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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Sulfur Dioxide Regulations (Ohio)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency provides sulfur dioxide emission limits for every county, as well as regulations for the emission, monitoring and...

2

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 ERRATA Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard July 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Adminis- tration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler @eia.doe.gov), Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Scott B. Sitzer (202/586-2308,

3

Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

Eller, Phillip G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kubas, Gregory J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

sulfur dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

sulfur dioxide emissions sulfur dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords buildings carbon dioxide emissions carbon footprinting CO2 commercial buildings electricity emission factors ERCOT hourly emission factors interconnect nitrogen oxides

5

Why Sequence Bacteria That Reduce Sulfur Compounds?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria That Reduce Sulfur Compounds? Combustion of sulfur-containing fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, contributes significantly to global environmental problems, such...

6

Average prices for spot sulfur dioxide emissions allowances at ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The weighted average spot price for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions allowances awarded to winning bidders at Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) annual auction on ...

7

Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report Joint Global Change Research Institute 8400 Baltimore Avenue College Park, Maryland 20740 #12;PNNL-14537

Hultman, Nathan E.

8

Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,922,792 entitled "Method for Sequestering Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams." Disclosed in this patent is the invention of a neutralization/sequestration method that concomitantly treats bauxite residues from aluminum production processes, as well as brine wastewater from oil and gas production processes. The method uses an integrated approach that coincidentally treats multiple industrial waste by-product streams. The end results include neutralizing caustic

9

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

11

Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

12

Reducing Sulfur Hexafluoride Use at LANSCE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U N C L A S S I F I E D U N C L A S S I F I E D Reducing Sulfur Hexafluoride Use at LANSCE Hank Alvestad presents to the Fugitive Emissions Working Group September 8, 2011...

13

Process for reducing sulfur in coal char  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal is gasified in the presence of a small but effective amount of alkaline earth oxide, hydroxide or carbonate to yield a char fraction depleted in sulfur. Gases produced during the reaction are enriched in sulfur compounds and the alkaline earth compound remains in the char fraction as an alkaline earth oxide. The char is suitable for fuel use, as in a power plant, and during combustion of the char the alkaline earth oxide reacts with at least a portion of the sulfur oxides produced from the residual sulfur contained in the char to further lower the sulfur content of the combustion gases.

Gasior, Stanley J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Forney, Albert J. (Coraopolis, PA); Haynes, William P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kenny, Richard F. (Venetia, PA)

1976-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

14

Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Smart battery controller for lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

Atwater, T.; Bard, A.; Testa, B.; Shader, W.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results showed that both temperature and concentration of the coagulants substantially impact corrosion rates. The corrosion rates increased with the increase of temperature and concentration. The results from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that chloride caused more serious pitting than sulfate anion on both aluminum and steel specimens. Although SEM confirmed the existence of pitting corrosion, the results of weight loss indicated that the uniform corrosion predominate the corrosion mechanism, and pitting corrosion played a less important role. The test proved that PFS was less corrosive than FC, which may lead to the large-scale application of PFS in waste treatment. The kinetics of the new desulfurization process has been studied. The study results provide the theoretical guidance for improving sulfur removal efficiency and controlling the quality of PFS.

Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Available Technologies: Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology ...

18

Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost - Energy Innovation ...  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method that reduces the expense of capturing carbon dioxide generated by the combustion of fossil fuels. This technology ...

19

Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Improved efficiency in the sulfur dioxide-iodine hydrogen cycle through the use of magnesium oxide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reaction of iodine with dry magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfite hexahydrate was studied experimentally as a possible means of improving the efficiency of the sulfur dioxide-iodine cycle. When no extra water was introduced, the maximum product yield was 67% obtained at 423 K. With excess water vapor, a nonporous plug was formed which prevented complete reaction. In the second case, maximum yield was 62% measured at 433 K showing that added water does not increase reaction products. This reaction gives an alternate route for producing hydrogen from water via the sulfur dioxide-iodine process.

Mason, C.F.V.; Bowman, M.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

MULTIPLE SULFUR ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY WITH SULFATE REDUCERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MULTIPLE SULFUR ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY WITH SULFATE REDUCERS*, DONALD E. CANFIELD**, and KIRSTEN S. HABICHT** ABSTRACT. Multiple sulfur isotope measurements of sulfur disproportionation indicate that different types of metabolic processes impart differ- ent multiple isotope

Kaufman, Alan Jay

22

Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light Duty Vehicles D A N I E L A . B U R by dynamometer (16), remote sensing (17), and recently by a chase vehicle (18). Results from these studies vary

Denver, University of

23

On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The ...

Ronit Nirel; Uri Dayan

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

Shale, Correll C. (Morgantown, WV); Cross, William G. (Morgantown, WV)

1976-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

25

Power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

State Energy Data System ... the program provided an economic incentive for coal-fired power plants to reduce emissions by installing pollution contro ...

26

Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project has investigated new metal oxide catalysts for the single stage selective reduction of SO{sub 2} to elemental sulfur by a reductant, such as CO. Significant progress in catalyst development has been made during the course of the project. We have found that fluorite oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, and rare earth zirconates such as Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} are active and stable catalysts for reduction Of SO{sub 2} by CO. More than 95% sulfur yield was achieved at reaction temperatures about 450{degrees}C or higher with the feed gas of stoichiometric composition. Reaction of SO{sub 2} and CO over these catalysts demonstrated a strong correlation of catalytic activity with the catalyst oxygen mobility. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and resistance to H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} poisoning of these catalysts were significantly enhanced by adding small amounts of transition metals, such as Co, Ni, Co, etc. The resulting transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalyst has superior activity and stability, and shows promise in long use for the development of a greatly simplified single-step sulfur recovery process to treat variable and dilute SO{sub 2} concentration gas streams. Among various active composite catalyst systems the Cu-CeO{sub 2} system has been extensively studied. XRD, XPS, and STEM analyses of the used Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst found that the fluorite crystal structure of ceria was stable at the present reaction conditions, small amounts of copper was dispersed and stabilized on the ceria matrix, and excess copper oxide particles formed copper sulfide crystals of little contribution to catalytic activity. A working catalyst consisted of partially sulfated cerium oxide surface and partially sulfided copper clusters. The overall reaction kinetics were approximately represented by a first order equation.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Means and method for reducing carbon dioxide to a product  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for reducing carbon dioxide to a product comprising the steps of: providing carbon dioxide to a catholyte chamber of a reaction cell; providing water to an anolyte section of the reaction cell, forming a passageway through the reaction cell with a dual porosity cathode between the passageway and catholyte chamber and with a porous anode between the passageway and anolyte chamber; provides an electrolyte in a manner so that it passes through the passageway; and provides a direct current voltage across the dual porosity cathode and anode so as to cause a reduction of the carbon dioxide in cooperation with the electrolyte and hydrogen ions passing through the anode. This passes to a product contained within the electrolyte and causes oxygen to be emitted from the anolyte chamber.

Ang, P.G.P.; Sammels, A.F.

1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

29

EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

30

Limestone treatment for sulfur dioxide removal. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of limestone for the control of sulfur dioxide emmisions in flue gases. The various designs for flue gas desulfurization are discussed, including dry fluidized beds and wet scrubbers. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control  

SciTech Connect

It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

Li, Liyu; King, David L.

2010-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

32

Smart battery controller for lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries. Technical report, Jan 89-Apr 91  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

Atwater, T.; Bard, A.; Testa, B.; Shader, W.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

EIA - Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? International Energy Outlook 2010 Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world'ss carbon dioxide emissions? The pursuit of greenhouse gas reductions has the potential to reduce global coal use significantly. Because coal is the most carbon-intensive of all fossil fuels, limitations on carbon dioxide emissions will raise the cost of coal relative to the costs of other fuels. Under such circumstances, the degree to which energy use shifts away from coal to other fuels will depend largely on the costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants relative to the costs of using other, low-carbon or carbon-free energy sources. The continued widespread use of coal could rely on the cost and availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that capture carbon dioxide and store it in geologic formations.

34

Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade increasing concern over the potential environmental impact associated with the emissions of both gaseous and particulate pollutants has resulted in the promulgation of strict regulatory standards governing such emissions. In this regard, particular attention has been placed upon the control of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from major fuel burning installations. The provisions of the 1977 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which relate to the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) have made consideration of this problem of significant additional importance in the context of increased coal utilization. There exist three general methods for the control of sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired boiler equipment. These are: (1) coal cleaning to remove pyritic sulfur, (2) conventional wet, nonregenerable scrubbing with alkaline slurry and solution processes, and (3) dry processes which involve direct introduction of lime or limestone into the firebox, or a spray dryer operated with nonregenerable alkaline sorbents coupled with a fabric filter collector. Equipment requirements, SO2 removal criteria, general economics, and potential applications of these latter two approaches within category (3) will be discussed.

Schwartz, M. H.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

Simulation of the nonequilibrium chemical decomposition of carbon dioxide in the presence of sulfur in a plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors carry out a model calculation of the kinetics of the decomposition of carbon dioxide in the presence of sulfur in a moderate-pressure nonequilibrium discharge. The process is stimulated by the vibrational excitation of CO/sub 2/. Kinetic curves and the time variation of the vibrational and translational temperatures are calculated. The dependence of the energy efficiency on the specific energy input has been obtained. The optimal energy input is 4 J/cm/sup 3/. The minimal energy comsumption per CO molecule is 2.7-3.5 eV. The results of the calculations are consistent with the experimental results in the case of a nonequilibrium UHF discharge. The mechanism of the process, which accounts for the results, particularly the higher efficiency of the process in comparison to the dissociation of pure CO/sub 2/, has been ascertained.

Zhivotov, V.K.; Levitskii, A.A.; Macheret, S.O.; Polak, L.S.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ozawa Meida. 2001. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Globalpost-combustion capture of carbon dioxide. InternationalIPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage:

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Why Sequence Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? Several environmental problems, such as acid rain, biocorrosion, etc., are caused by sulfur compounds, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). A sustainable process to remove these sulfur compounds is the production of elemental sulfur from H2S-containing gas streams by the use of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. In this process, H2S is absorbed into the alkaline solution in the scrubber unit, followed by the biological oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur and the recycling of water. With this two-step process, a variety of gas streams (i.e., natural gas, synthesis gas, biogas, and refinery gas) can be treated. For the treatment of sulfate-containing waste streams, an extra step has to be introduced: the transformation of sulfate into H2S by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In

39

Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

Harris, E.

40

Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies

J. Alan Beamon

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions. The model uses generation dispatch algorithms, efficiency levels, and capacity factorsemissions factors for fuel and electricity. Table A-3.3.2 Energy Savings, Costs, and Carbon Dioxide

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

44

RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

Hobbs, D.

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

45

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Price 2008). In addition, this scenario assumes that the share of biomassand Price 2008). Substitution of fossil fuels in cement kilns with low-sulfur biomass

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Notification to Mirant by the Commonwealth of Virginia of Serious Violations of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Sulfur Dioxide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9, 2005 9, 2005 Lisa D. Johnson, President Mirant Potomac River, LLC 8711 Westphalia Road Upper Marlboro, Maryland 20774 Dear Ms. Johnson: DEQ is in receipt of the results of Mirant's "downwash" modeling provided by Mirant to DEQ pursuant to the consent special order between the State Air Pollution Control Board and Mirant Potomac River, LLC. A cursory review of the modeling reveals that emissions from the Potomac River Generating Station result in, cause or substantially contribute to serious violations of the primary national ambient air quality standards or "NAAQS" for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and PM 10 . NAAQS are established by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency at concentrations necessary to protect human health with an adequate margin of safety.

47

SRD 134 Sulfur Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... MO, NIST Standard Reference Database 23: NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties, Version 7.0 Beta, National Institute ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

48

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

50

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration in Deep Geological Formations  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration (CCS) in deep geological formations has quickly emerged as an important option for reducing greenhouse emissions. If CCS is implemented on the scale needed for large reductions in CO2 emissions, a billion of tonnes or more of CO2 will be sequestered annually a 250 fold increase over the amount sequestered annually today. Sequestering these large volumes will require a strong scientific foundation of the coupled hydrological-geochemical-geomechanical processes that govern the long term fate of CO2 in the subsurface. Methods to characterize and select sequestration sites, subsurface engineering to optimize performance and cost, safe operations, monitoring technology, remediation methods, regulatory oversight, and an institutional approach for managing long term liability are also needed.

Benson, Dr. Sally [Stanford University; Cole, David R [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions  

SciTech Connect

A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

Huffman, Gerald P.

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

52

Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

54

Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Second quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

In the more than 170 wet scrubber systems in 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers, the SO{sub 2} removed from the boiler flue gas is sorbed, and the sulfated sorbent must be disposed of. The use of regenerable sorbents has the potential to reduce this disposal problem. The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts Univ., and Engelhard Corp. are conducting Phase I of a 4.5-year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting SO{sub 2} to S. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide such as ceria and zirconia; the catalytic activity can be promoted by active transition metals such as Cu. The Phase I program includes the following work elements: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization, lab-scale bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies, bench-scale catalyst/process studies, and utility review.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fiscal year 2008 studies in electrolyzer component development have focused on the characterization of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) after performance tests in the single cell electrolyzer, evaluation of electrocatalysts and membranes using a small scale electrolyzer and evaluating the contribution of individual cell components to the overall electrochemical performance. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies of samples taken from MEAs testing in the SRNL single cell electrolyzer test station indicates a sulfur-rich layer forms between the cathode catalyst layer and the membrane. Based on a review of operating conditions for each of the MEAs evaluated, we conclude that the formation of the layer results from the reduction of sulfur dioxide as it passes through the MEA and reaches the catalyst layer at the cathode-membrane interface. Formation of the sulfur rich layer results in partial delamination of the cathode catalyst layer leading to diminished performance. Furthermore we believe that operating the electrolyzer at elevated pressure significantly increases the rate of formation due to increased adsorption of hydrogen on the internal catalyst surface. Thus, identification of a membrane that exhibits much lower transport of sulfur dioxide is needed to reduce the quantity of sulfur dioxide that reaches the cathode catalyst and is reduced to produce the sulfur-rich layer. Three candidate membranes are currently being evaluated that have shown promise from preliminary studies, (1) modified Nafion{reg_sign}, (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI), and (3) sulfonated Diels Alder polyphenylene (SDAPP). Testing examined the activity for the sulfur dioxide oxidation of platinum (Pt) and platinum-alloy catalysts in 30 wt% sulfuric acid solution. Linear sweep voltammetry showed an increase in activity when catalysts in which Pt is alloyed with non-noble transition metals such as cobalt and chromium. However when Pt is alloyed with noble metals, such as iridium or ruthenium, the kinetic activity decreases. We recommend further testing to determine if these binary alloys will provide the increased reaction kinetic needed to meet the targets. We also plan to test the performance of these catalyst materials for both proton and sulfur dioxide reduction. The latter may provide another parameter by which we can control the reduction of sulfur dioxide upon transport to the cathode catalyst surface. A small scale electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2}) has been fabricated and successfully installed as an additional tool to evaluate the effect of different operating conditions on electrolyzer and MEA performance. Currently this electrolyzer is limited to testing at temperatures up to 80 C and at atmospheric pressure. Selected electrochemical performance data from the single cell sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer were analyzed with the aid of an empirical equation which takes into account the overpotential of each of the components. By using the empirical equation, the performance data was broken down into its components and a comparison of the potential losses was made. The results indicated that for the testing conditions of 80 C and 30 wt% sulfuric acid, the major overpotential contribution ({approx}70 % of all losses) arise from the slow reaction rate of oxidation of sulfur dioxide. The results indicate that in order to meet the target of hydrogen production at 0.5 A/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V and 50 wt% sulfuric acid, identification of a better catalyst for sulfur dioxide oxidation will provide the largest gain in electrolyzer performance.

Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

57

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since 2006, China has set goals of reducing energy intensity, emissions, and pollutants in multiple guidelines and in the Five Year Plans. Various strategies and measures have then been taken to improve the energy efficiency in all sectors and to reduce pollutants. Since controlling energy, CO{sub 2} emissions, and pollutants falls under the jurisdiction of different government agencies in China, many strategies are being implemented to fulfill only one of these objectives. Co-controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutant emissions. The targets could be met in a more cost effective manner if the integrated measures can be identified and prioritized. This report provides analysis and insights regarding how these targets could be met via co-control measures focusing on both CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions in the cement, iron &steel, and power sectors to 2030 in China. An integrated national energy and emission model was developed in order to establish a baseline scenario that was used to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and expected actions. In addition, CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios and SO{sub 2} control scenarios were also established to evaluate the impact of each of the measures and the combined effects. In the power sector, although the end of pipe SO{sub 2} control technology such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has the largest reduction potential for SO{sub 2} emissions, other CO{sub 2} control options have important co-benefits in reducing SO{sub 2} emissions of 52.6 Mt of SO{sub 2} accumulatively. Coal efficiency improvements along with hydropower, renewable and nuclear capacity expansion will result in more than half of the SO{sub 2} emission reductions as the SO{sub 2} control technology through 2016. In comparison, the reduction from carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is much less and has negative SO{sub 2} reductions potential. The expanded biomass generation scenario does not have significant potential for reducing SO{sub 2} emissions, because of its limited availability. For the cement sector, the optimal co-control strategy includes accelerated adoption of energy efficiency measures, decreased use of clinker in cement production, increased use of alternative fuels, and fuel-switching to biomass. If desired, additional SO{sub 2} mitigation could be realized by more fully adopting SO{sub 2} abatement mitigation technology measures. The optimal co-control scenario results in annual SO{sub 2} emissions reductions in 2030 of 0.16 Mt SO{sub 2} and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of 76 Mt CO{sub 2}. For the iron and steel sector, the optimal co-control strategy includes accelerated adoption of energy efficiency measures, increased share of electric arc furnace steel production, and reduced use of coal and increased use of natural gas in steel production. The strategy also assumes full implementation of sinter waste gas recycling and wet desulfurization. This strategy results in annual SO{sub 2} emissions reductions in 2030 of 1.3 Mt SO{sub 2} and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reductions of 173 Mt CO{sub 2}.

Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Method of detecting sulfur dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH with SO.sub.2. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 O and a new solid compound [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ]. Both (CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiNSO and [NH.sub.4 ][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO.sub.2 pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH.sub.3).sub.3 Si).sub.2 NH, whereby any SO.sub.2 present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO.sub.2 in the original gas sample. The solid product [NH.sub.4][(CH.sub.3).sub.3 SiOSO.sub.2 ] may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

Spicer, Leonard D. (Salt Lake City, UT); Bennett, Dennis W. (Clemson, SC); Davis, Jon F. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

Clay, David T. (Longview, WA); Lynn, Scott (Walnut Creek, CA)

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

60

An evaluation of the ramp metering effectiveness in reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we develop a methodology to estimate the effectiveness of ramp metering in reducing CO2 emissions. Ramp metering is one of several Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) applications to control traffic flow. In this paper in order to ... Keywords: CO2 Reduction, Greenhouse Gas, Intelligent Transportation System, Ramp Metering, State Preference Analysis, TSIS Simulation

Sang-Hoon Bae; Tae-Young Heo; Byoung-Yong Ryu

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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61

Improvement of Carbon Dioxide Sweep Efficiency by Utilization of Microbial Permeability Profile Modification to Reduce the Amount of Oil Bypassed During Carbon Dioxide Flood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to couple microbial permeability profile modification (MPPM), with carbon dioxide flooding to improve oil recovery from the Upper Cretaceous Little Creek Oil Field situated in Lincoln and Pike counties, MS. This study determined that MPPM technology, which improves production by utilizing environmentally friendly nutrient solutions to simulate the growth of the indigenous microflora in the most permeable zones of the reservoir thus diverting production to less permeable, previously unswept zones, increased oil production without interfering with the carbon dioxide flooding operation. Laboratory tests determined that no microorganisms were produced in formation waters, but were present in cores. Perhaps the single most significant contribution of this study is the demonstration that microorganisms are active at a formation temperature of 115?C (239?F) by using a specially designed culturing device. Laboratory tests were employed to simulate the MPPM process by demonstrating that microorganisms could be activated with the resulting production of oil in coreflood tests performed in the presence of carbon dioxide at 66?C (the highest temperature that could be employed in the coreflood facility). Geological assessment determined significant heterogeneity in the Eutaw Formation, and documented relatively thin, variably-lithified, well-laminated sandstone interbedded with heavily-bioturbated, clay-rich sandstone and shale. Live core samples of the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw Formation from the Heidelberg Field, MS were quantitatively assessed using SEM, and showed that during MPPM permeability modification occurs ubiquitously within pore and throat spaces of 10-20 ?m diameter. Testing of the MPPM procedure in the Little Creek Field showed a significant increase in production occurred in two of the five production test wells; furthermore, the decline curve in each of the production wells became noticeably less steep. This project greatly extends the number of oil fields in which MPPM can be implemented.

Darrel Schmitz; Lewis Brown F. Leo Lynch; Brenda Kirkland; Krystal Collins; William Funderburk

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 20052010, a vehicles tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

63

Separation of sulfur isotopes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sulfur isotopes are continuously separated and enriched using a closed loop reflux system wherein sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) is reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or the like to form sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO.sub.3). Heavier sulfur isotopes are preferentially attracted to the NaHSO.sub.3, and subsequently reacted with sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) forming sodium hydrogen sulfate (NaHSO.sub.4) and SO.sub.2 gas which contains increased concentrations of the heavier sulfur isotopes. This heavy isotope enriched SO.sub.2 gas is subsequently separated and the NaHSO.sub.4 is reacted with NaOH to form sodium sulfate (Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4) which is subsequently decomposed in an electrodialysis unit to form the NaOH and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 components which are used in the aforesaid reactions thereby effecting sulfur isotope separation and enrichment without objectionable loss of feed materials.

DeWitt, Robert (Centerville, OH); Jepson, Bernhart E. (Dayton, OH); Schwind, Roger A. (Centerville, OH)

1976-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

64

Method for removing sulfur oxide from waste gases and recovering elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous catalytic fused salt extraction process is described for removing sulfur oxides from gaseous streams. The gaseous stream is contacted with a molten potassium sulfate salt mixture having a dissolved catalyst to oxidize sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide and molten potassium normal sulfate to solvate the sulfur trioxide to remove the sulfur trioxide from the gaseous stream. A portion of the sulfur trioxide loaded salt mixture is then dissociated to produce sulfur trioxide gas and thereby regenerate potassium normal sulfate. The evolved sulfur trioxide is reacted with hydrogen sulfide as in a Claus reactor to produce elemental sulfur. The process may be advantageously used to clean waste stack gas from industrial plants, such as copper smelters, where a supply of hydrogen sulfide is readily available.

Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Proposed use of antimonyl sulfate in a sulfuric-acid cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A proposed use of antimonyl sulfate in a sulfuric acid thermochemical hydrogen cycle is outlined. The principal advantage would be the separate evolution of sulfur dioxide and oxygen in high temperature steps.

Jones, W.M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Experimental work related to two bismuth sulfate cycles and their possible improvement. Outline of a possible antimonyl sulfate cycle with separate evolution of sulfur dioxide and oxygen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two bismuth sulfate cycles are made possible by the stepwise decomposition of the sulfate-oxysulfate system. Omitting statement of the steps for decomposition of SO/sub 3/ and the electrochemical formation of H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ from SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O, the key reactions are: Cycle I - Bi/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ = Bi/sub 2/O/sub 2/ /sub 3/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 0/ /sub 7/ + 2.3 SO/sub 3/; Bi/sub 2/O/sub 2/ /sub 3/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 0/ /sub 7/ + 2.3 H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ = Bi/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ + 2.3 H/sub 2/O; Cycle II - Bi/sub 2/O(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ = Bi/sub 2/O/sub 2/ /sub 3/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 0/ /sub 7/ + 1.3 SO/sub 3/; Bi/sub 2/O/sub 2/ /sub 3/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 0/ /sub 7/ + 1.3 H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ = Bi/sub 2/O(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ + 1.3 H/sub 2/O. Cycle I proceeds through the intermediate oxysulfates Bi/sub 2/O(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ and Bi/sub 2/O/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and Cycle II through Bi/sub 2/O/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Cycle I has the advantage of generating 2.3 moles of H/sub 2/ per mole of Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/, compared with 1.3 for Cycle II. Published work on the Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SO/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O system shows that Bi/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ is the stable solid in contact with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions above 52.7 wt%, so that acid of at least this strength would have to be used in Cycle I. Concentrations between about 3 wt% and 52.7 wt% could be used for Cycle II. The efficiency for electrochemical formation of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/ seems at present to be a maximum at around 30 wt% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Some thermodynamic data obtained for the decomposition reactions are presented. A possible improvement in these cycles is also discussed which may provide a solution to a problem of sorption of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution by the solids and might allow use of a more dilute acid than in Cycle I above. A brief discussion on the possible simplification of the SO/sub 3/-SO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ separation problem with a sulfuric acid-antimonyl sulfate hybrid cycle is presented. The principal reactions are: (1) Sb/sub 2/O/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ = Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ + SO/sub 2/ at 900 K; (2) Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ = Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/ + 1/2 O/sub 2/ at 1300 K; (3) Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/ + H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ = Sb/sub 2/O/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O.

Jones, W.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Effects of sorbent injection for sulfur dioxide removal on particulate control systems for coal-fired boilers. Final report, October 1984-October 1987  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes studies undertaken to quantify the effects of dry SO2 sorbent injection on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) operation with a coal-burning utility boiler. The specific operation of interest was EPA's limestone injection, multistage burners (LIMB) process. The combination of spent sorbent and fly ash has a higher resistivity, a higher mass concentration, and a finer particle-size distribution than the ash alone; all of these factors diminish the effectiveness of ESP. Also investigated was chemical conditioning to reduce the resistivity problem, the only one of three concerns stemming from sorbent injection that can be readily mitigated. Other topics studied were: the recycle, disposal, and utilization of waste-ash/sorbent mixtures; the selection and modification of sorbents to improve SO2 capture in the furnace; and the reactivation of spent sorbent by humidification to achieve supplemental post-furnace capture of SO2.

Gooch, J.P.; DuBard, J.L.; Faulkner, M.G.; Marchant, G.H.; Dahlin, R.S.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

The US department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through beneficial uses of carbon dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd | Greenhouse Gas Sci Technol. (2011); DOI: 10.1002/ghg Perspective Correspondence to: Darin Damiani, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV 26507, USA. E-mail: darin.damiani@netl.doe.gov † This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Received June 24, 2011; revised July 26, 2011; accepted July 27, 2011 Published online at Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/ghg.35 The US Department of Energy's R&D program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through benefi cial uses of carbon dioxide † Darin Damiani and John T. Litynski, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of

71

Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized 10 and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

Moore, W.E.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The Reactions of Water Vapour on the Surfaces of Stoichiometric and Reduced Uranium Dioxide: A High Resolution XPS Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reaction of water with stoichiometric and O-defective UO{sub 2} thin film surfaces is studied by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron X-rays radiation. The decomposition of D{sub 2}O molecules and the oxidative healing of defects on the reduced surfaces was observed and quantified. D{sub 2}O adsorption on the stoichiometric UO{sub 2} surface at 300 K showed small amounts of OD species (ca. 532 eV) probably formed on trace amounts of surface defects, while at 95 K D2O ice (533.5 eV) was the main surface species. On the contrary, a large signal of OD species was seen on the 300 K-Ar{sup +}-sputtered (reduced) surface, UO{sub 2-x}. This was concomitant with a rapid healing of surface defects as monitored by their U4f signal. Quantitative analysis of the OD signal with increasing temperature showed their disappearance by 550 K. The disappearance of these species while hydrogen molecules are still desorbing from the surface as monitored by TPD [S.D. Senanayake, H. Idriss, Surf. Sci. 563 (1-3) (2004) 135; S.D. Senanayake, R. Rousseau, D. Colegrave, H. Idriss, J. Nucl. Mater. 342 (2005) 179] is shedding light on the re-combinative desorption mechanism from dissociatively adsorbed water molecules on the surfaces of this defective metal oxide.

Senanayake,S.; Waterhouse, G.; Chan, A.; Madey, T.; Mullins, D.; Idriss, H.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Economic comparison of hydrogen production using sulfuric acid electrolysis and sulfur cycle water decomposition. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the relative economics of hydrogen production using two advanced techniques was performed. The hydrogen production systems considered were the Westinghouse Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System and a water electrolysis system employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The former is a hybrid system in which hydrogen is produced in an electrolyzer which uses sulfur dioxide to depolarize the anode. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid. Development and demonstration efforts have shown that extremely low cell voltages can be achieved. The second system uses a similar sulfuric acid electrolyte technology in water electrolysis cells. The comparative technoeconomics of hydrogen produced by the hybrid Sulfur Cycle and by water electrolysis using a sulfuric acid electrolyte were determined by assessing the performance and economics of 380 million SCFD plants, each energized by a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). The evaluation concluded that the overall efficiencies of hydrogen production, for operating parameters that appear reasonable for both systems, are approximately 41% for the sulfuric acid electrolysis and 47% for the hybrid Sulfur Cycle. The economic evaluation of hydrogen production, based on a 1976 cost basis and assuming a developed technology for both hydrogen production systems and the VHTRs, indicated that the hybrid Sulfur Cycle could generate hydrogen for a total cost approximately 6 to 7% less than the cost from the sulfuric acid electrolysis plant.

Farbman, G.H.; Krasicki, B.R.; Hardman, C.C.; Lin, S.S.; Parker, G.H.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

OpenEI - sulfur dioxide emissions  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

http:en.openei.orgdatasetstaxonomyterm4600 en Hourly Energy Emission Factors for Electricity Generation in the United States http:en.openei.orgdatasetsnode488...

77

SOOT-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

produced by combustion of propane saturated with benzeneparticles produced by a propane flame. investigators foundand carbon(ls) regions of propane soot particles produced by

Chang, S.G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Membrane Characterization for a Sulfur- Dioxide Depolarized ...  

with hot H 2SO 4 solution SO 2 transport under non-polarized conditions Ionic conductivity ... 2 transport characterization cell SO 2 Transport ...

79

Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

80

The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

Perez, Alberto, Jr

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

83

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases PPPL wins Department of Energy award for reducing greenhouse gases By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 2, 2012 Tweet Widget Facebook Like Google Plus One PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon dioxide. PPPL reduced leaks of SF6 by 65 percent over three years - reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions by 48 percent between 2008 and 2011. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL engineer Tim Stevenson checks for possible leaks of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), the gas used to insulate electronic equipment that has the potential to cause global warming at many times the rate of carbon

84

Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture. Technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Invention Disclosure filed) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a ``hot flue gas cleanup`` subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal sulfide sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal-sulfur compound. Spent metal-sulfur compound is regenerated to re-usable metal oxide by moving a bed of spent metal-sulfur compound progressively through a single regeneration vessel having a first and second regeneration stage and a third cooling and purging stage. The regeneration is carried out and elemental sulfur is generated in the first stage by introducing a first gas of sulfur dioxide which contains oxygen at a concentration less than the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation of the spent metal-sulfur compound. A second gas containing sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen at a concentration sufficient for complete oxidation of the partially spent metal-sulfur compound, is introduced into the second regeneration stage. Gaseous sulfur formed in the first regeneration stage is removed prior to introducing the second gas into the second regeneration stage. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the third cooling and purging stage. Except for the gaseous sulfur removed from the first stage, the combined gases derived from the regeneration stages which are generally rich in sulfur dioxide and lean in oxygen, are removed from the regenerator as an off-gas and recycled as the first and second gas into the regenerator. Oxygen concentration is controlled by adding air, oxygen-enriched air or pure oxygen to the recycled off-gas.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY); Gal, Eli (Lititz, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Sulfur tolerant anode materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

Not Available

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Carbon dioxide sensor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

An option for the coal industry in dealing with the carbon dioxide global greenhouse effect including estimates for reduced CO/sub 2/ emissions technologies  

SciTech Connect

A new technical option for the coal industry in dealing with the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect has been devised. The option concerns a ''hydrogen economy'' based on coal. We have developed a very efficient process called HYDROCARB, which effectively splits coal into carbon and hydrogen. This process produces a clean, pure carbon fuel from coal for application in both mobile and stationary heat engines. We are suggesting that coal refineries be built based on this technology. A co-product of the process is a hydrogen-rich gas. If one is concerned about the greenhouse effect, then either all or part of the carbon can be withheld and either mainly or only the hydrogen is used as fuel. If one desires to attain the ultimate, and eliminate all CO/sub 2/ emissions from coal, then all of the carbon can be stored and only the hydrogen used. The option is still open for utilizing the clean carbon, which would be placed in monitored retrievable storage, not unlike the strategic petroleum reserve (SPR). Should the greenhouse effect be found to be a myth in the future, the carbon would be taken out of storage and utilized as a clean fuel, the impurities having been previously removed. This concept can be valuable to the coal industry in response to the arguments of the anti-coal critics. Total capital cost estimates have been made to replace all conventional coal burning power plants in the US with technologies that eliminate emissions of CO/sub 2/. These include removal, recovery and disposal of CO/sub 2/, nuclear, solar, photovoltaics, biomass, and HYDROCARB. 12 refs., 1 fig. 4 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel ULSD LSD Off-Road Ultra-Low Sulfur Highway Diesel Fuel (15 ppm Sulfur Maximum). Required for use in all model year 2007 and later highway diesel vehicles...

