on their technical difficulty, market, market risk, building block utility, and whether a pure material or a mixture would be produced. Unlike the “Sugars Top 10” report it was difficult to identify the ten best opportunities, however, the potential opportunities fell nicely into near-, medium- and long-term opportunities. Furthermore, the near-, medium- and long-term opportunities roughly align with the three “product types.” From this analysis a list of technical barriers was developed which can be used to identify research needs. Lignin presents many challenges for use in the biorefinery. Chemically it differs from sugars having a complex aromatic substructure. Unlike cellulose, which has a relatively simple substructure of glucose subunits, lignin has a high degree of variability in its structure which differs both from biomass source and from the recovery process used. In addition to its variability lignin is also reactive and to some degree less stable thermally and oxidatively to other biomass streams. What this means is that integrating a lignin process stream within the biorefinery will require identifying the best method to separate lignin from biomass cost-effectively.

Holladay, John E.; White, James F.; Bozell, Joseph J.; Johnson, David

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Deciphering the impact of land-uses on terrestrial organic matter and mercury inputs to large boreal lakes of central Qubec using lignin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

boreal lakes of central Québec using lignin biomarkers Matthieu Moingt , Marc Lucotte, Serge Paquet in sediment cores. In each core, THg concentrations gradually increased over the recent years. Using lignin a powerful tool to reconstruct both Hg and TOM transfers from the watersheds to the aquatic systems. Lignin

198

Influence of light on labelling of wheat stem lignins using [U14C] phenylalanine or [O14CH3] sinapic acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of light on labelling of wheat stem lignins using [U14C] phenylalanine or [O14CH3, 118, route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France In order to investigate the fate of lignin during lignin in the dark or in the light. Batches of 5 wheat-straw upper internodes (flowery stage) were

Boyer, Edmond

199

Catalytic C-O Bond Cleavage of 2-Aryloxy-1-arylethanols and Its Application to the Depolymerization of Lignin-Related Polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Lignin-Related Polymers Jason M. Nichols, Lee M. Bishop, Robert G. Bergman,* and Jonathan A. Ellman yield. This reaction is applicable to breaking the key ethereal bond found in lignin-related polymers depolymerization of a lignin-related polymer quantitatively yields the corresponding monomer with no added reagent

200

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Batch Microreactor Studies of Lignin Depolymerization by Bases. 1. Alcohol Solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass feedstocks contain roughly 10-30% lignin, a substance that can not be converted to fermentable sugars. Hence, most schemes for producing biofuels (ethanol) assume that the lignin coproduct will be utilized as boiler fuel to provide heat and power to the process. However, the chemical structure of lignin suggests that it will make an excellent high value fuel additive, if it can be broken down into smaller molecular units. From fiscal year 1997 through fiscal year 2001, Sandia National Laboratories was a participant in a cooperative effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of Utah to develop and scale a base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) process for lignin conversion. SNL's primary role in the effort was to utilize rapidly heated batch microreactors to perform kinetic studies, examine the reaction chemistry, and to develop alternate catalyst systems for the BCD process. This report summarizes the work performed at Sandia during FY97 and FY98 with alcohol based systems. More recent work with aqueous based systems will be summarized in a second report.

MILLER, JAMES E.; EVANS, LINDSEY; LITTLEWOLF, ALICIA; TRUDELL, DANIEL E.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Separation of kraft lignin from kraft black liquor: Final report, July 1984-April 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All the objectives were accomplished: a high-quality kraft lignin containing less than 50 ppM sodium was separated into a solvent phase (freon) from as much as 1000 lb kraft black liquor. Supporting data (infrared spectra, chemical analyses, etc.) are included. (DLC)

Kurple, K.R.

1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

On the characterization and spinning of solvent extracted lignin towards the manufacture of low-cost carbon fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: A Kraft hardwood lignin (HWL) and an organic-purified hardwood lignin (HWL-OP) were evaluated as potential precursors for the production of lowcost carbon fibers. It was found that the unpurified HWL exhibited poor spinnability while the HWL-OP exhibited excellent spinnability characteristics. Fibers of various diameters were obtained from the HWL-OP. Thermostabilization studies showed that oxidative stabilization can only be used to convert HWL-OP-based fibers into carbon fibers if extremely low heating rates are applied. Carbonized lignin-based fibers had tensile strength of 0.51 GPa and tensile modulus of 28.6 GPa. VC

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

A Preliminary Study of Oxidation of Lignin from Rubber Wood to Vanillin in Ionic Liquid Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, lignin was oxidised to vanillin by means of oxygen in ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate) medium. The parameters of the oxidation reaction that have been investigated were the following: concentration of oxygen (5, 10, 15 and 20 ft3 h-1), reaction time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) and reaction temperature (25, 40, 60, 80 and 100{\\deg}C). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses were used to characterise the product. The results revealed vanillin as the product obtained via the oxidation reaction. The optimum parameters of vanillin production were 20 ft3 h-1 of oxygen for 10 h at 100{\\deg}C. In conclusion, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate could be used as an oxidation reaction medium for the production of vanillin from rubber wood lignin.

Shamsuri, A A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Radical Coupling Reactions in Lignin Synthesis: A Density Functional Theory Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a complex, heterogeneous polymer in plant cell walls that provides mechanical strength to the plant stem and confers resistance to degrading microbes, enzymes, and chemicals. Lignin synthesis initiates through oxidative radical-radical coupling of monolignols, the most common of which are p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohols. Here, we use density functional theory to characterize radical-radical coupling reactions involved in monolignol dimerization. We compute reaction enthalpies for the initial self- and cross-coupling reactions of these monolignol radicals to form dimeric intermediates via six major linkages observed in natural lignin. The 8-O-4, 8-8, and 8-5 coupling are computed to be the most favorable, whereas the 5-O-4, 5-5, and 8-1 linkages are less favorable. Overall, p-coumaryl self- and cross-coupling reactions are calculated to be the most favorable. For cross-coupling reactions, in which each radical can couple via either of the two sites involved in dimer formation, the more reactive of the two radicals is found to undergo coupling at its site with the highest spin density.

Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Standaert, R. F.; Ziebell, A.; Davis, M.; Smith, J. C.

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

207

Direct Detection of Soil mRNAs using Targeted Microarrays for Genes Associated with Lignin Degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microarrays have become established tools for describing microbial systems, however the assessment of expression profiles for environmental microbial communities still presents unique challenges. Notably, the concentration of particular transcripts are likely very dilute relative to the pool of total RNA, and PCR-based amplification strategies are vulnerable to amplification biases and the appropriate primer selection. Thus, we apply a signal amplification approach, rather than template amplification, to analyze the expression of genes encoding selected lignin-degrading enzymes in soil. Controls in the form of known amplicons and cDNA from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were included and mixed with the soil cDNA both before and after the signal amplification in order to assess the dynamic range of the microarray. We demonstrate that restored prairie soil expresses a diverse range of genes encoding lignin-degrading enzymes following incubation with lignin substrate, while farmed agricultural soil does not. The mixed additions of control cDNA with soil cDNA does interfere with detection of the low abundance transcripts, nevertheless this microarray approach consistently reports the higher-abundance transcripts which present more robust signals.

Bailey, Vanessa L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Smith, Jeff L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Bolton, Harvey

2010-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

208

Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

209

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to China (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NCHDMCF"...

210

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

"Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to China (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0EVESAK-NCHDMCF"...

211

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2:47:13 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to China (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0EVESAK-NCHMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S....

212

Continuous on-line measurement of lignin concentration in wood pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

Jeffers, L.A.; Roman, G.W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

214

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat ContentHeat Content

215

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content ofHeat Content

216

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat ContentHeat Content of

217

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat ContentHeat Content

218

Current Biology 19, 169175, January 27, 2009 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.031 Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.cub.2008.12.031 Report Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed Reveals Convergent Evolution of Cell in the evolution of terrestrial plants from aquatic ancestors some 475 million years ago [1­3]. Lignins, complex an erect-growth habit in air. Although ``lignin-like'' compounds have been identi- fied in primitive green

Martone, Patrick T.

219

ReaxFF Study of the Oxidation of Lignin Model Compounds for the Most Common Linkages in Softwood in View of Carbon Fiber Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is an underused but major component of biomass. One possible area of utilization is the production of carbon fiber. A necessary processing step is the stabilization of lignin fiber (typically in an oxygen environment) before high temperature treatment. We investigate oxidative, thermal conversion of lignin using computational methods. Dilignol model compounds for the most common (seven) linkages in softwood are chosen to represent the diverse structure of lignin. We perform molecular dynamics simulation where the potential energy surface is described by a reactive force field (ReaxFF). We calculate overall activation energies for model conversion and reveal initial mechanisms of formaldehyde formation. We record fragmentation patterns and average carbon oxidation numbers at various temperatures. Most importantly, we identify mechanisms for stabilizing reactions that result in cyclic, and rigid connections in softwood lignin fibers that are necessary for further processing into carbon fibers.

Beste, Ariana [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Comparison of selected fuel and chemical content values for seven Populus hybrid clones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel and chemical content values were determined for seven Populus clones by component (wood, bark, and wood/bark specimens) and tissue age (1 to 8 years old). The fuel and chemical content values obtained included: gross heat of combustion, extractives, holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, lignin and ash. In general, analysis of the data for the wood, bark, and wood/bark specimens indicated that: 1) wood was higher in holocellulose and alpha-cellulose content than bark; 2) bark was higher in gross heat of combustion, lignin, extractive, and ash content values than wood; and 3) combined wood/bark fuel and chemical content values were usually between the individual values for the wood and bark. Statistical analyses indicated that significant differences existed within and among clones. Within the wood, bark, and wood/bark specimens, tissue age influenced the chemical content values more than the parentage. Potential chemical yields derived from the seven Populus hybrid clones investigated will depend on component and age with limited parentage effects. 15 references.

Blankenhorn, P.R.; Bowersox, T.W.; Kuklewski, K.M.; Stimely, G.L.; Murphey, W.K.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318

222

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090

223

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries to ConsumersHeat Content

224

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat Content of Natural

225

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat Content of

226

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat Content ofHeat

227

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat Content ofHeatHeat

228

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat Content

229

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat ContentHeat

230

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat ContentHeatHeat

231

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeat ContentHeatHeatHeat

232

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeat Content of

233

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeat Content ofHeat

234

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeat Content

235

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeat ContentHeat

236

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeat ContentHeatHeat

237

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeatHeat Content of

238

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeatHeat Content

239

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeatHeat ContentHeat

240

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveries toHeatHeatHeatHeat Content

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content of Natural Gas

242

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content of Natural

243

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content of NaturalHeat

244

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content of

245

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content ofHeat

246

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content ofHeatHeat

247

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content ofHeatHeatHeat

248

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat Content

249

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat ContentHeat

250

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat ContentHeatHeat

251

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeat ContentHeatHeatHeat

252

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat Content of Natural

253

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat Content of

254

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat Content ofChina

255

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat Content

256

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat ContentIndia

257

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug SepAnnual",2013Annual",2014 ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014Bcf)"ImportsDeliveriesHeatHeat ContentIndiaJapan

258

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318 4,367,470September 25,Wellhead PriceCubicNetYear3622

259

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318 4,367,470September 25,Wellhead

260

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318 4,367,470September

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318 4,367,470SeptemberMonthly","2/2015"

262

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318Monthly","2/2015" ,"Release

263

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090 4,367,318Monthly","2/2015"

264

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090Monthly","2/2015" ,"Release

265

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090Monthly","2/2015" ,"ReleaseAnnual",2014

266

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090Monthly","2/2015"

267

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur ContentMwH)","RES_CONS4,369,090Monthly","2/2015"Monthly","2/2015"

268

Active reagents from brown coal and hydrolysis lignin and their interaction with calcium phosphates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed for producing active reagents from brown coal and hydrolysis lignin by their oxidation with dilute nitric acid. The products obtained contain up to 30 and 46% respectively of humic acids with active functional groups. Reactions of oxidized and ammoniated coal with mono,- di-, and tricalcium phosphate have also been studied. The variation of the composition and yield of the reaction products with the ratio of the substances taken have been investigated. It has been found that the addition of oxidized coal to mono-, di-, and tricalcium phosphate raised the quantity of the water-soluble P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ froms, i.e., this hinders phosphorous fixation in the soil.