90

Population, Economy and Energy Uses Influence on Sulfur Emissions in the United States Since 1900  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper seeks to identify how changes in population, economic activity, and energy use have influenced sulfur emissions during this century. A linear model is presented which characterizes sulfur emissions as the product of these driving forces. The change in sulfur emissions is formulated as a function of changes in these trends. During this century, population growth and increasing economic activity have put upward pressure on sulfur emissions. The declining energy intensity of the economy and the transition from coal to less sulfur intensive fuels have reduced sulfur emissions. The net effect of all drivers has been moderate growth in sulfur emissions from 1900 to present. Since 1973, increased energy efficiency and the shift from an industrial to a commercially oriented economy have lowered the energy intensity of the economy. The increased use of low sulfur coal and reduced sulfur emissions from metal smelters have lowered the sulfur intensity of energy. These factors have combined to cause sulfur emissions to decline by 25%.

Kissock, J. K.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR  

SciTech Connect

Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing, scale-up, pilot-scale (0.5 MW{sub e}) testing at conditions representative of various regenerable SO{sub 2}-control systems, preparation of a commercial process design, and development of a utility-scale demonstration plan.

Robert S. Weber

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Gateway Pages to Carbon Dioxide Data Modern records and ice core records back 2000 years 800,000 year records from ice cores Other...

93

Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past century, fossil fuel consumption has added carbon dioxide to the atmosphere at rapidly increasing rates. The prospect of further acceleration of this rate by turning from petroleum to coal has alarmed climatologists because of possible catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar (Photosynthesis) energy, and genetic engineering. Some exciting new developments in genetic engineering will be touched on together with established bio-engineering-aquaculture, hydroponics, yeast, pharmaceutical production, fermentation, single cell protein, etc. A 'bio-factory' will be described, with a feed stream of carbon dioxide, water, nutrients containing sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus and trace elements, and living culture interacting with light under controlled conditions to yield food and raw materials. Candidate products will be suggested and a few of the problems anticipated. Engineering and logistic requirements will be outlined and the economic impact assessed.

McKinney, A. R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

CLOSEOUT REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR PRESSURIZED BUTTON CELL TEST FACILITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document is the Close-Out Report for design and partial fabrication of the Pressurized Button Cell Test Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This facility was planned to help develop the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) that is a key component of the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for generating hydrogen. The purpose of this report is to provide as much information as possible in case the decision is made to resume research. This report satisfies DOE Milestone M3GSR10VH030107.0. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by watersplitting. The HyS Cycle utilizes the high temperature (>800 C) thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both high thermodynamic efficiency and low hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. Sulfur dioxide from the decomposer is cycled back to electrolyzers. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. Anode and cathode are formed by spraying a catalyst, typically platinized carbon, on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). SRNL has been testing SDEs for several years including an atmospheric pressure Button Cell electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2} active area) and an elevated temperature/pressure Single Cell electrolyzer (54.8 cm{sup 2} active area). SRNL tested 37 MEAs in the Single Cell electrolyzer facility from June 2005 until June 2009, when funding was discontinued. An important result of the final months of testing was the development of a method that prevents the formation of a sulfur layer previously observed in MEAs used in the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle electrolyzer. This result is very important because the sulfur layer increased cell voltage and eventually destroyed the MEA that is the heart of the cell. Steimke and Steeper [2005, 2006, 2007, 2008] reported on testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility in several periodic reports. Steimke et. al [2010] issued a final facility close-out report summarizing all the testing in the Single Cell Electrolyzer test facility. During early tests, significant deterioration of the membrane occurred in 10 hours or less; the latest tests ran for at least 200 hours with no sign of deterioration. Ironically, the success with the Single Cell electrolyzer meant that it became dedicated to long runs and not available for quick membrane evaluations. Early in this research period, the ambient pressure Button Cell Electrolyzer test facility was constructed to quickly evaluate membrane materials. Its small size allowed testing of newly developed membranes that typically were not available in sizes large enough to test in the Single Cell electrolyzer. The most promising membranes were tested in the Single Cell Electrolyzer as soon as sufficient large membranes could be obtained. However, since the concentration of SO{sub 2} gas in sulfuric acid decreases rapidly with increasing temperature, the ambient pressure Button Cell was no longer able to achieve the operating conditions needed to evaluate the newer improved high temperature membranes. Significantly higher pressure operation was required to force SO{sub 2} into the sulfuric acid to obtain meaningful concentrations at increased temperatures. A high pressure (200 psig), high temperature (120 C) Button Cell was designed and partially fabricated just before funding was discontinued in June 2009. SRNL completed the majority of the design of the test facility, including preparation of a process and instrument drawing (P&ID) and preliminary designs for the major components. SRNL intended to complete the designs and procu

Steeper, T.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Bacterial Sulfur Storage Globules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by I. J. Pickering and G. N. George by I. J. Pickering and G. N. George Sulfur is essential for all life, but it plays a particularly central role in the metabolism of many anaerobic microorganisms. Prominent among these are the sulfide-oxidizing bacteria that oxidize sulfide (S2-) to sulfate (SO42-). Many of these organisms can store elemental sulfur (S0) in "globules" for use when food is in short supply (Fig. 1). The chemical nature of the sulfur in these globules has been an enigma since they were first described as far back as 1887 (1); all known forms (or allotropes) of elemental sulfur are solid at room temperature, but globule sulfur has been described as "liquid", and it apparently has a low density – 1.3 compared to 2.1 for the common yellow allotrope a-sulfur. Various exotic forms of sulfur have been proposed to explain these properties, including micelles (small bubble-like structures) formed from long-chain polythionates, but all of these deductions have been based upon indirect evidence (for example the density was estimated by flotation of intact cells), and many questions remained.

96

HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT, NHI WORK PACKAGE N-SR07TC0301, FY07 FIRST QUARTER REPORT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The proof of concept of SO2 electrolysis for the hybrid sulfur (HyS) process is the second priority research target of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative's thermochemical program for FY07. The proof of concept of the liquid-phase option must be demonstrated at the single cell level for an extended run times (>100 hours). The rate of development of HyS will depend on the identification of a promising membrane or an alternative means for controlling sulfur formation. Once successful long-duration operation has been demonstrated, SRNL will develop a multi-cell stack that can be connected to the H2SO4 decomposer being developed by SNL for the S-I ILS for a Hybrid Sulfur Integrated Laboratory-Scale Experiment during FY 2008. During the first quarter of FY07, SRNL continued the component development and membrane development activities with the goal of identifying and characterizing improved electrodes, electrocatalysts, membranes and MEA configurations which could then be tested at larger scale in the SDE test facility. A modified glass cell was fabricated to allow measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) transport across membrane samples at elevated temperatures (up to 70 C). This testing also includes evaluating SO2 transport in different sulfuric acid concentrations (30-70 wt%). A new potentiostat/frequency analyzer was installed for determining ionic conductivity of membranes. This instrument enhances our capabilities to characterize membrane, electrocatalyst and MEA properties and performance. Continuing work from FY06, evaluations were preformed on various commercial and experimental membranes and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyetherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and modified Nafion{reg_sign} 117 were evaluated for SO{sub 2} transport as well. These membranes exhibited reduced transport coefficient for SO{sub 2} transport without the loss in ionic conductivity.

Summers, W

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

97

FLAME DENITRATION AND REDUCTION OF URANIUM NITRATE TO URANIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for converting uranyl nitrate solution to uranium dioxide. The process comprises spraying fine droplets of aqueous uranyl nitrate solution into a hightemperature hydrocarbon flame, said flame being deficient in oxygen approximately 30%, retaining the feed in the flame for a sufficient length of time to reduce the nitrate to the dioxide, and recovering uranium dioxide. (AEC)

Hedley, W.H.; Roehrs, R.J.; Henderson, C.M.

1962-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

98

Sulfur isotopic evidence for controls on sulfur incorporation in peat and coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyritic sulfur isotope [delta][sup 34]S values were used as a measure of two principal controls on sulfur incorporation in peat and coal: the availability of sulfate, and the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the peat-forming mire. Relatively low [delta][sup 34]S values indicated an open system with a relatively abundant supply of sulfate that exceeded the rate of sulfate reduction to sulfide, whereas relatively high [delta][sup 34]S values indicated a closed system with a more limited supply of sulfate. For example, in the high-sulfur (>3% S), Holocene deposits of Mud Lake, Florida, pyritic sulfur [delta][sup 34]S values decreasing sharply across the transition from peat to the overlying lacustrine sapropel, which corresponds to an increased supply of sulfate from the lake waters. Likewise, syngenetic pyrite in the high-sulfur Minto coal bed (Pictou Group, Westphalian C) in New Brunswick, Canada, show up to 10% negative shifts in [delta][sup 34]S in attrital layers containing detrital quartz and illite, consistent with an increased supply of sulfate from streams entering the peat-forming mire. In contrast, positive pyritic sulfur [delta][sup 34]S values in high-sulfur, channel-fill coal beds (lower Breathitt Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian) in eastern Kentucky indicate that a steady supply of sulfate was exhausted by very active microbial sulfate reduction in the channel-fill peat.

Spiker, E.C.; Bates, A.L. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Development of the Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen via the thermochemical splitting of water is being considered as a primary means for utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors to provide fuel for a hydrogen economy. The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process is one of the baseline candidates identified by the U.S. Department of Energy [1] for this purpose. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that only involves sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen compounds. Recent work has resulted in an improved process design with a calculated overall thermal efficiency (nuclear heat to hydrogen, higher heating value basis) approaching 50%. Economic analyses indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant employing the HyS Process in conjunction with an advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor system can produce hydrogen at competitive prices. Experimental work has begun on the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer, the major developmental component in the cycle. Proof-of-concept tests have established proton-exchange-membrane cells (a state-of-the-art technology) as a viable approach for conducting this reaction. This is expected to lead to more efficient and economical cell designs than were previously available. Considerable development and scale-up issues remain to be resolved, but the development of a viable commercial-scale HyS Process should be feasible in time to meet the commercialization schedule for Generation IV gas-cooled nuclear reactors.

Summers, William A.; Steimke, John L

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

100

Using ISC & GIS to predict sulfur deposition from coal-fired power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this research project was to determine if atmospheric sources have the potential of contributing significantly to the sulfur content of grazed forage. Sulfur deposition resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions from coal- fired power plants was predicted utilizing the Industrial Source Complex Long-Term (ISCLT2) Model for the areas ofa interest in East Texas. GRASS, a geographical information system (GIS), was used to pull together all predicted values from ISCLT2 and present them in the form of predicted sulfur deposition maps with different ranges of deposition. Two field trips to NE Texas were taken to obtain data on soil and forage sulfur content. GRASS was used extensively in the planning process before each trip and the global positioning system was also used extensively during the trip to locate sampling sites and to obtain the geographical location of each site. The methodology developed predicts that 11 to 21 kg sulfur/ha per year can be deposited as far as 100 to 160 km from the source. Data from both field trips do not show a statistical significant relation between predicted sulfur deposition and either soil or forage sulfur content. However, the data do show that there is a trend of increasing soil and forage sulfur content as predicted sulfur deposition increases.

Lopez, Jose Ignacio

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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101

Power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Have a question, comment, or suggestion for a future article? Send your feedback to todayinenergy@eia.gov

102

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

serve a generator with a nameplate capacity of 15 MW or more, or fossil-fuel fired boilers or indirect heat exchangers with a maximum input heat capacity of 250 MMBtuhr or...

103

Power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel ... acid rain program in the eastern half of the United States. ... and settlements under the Clean Air Act's New Source Review ...

104

Mercury removal from coal by leaching with sulfur-dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mercury from coal-fired utilities has been identified as one of the most hazardous air pollutants and the greatest potential public health concern. Furthermore, it has (more)

Chateker, Poornima.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Preservation of chopped sweet sorghum using sulfur dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an attractive feedstock for fermentation but its sugars degrade quickly after harvest. The effects of SO/sub 2/ dosage and temperature on the storability of chopped Rio sweet sorghum was studied. Four SO/sub 2/ dosage levels (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0% w.b.) and five storage temperatures (-16, 2, 12, 22 and 32/sup 0/C) were investigated. The samples were stored in constant temperature incubators for three months. Fermentable sugars, sample pH and initial and final SO/sub 2/ levels were determined. All three non-zero levels of SO/sub 2/ adequately preserved the chopped sweet sorghum with no significant decrease in the total fermentable sugars.

Eckhoff, S.R.; Bender, D.A.; Okos, M.R.; Peart, R.M.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Trifluoromethyl Sulfur Pentafluoride (SF5CF3) and Sulfur Hexafluoride...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sulfur Pentafluoride (SF5CF3) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) from Dome Concordia graphics Graphics data Data Investigators W. T. Sturges,1 T. J. Wallington,2 M. D. Hurley,2 K....

107

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

109

Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c[subscript 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling ...

Sim, Min Sub

110

Low quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project comprises a Base Program and an Optional Program. The Base Program, which included NEPA reporting, process design and an experimental research plan for the optional program, was completed August 31, 1993 with submission of the Task 2 Final Report. The Optional Program, Task 3, began in July 1994. The project goal is to further develop and demonstrate two of the component technologies of the CFZ-CNG Process: (1) pilot-scale triple-point crystallization of carbon dioxide, producing commercially pure carbon dioxide from contaminated carbon dioxide at the rate of 25 ton/day, and (2) bench-scale modified high pressure Claus technology, recovering elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide at the rate of 200 lb/day.

Siwajek, L.A. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kuehn, L. [Bovar Corp., Houston, TX (United States). Western Research

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Carbon Dioxide Compression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. C opyright 2009 Carbon Dioxide Compression DOE EPRI NIST ... Greenhouse gas sequestration Page 5. 5 C opyright 2009 ...

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

112

Sodium sulfur battery seal  

SciTech Connect

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF CARBON DISULFIDE-OXYGEN ICES: TOWARD THE FORMATION OF SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN INTERSTELLAR ICES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices was investigated during the irradiation of carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2})-oxygen (O{sub 2}) ices with energetic electrons at 12 K. The irradiation-induced chemical processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to probe the newly formed products quantitatively. The sulfur-bearing molecules produced during the irradiation were sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Formations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were observed as well. To fit the temporal evolution of the newly formed products and to elucidate the underlying reaction pathways, kinetic reaction schemes were developed and numerical sets of rate constants were derived. Our studies suggest that carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) can be easily transformed to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) via reactions with suprathermal atomic oxygen (O), which can be released from oxygen-containing precursors such as water (H{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and/or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) upon interaction with ionizing radiation. This investigation corroborates that carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are the dominant sulfur-bearing molecules in interstellar ices.

Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION.  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ({approx}$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not recommended for treatment of wastes containing high concentrations of nitrates because of potentially dangerous reactions between sulfur, nitrate, and trace quantities of organics. Recently, the process has been adapted for the treatment of liquid elemental mercury and mercury contaminated soil and debris.

KALB, P.

2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

115

Why sequence Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria for sulfur pollution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing Alkaliphilic sulfur oxidizing bacteria for sulfur pollution remediation? Burning sulfur-containing fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, contributes significantly to global environmental problems, such as air pollution and acid rain, besides contributing to the loss of the ozone layer. One method of managing sulfur compounds released as byproducts from industrial processes is to scrub them out using chemical treatments and activated charcoal beds. A lower-cost solution relies on incorporating alkaliphic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria into biofilters to convert the volatile and toxic compounds into insoluble sulfur for easier removal. Discovered in the last decade, these bacteria have been found to thrive in habitats that span the full pH range. The bacteria could have applications

116

HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT FY09 SECOND QUARTER REPORT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of the DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is to develop the nuclear hydrogen production technologies necessary to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with other alternative transportation fuels. The focus of the NHI is on thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis that can be powered by heat from high temperature gas reactors. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with the primary responsibility to perform research and development in order to characterize, evaluate and develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) thermochemical process. This report documents work during the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, for the period between January 1, 2009 and March 31, 2009. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that is part of the 'Sulfur Family' of cycles. As a sulfur cycle, it uses high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and to regenerate the sulfur dioxide reactant. The second step of the process uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to split water and produce hydrogen by electrochemically reacting sulfur dioxide with H{sub 2}O. The SDE produces sulfuric acid, which is then sent to the acid decomposer to complete the cycle. The DOE NHI program is developing the acid decomposer at Sandia National Laboratory for application to both the HyS Process and the Sulfur Iodine Cycle. The SDE is being developed at SRNL. During FY05 and FY06, SRNL designed and conducted proof-of-concept testing for a SDE using a low temperature, PEM fuel cell-type design concept. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency, small footprint and potential for low capital cost, characteristics that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. During FY07, SRNL extended the range of testing of the SDE to higher temperature and pressure, conducted a 100-hour longevity test with a 60-cm{sup 2} single cell electrolyzer, and designed and built a larger, multi-cell stack electrolyzer. During FY08, SRNL continued SDE development, including development and successful testing of a three-cell electrolyzer stack with a rated capacity of 100 liters per hour. The HyS program for FY09 program will address improving SDE performance by focusing on preventing or minimizing sulfur deposition inside the cell caused by SO{sub 2} crossover, reduction of cell voltage for improved efficiency, an extension of cell operating lifetime. During FY09 a baseline technology development program is being conducted to address each of these issues. Button-cell (2-cm{sup 2}) and single cell (60-cm{sup 2}) SDEs will be fabricated and tested. A pressurized button-cell test facility will be designed and constructed to facilitate addition testing. The single cell test facility will be upgraded for unattended operation, and later for operation at higher temperature and pressure. Work will continue on development of the Gas Diffusion Electrode (GDE), or Gap Cell, as an alternative electrolyzer design approach that is being developed under subcontract with industry partner Giner Electrochemical Systems. If successful, it could provide an alternative means of preventing sulfur crossover through the proton exchange membrane, as well as the possibility for higher current density operation based on more rapid mass transfer in a gas-phase anode. Promising cell components will be assembled into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and tested in the single cell test facility. Upon modification for unattended operation, test will be conducted for 200 hours or more. Both the button-cell and modified single cell facility will be utilized to demonstrate electrolyzer operation without sulfur build-up limitations, which is a Level 1 Milestone.

Herman, D; David Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Timothy Steeper, T; John Steimke, J; Mark Elvington, M

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Stegen, Gary E. (Richland, WA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

Lefohn, A.S. [A.S.L. and Associates, Helena, MT (United States); Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Center for Air Pollution Impact and Trend Analysis; Brimblecombe, P. [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

1996-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

119

It's Elemental - The Element Sulfur  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phosphorus Phosphorus Previous Element (Phosphorus) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Chlorine) Chlorine The Element Sulfur [Click for Isotope Data] 16 S Sulfur 32.065 Atomic Number: 16 Atomic Weight: 32.065 Melting Point: 388.36 K (115.21°C or 239.38°F) Boiling Point: 717.75 K (444.60°C or 832.28°F) Density: 2.067 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the Sanskrit word sulvere and the Latin word sulphurium. Say what? Sulfur is pronounced as SUL-fer. History and Uses: Sulfur, the tenth most abundant element in the universe, has been known since ancient times. Sometime around 1777, Antoine Lavoisier convinced the rest of the scientific community that sulfur was an element. Sulfur is a

120

Why sequence purple sulfur bacteria?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

purple sulfur bacteria? purple sulfur bacteria? The process by which plants and some bacteria can convert light energy to sugar, or photosynthesis, is crucial to global food webs, and complicated. Very little is known about the photosynthetic bacteria in the purple sulfur bacteria group, which may represent one of the most primitive photosynthetic organisms and are capable of carbon fixation and sequestration in both light and dark conditions with the help of sulfur compounds. Purple sulfur bacteria are autotrophic and can synthesize organic compounds from inorganic sources. Researchers hope to learn more by sequencing nine type strains of purple sulfur bacteria that are found in freshwater, brackish and marine systems. The information would lead to a better understanding of the process of photosynthesis as well as the global

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Science and strategies to reduce mercury risks: a critical review Noelle E. Selin*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury, carbon dioxide) · Recent trends in emissions/impacts · Current policy") · Acid gases (sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides) released from power plants can react in atmospheric to form emissions - elemental and oxidized mercury Global and regional sources Natural emissions Key species: Hg° Hg

122

Better Batteries from Waste Sulfur  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 28, 2013 ... Although there are some industrial uses for sulfur, the amount generated from refining fossil fuels far outstrips the current need for the element.

123

Reduce Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduce Climate Change Reduce Climate Change Highway vehicles release about 1.5 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere each year-mostly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2)-contributing to global climate change. Each gallon of gasoline you burn creates 20 pounds of CO2. That's roughly 5 to 9 tons of CO2 each year for a typical vehicle. more... How can a gallon of gasoline create 20 pounds of carbon dioxide? It seems impossible that a gallon of gasoline, which weighs about 6.3 pounds, could produce 20 pounds of carbon dioxide (CO2) when burned. However, most of the weight of the CO2 doesn't come from the gasoline itself, but the oxygen in the air. When gasoline burns, the carbon and hydrogen separate. The hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water (H2O), and carbon combines with oxygen

124

Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accorda The government may own certain rights in the present invention pursuant to EPA Cooperative Agreement CR 81-1531.

Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Jozewicz, Wojciech (Chapel Hill, NC)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

The Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for Nuclear Hydrogen Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two Sulfur-based cycles--the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) and the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS)--have emerged as the leading thermochemical water-splitting processes for producing hydrogen utilizing the heat from advanced nuclear reactors. Numerous international efforts have been underway for several years to develop the SI Cycle, but development of the HyS Cycle has lagged. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the background, current status, recent development results, and the future potential for this thermochemical process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology since 2004 to evaluate and to conduct research and development for the HyS Cycle. Process design studies and flowsheet optimization have shown that an overall plant efficiency (based on nuclear heat converted to hydrogen product, higher heating value basis) of over 50% is possible with this cycle. Economic studies indicate that a nuclear hydrogen plant based on this process can be economically competitive, assuming that the key component, the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer, can be successfully developed. SRNL has recently demonstrated the use of a proton-exchange-membrane electrochemical cell to perform this function, thus holding promise for economical and efficient hydrogen production.

Summers, William A.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.; Buckner, Melvin R.

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

126

Spray-dryer scrubbers for high-sulfur coal combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spray-dryer scrubbers for sulfur-dioxide removal from flue gases have been a developing technology for several years. Because spray-dryer scrubbers offer several potential advantages over wet scrubbing, they are attractive to the utility industry. Some of these advantages are: 1) a simpler waste-disposal problem, 2) higher energy efficiency, 3) lower water comsumption, 4) lower capital cost, 5) lower operating costs, 6) less exotic materials of construction, 7) simpler operation, and 8) ability to consume some plant waste water in the spray dryer. The paper provides a broad survey of the state of the art as it might be useful to electric utilitites using high-sulfur coal.

Henry, J.M.; Robards, R.F.; Wells, W.L.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Sulfur recovery in U.S. refineries is at an all-time high  

SciTech Connect

Environmental pressures are reducing allowable sulfur emissions and tightening fuel sulfur specifications on a global basis. Combined with an increasingly sour crude slate, this means that ever-greater quantities of sulfur are recovered each year. Sulfur is produced through three main routes: Frasch mining, recovery from pyrites, and recovery from crude oil and natural gas. Sulfur recovery from US refineries reached an all-time high in 1995: 13,753 metric tons/calendar day (mt/cd). Frasch mining has lost its place as the primary source of elemental sulfur. Current demand patterns for sulfur are expected to continue through the next decade. About half of world sulfur production will be used to produce phosphatic fertilizers. The other half will be used in some 30 chemically oriented industries. The data reported in this article were collected by the US Bureau of Mines/US Geological Survey, unless otherwise noted. The paper discusses sulfur from natural gas, sulfur from refineries, sulfur prices, imports and exports.

Swain, E.J. [Swain (Edward J.), Houston, TX (United States)

1997-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

128

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for dissolving plutonium dioxide comprises adding silver ions to a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution to significantly speed up dissolution of difficultly soluble plutonium dioxide.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO2 sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, alkaline Ca-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum samples were carbonated to a varying extent. These materials ... Keywords: FGD gypsum, carbonation, carbon dioxide

Hongqi Wang; Ningning Sun; Rona J. Donahoe

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Analysis of data for the carbon dioxide capture domain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To tackle the global concern for adverse impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the post combustion carbon dioxide (CO"2) capture technology is commonly adopted for reducing industrial CO"2 emissions, for example, from power generation plants. The ... Keywords: Carbon dioxide capture, Data modeling, Expert validation, Neural networks, Sensitivity analysis

Yuxiang Wu; Christine W. Chan

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

133

Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reducing Reducing Diesel Engine Emissions 2 0 1 0 Green TransporTaTion TechnoloGies Compared to traditional gasoline engines, diesel engines require less maintenance, generate energy more efficiently, and produce less carbon dioxide emissions. But when uncontrolled, diesel engines churn out harmful emissions like particu- late matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory are currently working to develop

134

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

K.C. Kwon

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

135

Improved magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

A magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell, stored following partial usage, is improved by increasing the cathode moisture content at the time of making the cell to reduce the self-discharge and increase the operating capacity after the cell has been stored following partial usage.

Jarvis, L.P.; Brundage, M.T.; Atwater, T.B.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

136

CYCLIC CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION ("Huff-and-Puff') (A well-stimulation method) Cyclic CO 2 stimulation is a single-well operation that is developing as a method of rapidly producing oil....

137

SRD 134 Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

> Return to SRD 134, Index of Semiconductor Process Gases. CARBON DIOXIDE. MW [1]. 44.010. NBP [1]. 194.75 K. TP [1]. 216.59 K. CO 2. Pc [1]. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

138

Sulfur condensation in Claus catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The heterogeneous reactions in which catalyst deactivation by pore plugging occur are listed and include: coke formation in petroleum processing, especially hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization catalysts; steam reforming and methnation catalysts; ammonia synthesis catalyst; and automobile exhause catalysts. The authors explain how the Claus process converts hydrogen sulfide produced by petroleum desulfurization units and gas treatment processes into elemental sulfur and water. More than 15 million tons of sulfur are recovered annually by this process. Commercial Claus plants appear to operate at thermodynamic equilibrium. Depending on the H2S content of the feed and the number of reactors, total H2S conversion to elemental sulfur can exceed 95%.

Schoffs, G.R.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a magnesium/manganese dioxide electrochemical cell that has been stored following partial usage and including an alloy of magnesium as the anode, a moist cathode mix of carbon black, manganese dioxide, magnesium hydroxide, barium chromate and lithium chromate as the cathode, and 3.5 to 4.0 normal magnesium perchlorate as the electrolyte. The improvement involves increasing the moisture content of the cathode mix from 34 to 38 percent at the time of making the cell to reduce the self discharge and increase the operating capacity after the cell has been stored following partial usage.

Jarvis, L.P.; Brundage, M.T.; Atwater, T.B.

1989-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

142

S&TR | May 2005: Locked in Rock: Sequestering Carbon Dioxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

abundant greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2). Many climate research studies focus on developing technologies to greatly reduce the atmospheric levels of CO2. One approach...

143

Alkali metal/sulfur battery  

SciTech Connect

Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

Anand, Joginder N. (Clayton, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metallic Inclusions in Uranium Dioxide", LBL-11117 (1980).in Hypostoichiornetric Uranium Dioxide 11 , LBL-11095 (OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa L. Yang and

Yang, Rosa L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Process for removal of sulfur oxides from waste gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process for removing sulfur oxides from waste gas is provided. The gas is contacted with a sorbent selected from sodium bicarbonate, trona and activated sodium carbonate and, utilizing an alkaline liquor containing borate ion so as to reduce flow rates and loss of alkalinity, the spent sorbent is regenerated with an alkaline earth metal oxide or hydroxide.

Lowell, P.S.; Phillips, J.L.

1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

147

Observations of the atmospheric sulfur cycle on SAGA 3  

SciTech Connect

During the Soviet/American Gases and Aerosols (SAGA) 3 program in February and March 1991 the authors measured a wide variety of sulfur compounds simultaneously in the equatorial Pacific marine boundary layer. They made measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and size-resolved aerosol non-sea-salt sulfate (NSS), and methane sulfonate (MSA). Some of the observed ratios contradict commonly held views of the marine sulfur cycle: the large DMS/NSS ratio implies that NSS may not be the primary product of DMS oxidation under some conditions. The authors also found much more DMS than SO{sub 2}, which may suggest that SO{sub 2} is not always an intermediate in DMS oxidation. The small SO{sub 2}/NSS ratio also supports the idea that most NSS was not formed from SO{sub 2}. Although the measured ratios of MSA/NSS were similar to previous observations in this region, much of the MSA was contained on supermicron particles, in contrast to both the NSS and the earlier MSA observations at higher latitudes. This implies that MSA/NSS ratios in ice cores may not accurately reflect the MSA/NSS ratios in their source areas. 51 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Huebert, B.J.; Howell, S.; Laj, P. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States); Johnson, J.E.; Bates, T.S.; Quinn, P.K. [NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Lab., Seattle, WA (United States); Yegorov, V. [State Committee for Hydrometeorology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Clarke, A.D.; Porter, J.N. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

148

Hydrogen and sulfur production from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a nonequilibrium'' plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. After the dissociation process, sulfur is condensed and sold just as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular implications for the petroleum refining industry, in which hydrogen is a widely used reagent and must be produced from increasingly scarce hydrocarbon resources. The modular nature of the new process may also offer economic advantages over small-scale waste treatment technologies widely used in the natural-gas industry. Laboratory-scale experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide indicate that conversions exceeding 90% are possible with appropriate reactor design and that the energy required to dissociate hydrogen sulfide is low enough for the plasma process to be economically competitive. In addition, the experiments show that typical refinery acid-gas streams are compatible with the plasma process and that all by-products can be treated with existing technology.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Hydrogen and sulfur production from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a ``nonequilibrium`` plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. After the dissociation process, sulfur is condensed and sold just as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular implications for the petroleum refining industry, in which hydrogen is a widely used reagent and must be produced from increasingly scarce hydrocarbon resources. The modular nature of the new process may also offer economic advantages over small-scale waste treatment technologies widely used in the natural-gas industry. Laboratory-scale experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide indicate that conversions exceeding 90% are possible with appropriate reactor design and that the energy required to dissociate hydrogen sulfide is low enough for the plasma process to be economically competitive. In addition, the experiments show that typical refinery acid-gas streams are compatible with the plasma process and that all by-products can be treated with existing technology.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Hydrogen and Sulfur Production from Hydrogen Sulfide Wastes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a "nonequilibrium" plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. After the dissociation process, sulfur is condensed and sold just as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular implications for petroleum refining industry, in which hydrogen is a widely used reagent and must be produced from increasingly scarce hydrocarbon resources. The modular nature of the new process may also offer economic advantages over small-scale waste treatment technologies widely used in the natural-gas industry. Laboratory-scale experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide indicate that conversions exceeding 90% are possible with appropriate reactor design and that the energy required to dissociate hydrogen sulfide is low enough for the plasma process to be economically competitive. In addition, the experiments show-that typical refinery acid-gas streams are compatible with the plasma process and that all by-products can be treated with existing technology.