Rubinchik, G.F.; Adylkhodzhaeva, T.A.; Tadzhiev, A.T.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Field evaluation of the lignin-degrading fungus 'phanerochaete sordida' to treat creosote-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and creosote was performed at a wood treating facility in south central Mississippi in the Autumn of 1991. The study was designed to evaluate 7 fungal treatments and appropriate control treatments. Soil concentrations of 14 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components of creosote were measured over time to determine treatment efficacies. Fungal treatments involved mixing fungal inocula and aspen chips into the contaminated soil and maintaining moisture by irrigation and aeration by tillage. PAHs of more than 4 rings persisted at their original concentrations during the 8 wk course of the study for all treatments and controls.

Davis, M.W.; Glaser, J.A.; Evans, J.W.; Lamar, R.T.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

ATP-binding cassette-like transporters are involved in the transport of lignin precursors across plasma and vacuolar membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a complex biopolymer derived primarily from the condensation of three monomeric precursors, the monolignols. The synthesis of monolignols occurs in the cytoplasm. To reach the cell wall where they are oxidized and polymerized, they must be transported across the cell membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transport process are unclear. There are conflicting views about whether the transport of these precursors occurs by passive diffusion or is an energized active process; further, we know little about what chemical forms are required. Using isolated plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles prepared from Arabidopsis, together with applying different transporter inhibitors in the assays, we examined the uptake of monolignols and their derivatives by these native membrane vesicles. We demonstrate that the transport of lignin precursors across plasmalemma and their sequestration into vacuoles are ATP-dependent primary-transport processes, involving ATP-binding cassette-like transporters. Moreover, we show that both plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles selectively transport different forms of lignin precursors. In the presence of ATP, the inverted plasma membrane vesicles preferentially take up monolignol aglycones, whereas the vacuolar vesicles are more specific for glucoconjugates, suggesting that the different ATP-binding cassette-like transporters recognize different chemical forms in conveying them to distinct sites, and that glucosylation of monolignols is necessary for their vacuolar storage but not required for direct transport into the cell wall in Arabidopsis.

Miao, Y.C.; Liu, C.

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

271

Studies on Supercapacitor Electrode Material from Activated Lignin-Derived Mesoporous Carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent, and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum BET specific surface area of 1148 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm3/g. Slow physical activation helped retain dominant mesoporosity; however, aggressive chemical activation caused some loss of the mesopore volume fraction. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited the same range of surface-area-based capacitance as that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and increased the gravimetric-specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. Surface activation lowered bulk density and electrical conductivity. Warburg impedance as a vertical tail in the lower frequency domain of Nyquist plots supported good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

Saha, Dipendu [ORNL] [ORNL; Li, Yunchao [ORNL] [ORNL; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL] [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL] [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL] [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL] [ORNL; Grappe, Hippolyte A. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)] [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Table of Contents Chapter and Content Pages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Page 2 Table of Contents Chapter and Content Pages 1. Field Trip Itinerary ................................................................................. 7 4. Geologic Framework of the Netherlands Antilles 5. Coral Reefs of the Netherlands Antilles

Fouke, Bruce W.

273

Advanced Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase for Biosynthesis of Lignin Bioproducts, Phase I Final Report, STTR Grant #: DE-SC0007503.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The core purpose of this Phase I STTR was to evaluate the feasibility of a new method of producing a recombinant version of manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme. MnP is a potentially valuable enzyme for producing high value lignin products and also for industrial de-coloring operations such as biobleaching of pulp and color removal from textile dye effluents. This lignin-modifying enzyme is produced in small amounts by the native host, a white rot fungus. Previous work by Oregon State University developed a secreted recombinant version of the enzyme in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Unfortunately, the expression is barely moderate and the enzyme is heavily glycosylated, which inhibits purification. In this work, the gene for the enzyme is given a tag which targets production of the enzyme to the peroxisome. This is a promising approach since this location is also where heme and hydrogen peroxide are sequestered, which are both necessary cofactors for MnP. More than ten recombinant strains were constructed, verified, and expressed in the Pichia system. Constitutive (GAP) and methanol-induced promoters (AOX) were tried for peroxisomal targeted, cytosolic, and secreted versions of MnP. Only the secreted strains showed activity. The amount of expression was not significantly changed. The degree of glycosylation was lessened using the AOX (methanol) promotoer, but the resulting enzyme was still not able to be purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Additional work beyond the scope of the defined Phase I project was undertaken to construct, verify, and express Pichia strains that mutated the MnP glycosylation sites to inhibit this process. These strains did not show significant activity. The cause is not known, but it is possible that these sites are important to the structure of the enzyme. Also beyond the scope proposed for our Phase I STTR, the team collaborated with AbSci, a startup with a new E. coli based expression system focused on the production of antibodies and enzymes containing disulfide bonds and requiring folding/post-translational modification. With only limited time remaining in the Phase I schedule, a single construct was made to produce MnP with this system. The enzyme was produced in the soluble fraction of the cell lysate, but no activity was measured. MnP from the existing recombinant source was used to act on lignin. The lignin was from a Kraft process and had a molecular weight of about 10,000 Da. Using 1000 Da dialysis membranes and UV-visible spectroscopy, no modification of either lignin was evident in the dialysate or the retentate. Assays using 2,6 dimethoxy phenol (DMP) as a substrate showed consistent activity throughout the project. In summary, these results fell far short of our expectations. A Phase II proposal was not submitted. Possible reasons for the failure of peroxisomal targeting include destruction by native hydrogen peroxide, native proteases, or unforeseen causes. The AbSci system was only lighted tested and further work may yield a strain with active enzyme. The lack of evidence for lignin modification may be due to the techniques employed. NMR or GC-MS studies may reveal evidence of modification.

Beatty, Christopher; Kitner, Joshua; Lajoie, Curtis; McClain, Sean; Potochnik, Steve

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

274

Understanding Substrate Features Influenced by Pretreatments that Limit Biomass Deconstruction by Enzymes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M, Tuskan GA, Wyman CE: Lignin content in natural Populuscarbohydrates and lignin in biomass. NREL Laboratorycarbohydrates and lignin in biomass. NREL Laboratory

Gao, Xiadi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Influence of Combustion Conditions on Yields of Solvent-Extractable Anhydrosugars and Lignin Phenols in Chars: Implications for Characterizations of Biomass Combustion Residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anhydrosugars, such as levoglucosan and its isomers (mannosan, galactosan), as well as the solvent-extractable lignin phenols (methoxylated phenols) are thermal degradation products of cellulose/hemicellulos and lignin, respectively. These two groups of biomarkers are often used as unique tracers of combusted biomass inputs in diverse environmental media. However, detail characterization of the relative proportion and signatures of these compounds in highly heterogeneous plant-derived chars/charcoals are still scarce. Here we conducted a systematic study to investigate the yields of solvent-extractable anhydrosugars and lignin phenols in twenty-five lab-made chars produced from different plant materials under different combustion conditions. Solvent extractable anhydrosugars and lignin phenols were only observed in chars formed below 350 C and yields were variable across different combustion temperatures. The yields mannosan (M) and galactosan (G) decreased more rapidly than those of levoglucosan (L) under increasing combustion severity (temp. and duration), resulting in variable L/M and L/(M+G) ratios, two diagnostic ratios often used for identification of combustion sources (e.g. hardwoods vs. softwoods vs. grasses). On the other hand, the results of this study suggest that the ratios of the major solvent-extractable lignin phenols (vanillyls (V), syringyls (S), cinnamyls (C)) provide additional source reconstruction potential despite observed variations with combustion temperature. We thus propose using a property property plot (L/M vs. S/V) as an improved means for source characterization of biomass combustion residues. The L/M-S/V plot has shown to be effective in environmental samples (soil organic matter, atmospheric aerosols) receiving substantial inputs of biomass combustion residues.

Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick; Herbert, Bruce

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Development and applications of pyrene-containing fluorescent probes for monitoring the photodegradation of lignin-rich products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

o-Quinone moieties produced by irradiation of lignin-rich pulp and paper have been selectively derivatized with pyrene moieties following reaction with P(III) compounds. The results of spectroscopic and time resolved emission studies indicate that the tendency for quinone formation upon UV irradiation is enhanced by bleaching processes, specially by oxidative peroxide treatment. In steady state spectroscopic studies pulp fluorescence interferes with excimer emission. However, pulp fluorescence is a very short-lived process (t {le} 2 ns), and thus time-resolved spectroscopy can differentiate the two processes readily. These studies show some excimer fluorescence, even under conditions of very low pyrene incorporation. This suggests that o-quinone formation occurs in domains or islands, indicating that degradation occurs predominantly in some regions, or that oxidative degradation processes promote further degradation, perhaps by enhancing oxygen permeability. Fluorescence microscopy studies suggest preferential degradation in fines and fragmented fibers. 14 refs., 12 figs.

Konya, K.G.; Scaiano, J.C. [Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Reduces electric energy consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BENEFITS · Reduces electric energy consumption · Reduces peak electric demand · Reduces natural gas consumption · Reduces nonhazardous solid waste and wastewater generation · Potential annual savings products for the automotive industry, electrical equipment, and miscellaneous other uses nationwide. ALCOA

278

A reduced Blade-Vortex Interaction rotor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A REDUCED BLADE - VORTEX INTERACTION ROTOR A Thesis by SOMNATH MANI . Submitted to the Offic of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1996 Major... Subject: Aerospace Engineering A REDUCED BLADE - VORTEX INTERACTION ROTOR A Thesis by SOMNATH MANI Submitted to Texas A@M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content...

Mani, Somnath

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

279

CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE APPLICATIONS AND VALIDITY OF BODE'S LAW CAN WE EXPLAIN BODE'S LAW USING GRAVITY? 8 Law of Gravitation 8 Centre#12;#12;CONTENTS CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION WHO, HOW AND WHEN IS THE BODE'S LAW DISCOVERED? 1 THE BODE'S LAW HOW THE BODE'S LAW SATISFIED URANUS 3 HOW THE BODE'S LAW LED TO THE DISCOVERY OF CERES

Aslaksen, Helmer

280

Plating under reduced pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plating under reduced pressure was evaluated for both electroless nickel and electrodeposited copper systems. The objective was to reduce pitting of these coatings thereby further enhancing their usage for diamond turning applications. Cursory experiments with electroless nickel showed reduced porosity when deposition was done at around 500 torr. Detailed experiments with electrodeposited copper at around 100 torr provided similar results. Scanning tunneling microscopy was effectively used to show the improvement in the copper deposits plated under reduced pressure. Benefits included reduced surface roughness and finer and denser grain structure.