Harkness, J.; Doctor, R. D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O' Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

152

Optimization of mesoporous carbon structures for lithiumsulfur battery applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoporous carbon (MC) with tunable pore sizes (22nm, 12nm, 7nm, and 3nm) and pore volumes (from 1.3 to 4.8 cc/g) containing sulfur inside the pores were systematically studied as mesoporous carbon-sulfur (MCS) composite electrodes for Li-S batteries. Investigation on these MCS composites reveals that the pore structure has no influence on the battery performance at full sulfur loading conditions (the pore volume is fully filled by sulfur) but the maximum sulfur loading capability is higher for MC with larger pore volume. MC with large pore volumes, partial sulfur filling (part of the pore volume left unfilled), and surface modification, can have reasonably high sulfur loading, improved electrical and ionic contacts of sulfur with MC and with electrolytes, which subsequently promotes the battery performance. An initial capacity of ~1250 mAh/g (based on sulfur) and 650 mAh/g capacity retention over 100 cycles were obtained with 50 wt% sulfur loading in the MC with 22nm pore size (4.8 cc/g). When the surface of MCS was coated with Clevios P to reduce the dissolve of polysulfide anions in electrolytes, it exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of ~1390 mAh/g and improved cycling stability with capacity retention of ~840 mAh/g over 100 cycles. The reported correlation among the structure, sulfur filling, surface modification and the electrochemical performance of the MCS composite cathodes provides guidance in designing new electrodes for lithium-sulfur batteries

Li, Xiaolin; Cao, Yuliang; Qi, Wen N.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Mietek, Jaroniec; Zhang, Jiguang; Schwenzer, Birgit; Liu, Jun

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

153

Cost-effective sulfur control strategies for the Great Plains gasification project  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains gasification plant in Beulah, North Dakota, uses 14 Lurgi gasifiers to produce 152x10/sup 6/ scf/d (4.1x10/sup 6/ Nm/sup 3//d) of pipeline-quality gas from lignite. Since start-up in mid-1984, the plant has provided a serious challenge to the reliable operation of the Stretford sulfur recovery system. To address this challenge, over forty options for mitigating sulfur emissions were evaluated on an economic and technical basis, beginning at the emissions source (the stack) and working back through the plant. Although this study was directed toward providing a timely solution to the sulfur dioxide emissions problem, the status and opportunities for a number of emerging technologies were brought into focus. This evaluation is detailed here by the authors.

Doctor, R.D.; Wilzbach, K.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA). Energy and Environmental Systems Div.)

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

Gunther Dieckmann

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

155

METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

1963-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

156

Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fill Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill DU dioxide in the form of sand may be used to fill the void spaces in the waste package after the package is loaded with SNF. This...

157

Available Technologies: Acceleration of Carbon Dioxide ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Carbon dioxide capture and sequestration; ADVANTAGES: Accelerated capture of carbon dioxide; Effective at extremely dilute (nanomolar ...

158

The carbon dioxide dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of burning fossil fuels on the global climate is discussed. It may be that as we produce carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels, we create a greenhouse effect which causes temperatures on earth to rise. Implications of changes in global temperatures are discussed.

Edelson, E.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Simulation of Reaction and Transport for Reduced-Sulfur ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crack Growth Rates of Irradiated Commercial Stainless Steels in BWR and PWR ... Detailed Root Cause Analysis of SG Tube ODSCC Indications within the Tube Sheets of NPP Biblis Unit A .... Radiation Damage in Fe-C-Met Model Alloys ... Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior near the Fusion Boundary of Dissimilar Weld

160

Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel August 20, 2013 - 8:53am Addthis Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is diesel fuel with 15 parts per million or lower sulfur...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Energy Basics: Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Natural Gas Propane Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Vehicles Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is diesel fuel with 15 parts per million or lower sulfur...

162

Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is diesel fuel with 15 parts per million or lower sulfur content. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires 80% of the highway diesel fuel refined in or...

163

Measuring Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions in October, 2010 Catastrophic Eruption from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Volcano in Java, Indonesia with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) José A. Morales-Collazo Geology This paper discusses sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud emissions from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia during, Indonesia. In October 26th , 2010, a catastrophic eruption was reported from Merapi causing nearly 386

Gilbes, Fernando

164

Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic Prioritization of Research Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Balbach, J. H. (1991). "Modeling the removal of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gases using% by volume (Chang et al. 1992b). Such observation is important for combustors that operate with flue gases and ultraviolet radiation. The composition, tem- perature, and pressure of the treated gas streams simulate gases

165

Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Transformation of Waste Catalytic Transformation of Waste Carbon Dioxide into Valuable Products Background Many industrial processes contribute large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to the earth's atmosphere. In an effort to reduce the amount of CO 2 released to the atmosphere, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding efforts to develop CO 2 capture and storage technologies. In addition to permanent storage of CO 2 in underground reservoirs, some

166

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

167

Seal for sodium sulfur battery  

SciTech Connect

This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

Topouzian, Armenag (Birmingham, MI); Minck, Robert W. (Lathrup Village, MI); Williams, William J. (Northville, MI)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Revisit Carbon/Sulfur Composite for Li-S Batteries  

SciTech Connect

To correlate the carbon properties e.g. surface area and porous structure, with the electrochemical behaviors of carbon/sulfur (C/S) composite cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, four different carbon frameworks including Ketjen Black (KB, high surface area and porous), Graphene (high surface area and nonporous), Acetylene Black (AB, low surface area and nonporous) and Hollow Carbon Nano Sphere (HCNS, low surface area and porous) are employed to immobilize sulfur (80 wt.%). It has been revealed that high surface area of carbon improves the utilization rate of active sulfur and decreases the real current density during the electrochemical reactions. Accordingly, increased reversible capacities and reduced polarization are observed for high surface area carbon hosts such as KB/S and graphene/S composites. The porous structure of KB or HCNS matrix promotes the long-term cycling stability of C/S composites but only at relatively low rate (0.2 C). Once the current density increases, the pore effect completely disappears and all Li-S batteries show similar trend of capacity degradation regardless of the different carbon hosts used in the cathodes. The reason has been assigned to the formation of reduced amount of irreversible Li2S on the cathode as well as shortened time for polysulfides to transport towards lithium anode at elevated current densities. This work provides valuable information for predictive selection on carbon materials to construct C/S composite for practical applications from the electrochemical point of view.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Zuo, Pengjian; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

169

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

170

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide EmissionsCarbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program...

171

The complete genome sequence of Staphylothermus marinus reveals differences in sulfur metabolism among heterotrophic Crenarchaeota  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Background Staphylothermus marinus is an anaerobic, sulfur-reducing peptide fermenter of the archaeal phylum Crenarchaeota. It is the third heterotrophic, obligate sulfur reducing crenarchaeote to be sequenced and provides an opportunity for comparative analysis of the three genomes. Results The 1.57 Mbp genome of the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Staphylothermus marinus has been completely sequenced. The main energy generating pathways likely involve 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthases. S. marinus possesses several enzymes not present in other crenarchaeotes including a sodium ion-translocating decarboxylase likely to be involved in amino acid degradation. S. marinus lacks sulfur-reducing enzymes present in the other two sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes that have been sequenced Thermofilum pendens and Hyperthermus butylicus. Instead it has three operons similar to the mbh and mbx operons of Pyrococcus furiosus, which may play a role in sulfur reduction and/or hydrogen production. The two marine organisms, S. marinus and H. butylicus, possess more sodium-dependent transporters than T. pendens and use symporters for potassium uptake while T. pendens uses an ATP-dependent potassium transporter. T. pendens has adapted to a nutrient-rich environment while H. butylicus is adapted to a nutrient-poor environment, and S. marinus lies between these two extremes. Conclusion The three heterotrophic sulfur-reducing crenarchaeotes have adapted to their habitats, terrestrial vs. marine, via their transporter content, and they have also adapted to environments with differing levels of nutrients. Despite the fact that they all use sulfur as an electron acceptor, they are likely to have different pathways for sulfur reduction.

Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lakshmi, Lakshmi Dharmarajan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Rodriquez, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Hooper, Sean [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Porat, I. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Ulrich, Luke [ORNL; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Sun, Hui [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huber, Harald [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Zhulin, Igor B [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Whitman, W. B. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Woese, Carl [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Tribological behavior of near-frictionless carbon coatings in high- and low-sulfur diesel fuels.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sulfur content in diesel fuel has a significant effect on diesel engine emissions, which are currently subject to environmental regulations. It has been observed that engine particulate and gaseous emissions are directly proportional to fuel sulfur content. With the introduction of low-sulfur fuels, significant reductions in emissions are expected. The process of sulfur reduction in petroleum-based diesel fuels also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, resulting in premature failure of fuel injectors. Thus, another means of preventing injector failures is needed for engines operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels. In this study, the authors evaluated a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coating (developed at Argonne National Laboratory) as a possible solution to the problems associated with fuel injector failures in low-lubricity fuels. Tribological tests were conducted with NFC-coated and uncoated H13 and 52100 steels lubricated with high- and low- sulfur diesel fuels in a high-frequency reciprocating test machine. The test results showed that the NFC coatings reduced wear rates by a factor of 10 over those of uncoated steel surfaces. In low-sulfur diesel fuel, the reduction in wear rate was even greater (i.e., by a factor of 12 compared to that of uncoated test pairs), indicating that the NFC coating holds promise as a potential solution to wear problems associated with the use of low-lubricity diesel fuels.

Alzoubi, M. F.; Ajayi, O. O.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Ozturk, O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

173

New Model to Predict Formation Damage due to Sulfur Deposition in Sour M.A. Mahmoud and A.A. Al-Majed, KFUPM, all SPE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Kennedy, H. T. and Wieland, D. R. 1960. Equilibrium in the Methane/Carbon Dioxide/Hydrogen Sulfide (pressure and temperature). Accurate correlations were used to calculate the gas compressibility factor (Z-Awadhy et al. (1998) conducted a core flow experiment to study the sulfur deposition in carbonate oil

Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

174

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

175

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO); Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO); Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

177

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics May 20, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis Novomer’s thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Novomer's thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a variety of consumer products. Why is this important? By using CO2 that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, the process has the potential to cut greenhouse gas emissions while simultaneously reducing petroleum consumption and producing useful products for American consumers. The world's first successful large-scale production of a polypropylene carbonate (PPC) polymer using waste carbon dioxide (CO2) as a key raw material has resulted from a projected funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy.

178

New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control October 4, 2013 - 4:23pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for carbon dioxide (CO2) demand ventilation control within the Federal sector. Benefits Demand ventilation control systems modulate ventilation levels based on current building occupancy, saving energy while still maintaining proper indoor air quality (IAQ). CO2 sensors are commonly used, but a multiple-parameter approach using total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter (PM), formaldehyde, and relative humidity (RH) levels can also be used. CO2 sensors control the outside air damper to reduce the amount of outside air that needs to be conditioned and supplied to the building when

179

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the process through which carbon is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. People and animals inhale oxygen from the air and exhale carbon dioxide...

180

Sonochemical reduction of carbon dioxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and cement production are responsible for approximately 75% of the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the (more)

Koblov, Alexander

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Coal Bed Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE COAL BED SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE R. Stanton (rstanton@usgs.gov; 703-648-6462) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 R. Flores (rflores@usgs.gov; 303-236-7774) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 P.D. Warwick (pwarwick@usgs.gov; 703-648-6469) H. Gluskoter (halg@usgs.gov; 703-648-6429) U.S. Geological Survey MS 956 National Center Reston, VA 20192 G.D. Stricker (303-236-7763) U.S. Geological Survey MS 939, Denver Federal Center Denver, CO 80225 Introduction Geologic sequestration of CO 2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO

182

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries Extended discussion here Carbon emissions per capita 1973 vs. 1991 by major end use. (Denmark comparison is 1972 and 1991) With the third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto approaching, there is a great deal of excitement over policies designed to reduce future carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels. At COP-3, more than 130 nations will meet to create legally binding targets for CO2 reductions. Accordingly, we have analyzed the patterns of emissions arising from the end uses of energy (and electricity production) in ten industrialized countries, with surprising and, in some cases, worrisome results. The surprise is that emissions in many countries in the early 1990s were lower than in the 1970s in an absolute sense and on a per capita basis; the worry

183

Dynamic reduced order modeling of entrained flow gasifiers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasification-based energy systems coupled with carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from continued use of abundant and secure fossil fuels. Dynamic reduced ...

Monaghan, Rory F. D. (Rory Francis Desmond)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Gemmer, Bob [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Scheihing, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency by sulfur and/or chlorine containing compounds atfired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds Nai-Qiang Yanremoval. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

World petroleum-derived sulfur production  

SciTech Connect

Research efforts in new uses for sulfur, among them those of the Sulfur Development Institute of Canada, have resulted in the development of several new product markets. Petroleum and natural gas derived sulfurs are finding use as asphalt extenders in road construction throughout North America and as concrete extenders and substitutes for Portland cement in the construction industries of Mexico and the Middle East. Their use in masonry blocks is now being commercialized. Canada is the world's largest producer of commercial sulfur; 80% of it is used as a processing chemical in the form of sulfuric acid. Saudi Arabia, recently having begun to commercialize its vast resources, is constructing plants for the extraction of sulfur from natural gas and plans to export between 6 and 7 x 10/sup 5/ tons annually, much of it for fertilizer manufacture to India, Tunisia, Italy, Pakistan, Greece, Morocco, and Thailand.

Cantrell, A.

1982-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

188

Minimizing sulfur contamination and rinse water volume required following a sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide clean by performing a chemically basic rinse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixtures (SPM) are commonly used in the semiconductor industry to remove organic contaminants from wafer surfaces. This viscous solution is very difficult to rinse off wafer surfaces. Various rinsing conditions were tested and the resulting residual contamination on the wafer surface was measured. The addition of small amounts of a chemical base such as ammonium hydroxide to the rinse water has been found to be effective in reducing the surface concentration of sulfur and also mitigates the particle growth that occurs on SPM cleaned wafers. The volume of room temperature water required to rinse these wafers is also significantly reduced.

Clews, P.J.; Nelson, G.C.; Resnick, P.J.; Matlock, C.A.; Adkins, C.L.J.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Topsoe`s Wet gas Sulfuric Acid (WSA) process: An alternative technology for recovering refinery sulfur  

SciTech Connect

The Topsoe Wet gas Sulfuric Acid (WSA) process is a catalytic process which produces concentrated sulfuric acid from refinery streams containing sulfur compounds such as H{sub 2}S (Claus plant feed), Claus plant tail gas, SO{sub 2} (FCC off-gas, power plants), and spent sulfuric acid (alkylation acid). The WSA process recovers up to 99.97% of the sulfur value in the stream as concentrated sulfuric acid (93--98.5 wt%). No solid waste products or waste water is produced and no chemicals are consumed in the process. The simple process layout provides low capital cost and attractive operating economy. Twenty four commercial WSA plants have been licensed. The WSA process is explained in detail and comparisons with alternative sulfur management technology are presented. Environmental regulations applying to SO{sub x} abatement and sulfuric acid production plants are explained in the context of WSA plant operation.

Ward, J.W. [Haldor Topsoe, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 January Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important...

192

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

193

Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol was investigated. The procedure for the carbon dioxide conversion was carried out using a small scale (more)

Okpo, Emmanuel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Figure 37. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 37. Carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation in three cases, 2005-2040 (million metric tons carbon dioxide ...

195

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces Title China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and...

196

Improved sulfur removal processes evaluated for IGCC  

SciTech Connect

An inherent advantage of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electric power generation is the ability to easily remove and recover sulfur. During the last several years, a number of new, improved sulfur removal and recovery processes have been commercialized. An assessment is given of alternative sulfur removal processes for IGCC based on the Texaco coal gasifier. The Selexol acid gas removal system, Claus sulfur recovery, and SCOT tail gas treating are currently used in Texaco-based IGCC. Other processes considered are: Purisol, Sulfinol-M, Selefning, 50% MDEA, Sulften, and LO-CAT. 2 tables.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Sulfur  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phosphorus Previous Element (Phosphorus) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Chlorine) Chlorine Isotopes of the Element Sulfur Click for Main Data Most of the isotope...