Dini, J.W.; Beat, T.G.; Cowden, W.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Ryan, L.E.; Hewitt, W.B. (TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA (United States))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media A Comparison of Self-Protecting Digital Content and AACS Independent Security Evaluators www.securityevaluators.com May 3, 2005 Copyright for Optical Media 2 #12;Content Protection for Optical Media Content Protection for Optical Media 3 Executive

Amir, Yair

282

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Reducible oxide based catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

284

Reducing home lighting expenses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ways to reduce lighting expenses are summarized. These include: turning off lights when not in use; keeping fixtures and lamps clean; replacing lamps with more efficient types; using three-way bulbs; use of daylighting; buying fewer lamps and reducing lamp wattage; consider repainting rooms; replacing recessed fixtures with tracklighting; and using efficient lamps for outdoor use. (MCW)

Aimone, M.A.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

Agblevor, Foster A. (Blacksburg, VA); Besler-Guran, Serpil (Flemington, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photoionization and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapyl Alcohols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fragmentation mechanisms of monolignols under various energetic processes are studied with jet-cooled thermal desorption molecular beam (TDMB) mass spectrometry (MS), 25 keV Bi3+ secondary ion MS (SIMS), synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet secondary neutral MS (VUV-SNMS) and theoretical methods. Experimental and calculated appearance energies of fragments observed in TDMB MS indicate that the coniferyl alcohol photoionization mass spectra contain the molecular parent and several dissociative photoionization products. Similar results obtained for sinapyl alcohol are also discussed briefly. Ionization energies of 7.60 eV ? 0.05 eV for coniferyl alcohol and<7.4 eV for both sinapyl and dihydrosinapyl alcohols are determined. The positive ion SIMS spectrum of coniferyl alcohol shares few characteristic peaks (m/z = 137 and 151) with the TDMB mass spectra, shows extensive fragmentation, and does not exhibit clear molecular parent signals. VUV-SNMS spectra, on the other hand, are dominated by the parent ion and main fragments also present in the TDMB spectra. Molecular fragmentation in VUV-SNMS spectra can be reduced by increasing the extraction delay time. Some features resembling the SIMS spectra are also observed in the desorbed neutral products. The monolignol VUV-SNMS peaks shared with the TDMB mass spectra suggest that dissociative photoionization of ion-sputtered neutral molecules predominate in the VUV-SNMS mass spectra, despite the extra internal energy imparted in the initial ion impact. The potential applications of these results to imaging mass spectrometry of bio-molecules are discussed.

Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Kostko, Oleg; Golan, Amir; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

2011-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

287

Tank closure reducing grout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

Caldwell, T.B.

1997-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

288

Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

Clark, Howard L. (Ballston Lake, NY)

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Web Content Filtering 1 User Guidelines Web content filter guidelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Web Content Filtering 1 User Guidelines Web content filter guidelines Introduction The basic criterion for blocking a Web page Categories of material which will be blocked Requesting the unblocking of Aberdeen applies a Web Content Filtering service to all web pages accessed from the undergraduate network

290

Content Filtered By | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-Gov Contacts for E-GovContacts NewsContent

291

Reducing Power Factor Cost  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes Office ofof EnergyReducing Peak DemandLow

292

Lignin | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:KeystoneSolar (Texas) Jump to:

293

Sunflower as a biofuels crop: An analysis of lignocellulosic chemical properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lignocellulosic biofuel Lignin S/G-lignin Sugar content Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry a b s t r a c grown in Georgia and Iowa was assessed using analytical wet chemistry methods to measure lignin and sugar content/ composition. The analysis of lignin and the S/G-lignin ratios for a larger number

Burke, John M.

294

Pressure reducing regulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

2008-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

296

ContentsContents4466Reliability and quality control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ContentsContents4466Reliability and quality control 1. Reliability 2. Quality Control Learning outcomes You will first learn about the importance of the concept of reliability applied to systems previous experience with certain mathematical topics this time may vary considerably. 1 #12;Reliability

Vickers, James

297

Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the lignin and moisture content of the black liquor leavingof lignin and other constituents was measured black liquorlignin and cellulose that are dissolved in the black liquor.

Green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Visual Analysis of Weblog Content  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

299

MEASURES TO REDUCE THE IMPEDANCE OF PARASITIC RESONANT MODES IN THE DANE VACUUM CHAMBER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HOM content and reduce the impedance of the remaining HOMs in order to avoid excessive beam power loss harmonics of the beam in order to avoid resonant enhancement of the parasitic power loss. The basic ideas

Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)

300

Measurement of moisture and total reducing sugars using Near Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial applications. In this project, the accuracy and feasibility of measuring moisture and total reducing sugar content in a vegetable medium using a Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique was investigated as an alternative to slow and tedious classical...

Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Bioconversion of Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine Using SPORL: Process Scale-up Design, Lignin Coproduct, and High Solids Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produced in large quantities globally as a viable feedstock for producing biofuel and bioproducts through; for example, it can leverage the technological advances, infra- structure, and human capital from the mature processing for high-titer biofuel production, to reduce separation cost and improve energy efficiency

302

TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................... 12 Water-Source Heat Pump Performance ............................ 18 Air-Source Heat Pump QUARTZ CONTENT OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK LAYERS ........ 17 TABLE 10. PROPERTIES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCK LAYERS OF PERFORMANCE OF WATER-SOURCE HEAT PUMP .............................. ................. 23 FIGURE 2. NODAL

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

303

Mental content, holism and communication   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this project, I defend a holistic, internalist conceptual-role theory of mental content (‘Holism’, for short). The account of communicative success which must be adopted by the Holist is generally thought to be ...

Pollock, Joanna Katharine Mary

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

JOBAID-LAUNCHING ONLINE CONTENT  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In this jobaid you will learn how to launch Online Content "Items" or Courses. In the LMS you can launch most anything as an "item": documents, courses, webpages and track users that have completed...

305

Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arwa K, Renata B, Tu M. Weak Lignin-Binding Enzymes. Appl.Vinzant TB. Deposition of Lignin Droplets Produced DuringM, Tuskan GA, Wyman CE. Lignin Content in Natural Populus

DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Performance Analysis of Contention Window Cheating Misbehaviors in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of nodes that can be rapidly deployed as a multi-hop network without the aid of any centralized administration. Misbehavior is challenged by bandwidth and energy efficient medium access control and fair share of throughput. Node misbehavior plays an important role in MANET. In this survey, few of the contention window misbehavior is reviewed and compared. The contention window cheating either minimizes the active communication of the network or reduces bandwidth utilization of a particular node. The classification presented is in no case unique but summarizes the chief characteristics of many published proposals for contention window cheating. After getting insight into the different contention window misbehavior, few of the enhancements that can be done to improve the existing contention window are suggested. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research efforts in combining the existing solutions to offer more efficient methods to reduce contention win...

Kalaiarasi, R; Pari, S Neelavathy; Sridharan, D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Reduced-dimension transistors: Reduced-dimension transistors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Reduced-dimension transistors: the HEMT LECTURE 20 · Reduced-dimension transistors · HEMT · 2-D;8 For a finite well · Wavefunction not completely confined · Use undoped spacer #12;9 Employment of a spacer scattering (µ ). · Electrons and donors separated no I I scattering, i.e., µ · Undoped spacer also helps

Pulfrey, David L.

308

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

309

Effects of Cu Content and Preaging on Precipitation Characteristics in Aluminum Alloy 6022  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Cu Content and Preaging on Precipitation Characteristics in Aluminum Alloy 6022 W and artificial aging response in aluminum alloy 6022 were investigated using transmission electron microscopy automotive paint bake condition, suitable preaging treatments were found to significantly reduce

Laughlin, David E.

310

Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

Muralidharan, Govindarajan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I. (Greensburg, PA) [Greensburg, PA

2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

311

Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

312

Microsoft Word - Contents.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

feedstock uniformity, and reduce production risk and the cost of supplying biomass feedstocks for the production of alternative fuels. Mission Relevance This work benefits...

313

Reducing the consumption of anthraquinone disulfonate in stretford solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for treating a hydrogen sulfide-containing hydrogenated claus process tail gas to convert the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in which said gas is contacted with an aqueous alkaline solution containing a water-soluble metal vanadate, a water-soluble anthraquinone disulfonate, and a watersoluble, inorganic fluoride, borate, or phosphate complexing agent to yield an effluent gas to reduced sulfur content. The solution is thereafter regenerated by contact with an oxygencontaining gas, elemental sulfur is recovered from the solution, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the gas-contacting step. The complexing agent contained in the solution reduces the chemical consumption of the anthraquinone disulfonate.

Fenton, D.M.; Vaell, R.P.

1982-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

314

Reduced shedding regenerator and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)

2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

315

CONTENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or any third party’s use or the results of such use of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof or its contractors or subcontractors. The views and opinions of authors

unknown authors

316

contents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The accepted standards are anticipated to take the form of a Common Criteria Protection Profile. This report provides the status of work completed and discusses several...

317

Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Visit the Thomson Scientific web site at scientific.thomson.com First edition published December 1994 Second edition published August 1996 Third edition published October 2000 Fourth edition published February 2004 ISBN: 0 901157 29 5 (Third edition) ISBN: 1 903836 62 9 (Fourth edition)

unknown authors

318

Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISBN: 0 901157 23 6 (Edition 4 revised) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical,

Thomson All Rights Reserved

319

Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Visit the Thomson Scientific web site at scientific.thomson.com First edition published December 1994 Second edition published January 1996 Revised second edition published October 2000 ISBN: 0 901157 34 1 (Revised Second Edition) ISBN: 1 903836 58 6 (Third Edition) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical, recording, photocopying or otherwise – without express

unknown authors

320

Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the invasion and spread of contagious diseases in heterogeneous populations; Wayne M. Getz, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Paul C. Cross, Shirli Bar-

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Contents  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review of theOFFICEACME | NationalTbilisi08 to17 2.7 i® ALOHA

322

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 81, 4/9/13)RELEASE:

323

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 81, 4/9/13)RELEASE:

324

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 81, 4/9/13)RELEASE:3.0

325

CONTENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 81,

326

Contents  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLEReport 2009 DepartmentPower

327

Contents  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2Workshops 2008O"Program and Book of Abstracts

328

Brain and Heart 1. Reducing your risk of stroke and heart attack. . . . 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Contents Brain and Heart 1. Reducing your risk of stroke and heart attack. . . . 3 2. Exercising for a healthy heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Choosing a home blood pressure unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 #12;BRAIN AND HEART Reducing your risk of stroke and heart attack One of the best ways to protect

Jagannatham, Aditya K.

329

FIRE SAFETY PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FIRE SAFETY PROGRAM TABLE OF CONTENTS Overview................................................................................................. 5 Health and Life Safety Fund........................................................................................................... 5 Hot work

Lin, Zhiqun

330

Reduced Harmonic Representation of Partitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present article the reduced integral representation of partitions in terms of harmonic products has been derived first by using hypergeometry and the new concept of fractional sum and secondly by studying the Fourier series of the kernel function appearing in the integral representation. Using the method of induction, a generalization of the theory has also been obtained.

Michalis Psimopoulos

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

331

Announcing: All Recycling Reduce your  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Announcing: All Recycling Go Green! Reduce your contribution to the landfill, by choosing to voluntarily recycle acceptable items in the green All Recycling toters and containers around campus. ONLY THE ITEMS BELOW ARE ACCEPTED FOR ALL RECYCLING Please do not contaminate the recycling containers with trash

Papautsky, Ian

332

Conservation Stand! Reducing My Commute  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. + Diverts plastic waste for food production. + Placed beside window, replaces light input with solarConservation Stand! Reducing My Commute 72.6 mi to 5.1 mi #12;#12;Conserving Water and Energy or contribution to sedimentation. + Food produced on site without transportation costs. - Depends on energy input

Schweik, Charles M.

333

Reducing carbon dioxide to products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

334

CONTENTS OF A VISIT REQUEST  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1 of 81,ConcentratedCONTENTS

335

content | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,SaveWhiskey Flats GeothermalElectric Coop Home7 August,content Home

336

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the company's values, management style, and objectives. Areas that may offer opportunities to improve company in a reduced need for additional outside financing. Moreover, better cash flow will improve a company's chances to understanding how much cash is generated by the company's core products and services, and how much is being

Perkins, Richard A.

337

SOFA 2 Documentation Table of contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOFA 2 Documentation Table of contents 1 Overview...................................................................................................................... 2 2 Documentation............................................................................................................. 2 3 Other documentation and howtos

338

CRADA Final Report: Materials Development For Pulp and Paper Mills, Task 9 Proof of Commercial Concept: Commodity Carbon Fibers From Weyerhaeuser Lignin Based Fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tasks were assigned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers for the development of lignin-based carbon fiber from a specific precursor that was produced by the Participant (Weyerhaeuser Corporation). These tasks included characterization of precursor polymers and fibers; and the development of conversion parameters for the fibers. ORNL researchers provided recommendations for in-house characterization of the precursor at the participant's laboratory. During the early stage of the precursor fiber production trials of various spools of fibers with varied compositions were produced. Some of those samples were sent to ORNL (by the Participant) for the development of conversion protocol. The trial tow samples were oxidized at ORNL's precursor evaluation system (PES), a bench-scale facility consisting of an oven, filament winder, tension controller, and a let off creel. The PES is a modular tool useful for the development of precursor conversion protocol. It can handle a single filament to a large single tow (50k filaments). It can also offer precise tensioning for few-filament tows. In the PES, after oxidation, fibers are typically carbonized first at low temperature, {le} 600 C, and subsequently at a higher temperature, {le} 1200 C with controlled residence time. ORNL has recently installed a new carbonization furnace with 1700 C limit and a furnace with 2500 C capacity is under installation. A protocol for the oxidation and carbonization of the trial precursor fibers was developed. Oxidized fiber with a density of 1.46 g/cc (oxidation time: 90 min) shows qualitative flame retardancy via simple flame test (fibers do not catch fire or shrink when exposed to flame). Oxidized and carbonized filaments of the Weyerhaeuser precursor fibers show moderate mechanical properties and 47-51 % carbon yield (based on oxidized fiber mass) after carbonization between 1000-1400 C. The properties of fibers from nonoptimized composition and processing parameters indicate the potential of low-cost, low-end carbon fibers based on renewable resource materials. Further work is necessary to produce high quality precursor and the corresponding carbonized filaments of superior properties.

Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Gorog, John Peter [Weyerhaeuser Company

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Reduced Rank Models for Contingency Tables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solution problem 73-14, Rank factorization of nonnegativein Great Britain Reduced rank models for contingency tablesclass analysis; Reduced rank models. 1. INTRODUCTION In

Jan de Leeuw; Peter van der Heijden

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Content in physical education 1 The Contribution of Two Research Programs on Teaching Content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: "Pedagogical Content Knowledge" and "Didactics of Physical Education" Chantal Amade-Escot, Toulouse University with pedagogical content knowledge; the other, in France, studying the didactics of physical education (didactics communities. Key-words Content in Physical Education, Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Didactics of Physical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

342

Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

343

Reduced Crude Conversion-2: demetallization unit broadens RCC feed slate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Reduced Crude Conversion (RCC) process has been shown as capable of handling feedstocks with high levels of heavy metals contamination. This article extends the applicability of the RCC process further to handle feedstock derived in part from extremely high metal crude oils, in discussing a commercial unit installed by Ashland which is capable of metals removal using the ART technology. Nickel and vanadium removal from certain highly contaminated RCC feedstocks shown that the RCC unit with ART technology benefits from substantial catalyst savings while extending RCC technology to more challenging feedstocks. The demetallized product is mixed with virgin reduced crude oil and with lower metal content asphalts to provide feedstock for the RCC unit.

Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.; Krock, R.P.

1984-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

344

Reducing the consumption of anthraquinone disulfonate in Stretford solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for treating a hydrogen sulfide-containing hydrogenated Claus process tail gas to convert the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in which said gas is contacted with an aqueous alkaline solution containing a water-soluble metal vanadate, a water-soluble anthraquinone disulfonate, and a water soluble phenolic complexing agent or a water-soluble carboxylic complexing agent, to yield an effluent gas of reduced sulfur content. The solution is thereafter regenerated by contact with an oxygen-containing gas, elemental sulfur is recovered from the solution, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the gascontacting step. The complexing agent contained in the solution reduces the chemical consumption of the anthraquinone disulfonate.

Fenton, D.M.; Vaell, R.P.

1980-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

345

Lignin Valorization-final-sm  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011

346

Sandia National Laboratories: lignin conversion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbine blade manufacturinglife-cycle analysissoak studies

347

Sandia National Laboratories: lignin pretreatment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbine blade manufacturinglife-cycle analysissoak studiespretreatment

348

arrestin content studied: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Two Research Programs on Teaching Content: "Pedagogical Content Knowledge" and "Didactics of Physical Education" Chantal Amade-Escot, Toulouse University Abstract Content in...

349

Reduced models for quantum gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The preceding talks given at this conference have dealt mainly with general ideas for, main problems of and techniques for the task of quantizing gravity canonically. Since one of the major motivations to arrange for this meeting was that it should serve as a beginner's introduction to canonical quantum gravity, we regard it as important to demonstrate the usefulness of the formalism by means of applying it to simplified models of quantum gravity, here formulated in terms of Ashtekar's new variables. From the various, completely solvable, models that have been discussed in the literature we choose those that we consider as most suitable for our pedagogical reasons, namely 2+1 gravity and the spherically symmetric model. The former model arises from a dimensional, the latter from a Killing reduction of full 3+1 gravity. While 2+1 gravity is usually treated in terms of closed topologies without boundary of the initial data hypersurface, the toplogy for the spherically symmetric system is chosen to be asymptotically flat. Finally, 2+1 gravity is more suitably quantized using the loop representation while spherically symmetric gravity is easier to quantize via the self-dual representation. Accordingly, both types of reductions, both types of topologies and both types of representations that are mainly employed in the literature in the context of the new variables come into practice. What makes the discussion especially clear is the fact that for both models the reduced phase space turns out to be finitely dimensional.

T. Thiemann

1999-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

350

Standard Format and Content for Emergency Plans  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This volume addresses recommended emergency plan format and content for Operational Emergency Base Programs and Operational Emergency Hazardous Material Programs. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-3.

1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

351

Training Program Content, 4/10/95  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The objective of this surveillance is to evaluate the effectiveness of the contractor's program for establishing the content of training programs.  The process to be evaluated includes (1)...

352

TABLE OF CONTENTS NIST Map ...................................................................................................................................................3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TABLE OF CONTENTS NIST Map the Power Grid PML TIME SPEAKER UNIVERSITY TITLE LAB 3:00P Brian Weinstein American University Temperature

353

,"Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed",1,"Monthly","112014","1152013" ,"Release...

354

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as straws, sugar cane, and bast fibers (flax and hemp) have lower cellulose and lignin contents, but higher

355

Optimizing MapReduce for Multicore Architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MapReduce is a programming model for data-parallel programs originally intended for data centers. MapReduce simplifies parallel programming, hiding synchronization and task management. These properties make it a promising ...

Kaashoek, Frans

2010-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

356

Significantly reduce maintenance time Documents&Mediabecomesthekey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Significantly reduce maintenance time · Documents&Mediabecomesthekey contactforallmaintenanceneeds. · MajorpartsarestoredbyDocuments& MediaattheMissionCenter.Thisreduces thetimeneededtoorderpartsandresultsin&Mediaoffersthecampus communityaconvenientandeconomicsolution foritscopiers,multifunctiondevicesandprinter needs. Print Management Program advantages Reduce

Mullins, Dyche

357

WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the manufacturer . Replaced with energy efficient light emitting diode (LED) signs. Project reduced risk of tritium

358

THE CACHE INFERENCE PROBLEM and its Application to Content and Request Routing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for content and query routing purposes [1]; DNS lookups are cached by DNS resolvers to reduce the load, Massachusetts, USA. z Dept of Informatics and Telecommunications, University of Athens, Greece. x N. Laoutaris to typically­ skewed demand profile from various client populations. Increasingly, however, a system may

359

THE CACHE INFERENCE PROBLEM and its Application to Content and Request Routing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

purposes [1]; DNS lookups are cached by DNS resolvers to reduce the load on upper-level DNS servers [2 Computer Science Dept, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Dept of Informatics to optimize the content delivery process subject to typically- skewed demand profile from various client

Bestavros, Azer

360

THE CACHE INFERENCE PROBLEM and its Application to Content and Request Routing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

purposes [1]; DNS lookups are cached by DNS resolvers to reduce the load on upper-level DNS servers [2 Computer Science Dept, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Ã? Dept of Informatics to optimize the content delivery process subject to typically- skewed demand profile from various client

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

ORIGINAL PAPER Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water content on phytohormone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of droughts this century (Meehl et al. 2007). Typically, drought reduces yield and agricultural productivityORIGINAL PAPER Effects of elevated CO2 and soil water content on phytohormone transcript induction Science+Business Media B.V. 2012 Abstract Plants will experience increased atmospheric CO2 and drought

DeLucia, Evan H.

362

Reducing the Energy Usage of Oce Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reducing the Energy Usage of OÆce Applications Jason Flinn 1 , Eyal de Lara 2 , M. Satyanarayanan 1 of the energy usage of Microsoft's PowerPoint application and show that adaptive policies can reduce energy research e#11;ort, no silver bullet for reducing energy usage has yet been found. Instead, a comprehensive

Flinn, Jason

363

Table of contents Foreword page 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the impacts to be expected; · improving the performance of our Earth System model to reduce uncertainties

Ribes, Aurélien

364

Table of Contents Producing Hydrogen................1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It can store the energy from diverse domestic resources (including clean coal, nuclear renewable resources, nuclear energy, and coal with carbon capture and storage. 1 #12;Potential for clean1 #12;Table of Contents Producing Hydrogen................1 Hydrogen Production Technologies

365

Table of Contents Division Organization 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education (NICE) 12 Smart Grid Cyber Security 13 Supply Chain Risk Content Automation Protocol Validation Program 39 Technical Security Metrics 40 Vulnerability research, develop ment and outreach necessary to provide standards and guidelines, tools, metrics

366

Milk dispenser for variable fat content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the development of a new milk dispenser product that is designed to dispense milk with varying levels of milk fat content. The product contains two tanks of milk, one containing skim and one containing ...

Henion, Julie E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Table of Contents Resilient Sustainable Communities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..................................... 5 Onondaga County: Sustainable Development Plan....................... 9 Comparison of the Hazard Mitigation Plan and Onondaga County Sustainable Development Plan DraftTable of Contents Resilient Sustainable Communities: Integrating Hazard Mitigation & Sustainability

368

ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents Web: http://climate.atmos.colostate.edu Colorado Climate Spring 2002 Vol. 3, No. 2 Lightning in Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Colorado Climate in Review

369

Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document representsthe development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specificidentification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing|description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance withwaste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The contentcode gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and|packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability ofthe waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on themanner in which a payload can be assembled.The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures|applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this|classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON,|RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and|justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. |Each content code uniquely identifies the generated waste and provides a system for tracking theprocess and packaging history. Each content code begins with a two-letter site abbreviation thatindicates the shipper of the RH-TRU waste. The site-specific letter designations for each of the|DOE sites are provided in Table 1. Not all of the sites listed in Table 1 have generated/stored RH-|TRU waste.

Washington TRU Solutions

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transport energy and area of the city, but in terms oftransport energy (reduce the area for the city, i.e. ,

Newman, Peter; Kenworthy, Jeffrey

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Reducing Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About Light-Duty Diesel Reducing Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About Light-Duty Diesel 2002 DEER Conference...

372

Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for a Sectoral Approach Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport:...

373

Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool III, Lawrence E.