198

Retail Prices for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Beginning July 26, 2010 publication of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) price became fully represented by the Diesel Average All Types price. As of December 1, ...

199

Natural Gas Processing Plant- Sulfur (New Mexico)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This regulation establishes sulfur emission standards for natural gas processing plants. Standards are stated for both existing and new plants. There are also rules for stack height requirements,...

200

The Cost of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in Geologic Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CosT of Carbon DioxiDe CapTure CosT of Carbon DioxiDe CapTure anD sTorage in geologiC formaTions The sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in geologic formations is a viable option for achieving deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions without hindering economic prosperity. Due to the abundance of fossil fuels in the United States and around the globe as compared to other energy sources, there is strong interest in geologic sequestration, but cost is a key issue. The volume of CO 2 emitted from power plants and other energy systems is enormous compared to other emissions of concern. For example, a pulverized coal (PC) boiler operating on Illinois #6 coal (2.5 percent sulfur) may generate 0.03 pounds of sulfur dioxide per kilowatt hour (kWh) and emit CO 2 at a rate of 1.7 pounds per kWh.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce. Early age carbonation curing of concrete is an effective measure to sequester recovered CO2 in lime

Barthelat, Francois

202

THE EFFECT OF ANOLYTE PRODUCT ACID CONCENTRATION ON HYBRID SULFUR CYCLE PERFORMANCE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) cycle (Fig. 1) is one of the simplest, all-fluids thermochemical cycles that has been devised for splitting water with a high-temperature nuclear or solar heat source. It was originally patented by Brecher and Wu in 1975 and extensively developed by Westinghouse in the late 1970s and early 1980s. As its name suggests, the only element used besides hydrogen and oxygen is sulfur, which is cycled between the +4 and +6 oxidation states. HyS comprises two steps. One is the thermochemical (>800 C) decomposition of sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and water. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} = SO{sub 2} + 1/2 O{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O. The other is the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis of water to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), SO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}O = H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}, E{sup o} = -0.156 V, explaining the 'hybrid' designation. These two steps taken together split water into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} using heat and electricity. Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the University of South Carolina (USC) have successfully demonstrated the use of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers (Fig. 2) for the SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolysis (sulfur oxidation) step, while Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully demonstrated the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition (sulfur reduction) step using a bayonet-type reactor (Fig. 3). This latter work was performed as part of the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) cycle Integrated Laboratory Scale demonstration at General Atomics (GA). The combination of these two operations results in a simple process that will be more efficient and cost-effective for the massive production of hydrogen than alkaline electrolysis. Recent developments suggest that the use of PEMs other than Nafion will allow sulfuric acid to be produced at higher concentrations (>60 wt%), offering the possibility of net thermal efficiencies around 50% (HHV basis). The effect of operation at higher anolyte concentrations on the flowsheet, and on the net thermal efficiency for a nuclear-heated HyS process, is examined and quantified.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

203

Sulfur  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Hydrogen production ...

204

Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

1997-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

Applying Fundamental Data to Reduce the Carbon Dioxide Footprint ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... from fossil fuels, the CO2 emissions from the generation of the electrical energy ... depends on baking furnace design, the fuel used to fire the baking furnaces,...

206

Potential for reducing paper mill energy use and carbon dioxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Li Journal Applied Energy Volume 102 Date Published 022013 Keywords co2 emissions, energy audit, paper mill Abstract The pulp and paper industry is one of the most...

207

Energy Basics: Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is diesel fuel with 15 parts per million or lower sulfur content. The U.S. Environmental Protection...

208

Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

209

Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

Basu, Arunabha (Aurora, IL); Meyer, Howard S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA); Leppin, Dennis (Chicago, IL); Wangerow, James R. (Medinah, IL)

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

210

Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of the thesis was to study the Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production. There were three reactions in this cycle: Bunsen reaction, sulfuric (more)

Dan, Huang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Lithium/Sulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon ...  

A sulfur/carbon composite material was prepared by heat treatment of doped mesoporous carbon and elemental sulfur at a temperature inside a stainless steel vessel ...

214

HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

215

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

216

METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

Garner, C.S.

1959-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

217

Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration from the Mexican oil industry : an action plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate change has become an important focus of international environmental negotiations. In response, global energy corporations have been looking for practical ways of reducing their industrial carbon dioxide (CO?) ...

Lacy, Rodolfo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project Phase 2 (CCP2) - Storage...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Storage Program of the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Project (CCP), a coalition of eight oil and gas companies and two associate members that are working together to reduce carbon...

219

Livscykelanalys av flerbostadshus energieffektiviseringstgrder fr minskade koldioxidutslpp; Life Cycle Analysis of Residential Buildings - Energy Efficiency Measures for Decreasing Carbon Dioxide Emissions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The importance of energy- and environmental issues has increased, and the work towards reducing carbon dioxide emissions plays a major part. The European Union (more)

Hedin, Hanna

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

A technical and economic analysis of a natural gas combined cycle power plant with carbon dioxide capture using membrane separation technology.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the potential effects of climate (more)

Ducker, Michael Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Change Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage,Probability of Injected Carbon Dioxide Plumes Encounteringthe probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and

Jordan, P.D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions index, we use conversion factors.conversion factor of pounds of carbon dioxide emitted perappropriate factors to arrive at carbon dioxide emissions.

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions index, we use conversion factors.into carbon dioxide emissions, we continue to use a factorappropriate factors to arrive at carbon dioxide emissions.

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes Theoretical specific energy and theoretical energy density Scanning electron micrograph of the GO-S nanocomposite June 2013 Searching for a safer, less expensive alternative to today's lithium-ion batteries, scientists have turned to lithium-sulfur as a possible chemistry for next-generation batteries. Li/S batteries have several times the energy storage capacity of the best currently available rechargeable Li-ion battery, and sulfur is inexpensive and nontoxic. Current batteries using this chemistry, however, suffer from extremely short cycle life-they don't last through many charge-discharge cycles before they fail. A research team led by Elton Cairns and Yuegang Zhang has developed a new

225

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Innovative Carbon Dioxide Sequestration from Flue Gas Using an In-Duct Scrubber Coupled with Alkaline Clay Mineralization Background The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is leading an effort to find novel approaches to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial sources. The Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) program is funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to encourage development of processes that

226

Appalachian No. 1 Refinery District Sulfur Content (Weighted ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Appalachian No. 1 Refinery District Sulfur Content (Weighted Average) of Crude Oil Input to Refineries (Percent)

227

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Mitigation of Sulfur Effects on a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst by Sorbate Reapplication  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lean NOx trap catalysis has demonstrated the ability to reduce NOx emissions from lean natural gas reciprocating engines by >90%. The technology operates in a cyclic fashion where NOx is trapped on the catalyst during lean operation and released and reduced to N2 under rich exhaust conditions; the rich cleansing operation of the cycle is referred to as "regeneration" since the catalyst is reactivated for more NOx trapping. Natural gas combusted over partial oxidation catalysts in the exhaust can be used to obtain the rich exhaust conditions necessary for catalyst regeneration. Thus, the lean NOx trap technology is well suited for lean natural gas engine applications. One potential limitation of the lean NOx trap technology is sulfur poisoning. Sulfur compounds directly bond to the NOx trapping sites of the catalyst and render them ineffective; over time, the sulfur poisoning leads to degradation in overall NOx reduction performance. In order to mitigate the effects of sulfur poisoning, a process has been developed to restore catalyst activity after sulfur poisoning has occurred. The process is an aqueous-based wash process that removes the poisoned sorbate component of the catalyst. A new sorbate component is reapplied after removal of the poisoned sorbate. The process is low cost and does not involve reapplication of precious metal components of the catalyst. Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the washing process on a lean 8.3-liter natural gas engine on a dynamometer platform. The catalyst was rapidly sulfur poisoned with bottled SO2 gas; then, the catalyst sorbate was washed and reapplied and performance was re-evaluated. Results show that the sorbate reapplication process is effective at restoring lost performance due to sulfur poisoning. Specific details relative to the implementation of the process for large stationary natural gas engines will be discussed.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Sulfur Resistant Electrodes for Zirconia Oxygen Sensors ...  

Prototype - A zirconia O2 sensor with a Tb-YSZ electrode was tested in a high sulfur coal fired power plant side by side with a normal zirconia O2 ...

230

Process for removing sulfur from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

1983-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

231

Reaction products of chlorine dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concern over the presence of trihalomethanes and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinedisinfected drinking water has led to extensive investigations of treatment options for controlling these by-products. Among these treatment options is the use of an alternative disinfectant such as chlorine dioxide. Although chlorine dioxide does not react to produce trihalomethanes, considerable evidence does exist that chlorine dioxide, like chlorine, will produce other organic by-products. The literature describes chlorinated and nonchlorinated derivatives including acids, epoxides, quinones, aldehydes, disulfides, and sulfonic acids that are products of reactions carried out under conditions that are vastly different from those experienced during drinking water treatment. Evidence is beginning to emerge, however, that some by-products in these categories may be produced. Certain specific volatile aldehydes and halogenated derivatives as determined by the total organic halogen parameter are among those by-products that have been measured.

Alan A. Stevens

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Weyburn Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration Weyburn Carbon DioxiDe SequeStration ProjeCt Background Since September 2000, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been transported from the Dakota Gasification Plant in North Dakota through a 320-km pipeline and injected into the Weyburn oilfield in Saskatchewan, Canada. The CO 2 has given the Weyburn field, discovered 50 years ago, a new life: 155 million gross barrels of incremental oil are slated to be recovered by 2035 and the field is projected to be able to store 30 million tonnes of CO 2 over 30 years. CO 2 injection began in October of 2005 at the adjacent Midale oilfield, and an additional 45-60 million barrels of oil are expected to be recovered during 30 years of continued operation. A significant monitoring project associated with the Weyburn and Midale commercial

233

KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia.

K.C. Kwon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the bubble reactor is maintained at 2 for all the reaction experiment runs.

K.C. Kwon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Near-frictionless carbon coatings for use in fuel injectors and pump systems operating with low-sulfur diesel fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO{sub 2} emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. This research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems. The lubricity of various diesel fuels (i.e., high-sulfur, 500 ppm; low sulfur, 140 ppm; ultra-clean, 3 ppm; and synthetic diesel or Fischer-Tropsch, zero sulfur) were tested by using both uncoated and NFC-coated 52100 steel specimens in a ball-on-three-disks and a high-frequency reciprocating wear-test rig. The test program was expanded to include some gasoline fuels as well (i.e., regular gasoline and indolene) to further substantiate the usefulness of the NFC coatings in low-sulfur gasoline environments. The results showed that the NFC coating was extremely effective in reducing wear and providing lubricity in low-sulfur or sulfur-free diesel and gasoline fuels. Specifically, depending on the wear test rig, test pair, and test media, the NFC films were able to reduce wear rates of balls and flats by factors of 8 to 83. These remarkable reductions in wear rates raise the prospect for using the ultra slick carbon coatings to alleviate problems that will be caused by the use of low sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels. Surfaces of the wear scars and tracks were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and by Raman spectroscopy.

Erdemir, A.; Ozturk, O.; Alzoubi, M.; Woodford, J.; Ajayi, L.; Fenske, G.

2000-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

236

Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery: Task 2. Topical report, September 30, 1992--August 29, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to present conceptual designs developed to treat a large portion of proven domestic natural gas reserves which are low quality. The conceptual designs separate hydrogen sulfide and large amounts of carbon dioxide (>20%) from methane, convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur, produce a substantial portion of the carbon dioxide as EOR or food grade CO{sub 2}, and vent residual CO{sub 2} virtually free of contaminating sulfur containing compounds. A secondary purpose of this Task 2 Report is to review existing gas treatment technology and identify existing commercial technologies currently used to treat large volumes of low quality natural gas with high acid content. Section II of this report defines low quality gas and describes the motivation for seeking technology to develop low quality gas reserves. The target low quality gas to be treated with the proposed technology is identified, and barriers to the production of this gas are reviewed. Section III provides a description of the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFG)-CNG technologies, their features, and perceived advantages. The three conceptual process designs prepared under Task 2 are presented in Section IV along with the design basis and process economics. Section V presents an overview of existing gas treatment technologies, organized into acid gas removal technology and sulfur recovery technology.

Cook, W.J.; Neyman, M.; Brown, W. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Klint, B.W.; Kuehn, L.; O`Connell, J.; Paskall, H.; Dale, P. [Bovar, Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

SEPARATING PROTOACTINIUM WITH MANGANESE DIOXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The preparation of U/sup 235/ and an improved method for isolating Pa/ sup 233/ from foreign products present in neutronirradiated thorium is described. The method comprises forming a solution of neutron-irradiated thorium together with a manganous salt, then adding potassium permanganate to precipitate the manganese as manganese dioxide whereby protoactinium is carried down with the nnanganese dioxide dissolving the precipitate, adding a soluble zirconium salt, and adding phosphate ion to precipitate zirconium phosphate whereby protoactinium is then carried down with the zirconium phosphate to effect a further concentration.

Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

1958-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

238

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Erbium diffusion in silicon dioxide layers prepared by magnetron sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal growth has been investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and diffusion coefficients have been extracted from simulations based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Erbium diffusion in magnetron sputtered silicon dioxide from buried erbium distributions has in particular been studied, and in this case a simple Arrhenius law can describe the diffusivity with an activation energy of 5.3{+-}0.1 eV. Within a factor of two, the erbium diffusion coefficients at a given temperature are identical for all investigated matrices.

Lu Yingwei; Julsgaard, B.; Petersen, M. Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jensen, R. V. Skougaard [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Pedersen, T. Garm; Pedersen, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Larsen, A. Nylandsted [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center-iNANO, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

239

Desulfurization of phosphogypsum  

SciTech Connect

Phosphogypsum is mixed with fine coal, balled, and charged to a travelling grate where the charge is heated under reducing conditions to evolve sulfur and/or sulfur dioxide for conversion into sulfuric acid.

Gardner, S.A.; Ban, Th.E.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

240

The potential for control of carbon dioxide emissions from integrated gasification/combined-cycle systems  

SciTech Connect

Initiatives to limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions have drawn considerable interest to integrated gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation, a process that reduces CO{sub 2} production through efficient fuel used is amenable to CO{sub 2} capture. This paper presents a comparison of energy systems that encompass fuel supply, an IGCC system, CO{sub 2} recovery using commercial technologies, CO{sub 2} transport by pipeline, and land-based sequestering in geological reservoirs. The intent is to evaluate the energy-efficiency impacts of controlling CO{sub 2} in such systems and to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an to equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps. The value used for the ``equivalent CO{sub 2}`` budget is 1 kg/kWh CO{sub 2}. The base case for the comparison is a 457-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, preparation, and transportation of the coal and limestone result in a net system electric power production of 454 MW with a 0.835 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate. For comparison, the gasifier output is taken through a water-gas shift to convert CO to CO{sub 2} and then processed in a glycol-based absorber unit to recover CO{sub 2} Prior to the combustion turbine. A 500-km pipeline then transports the CO{sub 2} for geological sequestering. The net electric power production for the system with CO{sub 2} recovery is 381 MW with a 0.156 kg/kwh CO{sub 2} release rate.

Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Berry, G.F.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions Carbon Dioxide Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Kyoto-Related Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emission...

243

Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

Damon, D.A. [CNG Research Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Siwajek, L.A. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Klint, B.W. [BOVAR Inc., AB (Canada). Western Research

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

FISCAL YEAR 2006 REPORT ON ELECTROLYZER COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small volumetric footprint that is crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate different membrane and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid, sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole membranes. Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by concentration of the sulfuric acid. Various cell configurations were examined with respect to the deposition of electrocatalyst and use of conductive carbon materials such as carbon cloth and carbon paper. Findings from these evaluations and the results of the membrane and electrocatalyst testing, we prepared three different membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for electrolyzer testing. The first MEA consisted of a Nafion{reg_sign} membrane with platinum electrocatalyst deposited on carbon cloths, which were heat pressed onto the membrane, an assembly identical to those used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The second MEA also used a Nafion membrane with the electrocatalysts deposited directly onto the membrane. The third MEA proved similar to the second but utilized a PBI membrane in place of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane. Tailor of the membrane and catalysts properties for the SDE system was concluded as a required step for the technology to move forward. It was also recommended the evaluation of the tested and new developed materials at conditions closer to the SDE operating conditions and for longer period of time.

Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D; Daryl Coleman, D; Amy Ekechukwu, A

2006-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

245

Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, Carbon Dioxide, and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flame Inhibition by Ferrocene, Carbon Dioxide, and Trifluoromethane Blends: Synergistic ... a straight sided schlieren image which is captured by a ...

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

246

Modeling the Dry Deposition Velocity of Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfate in Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dry deposition model was created to estimate SO2 and sulfate dry deposition velocities over nine land use types in Asia. The study domain is 20S50N, 39154E. Monthly averaged 1 1 dry deposition velocities are estimated for four ...

Yiwen Xu; Gregory R. Carmichael

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Regenerable process for the selective removal of sulfur dioxide from effluent gases  

SciTech Connect

A regenerable process is claimed for scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from effluent gases using an aqueous alkanolamine and the corresponding sulfite as the solvent, such amine having a boiling point below about 250/sup 0/ C. At one atmosphere pressure and wherein the alkanolamine solutions containing heat stable salts (Hss) is regenerated by alkali addition, crystallization and vacuum distillation of the amine.

Atwood, G.R.; Kosseim, A.J.; Sokolik, J.E.

1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

248

Study of Trona (Sodium Sesquicarbonate) Reactivity with Sulfur Dioxide in a Simulated Flue Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Dry injection of sodium-based sorbents has gained a lot of attention in the last few years. With Dry injection, it is possible to achieve almost (more)

Srinivasn, Rangesh

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Effects of the reaction cavity on metastable optical excitation in ruthenium-sulfur dioxide complexes  

SciTech Connect

We report photoexcited-state crystal structures for two new members of the [Ru(SO{sub 2})(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}X]Y family: 1:X=H{sub 2}O, Y=({+-})-camphorsulfonate{sub 2}; 2:X=isonicotinamide, Y=tosylate{sub 2}. The excited states are metastable at 100 K, with a photoconversion fraction of 11.1(7)% achieved in 1, and 22.1(10)% and 26.9(10)% at the two distinct sites in 2. We further show using solid-state density-functional-theory calculations that the excited-state geometries achieved are strongly influenced by the local crystal environment. This result is relevant to attempts to rationally design related photoexcitation systems for optical data-storage applications.

Phillips, Anthony E.; D'Almeida, Thierry; Low, Kian Sing [Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cole, Jacqueline M. [Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B5A3 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B5A3 (Canada)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Parallel, high-resolution carbon and sulfur isotope records of the evolving Paleozoic marine sulfur reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Carbonate rocks record the inorganic carbon isotope composition of the oceanic reservoir through geologicalParallel, high-resolution carbon and sulfur isotope records of the evolving Paleozoic marine sulfur, University of California-Riverside, Riverside California 92521-0423, USA b Department of Geological Sciences

Saltzman, Matthew R.

251

In-place wellbore consolidation in petroleum reservoirs using sulfur-oil polymers  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for reducing the production from an unconsolidated subterranean hydrocarbon formation penetrated by a wellbore while leaving the formation permeable to the flow of formation fluids. The method consists of injecting steam carrying droplets of elemental liquid sulfur into the formation. The next step consists of allowing the injected sulfur to react with the hydrocarbon in the formation to produce a consolidating agent which extends outward radially from the wellbore. The last step in the process follows from the radial extension of the consolidating agent in its causing the reduction in production of hydrocarbons from the formation.

Rubinstein, I.; Woodford, R.B.

1986-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

252

Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

Tallent, Othar K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Kinetics and mechanism of the reduction of sulphur dioxide in non-aqueous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electroreduction of sulfur dioxide has been studied using three solvents and six supporting electrolytes. Electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements indicate that several follow-on reactions occur after the initial electron transfer step. The results are interpreted in terms of equilibria between SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2//sup -/, S/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup -/ and S/sub 2/O/sub 4//sup 2-/. It has been found that both the solvent and supporting electrolyte have a strong influence on the distribution of products. These results indicate that ion-pairing plays an important role in determining the course of the reduction process. 11 refs.

Gardner, C.L.; Fouchard, D.T.; Laman, F.C.; Fawcett, W.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov October 2012 Significance * Energy mixing is maximized * Mobilizing of the particulates is complete * No "dead zones" exist * Packing of material is minimized * Eroding effects are significantly reduced Applications * Mixing nuclear waste at Hanford * Any similar industrial process involving heavy solids in a carrier fluid Opportunity Research is currently active on the patent-pending technology "Organoclay Sorbent for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from

255

Electrochemical separation and concentration of sulfur containing gases from gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4.sup.= or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S.sup.=. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

Winnick, Jack (3805 Woodrail-on-the-Green, Columbia, MO 65201)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The current status and outlook for carbon dioxide in the immediate future has been examined by Kenneth M. Stern of Chem Systems Inc. Stern. Most of the tonnage carbon dioxide being used for EOR comes from natural gas wells. Major projects are now in progress to develop natural carbon dioxide sources and to transport the gas via pipeline to the injection region. These projects and the maximum permissible cost of carbon dioxide at current petroleum prices are discussed. Potential sources include exhaust gases from power plants, natural gas processing plants, chemical plants, and natural carbon dioxide wells.

Not Available

1986-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

257

Plasma-chemical conversion of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A waste-treatment process that recovers both hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen-sulfide-contaminated industrial wastes is being developed to replace the Claus technology, which recovers only sulfur. The proposed process is based on research reported in the Soviet technical literature and uses microwave (or radio-frequency) energy to initiate plasma-chemical reactions that dissociate hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. In the plasma-chemical process, the gaseous stream would be purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide for recycle to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. Since unconverted hydrogen sulfide is recycled to the plasma reactor, the plasma-chemical process has the potential for sulfur recoveries in excess of 99% without the additional tail-gas clean-up processes associated with the Claus technology. Laboratory experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide have confirmed that conversions of over 90% per pass are possible. Experiments with impurities typical of petroleum refinery and natural gas production acid gases have demonstrated that these impurities are compatible with the plasma dissociation process and do not appear to create new waste-treatment problems. Other experiments show that the cyclonic-flow pattern hypothesized by the Russian theoretical analysis of the plasma-chemical process can substantially decrease energy requirements for hydrogen sulfide dissociation while increasing conversion. This process has several advantages over the current Claus-plus-tail-gas-cleanup technology. The primary advantage is the potential for recovering hydrogen more cheaply than the direct production of hydrogen. The difference could amount to an energy savings of 40 {times} 10{sup 15} to 70 {times} 10{sup 15} J/yr in the refining industry, for an annual savings of $500 million to $1,000 million.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Method of making a sodium sulfur battery  

SciTech Connect

A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another.

Elkins, Perry E. (Santa Ana, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Multiple-sulfur isotope effects during photolysis of carbonyl sulfide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine sulfur isotope effects during ultraviolet photolysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) to carbon monoxide (CO) and elemental sulfur (S[superscript 0]). The OCS gas at 3.7 to 501 ...

Lin, Ying

260

Microwave assisted sulfur infusion technique and the corresponding ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Li-S battery is quite attractive due to the usage of elemental sulfur as cathode. The theoretical capacity of sulfur cathode is 1672 mAh/g, which

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261

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Capturing Carbon Dioxide From Air Klaus S. Lackner (kl2010@columbia.edu; 212-854-0304) Columbia University 500 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 Patrick Grimes (pgrimes@worldnet.att.net; 908-232-1134) Grimes Associates Scotch Plains, NJ 07076 Hans-J. Ziock (ziock@lanl.gov; 505-667-7265) Los Alamos National Laboratory P.O.Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Abstract The goal of carbon sequestration is to take CO 2 that would otherwise accumulate in the atmosphere and put it in safe and permanent storage. Most proposed methods would capture CO 2 from concentrated sources like power plants. Indeed, on-site capture is the most sensible approach for large sources and initially offers the most cost-effective avenue to sequestration. For distributed, mobile sources like cars, on-board capture at affordable cost would not be

262

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Reductive Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide T. Mill (ted.mill@sri.com; 650-859-3605) SRI, PS273 333 Ravenswood Menlo Park, CA 94025 D. Ross (dsross3@yahoo.com; 650-327-3842) U.S. Geological Survey, Bldg 15 MS 999 345 Middlefield Rd. Menlo Park, CA 94025 Introduction The United States currently meets 80% of its energy needs by burning fossil fuels to form CO 2 . The combustion-based production of CO 2 has evolved into a major environmental challenge that extends beyond national borders and the issue has become as politically charged as it is technologically demanding. Whereas CO 2 levels in the atmosphere had remained stable over the 10,000 years preceeding the industrial revolution, that event initiated rapid growth in CO 2 levels over the past 150 years (Stevens, 2000). The resulting accelerating accumulation of

263

IEP - Carbon Dioxide: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Regulatory Drivers In July 7, 2009 testimony before the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu made the following statements:1 "...Overwhelming scientific evidence shows that carbon dioxide from human activity has increased the atmospheric level of CO2 by roughly 40 percent, a level one- third higher than any time in the last 800,000 years. There is also a consensus that CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions have caused our planet to change. Already, we have seen the loss of about half of the summer arctic polar ice cap since the 1950s, a dramatically accelerating rise in sea level, and the loss of over two thousand cubic miles of glacial ice, not on geological time scales but over a mere hundred years.

264

Carbon Dioxide Compression and Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the state of the art regarding carbon dioxide CO2 compression and transportation in the United States and Canada. The primary focus of the report was on CO2 compression because it is a significant cost and energy penalty in carbon capture and storage CCS. The secondary focus of the report was to document the state of the art of CO2 pipeline transportation in the United States and Canada.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

265

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium carbonate in these tests is initially very rapid and high degrees of removal are possible. The exothermic nature of the carbonation reaction resulted in a rise in bed temperature and subsequent decline in removal rate. Good temperature control, possibly through addition of supplemental water and evaporative cooling, appears to be the key to getting consistent carbon dioxide removal in a full-scale reactor system. The tendency of the alkali carbonate sorbents to cake on contact with liquid water complicates laboratory investigations as well as the design of larger scale systems. Also their low attrition resistance appears unsuitable for their use in dilute-phase transport reactor systems. Sodium and potassium carbonate have been incorporated in ceramic supports to obtain greater surface area and attrition resistance, using a laboratory spray dryer. The caking tendency is reduced and attrition resistance increased by supporting the sorbent. Supported sorbents with loading of up to 40 wt% sodium and potassium carbonate have been prepared and tested. These materials may improve the feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} capture systems based on short residence time dilute-phase transport reactor systems.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium carbonate in these tests is initially very rapid and high degrees of removal are possible. The exothermic nature of the carbonation reaction resulted in a rise in bed temperature and subsequent decline in removal rate. Good temperature control, possibly through addition of supplemental water and evaporative cooling, appears to be the key to getting consistent carbon dioxide removal in a full-scale reactor system. The tendency of the alkali carbonate sorbents to cake on contact with liquid water complicates laboratory investigations as well as the design of larger scale systems. Also their low attrition resistance appears unsuitable for their use in dilute-phase transport reactor systems. Sodium and potassium carbonate have been incorporated in ceramic supports to obtain greater surface area and attrition resistance, using a laboratory spray dryer. The caking tendency is reduced and attrition resistance increased by supporting the sorbent. Supported sorbents with loading of up to 40 wt% sodium and potassium carbonate have been prepared and tested. These materials may improve the feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} capture systems based on short residence time dilute-phase transport reactor systems.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson; Santosh Gangwal; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Margaret Williams; Douglas P. Harrison

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Sulfuric acid thermoelectrochemical system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectrochemical system in which an electrical current is generated between a cathode immersed in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution and an anode immersed in an aqueous buffer solution of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate. Reactants consumed at the electrodes during the electrochemical reaction are thermochemically regenerated and recycled to the electrodes to provide continuous operation of the system.

Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Coiled tubing drilling with supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for increasing the efficiency of drilling operations by using a drilling fluid material that exists as supercritical fluid or a dense gas at temperature and pressure conditions existing at a drill site. The material can be used to reduce mechanical drilling forces, to remove cuttings, or to jet erode a substrate. In one embodiment, carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) is used as the material for drilling within wells in the earth, where the normal temperature and pressure conditions cause CO.sub.2 to exist as a supercritical fluid. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) is preferably used with coiled tube (CT) drilling equipment. The very low viscosity SC--CO.sub.2 provides efficient cooling of the drill head, and efficient cuttings removal. Further, the diffusivity of SC--CO.sub.2 within the pores of petroleum formations is significantly higher than that of water, making jet erosion using SC--CO.sub.2 much more effective than water jet erosion. SC--CO.sub.2 jets can be used to assist mechanical drilling, for erosion drilling, or for scale removal. A choke manifold at the well head or mud cap drilling equipment can be used to control the pressure within the borehole, to ensure that the temperature and pressure conditions necessary for CO.sub.2 to exist as either a supercritical fluid or a dense gas occur at the drill site. Spent CO.sub.2 can be vented to the atmosphere, collected for reuse, or directed into the formation to aid in the recovery of petroleum.

Kolle , Jack J. (Seattle, WA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Process for reducing radioactive contamination in phosphogypsum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process of two crystallization stages for reducing radioactive contamination of phosphogypsum is disclosed. In the process anhydrite crystals are obtained through dehydration of the radiation containing phosphogypsum in strong sulfuric acid; a portion of the anhydrite crystals containing the radioactive contamination is converted to substantially radiation free gypsum by crystallizing out on a large solids concentration of radiation free gypsum seed crystals; and coarse radiation free gypsum crystals are separated from small anhydrite crystal relics containing substantially all of the radioactive contamination.

Gaynor, J.C.; Palmer, J.W.

1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

272

Reduce Stress!  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stress! Stress! x Take a break every hour. Do some relaxation or stretching exercises or talk with someone about topics unrelated to work. Give your body and mind a rest. x Massage your hands and forearms several times a day with a vitamin E lotion. The massage will improve circulation and break up adhesions. Since you can't touch a keyboard until the lotion is absorbed, it also enforces a good break. x Massage the muscles in your neck working your way down from the skull to the shoulders, applying more force to the larger muscles as you go down. x Periodically evaluate your environment for ways to reduce stress. Try to keep your desk uncluttered so you can always find things. Make sure programs are set up correctly on the computer, and see if you can use a macro program to reduce

273

Carbon dioxide and climate: a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography with abstracts presents 394 citations retrieved from the Energy Data Base of the Department of Energy Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The citations cover all aspects of the climatic effects of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. These include carbon cycling, temperature effects, carbon dioxide control technologies, paleoclimatology, carbon dioxide sources and sinks, mathematical models, energy policies, greenhouse effect, and the role of the oceans and terrestrial forests.

Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Low-Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal/Recovery System  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. Much raw gas is `subquality`, that is, it exceeds the pipeline specifications for nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and/or hydrogen sulfide content, and much of this low-quality natural gas cannot be produced economically with present processing technology. Against this background, a number of industry-wide trends are affecting the natural gas industry. Despite the current low price of natural gas, long-term demand is expected to outstrip supply, requiring new gas fields to be developed. Several important consequences will result. First, gas fields not being used because of low-quality products will have to be tapped. In the future, the proportion of the gas supply that must be treated to remove impurities prior to delivery to the pipeline will increase substantially. The extent of treatment required to bring the gas up to specification will also increase. Gas Research Institute studies have shown that a substantial capital investment in facilities is likely to occur over the next decade. The estimated overall investment for all gas processing facilities up to the year 2000 alone is approximates $1.2 Billion, of which acid gas removal and sulfur recovery are a significant part in terms of invested capital. This large market size and the known shortcomings of conventional processing techniques will encourage development and commercialization of newer technologies such as membrane processes. Second, much of today`s gas production is from large, readily accessible fields. As new reserves are exploited, more gas will be produced from smaller fields in remote or offshore locations. The result is an increasing need for technology able to treat small-scale gas streams.

Lokhandwala, K.A.; Ringer, M.; Wijams, H.; Baker, R.W.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

TABLE OF CONTENTS Carbon Dioxide Reduction Metallurgy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Utilization of Sequestered Carbon Dioxide as a. Booster of Hydrogen ... CO2 Capture and Sequestration Implications for the Metals. Industry.