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

374

An optimizing reduced order FDS for the tropical Pacific Ocean reduced gravity model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An optimizing reduced order FDS for the tropical Pacific Ocean reduced gravity model Zhendong Luoa) for the tropical Pacific Ocean reduced gravity model. Ensembles of data are compiled from transient solutions computed from the discrete equation system derived by FDS for the tropical Pacific Ocean reduced gravity

Aluffi, Paolo

375

Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Conservation Cores: Reducing the Energy of Mature Computations Ganesh Venkatesh, Jack Sampson! Dark Silicon #12;9 Conservation Cores Specialized cores for reducing energy ­ Automatically generated Conservation Core Architecture & Synthesis Patchable Hardware Results Conclusions #12;12 Constructing a C

Wang, Deli

376

Identify the Problem: Reduce Waste By  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aims to reduce waste by banning plastic bags in light of the California state law AB 2449 which Primary energy Plastic uses 23% less Paper uses 80% less Solid waste Plastic contributes 76% less AbioticIdentify the Problem: Reduce Waste By Banning Plastic Bag Use Define Goal: Is the ban the most

Iglesia, Enrique

377

Integrity and access control in untrusted content distribution networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A content distribution network (CDN) makes a publisher's content highly available to readers through replication on remote computers. Content stored on untrusted servers is susceptible to attack, but a reader should have ...

Fu, Kevin E. (Kevin Edward), 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

RH-TRU Waste Content Codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code. Requests for new or revised content codes may be submitted to the WIPP RH-TRU Payload Engineer for review and approval, provided all RH-TRAMPAC requirements are met.

Washington TRU Solutions

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Method of determining a content of a nuclear waste container  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for identifying contents of a nuclear waste container. The method includes the steps of forming an image of the contents of the container using digital radiography, visually comparing contents of the image with expected contents of the container and performing computer tomography on the container when the visual inspection reveals an inconsistency between the contents of the image and the expected contents of the container.

Bernardi, Richard T. (Prospect Heights, IL); Entwistle, David (Buffalo Grove, IL)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

380

Evaluation of Membrane Treatment Technology to Optimize and Reduce Hypersalinity Content of Produced Brine for Reuse in Unconventional Gas Wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

scale were performed using pretreatment, microfiltration and nanofiltration processes. Membrane performance was selected based on high flux separation efficiency, high tolerance for solids and fluid treatments. Over 95 % solids rejection and greater...

Eboagwu, Uche

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Reformulating Competition? Gasoline Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regulation and Arbitrage in Wholesale Gasoline Markets,Content Regulation and Wholesale Gasoline Prices JenniferCONTENT REGULATION AND WHOLESALE GASOLINE PRICES by Jennifer

Brown, Jennifer; Hastings, Justine; Mansur, Erin T.; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel Vehicles, Diesel Exhaust Fluid, and Selective Catalytic Reduction Technologies on the AFDC Educating Consumers: New Content on Diesel...

383

U-094: EMC Documentum Content Server Lets Local Administrative...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4: EMC Documentum Content Server Lets Local Administrative Users Gain Elevated Privileges U-094: EMC Documentum Content Server Lets Local Administrative Users Gain Elevated...

384

CH-TRU Waste Content Codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CH-TRU Waste Content Codes (CH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC). The CH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) and HalfPACT packagings. This document is a catalog of TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT authorized contents and a description of the methods utilized to demonstrate compliance with the CH-TRAMPAC. A summary of currently approved content codes by site is presented in Table 1. The CH-TRAMPAC describes "shipping categories" that are assigned to each payload container. Multiple shipping categories may be assigned to a single content code. A summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories is provided in Table 2, which consists of Tables 2A, 2B, and 2C. Table 2A provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for the "General Case," which reflects the assumption of a 60-day shipping period as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.4 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to be completed within an approximately 1,000-mile radius, a shorter shipping period of 20 days is applicable as described in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.5 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices. For shipments to WIPP from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site, and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, a 20-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2B provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Close-Proximity Shipments" (20-day shipping period). For shipments implementing the controls specified in the CH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 3.6 of the CH-TRU Payload Appendices, a 10-day shipping period is applicable. Table 2C provides a summary of approved content codes and corresponding shipping categories for "Controlled Shipments" (10-day shipping period).

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

385

Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document describes the inventory of RH-TRU waste within the transportation parameters specified by the Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC).1 The RH-TRAMPAC defines the allowable payload for the RH-TRU 72-B. This document is a catalog of RH-TRU 72-B authorized contents by site. A content code is defined by the following components: • A two-letter site abbreviation that designates the physical location of the generated/stored waste (e.g., ID for Idaho National Laboratory [INL]). The site-specific letter designations for each of the sites are provided in Table 1. • A three-digit code that designates the physical and chemical form of the waste (e.g., content code 317 denotes TRU Metal Waste). For RH-TRU waste to be transported in the RH-TRU 72-B, the first number of this three-digit code is “3.” The second and third numbers of the three-digit code describe the physical and chemical form of the waste. Table 2 provides a brief description of each generic code. Content codes are further defined as subcodes by an alpha trailer after the three-digit code to allow segregation of wastes that differ in one or more parameter(s). For example, the alpha trailers of the subcodes ID 322A and ID 322B may be used to differentiate between waste packaging configurations. As detailed in the RH-TRAMPAC, compliance with flammable gas limits may be demonstrated through the evaluation of compliance with either a decay heat limit or flammable gas generation rate (FGGR) limit per container specified in approved content codes. As applicable, if a container meets the watt*year criteria specified by the RH-TRAMPAC, the decay heat limits based on the dose-dependent G value may be used as specified in an approved content code. If a site implements the administrative controls outlined in the RH-TRAMPAC and Appendix 2.4 of the RH-TRU Payload Appendices, the decay heat or FGGR limits based on a 10-day shipping period (rather than the standard 60-day shipping period) may be used as specified in an approved content code.

Washington TRU Solutions

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Course contentCourse content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- firedPulverised coal- fired power plantpower plant #12;HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-upPulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up #12;HELSINKIHELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 ·· Course contentCourse content ·· Flue gases and fuel

Zevenhoven, Ron

387

On the Global Content PMI: Improved Copy-Protected Internet Content Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the Global Content PMI: Improved Copy-Protected Internet Content Distribution Tadayoshi Kohno distribution, copy-protection, PMI, risk manage- ment. 1 Introduction The Internet is changing the way Conference, 2001. #12;2 Tadayoshi Kohno and Mark McGovern the Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI

Matsuoka, Yoky

388

Evaluation of oil shale bitumen as a pavement asphalt additive to reduce moisture damage susceptibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An unrefined shale bitumen was evaluated as an agent to reduce moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt aggregate mixtures. Some activity was observed but less than might have been expected based on the molecular weight and nitrogen content of the bitumen. The counter effects of free carboxylic acids, which are known to be variable in asphalt and which are also present in the unrefined bitumen, appear to diminish the activity of the bitumen to inhibit moisture damage. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Robertson, R.E.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

energy or creating waste? Big changes for a smaller carbon footprint and less pollution The Lab is working to reduce emissions by nearly 30 percent from energy use in...

390

Reducing Safety Flaring through Advanced Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An advanced process control application, using DMCplus® (Aspen Technology, Inc.), was developed to substantially reduce fuel gas losses to the flare at a large integrated refining / petrochemical complex. Fluctuations in internal fuel gas system...

Hokanson, D.; Lehman, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takai, N.; Takase, F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

How to Reduce Energy Supply Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rising energy costs have many businesses looking for creative ways to reduce their energy usage and lower the costs of energy delivered to their facilities. This paper explores innovative renewable and alternative energy technologies that can help...

Swanson, G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Continuous Improvement Energy Projects Reduce Energy Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continuous Improvement Energy Projects Reduce Energy Consumption Eric Niemeyer, Operations Superintendent Drilling Specialties Company A division of Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LP ESL-IE-14-05-31 Proceedings of the Thrity...

Niemeyer, E.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Examples of Process Modifications that Reduce Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ideal approach to reducing or eliminating waste products is to avoid making them in the first place. This article will examine numerous process modifications that have accomplished that goal. We'll look at changes to raw materials, reactors...

Nelson, K. E.

394

Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product.

Mattus, Alfred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Swimming Upstream: How to Reduce Homelessness in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Swimming Upstream: How to Reduce Homelessness in Tempe's Emerging Urban Setting David V. Summers will be served) Wrigley Hall, Room 481 RSVP link: Download any free QR-Code reader app to your smart phone. Scan

Zhang, Junshan

396

Modeling Dynamic Web Content Antonio Barili1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rate supported by a Web server. Caching at the server side can reduce server resource demands required to build the page, thus reducing the server side delays to make information avail- able to the users. Proxy, Universities and Research (MIUR) under the FIRB-Perf project. #12;management policies. These issues have been

Massari, Luisa

397

Technologies for Reducing Nutrients in Dairy Effluent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the amount of phosphorus that the river can accept safely. These limits, or total maximum daily loads (TMDLs), require that annual loading and annual average soluble concentrations of phosphorus in the river be reduced by 50 percent. To meet these new... standards, phosphorus must be reduced from dairy effluent applied to waste application fields. Consequently, dairies will need to adopt new, more effective and more efficient waste management practices. Case studies were conducted on a Geotube ? de...

Mukhtar, Saqib; Wagner, Kevin; Gregory, Lucas

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

Content Management in Mobile Wireless Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.1.1 Defining the Delivery-Rate Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.1.2 Estimating the Delivery-Rate Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2 Content Optimal hal-00742734,version1-17Oct2012 #12;hal-00742734,version1-17Oct2012 #12;Acronyms List of abbreviations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

Heat Content Changes in the Pacific Ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat Content Changes in the Pacific Ocean The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Cli- mate (ATOC assimilating ocean observations and changes expected from surface heat fluxes as measured by the daily National are a result of advection of heat by ocean currents. We calculate that the most likely cause of the discrepancy

Frandsen, Jannette B.

400

STUDENT HANDBOOK Table of Contents Page Number  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STUDENT HANDBOOK Campus #12;Table of Contents Page Number Welcome 1 The School 1 Mission Statement Student Resources 8 Financial Aid and Funding Sources Writing Supports 9 Special Needs Computers Libraries RefWorks 10 Student Services 11 Administrative Information 14 Student ID, and Email Accounts U of R

Saskatchewan, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Student Mobile Device Survey Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CiCS. Student Mobile Device Survey 2011 Table of Contents Section Number Subject Page 1 With little information and supporting evidence on student ownership and usage of mobile devices at the University of Sheffield, making decisions on our services and support for mobile devices has been based

Martin, Stephen John

402

Philosophy 57 Greensheet (Syllabus) Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Philosophy 57 Greensheet (Syllabus) Table of Contents: Instructor Information Course Home Page Greensheet Page Page 1 of 3http://philosophy.wisc.edu/fitelson/57/syllabus.htm #12;I highly recommend using/syllabus.htm #12;Your 2 lowest quiz grades will be dropped ( , your 5 best quiz scores will be averaged). i

Fitelson, Branden

403

Atlas Finding Aid Contents/Index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atlas Finding Aid Contents/Index A (1) City & State Atlas A (2) Astronomy Atlas A (3) U.S. Atlas A (4) Water Atlas A (5) South America & Central America A (6) Africa, Asia, &, Antarctica A (7) Mexico A (8) Geologic Atlases A (9) Environment / Forest & Desert A (10) Historic Atlases A (11) World Atlases

Ward, Karen

404

CONTENTDM ADVANCED SEARCH TUTORIAL Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CONTENTDM ADVANCED SEARCH TUTORIAL Table of Contents 1. Accessing the Advanced Search Page 1 2. Navigating the Advanced Search Page 3 3. Selecting your collection to search Advanced Search from the right navigation menu. 2 This will take you into the CONTENTdm database

O'Laughlin, Jay

405

Digital Watermark Detection in Visual Multimedia Content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Digital Watermark Detection in Visual Multimedia Content Peter Meerwald Cumulative thesis (online or video. Watermark detection is an integral component of a watermarking system. This cumulative thesis. The computational effort for blind, spread-spectrum watermark detection is analyzed in- cluding the determination

Uhl, Andreas

406

Chemistry Department Assessment Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 Chemistry Department Assessment May, 2006 Table of Contents Page Executive Summary 1 Prelude 1 Mission Statement and Learning Goals 1 Facilities 2 Staffing 3 Students: Chemistry Majors and Student Taking Service Courses Table: 1997-2005 graduates profile Table: GRE Score for Chemistry Majors, 1993

Bogaerts, Steven

407

VEHICLE SERVICES POLICY Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VEHICLE SERVICES POLICY Table of Contents 1. Policy 2. Procedures a. Vehicle Services Oversight b. Vehicle Maintenance and Inspection c. Authorized Drivers d. Responsibilities Back to Top (To download requirements for AUB's vehicles, the University has adopted a policy of centralizing these activities under one

Shihadeh, Alan

408

Section 4. Inventory Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Section 4. Inventory Table of Contents 4.1 Existing Legal Protections........................................................................................................... 14 #12;Draft Umatilla/Willow Subbasin Plan May 28, 2004 4. Inventory of Existing Activities The following section contains information derived from an inventory questionnaire that was sent

409

ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents Web: http://climate.atmos.colostate.edu Colorado Climate Winter 2001-2002 Vol. 3, No. 1 Why Is the Park Range Colorado's Snowfall Capital? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 The Cold-Land Processes Field Experiment: North-Central Colorado

410

ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;ii Colorado Climate Table of Contents An Unusually Heavy Snowfall in North Central Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 A Brief History of Colorado's Most Notable Snowstorms" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Colorado Climate Water Year 2003 Vol. 4, No. 1-4 If you have a photo or slide that your would like

411

VEHICLES, MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT Table Of Contents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a license/permit for each piece of equipment, an Operator Equipment Qualification Record (DA Form 348EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 i Section 18 VEHICLES, MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT Table Of Contents Section: Page...................................................................18-16 18.G Machinery And Mechanized Equipment.........................18-16 18.H Drilling Equipment

US Army Corps of Engineers

412

Contents course 424304 / 2011 1 Exergy analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy 2c.6 Tidal energy, Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), osmotic power 3. ThermodynamicsContents course 424304 / 2011 1 Exergy analysis 1.1 Exergy vs. energy 1.2 Reversible work radiation 2a.8 Environmental radiation 2b Solar energy (thermal, PV, TIR) 2b.1 Solar radiation 2b.2 Photo

Zevenhoven, Ron

413

WWW-2005 Tutorial Web Content Mining  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of surface Web and deep Web. Surface Web: pages that can be browsed using a browser. Deep Web: databasesWWW-2005 Tutorial Web Content Mining Bing Liu Department of Computer Science University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) liub@cs.uic.edu http://www.cs.uic.edu/~liub The 14th International World Wide Web Conference

Hu, Wen-Chen

414

1512 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 39, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2004 A Low-Power Content-Addressable Memory (CAM)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1512 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 39, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2004 A Low-Power Content Sheikholeslami, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper presents two techniques to reduce power consumption, the search operation is discontinued for subsequent segments, hence reducing power. The second tech- nique

Sheikholeslami, Ali

415

Fitting Reduced Rank Regression Models by Alternating Maximum Likelihoods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fitting longitudinal reduced rank regression models byA J . (1965). Reduced-rank regression for the multivariateFITTING LONGITUDINAL REDUCED RANK REGRESSION MODELS BY

Jan de Leeuw

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Process for reducing beta activity in uranium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

Briggs, Gifford G. (Cincinnatti, OH); Kato, Takeo R. (Cincinnatti, OH); Schonegg, Edward (Cleves, OH)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Process for reducing beta activity in uranium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

1985-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

418

Alternatives for reducing hot-water bills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two stage approach to reducing residential water heating bills is described. In Stage I, simple conservation measures were included to reduce the daily hot water energy consumption and the energy losses from the water tank. Once these savings are achieved, Stage II considers more costly options for further reducing the water heating bill. Four alternatives are considered in Stage II: gas water heaters; solar water heaters (two types); heat pump water heaters; and heat recovery from a heat pump or air conditioner. To account for variations within the MASEC region, information on water heating in Rapid City, Minneapolis, Chicago, Detroit, and Kansas City is presented in detail. Information on geography, major population centers, fuel prices, climate, and state solar incentives is covered. (MCW)

Bennington, G.E.; Spewak, P.C.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Infrared photoemitting diode having reduced work function  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In electro-optical detectors which include as elements a photoemitting photocathode and anode, a photoemitting diode is fabricated which lowers the diode's work function, thus reducing the cooling requirement typically needed for this type of device. The work function is reduced by sandwiching between the photocathode and anode a liquid meidum of the formula NR/sub 3/ and having an electron affinity for the electrons of the photocathode, which liquid medium permits free electrons leaving the photocathode to remain as stable solvated species in the liquid medium. Thus, highly light-absorbent, and therefore thin, metallic layers can be used for detection, thereby reducing dark current at a given temperature, with a consequent reduction in cooling requirements at constant detector performance.

Hirschfeld, T.B.

1982-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

420

Reduced Basis Method for Nanodevices Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ballistic transport simulation in nanodevices, which involves self-consistently solving a coupled Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations, is usually computationally intensive. Here, we propose coupling the reduced basis method with the subband decomposition method to improve the overall efficiency of the simulation. By exploiting a posteriori error estimation procedure and greedy sampling algorithm, we are able to design an algorithm where the computational cost is reduced significantly. In addition, the computational cost only grows marginally with the number of grid points in the confined direction.

Pau, George Shu Heng

2008-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15,2015 |Rebecca MatulkaDeliveryUpdatedRFI ReducingBurden Reducing

422

Reducing Power Factor Cost | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartmentEnergy DataRemediated |Reducing LED Costs ThroughReducing Power

423

Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes Office ofof EnergyReducing PeakReducing

424

CONTENTS IN BRIEF PART I VISUALIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Density Estimation xxvi I.4 Plan of the Book xxvii I.5 Web Page and the Code xxvii I.6 Bibliographic Notes 67 2.2.1 Density Type Visualizations 68 #12;CONTENTS ix 2.2.2 Distribution Function Type.6.1 Morse Theory 118 4.6.2 Reeb Graphs 122 Exercises 123 5 Shape Trees 127 5.1 Functions and Sets 128 5

Klemelä, Jussi

425

Combination process for upgrading reduced crude  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reduced crude conversion process is described for heavy oil feeds having Conradson carbon numbers above two, which process comprises contacting a heavy oil feed with a catalyst to form products comprising lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and coke-on-catalyst, the coke containing minor amounts of hydrogen, and thereafter regenerating the catalyst by removing at least a portion of the coke.

Hettinger, W.P. Jr.

1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario, Leonid Kalachev Marko Laine, Lappeenranta University of the phenomena studied. Here, in the case of algae growth modelling, we show how a systematic model reduction may: Algae growth modelling, asymptotic methods, model reduction, MCMC, Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1

Bardsley, John

427

WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel oil and Turkey Based Biofuel Energy Rocovery 12,000 Industrial Waste $30,000 $500 $29,500 1500WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 2006 WASTE TYPE DESCRIPTION DETAILS * Aerosol Can Disposal System Recycling 528 66 pounds of hazardous waste per unit $7

428

Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

429

Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

430

WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 2004 WASTE TYPE Brake Cleaner Recycling System Mercury Utility Devices Substitution 60 Hazardous Waste $1,750 $2,500 $1 of one PCB spill and clean-up event. Organic Solvents Substitution 678 Hazardous Waste $1,355 $36,500 $26

431

Kittiwakes strategically reduce investment in replacement clutches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kittiwakes strategically reduce investment in replacement clutches Julien Gasparini1,*, Alexandre). In birds, egg production is lower in replacement clutches than in first clutches, but it is unknown whether the replacement clutch is produced) or from a strategic allocation of resources between the two breeding attempts

Alvarez, Nadir

432

Exploiting Genetic Variation of Fiber Components and Morphology in Juvenile Loblolly Pine.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to ensure the global competitiveness of the Pulp and Paper Industry in the Southeastern U.S., more wood with targeted characteristics have to be produced more efficiently on less land. The objective of the research project is to provide a molecular genetic basis for tree breeding of desirable traits in juvenile loblolly pine, using a multidisciplinary research approach. We developed micro analytical methods for determine the cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness of a single ring in a 12 mm increment core. These methods allow rapid determination of these traits in micro scale. Genetic variation and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) were studied in several juvenile wood traits of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Over 1000 wood samples of 12 mm increment cores were collected from 14 full-sib families generated by a 6-parent half-diallel mating design (11-year-old) in four progeny tests. Juvenile (ring 3) and transition (ring 8) for each increment core were analyzed for cellulose and lignin content, average fiber length, and coarseness. Transition wood had higher cellulose content, longer fiber and higher coarseness, but lower lignin than juvenile wood. General combining ability variance for the traits in juvenile wood explained 3 to 10% of the total variance, whereas the specific combining ability variance was negligible or zero. There were noticeable full-sib family rank changes between sites for all the traits. This was reflected in very high specific combining ability by site interaction variances, which explained from 5% (fiber length) to 37% (lignin) of the total variance. Weak individual-tree heritabilities were found for cellulose, lignin content and fiber length at the juvenile and transition wood, except for lignin at the transition wood (0.23). Coarseness had moderately high individual-tree heritabilities at both the juvenile (0.39) and transition wood (0.30). Favorable genetic correlations of volume and stem straightness were found with cellulose content, fiber length and coarseness, suggesting that selection on growth or stem straightness would results in favorable response in chemical wood traits. We have developed a series of methods for application of functional genomics to understanding the molecular basis of traits important to tree breeding for improved chemical and physical properties of wood. Two types of technologies were used, microarray analysis of gene expression, and profiling of soluble metabolites from wood forming tissues. We were able to correlate wood property phenotypes with expression of specific genes and with the abundance of specific metabolites using a new database and appropriate statistical tools. These results implicate a series of candidate genes for cellulose content, lignin content, hemicellulose content and specific extractible metabolites. Future work should integrate such studies in mapping populations and genetic maps to make more precise associations of traits with gene locations in order to increase the predictive power of molecular markers, and to distinguish between different candidate genes associated by linkage or by function. This study has found that loblolly pine families differed significantly for cellulose yield, fiber length, fiber coarseness, and less for lignin content. The implication for forest industry is that genetic testing and selection for these traits is possible and practical. With sufficient genetic variation, we could improve cellulose yield, fiber length, fiber coarseness, and reduce lignin content in Loblolly pine. With the continued progress in molecular research, some candidate genes may be used for selecting cellulose content, lignin content, hemicellulose content and specific extractible metabolites. This would accelerate current breeding and testing program significantly, and produce pine plantations with not only high productivity, but desirable wood properties as well.

Hou-min Chang, John F. Kadla, Bailian Li, Ron Sederoff,

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

433

Reduced crude processing with Ashland's RCC process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ashland Oil has long recognized the need to improve the process for the direct conversion of residual feedstocks into transportation fuels and other lighter products. The reduced crude oil conversion (RCC) unit now under construction at the Catlettsburg, Kentucky, refinery was developed to meet these demands. The facility incorporates RCC process innovations and recent catalyst technology improvements, and provides increased operating flexibility. Heavier, higher-sulfur crude oils can be processed under several economically attractive scenarios. They allow for an excellent balance between the production of transportation fuels, and reduced amounts of heavy fractions. An outstanding feature of the RCC process is the highoctane quality of full-boiling-range gasoline that results when converting residual feedstocks.

Zandona, O.J.; Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Reduced activation ferritic alloys for fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reduced activation martensitic alloys can now be developed with properties similar to commercial counterparts, and oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are under consideration. However, low chromium Bainitic alloys with vanadium additions undergo severe irradiation hardening at low irradiation temperatures and excessive softening at high temperatures, resulting in a very restricted application window. Manganese additions result in excessive embrittlement, as demonstrated by post-irradiation Charpy impact testing. The best composition range for martensitic alloys appears to be 7 to 9 Cr and 2 W, with swelling of minor concern and low temperature irradiation embrittlement perhaps eliminated. Therefore, reduced activation martensitic steels in the 7 to 9 Cr range should be considered leading contenders for structural materials applications in power-producing fusion machines.

Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, VA (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.

Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.

1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

436

Soft torque rotary system reduces drillstring failures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that the use of the soft torque system has significantly reduced torque fluctuations (up to 80%), torsional drillstring vibrations, and bit slip-stick conditions to help reduce drillstring failures and improve penetration rates in deep directional wells. The system was instrumental in eliminating expensive ($5-10 million) drillstring failures on Well SL 531 No. 3, a complex directional well in Mobile Bay. The soft torque rotary system attenuates and interrupts the torsional oscillations of the drillstring and thus prevents the buildup of energy in torsional waves that are reflected back and forth between the bit and the rotary table. The soft torque rotary system can be installed on any rig equipped with an independent electronically driven rotary table or top drive. The system is relatively inexpensive and easy to install.

Javanmardi, K.; Gaspard, D. (Shell Offshore Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States))

1992-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

437

Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.

2012-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

438

Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

Graham, Sean C.

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

439

Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.

Lo, Hoi-Kwong (1309, Low Block, Lei Moon House Ap Lei Chau Estate, Hong Kong, HK); Chau, Hoi Fung (Flat C, 42nd Floor, Tower 1, University Heights 23 Pokfield Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, HK)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... it is essential to estimate accurately baseline NOx emissions. ? This will establish each units current compliance status. ? Emissions ? Current excess air level ? Carbon monoxide ? Combustibles ? NOx corrected to 3% 02 314 ESL-IE-00-04-46 Proceedings...

Garg, A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Renewable Energy Can Help Reduce Oil Dependency  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In a speech to the Economic Club of Kansas City on June 23, 2010, NREL Director Dan Arvizu takes a realistic look at how renewable energy can help reduce America's dependence on oil, pointing out that the country gets as much energy from renewable sources now as it does from offshore oil production. For a transcript, visit http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/energy_overview_06_10.pdf

Arvizu, Dan

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

442

Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrasonic Inspection At least 2 times per year Steam Trap Surveyor Submit reports to area management, energy team, and reliability engineers for each area every month Steam Trap Team Leader Control Plan ? Process Owner agrees...Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works GB/BB Name: Cyndi Kouba Mentor/MBB: Andrew Degraff Team Members Michael Crowley(Site Energy Lead), (Charlie) Flanigan (Aramids-maintenance), Ben Snyder (Aramids-ATO), Michael Scruggs (Central...

Kouba, C.

443

Reduce generating costs and eliminate brownouts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving the manoeuverability of a coal-fired plant to allow it to participate in primary frequency support will reduce generation cost and minimize brownouts. The challenge is to do so without compromising efficiency or emissions. This article describes an approach - activation of stored energy - that is cost-effective and applicable to both greenfield and brownfield installations. It requires a new control philosophy, plus the correct application of new level and flow measurement 'best practices'. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Nogaja, R.; Menezes, M. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Method for reducing ignition delay of fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of reducing ignition delay /tau/, of fuels to negligible values and negligible differences is disclosed. Fuels conditioned to have such negligible values and differences are readily used in multiple fuel engines, such fuels self-ignite substantially instantaneously when injected into an oxidant, require substantially no heat transfer from the oxidant to effect the self-ignition, and the self-ignition is sufficient to sustain continued combustion.

Hoppie, L.O.

1984-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for a vehicle with a pair of swinging rear doors, which converts flat sheets of pliable material hinged to the sides of the vehicle adjacent the rear thereof into effective curved airfoils that reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, when the doors are closed by hand, utilizing a plurality of stiffeners disposed generally parallel to the doors and affixed to the sheets and a plurality of collapsible tension bearings struts attached to each stiffener and the adjacent door.

Graham, Sean C.

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

Reducing Your Electricity Use | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »ExchangeDepartment ofManagementManagementReduce Hot Water Use

447

Reducing emissions by addressing steam turbine inefficiencies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that inefficient steam turbines increase fossil plant emissions because additional fuel must be burned to meet the power output requirements. During a turbine outage, plant performance and maintenance staff make and prioritize repair decisions within tight time and budget constraints. This paper describes how Georgia Power identifies performance losses of degraded components in the steam path and determines their impact on heat rate. Turbine performance is assessed by a steam path audit program that Encotech has developed and make available to utilities. Georgia Power has conducted several operating tests that give good correlation with audit results. Georgia Power uses the audit information to make the most cost-effective repairs to maintain a low heat rate and to reduce emissions. The Clean Air Act presents electric utilities with the challenge of reducing emissions from fossil plants in the most cost-effective way possible. Meeting the stack emissions limitations often translates to large capital expenditures and increased cycle heat rate. One resource the electric utilities have to reduce the costly impact of compliance with the Clean Air Act is control over the efficiency of their steam turbines.

Harris, J.C. (Georgia Power Co., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Cioffi, D.H. (Encotech, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Development of reduced crude cracking catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1974 OPEC imposed an embargo on oil to the United States and caused a rapid rise in the price of a barrel of oil. At the time of the embargo, Ashland imported a considerable portion of its oil from the Middle East, thus raising the question of oil availability. As the problem increased in severity, Messrs. George Meyer, Oliver Zandona and Llyod Busch, began to explore alternative ways of squeezing more product from a given barrel of crude. After considering many alternatives, they arrived at the innovative thought that it might be possible to catalytically crack the 1050{degree}F plus fraction of the barrel directly to gasoline which would in effect, give them an additional volume of crude oil. Also, if vacuum fractionation were eliminated and if the entire 650{degree}F plus (reduced crude) portion of the barrel processed, this would further reduce operating costs. With these objectives and some new process innovations in mind, they began reduced crude cracking experimentation in a small 12,000 B/D FCC operating unit at Louisville. It was from these goals, concepts and a small operating unit, that the RCC process was born.

Hettinger, W.P. Jr. (Ashland Petroleum Company, KY (USA))

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Universal decay rule for reduced widths  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission processes including {alpha} decay, heavy cluster decay, and proton and di-proton emission are analyzed in terms of the well-known factorization between the penetrability and the reduced width. By using a shifted harmonic oscillator plus Coulomb cluster-daughter interaction it is possible to derive a linear relation between the logarithm of the reduced width squared and the fragmentation potential, defined as the difference between the Coulomb barrier and the Q value. This relation is fulfilled with a good accuracy for transitions between ground states, as well as for most {alpha} decays to low-lying 2{sup +} excited states. The well-known Viola-Seaborg rule, connecting half-lives with the Coulomb parameter and the product between fragment charge numbers, as well as the Blendowske scaling rule, connecting the spectroscopic factor with the mass number of the emitted cluster, can be easily understood in terms of the fragmentation potential. It is shown that the recently evidenced two regions in the dependence of reduced proton half-lives versus the Coulomb parameter are directly connected with the corresponding regions of the fragmentation potential.

Delion, D. S. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 407 Atomistilor, Bucharest-Magurele 077125 (Romania) and Academy of Romanian Scientists, 54 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest 050094 (Romania)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

Original article Biomass, litterfall and nutrient content in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Biomass, litterfall and nutrient content in Castanea sativa coppice stands November 1995) Summary - Aboveground biomass and nutrient content, litterfall and nutrient return) and Catania (Italy). Best regression equations for the aboveground biomass were obtained by applying the allo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

451

Branch content of metallocene polyethylene Ramnath Ramachandran, Gregory Beaucage*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Branch content of metallocene polyethylene Ramnath Ramachandran, Gregory Beaucage* and Amit catalyzed polyethylene (PE). A novel scaling approach is applied to determine the mole fraction branch solutions of metallocene polyethylene samples, to quantify the LCB content in polymers previously studied

Beaucage, Gregory

452

BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2008 - all rights reserved 1 (tm) BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring BioDiesel Content On-board monitoring August 6th, 2008 Copyright SP3H 2007 -- all rights reserved 2 Biofuel...

453

Advertiser retains sole responsibility for content ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advertiser retains sole responsibility for content ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE T okyo University to combat global food shortages, monitoring air pollution in East Asia and safeguarding the world's energy abilitiesinyoungresearchers." #12;Advertiser retains sole responsibility for content ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE and then use

Cai, Long

454

Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics of sediment from a naturally reduced zone in a uranium-contaminated aquifer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Localized zones or lenses of naturally reduced sediments have the potential to play a significant role in the fate and transport of redox-sensitive metals and metalloids in aquifers. To assess the mineralogy, microbiology, and redox processes that occur in these zones, we examined several cores from a region of naturally occurring reducing conditions in a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO). Sediment samples from a transect of cores ranging from oxic/suboxic Rifle aquifer sediment to naturally reduced sediment were analyzed for uranium and iron content, oxidation state, and mineralogy, reduced sulfur phases, and solid phase organic carbon content using a suite of analytical and spectroscopic techniques on bulk sediment and size fractions. Solid-phase uranium concentrations were higher in the naturally reduced zone, with a high proportion of the uranium present as reduced U(IV). The sediments were also elevated in reduced sulfur phases and Fe(II), indicating it is very likely that U(VI), Fe(III), and sulfate reduction occurred or is occurring in the sediment. The microbial community was assessed using lipid- and DNA-based techniques, and statistical redundancy analysis was performed to determine correlations between the microbial community and the geochemistry. Increased concentration of solid phase organic carbon and biomass in the naturally reduced sediment suggests that natural bioreduction is stimulated by a zone of increased organic carbon concentration associated with fine-grained material and lower permeability to groundwater flow. Characterization of the naturally bioreduced sediment provides an understanding of the natural processes that occur in the sediment under reducing conditions and how they may impact natural attenuation of radionuclides and other redox sensitive materials. Results also suggest the importance of recalcitrant organic carbon for maintaining reducing conditions and uranium immobilization.

Campbell, Kate M.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Peacock, Aaron D.; Lesher, E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Bargar, John R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Figueroa, Linda A.; Ranville, James; Davis, James; Long, Philip E.

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

455

TABLE OF CONTENTS Welcome Letter 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) 800-53, Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems. In addressing the President in technology further supported reduced paperwork, streamlined processes, improved control of assets, better for Security Categorization of Federal Information and Information Systems, and NIST Special Publication (SP

456

Original article Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Belowground biomass and nutrient content in a 47-year-old Douglas-fir plantation, France (Received 17 July 2000; accepted 6 October 2000) Abstract ­ Biomass and nutrient content and root biomass or nutrient content were observed. The root biomass was 58 t of dry matter, which was 18

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

457

Fast Browsing of Archived Web Contents Sangchul Song  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and deep contents, web contents involve a wide variety of objects such as html pages, documents, multimediaFast Browsing of Archived Web Contents Sangchul Song Department of Electrical and Computer The web is becoming the preferred medium for communicating and storing information pertaining to almost

JaJa, Joseph F.

458

Energy-Aware Load Balancing in Content Delivery Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internet-scale distributed systems such as content delivery networks (CDNs) operate hundreds of thousands of servers deployed in thousands of data center locations around the globe. Since the energy costs of operating such a large IT infrastructure are a significant fraction of the total operating costs, we argue for redesigning CDNs to incorporate energy optimizations as a first-order principle. We propose techniques to turn off CDN servers during periods of low load while seeking to balance three key design goals: maximize energy reduction, minimize the impact on client-perceived service availability (SLAs), and limit the frequency of on-off server transitions to reduce wear-and-tear and its impact on hardware reliability. We propose an optimal offline algorithm and an online algorithm to extract energy savings both at the level of local load balancing within a data center and global load balancing across data centers. We evaluate our algorithms using real production workload traces from a large commercial ...

Mathew, Vimal; Shenoy, Prashant

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Content of Submission The content of the RAE08 submission was comprised of the following nine datasets,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

datasets, known as forms. Form Content of data set RA0 Overall staff summary to include: - The FTE number

460

Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends. 11 figures.

Albrecht, G.F.; Comaskey, B.; Sutton, S.B.

1994-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends.

Albrecht, Georg F. (Livermore, CA); Comaskey, Brian (Stockton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September 15,2015 |Rebecca MatulkaDeliveryUpdatedRFI Reducing

463

Reducing Energy Loss | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartmentEnergy DataRemediated | DepartmentRecruitPumpingStudyReducing

464

Reducing Photovoltaic Costs | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartmentEnergy DataRemediated |Reducing LED Costs Through

465

Reducing Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes Office ofof EnergyReducing Peak Demand

466

Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalancedDepartment ofColumbusReport #Study | Department of EnergyReducingBurden

467

Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical Absorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-index and low-index quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon absorption resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-index and low-index quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.

Klem, John F. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

468

Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

Matzen, Laura E.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

How Damage Diversification Can Reduce Systemic Risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the problem of risk diversification in complex networks. Nodes represent e.g. financial actors, whereas weighted links represent e.g. financial obligations (credits/debts). Each node has a risk to fail because of losses resulting from defaulting neighbors, which may lead to large failure cascades. Classical risk diversification strategies usually neglect network effects and therefore suggest that risk can be reduced if possible losses (i.e., exposures) are split among many neighbors (exposure diversification, ED). But from a complex networks perspective diversification implies higher connectivity of the system as a whole which can also lead to increasing failure risk of a node. To cope with this, we propose a different strategy (damage diversification, DD), i.e. the diversification of losses that are imposed on neighboring nodes as opposed to losses incurred by the node itself. Here, we quantify the potential of DD to reduce systemic risk in comparison to ED. For this, we develop a branching proce...

Burkholz, Rebekka; Schweitzer, Frank

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Method and apparatus for reducing the harmonic currents in alternating-current distribution networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method reduce the harmonic content of AC line and neutral line currents in polyphase AC source distribution networks. The apparatus and method employ a polyphase Zig-Zag transformer connected between the AC source distribution network and a load. The apparatus and method also employs a mechanism for increasing the source neutral impedance of the AC source distribution network. This mechanism can consist of a choke installed in the neutral line between the AC source and the Zig-Zag transformer. 23 figs.

Beverly, L.H.; Hance, R.D.; Kristalinski, A.L.; Visser, A.T.

1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

471

Method and apparatus for reducing the harmonic currents in alternating-current distribution networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method reduce the harmonic content of AC line and neutral line currents in polyphase AC source distribution networks. The apparatus and method employ a polyphase Zig-Zag transformer connected between the AC source distribution network and a load. The apparatus and method also employs a mechanism for increasing the source neutral impedance of the AC source distribution network. This mechanism can consist of a choke installed in the neutral line between the AC source and the Zig-Zag transformer.

Beverly, Leon H. (Lockport, IL); Hance, Richard D. (Elburn, IL); Kristalinski, Alexandr L. (Naperville, IL); Visser, Age T. (Geneva, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Yellowstone Agencies Plan to Reduce Emissions | Department of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Yellowstone Agencies Plan to Reduce Emissions Yellowstone Agencies Plan to Reduce Emissions March 15, 2010 - 11:14am Addthis Castle Geyser at Yellowstone National Park | File photo...

473

Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Project Profile: Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power...

474

Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions: Effect of Amended Goethite on Microbial Community Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions:...

475

Uranium immobilization by sulfate-reducing biofilms grown on...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

immobilization by sulfate-reducing biofilms grown on hematite, dolomite, and calcite. Uranium immobilization by sulfate-reducing biofilms grown on hematite, dolomite, and calcite....

476

Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related Heat Transfer Losses Increasing LTC Engine Efficiency by Reducing Pressure-Oscillation-Related Heat...

477

Wind Program Manufacturing Research Advances Processes and Reduces...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Wind Program Manufacturing Research Advances Processes and Reduces Costs Wind Program Manufacturing Research Advances Processes and Reduces Costs March 31, 2014 - 11:22am Addthis...

478

Reduced Gravity Education Flight Opportunity for Students at...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reduced Gravity Education Flight Opportunity for Students at Minority Serving Institutions Reduced Gravity Education Flight Opportunity for Students at Minority Serving...

479

Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste and Increase Profits Local Program Helps Alabama Manufacturers Add Jobs, Reduce Waste and Increase Profits April 8,...

480

New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduced lignin content" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Project Profile: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of Building-Integrated Photovoltaics Project Profile: Transformational Approach to Reducing the Total System Costs of...

482

Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins Associated with Biomonitoring of Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins...

483

Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to reduce vehicle miles traveled, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

484

Vehicle Electrification is Key to Reducing Petroleum Dependency...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Electrification is Key to Reducing Petroleum Dependency and Greenhouse Gas Emission Vehicle Electrification is Key to Reducing Petroleum Dependency and Greenhouse Gas...

485

Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Development and Validation of a Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates...

486

Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by...

487

Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

lai.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power...

488

Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Building Codes Project for the 2013 Building...

489

Redox reactions of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMN), riboflavin...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Redox reactions of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMN), riboflavin (RBF), and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) with Redox reactions of reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMN),...

490

Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pair of pliable opposing flat sheets having an outside edge portion attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides thereof and an upper edge with a predetermined curve; the opposing flat sheets being bent and attached to the struts to form effective curved airfoil shapes, and a top pliable flat sheet disposed adjacent the top of the flat front face and having predetermined curved side edges, which, when the top sheet is bent and attached to the struts to form an effective curved airfoil shape, mate with the curved upper edges of the opposing sheets to complete the aerodynamic device.

Graham, Sean C.

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

491

Reducing variance in batch partitioning measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The partitioning experiment is commonly performed with little or no attention to reducing measurement variance. Batch test procedures such as those used to measure K{sub d} values (e.g., ASTM D 4646 and EPA402 -R-99-004A) do not explain how to evaluate measurement uncertainty nor how to minimize measurement variance. In fact, ASTM D 4646 prescribes a sorbent:water ratio that prevents variance minimization. Consequently, the variance of a set of partitioning measurements can be extreme and even absurd. Such data sets, which are commonplace, hamper probabilistic modeling efforts. An error-savvy design requires adjustment of the solution:sorbent ratio so that approximately half of the sorbate partitions to the sorbent. Results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that this simple step can markedly improve the precision and statistical characterization of partitioning uncertainty.

Mariner, Paul E.

2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

492

Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

493

Method of data communications with reduced latency  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Data communications with reduced latency, including: writing, by a producer, a descriptor and message data into at least two descriptor slots of a descriptor buffer, the descriptor buffer comprising allocated computer memory segmented into descriptor slots, each descriptor slot having a fixed size, the descriptor buffer having a header pointer that identifies a next descriptor slot to be processed by a DMA controller, the descriptor buffer having a tail pointer that identifies a descriptor slot for entry of a next descriptor in the descriptor buffer; recording, by the producer, in the descriptor a value signifying that message data has been written into descriptor slots; and setting, by the producer, in dependence upon the recorded value, a tail pointer to point to a next open descriptor slot.

Blocksome, Michael A; Parker, Jeffrey J

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

494

Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

495

Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

496

Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, {var_epsilon}. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

Fang, Anan

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

497

Completely Reducible maps in Quantum Information Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to compute the Schmidt decomposition of $A\\in M_k\\otimes M_m$, we must consider an associated self-adjoint map. Here, we show that if $A$ is positive under partial transposition (PPT) or symmetric with positive coefficients (SPC) or invariant under realignment then its associated self-adjoint map is completely reducible. We give applications of this fact in Quantum Information Theory. We recover some theorems recently proved for PPT and SPC matrices and we prove these theorems for matrices invariant under realignment using theorems of Perron-Frobenius theory. We also provide a new proof of the fact that if $\\mathbb{C}^{k}$ contains $k$ mutually unbiased bases then $\\mathbb{C}^{k}$ contains $k+1$. We search for other types of matrices that could have the same property. We consider a group of linear transformations acting on $M_k\\otimes M_k$, which contains the partial transpositions and the realignment map. For each element of this group, we consider the set of matrices in $M_k\\otimes M_k\\simeq M_{k^2}$ that are positive and remain positive, or invariant, under the action of this element. Within this family of sets, we have the set of PPT matrices, the set of SPC matrices and the set of matrices invariant under realignment. We show that these three sets are the only sets of this family such that the associated self-adjoint map of each matrix is completely reducible. We also show that every matrix invariant under realignment is PPT in $M_2\\otimes M_2$ and we present a counterexample in $M_k\\otimes M_k$, $k\\geq 3$.

Daniel Cariello

2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

498

Completely Reducible maps in Quantum Information Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to compute the Schmidt decomposition of $A\\in M_k\\otimes M_m$, we must consider an associated self-adjoint map. Here, we show that if $A$ is positive under partial transposition (PPT) or symmetric with positive coefficients (SPC) or invariant under realignment then its associated self-adjoint map is completely reducible. We give applications of this fact in Quantum Information Theory. We recover some theorems recently proved for PPT and SPC matrices and we prove these theorems for matrices invariant under realignment using theorems of Perron-Frobenius theory. One consequence of these theorems is the fact that if $\\mathbb{C}^{k}$ contains $k$ mutually unbiased bases then $\\mathbb{C}^{k}$ contains $k+1$. We search for other types of matrices that could have the same property. We consider a group of linear transformations acting on $M_k\\otimes M_k$, which contains the partial transpositions and the realignment map. For each element of this group, we consider the set of matrices in $M_k\\otimes M_k\\simeq M_{k^2}$ that are positive and remain positive, or invariant, under the action of this element. Within this family of sets, we have the set of PPT matrices, the set of SPC matrices and the set of matrices invariant under realignment. We show that these three sets are the only sets of this family such that the associated self-adjoint map of each matrix is completely reducible. We also show that every matrix invariant under realignment is PPT in $M_2\\otimes M_2$ and we present a counterexample in $M_k\\otimes M_k$, $k\\geq 3$.

Daniel Cariello

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

499

"Beyond HTML: Developing and re-imagining library web guides in a content management system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a content management system. ” Texas Library Journal,Web content management systems: evolution, lifecycle andIN A CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Doug Goans (dgoans@gsu.edu)

Goans, Doug; Leach, Guy; Vogel, Teri M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Brucella antibody in milk following vaccination of adult cattle with a reduced dose of brucella abortus strain 19  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BRUCELLA ANTIBODY IN MILK FOLLOWING VACCINATION OF ADULT CATTLE WITH A REDUCED DOSE OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN 19 A Thesis by JAN DUANE HUBER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1978 Major Subject: Epidemiology BRUCELLA ANTIBODY IN MILK FOLLOWING VACCINATION OF ADULT CATTLE WITH A REDUCED DOSE OF BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN 19 A Thesis by JAN DUANE HUBER Approved as to style and content by...

Huber, Jan Duane

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z