276

Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a non-technical review of the problems associated with atmospheric carbon dioxide and the resulting greenhouse effect. (TEM)

Firestine, M.W. (ed.)

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Carbon Dioxide Transportation and Sequestration Act (Illinois...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

process for the issuance of a certificate of authority by an owner or operator of a pipeline designed, constructed, and operated to transport and to sequester carbon dioxide...

278

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal  

coal fired power plants; oil or gas fired power plants; cement production; bio-fuel combustion; Separation of carbon dioxide from other combustion ...

279

Scientists Crack Materials Mystery of Vanadium Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dec 1, 2010 ... Using a condensed physics theory to explain the observed phase behaviors of vanadium dioxide, ORNL scientists have discovered that the...

280

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nonfuel uses of fossil fuels (for purposes other than their energy value) create carbon dioxide emissions and also sequester carbon in nonfuel products, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

available free of charge - include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon...

282

NiW and NiRu Bimetallic Catalysts for Ethylene Steam Reforming: Alternative Mechanisms for Sulfur Resistance  

SciTech Connect

Previous investigations of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons have indicated that the addition of a second metal can reduce the effects of sulfur poisoning. Two systems that have previously shown promise for such applications, NiW and NiRu, are considered here for the steam reforming of ethylene, a key component of biomass derived tars. Monometallic and bimetallic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and W catalysts were employed for ethylene steam reforming in the presence and absence of sulfur. The NiW catalysts were less active than Ni in the absence of sulfur, but were more active in the presence of 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. The mechanism for the W-induced improvements in sulfur resistance appears to be different from that for Ru in NiRu. To probe reasons for the sulfur resistance of NiRu, the adsorption of S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on several bimetallic NiRu alloy surfaces ranging from 11 to 33 % Ru was studied using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies reveal that sulfur adsorption is generally favored on hollow sites containing Ru. Ethylene preferentially adsorbs atop the Ru atom in all the NiRu (111) alloys investigated. By comparing trends across the various bimetallic models considered, sulfur adsorption was observed to be correlated with the density of occupied states near the Fermi level while C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption was correlated with the number of unoccupied states in the d-band. The diverging mechanisms for S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption allow for bimetallic surfaces such as NiRu that enhance ethylene binding without accompanying increases in sulfur binding energy. In contrast, bimetallics such as NiSn and NiW appear to decrease the affinity of the surface for both the reagent and the poison.

Rangan, M.; Yung, M. M.; Medlin, J. W.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

ALTERNATIVE FLOWSHEETS FOR THE SULFUR-IODINE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN CYCLE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK-B135 A hydrogen economy will need significant new sources of hydrogen. Unless large-scale carbon sequestration can be economically implemented, use of hydrogen reduces greenhouse gases only if the hydrogen is produced with non-fossil energy sources. Nuclear energy is one of the limited options available. One of the promising approaches to produce large quantities of hydrogen from nuclear energy efficiently is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical water-splitting cycle, driven by high temperature heat from a helium Gas-Cooled Reactor. They have completed a study of nuclear-driven thermochemical water-splitting processes. The final task of this study was the development of a flowsheet for a prototype S-I production plant. An important element of this effort was the evaluation of alternative flowsheets and selection of the reference design.

BROWN,LC; LENTSCH,RD; BESENBRUCH,GE; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JE

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Nitrogen and Sulfur Requirements for Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii on Cellulosic Substrates in Minimal Nutrient Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growth media for cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii bacteria usually contain excess nutrients that would increase costs for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production and create a waste stream with nitrogen, sulfur and phosphate. C. thermocellum was grown on crystalline cellulose with varying concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and growth rate and alcohol production response curves were determined. Both bacteria assimilated sulfate in the presence of ascorbate reductant, increasing the ratio of oxidized to reduced fermentation products. From these results, a low ionic strength, defined minimal nutrient medium with decreased nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate and vitamin supplements was developed for the fermentation of cellobiose, cellulose and acid-pretreated Populus. Carbon and electron balance calculations indicate the unidentified residual fermentation products must include highly reduced molecules. Both bacterial populations were maintained in co-cultures with substrates containing xylan or hemicellulose in defined medium with sulfate and basal vitamin supplements.

Kridelbaugh, Donna M [ORNL; Nelson, Josh C [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Conversion of holes into reducing species on surface modified small-particle TiO{sub 2}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complexation of colloidal titanium dioxide nanoparticles (40 {angstrom}) by cysteine as a surface derivative was investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and infra-red (diffusion reflectance infra-red Fourier Transform DRIFT) spectroscopies. It was found that cysteine strongly binds to the colloid surface. The authors have demonstrated with EPR spectroscopy that cysteine modifies the TiO{sub 2} surface with formation of new trapping sites where photogenerated electrons and holes are localized. Illumination of cysteine modified TiO{sub 2} at 77K resulted in formation of a sulfur centered radical observed by EPR spectroscopy at 200 K. Upon addition of lead ions, a new complex of cysteine that bridges surface titanium atoms and lead ions was detected by IR spectroscopy. Illumination of lead/cysteine modified TiO{sub 2} did not result in the formation of sulfur centered radical, but symmetrical, lattice defect type EPR signal for trapped holes was observed. However, addition of methanol to this system resulted in the formation of {center_dot}CH{sub 2}OH radical following illumination at 8.2 K. After the temperature was raised to 120 K, doubling of the signal associated with electrons trapped at particle surface (Ti(3){sub surf}) was observed. On further increase of the temperature to 200 K the EPR signal for trapped electrons disappeared as a result of the reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions, and metallic lead was observed to precipitate. Conversion of photogenerated holes into trapped electrons due to the presence of methanol doubles the yield of trapped electrons that can reduce Pb{sup 2+}. Direct reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions by {center_dot}CH{sub 2}OH radical on TiO{sub 2} was not detected.

Micic, O.I.; Ostafin, A.E.; Rajh, T.; Sabelko, J.J.; Thurnauer, M.C.; Tiede, D.M.; Zhang, Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts raises new issues of liability and risk. the focus of this briefing paper is on the storage of carbon

288

Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

ORNL DAAC, Effects of Increased Carbon Dioxide, Dec. 11, 2002  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increased Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation The ORNL DAAC announces the release of a data set entitled "Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Litter Chemistry and Decomposition." The...

290

Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Field Projects Supported by DOE's Sequestration Program...

291

Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on Facebook icon Twitter icon Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation Jump to: navigation, search Name Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide...

292

Changes related to "Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

icon Changes related to "Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation" Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Power Generation...

293

Why do carbon dioxide emissions weigh more than the ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Why do carbon dioxide emissions weigh more than the original fuel? Carbon dioxide emissions weigh more than the original fuel because during complete ...

294

Recovery Act: Re-utilization of Industrial Carbon Dioxide for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Re-utilization of Industrial Carbon Dioxide for Algae Production Using a Phase Change Material Background Worldwide carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from human activity have...

295

EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania EA-1336: Ocean Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Field Experiment, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania...

296

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy...

297

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California and Spatial Disaggregated Estimate of Energy-related Carbon Dioxide for California...

298

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California Title Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in...

299

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry Title Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction...

300

Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas) ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide CaptureSequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas) Carbon Dioxide CaptureSequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas) Eligibility Commercial Industrial Utility Program...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide," UKAEA Report AERE-OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa Lu Yang (Chemical State of Irradiated Uranium- Plutonium Oxide Fuel

Yang, Rosa Lu.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color Roofing Research Project Nano-Enabled Titanium Dioxide Ultraviolet Protective Layers for Cool-Color...

303

carbon dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dioxide emissions dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Total annual carbon dioxide emissions by country, 2005 to 2009 (million metric tons). Compiled by Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords carbon dioxide emissions EIA world Data text/csv icon total_carbon_dioxide_emissions_from_the_consumption_of_energy_2005_2009million_metric_tons.csv (csv, 12.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating

304

Carbon dioxide disposal in solid form  

SciTech Connect

Coal reserves can provide for the world`s energy needs for centuries. However, coal`s long term use may be severely curtailed if the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is not eliminated. We present a safe and permanent method of carbon dioxide disposal that is based on combining carbon dioxide chemically with abundant raw materials to form stable carbonate minerals. We discuss the availability of raw materials and potential process designs. We consider our initial rough cost estimate of about 3{cents}/kWh encouraging. The availability of a carbon dioxide fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming, or the perception of global warming, causes severe restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions. If the increased energy demand of a growing world population is to be satisfied from coal, the implementation of such a technology would quite likely be unavoidable.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Sharp, D.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wendt, C.H. [Auxon Corp., (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

Ruether, J.A.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Transport Models for Radioactive Carbon Dioxide at RWMC  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive carbon dioxide (formed by oxidation of carbon-14) is a highly mobile, radioactive contaminant released from solid wastes buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Radioactive CO2 is chemically active in the environment, volatile, water soluble, and subject to adsorption on solids. For this reason, its fate must be understood and controlled to meet radiological requirements (protection of the atmosphere, aquifer, vadose zones, plants and animals). In the present work, the migration of carbon-14 as dissolved bicarbonate was studied using miscible displacement experiments in water-saturated columns containing sediments from RWMC. Dissolved carbon-14 was retarded relative to the movement of water by a factor of about 3.6, which translates to a partition coefficient (Kd) of 0.8 ml/g. Two different adsorption sites were identified, with one site possibly having a nonlinear adsorption isotherm. A conservative tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride, was used to measure the tortuosity of sedimentary material for gaseous diffusion. The tortuosity of the RWMC sediment (Spreading Area B sediment) was determined to be 3.2, which is slightly greater than predicted by the commonly used Millington-Quirk equation. In terms of affecting the migration of carbon-14 to the aquifer, the relative importance of the parameters studied is: (1) natural moisture content of the sediments, (2) sediment tortuosity to gas-phase diffusion, and (3) adsorption onto solid phases.

Hull, Laurence Charles; Hohorst, Frederick August

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that higher temperature calcination of trona leds to reduced carbonation activity in subsequent cycles, but that calcination in dry carbon dioxide did not result in decreased activity relative to calcination in helium. Following higher temperature calcination, sodium bicarbonate (SBC) No.3 has greater activity than either coarse or fine grades of trona. Fixed bed testing of calcined SBC No.3 at 70 C confirmed that high rates of carbon dioxide absorption are possible and that the resulting product is a mixture of Wegscheider's salt and sodium carbonate. In fluidized bed testing of supported potassium carbonate, very rapid carbonation rates were observed. Activity of the support material complicated the data analysis. A milled, spherical grade of SBC appeared to be similar in attrition and abrasion characteristics to an unmilled, less regularly shaped SBC. The calcination behavior, at 107 C, for the milled and unmilled materials was also similar.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P.Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Carbon dioxide sequestration: When and how much  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze carbon dioxide (CO sequestration as a strategy to manage future climate change in an optimal economic growth framework. We approach the problem in two ways: first, by using a simple analytical model, and second, by using a numerical optimization model which allows us to explore the problem in a more realistic setting. CO sequestration is not a perfect substitute for avoiding CO2 production because CO2 leaks back to the atmosphere and hence imposes future costs. The efficiency factor of CO2 sequestration can be expressed as the ratio of the avoided emissions to the economically equivalent amount of sequestered CO2 emissions. A simple analytical model in terms of a net-present value criterion suggests that short-term sequestration methods such as afforestation can be somewhat ( 60 %) efficient, while long term sequestration (such as deep aquifer or deep ocean sequestration) can be very ( 90%) efficient. A numerical study indicates that CO2 sequestration methods at a cost within the range of present estimates reduce the economically optimal CO2 concentrations and climate related damages. The potential savings associated with CO2 sequestration is equivalent in our utilitarian model to a one-time investment of several percent of present gross world product. 1 1

Klaus Keller; Zili Yang; Matt Hall; David F. Bradford

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

K. C. Kwon

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

310

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is the greenhouse effect? is the greenhouse effect? Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is used to describe the phenomenon whereby the Earth's atmosphere traps solar radiation, caused by the presence of gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O), in the atmosphere that allow incoming sunlight to pass through but absorb heat radiated back from the Earth's surface, resulting in higher temperatures. The greenhouse effect gets its name from what actually happens in a greenhouse. In a greenhouse, short wavelength visible sunlight shines through the glass panes and warms the air and the plants inside. The radiation emitted from the heated objects is of longer wavelength and is unable to pass through the glass barrier, maintaining a warm temperature

311

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

312

Removal of sulfur compounds from combustion product exhaust  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device are disclosed for removing sulfur containing contaminents from a combustion product exhaust. The removal process is carried out in two stages wherein the combustion product exhaust is dissolved in water, the water being then heated to drive off the sulfur containing contaminents. The sulfur containing gases are then resolublized in a cold water trap to form a concentrated solution which can then be used as a commercial product.

Cheng, Dah Y. (Palo Alto, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Design and Experimental Test Plan for Hybrid Sulfur Single Cell Pressurized Electrolyzer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) process is one of the leading thermochemical cycles being studied as part of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). SRNL is conducting analyses and research and development for the Department of Energy on the HyS process. A conceptual design report and development plan for the HyS process was issued on April 1, 2005 [Buckner, et. al., 2005] , and a report on atmospheric testing of a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE), a major component of the HyS process, was issued on August 1, 2005 [Steimke, 2005]. The purpose of this report is to document work related to the design and experimental test plan for a pressurized SDE. Pressurized operation of the SDE is a key requirement for development of an efficient and cost-effective HyS process. The HyS process, a hybrid thermochemical cycle proposed and investigated in the 1970s and early 1980s by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, is a high priority candidate for NHI due to the potential for high efficiency and its relatively high level of technical maturity. It was demonstrated in laboratory experiments by Westinghouse in 1978. Process improvements and component advancements that build on that work are being pursued. One of the objectives of the current work is to develop the SDE in order to permit the demonstration of a closed-loop laboratory model of the HyS process. The heart of the HyS process for generating hydrogen is a bank of electrolyzers incorporating sulfur dioxide depolarized anodes. SRNL planned, designed, built and operated a facility for testing single cell electrolyzers at ambient temperature and near atmospheric pressure during the spring and summer of 2005. The major contribution of the SRNL work was the establishment of the proof-of-concept for utilizing the proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) cell design for the SDE operation. Since PEM cells are being extensively developed for automotive fuel cell use, they offer significant potential for cost-effective application for the HyS Process. This report discusses the modifications necessary to the existing SRNL sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer test facility to allow testing at up to 80 C and 90 psig. Because of the need for significant additional equipment and the ability to infer performance results to higher pressures, it recommends delaying further modifications to support testing at up to 300 psig (the commercial goal) until other, higher priority technical issues are addressed. These issues include membrane material selection, component designs, catalyst type and loading, etc. The factors and rationale that should be considered in developing and executing a detailed test matrix for pressurized operation are also discussed. In addition, an electrolyzer assembly design has been developed to allow the testing of different Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEA's) as part of the planned FY06 HyS Development Program to complete selection of component design specifications for the HyS electrolyzer. MEA's are used in PEM cells to allow intimate contact and minimal resistance between the electrodes and the electrolyte layer. The pressurized electrolyzer assembly presented in this report will facilitate rapid change-out and testing of various MEA designs as part of the electrolyzer development effort.

Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

Investigation of a sulfur reduction technique for mild gasification char. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the desulfurization of mild gasification char using H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} mixtures. Mild gasification of coal produces char, liquids, and gases at 1000{degrees}--1500{degrees}F and near-ambient pressure. Char, comprising 60--70% of the product, can be used to make high-value form coke for steel making and foundries. However, a sulfur content below 1 wt% is desirable, and char from high-sulfur Illinois coals must be upgraded to meet this criterion. Illinois No. 6 chars were treated in a batch fluidized bed with H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4} blends containing 9--24 vol% CH{sub 4} at 1100{degrees}--1600{degrees}F and 50--200 psig. Sulfur removal up to 92.5 wt% were obtainer, and the char desulfurization susceptibility was related to porosity, density, and crystallite size. The relationships among mild gasification parameters, char properties, and char desulfurization susceptibility are being studied. Acid washing of coal to remove Ca and Fe is being explored for its effect on subsequent sulfur removal, and secondary desulfurization of form coke produced from the desulfurized chars is also being studied. Desulfurization tests of entrained and fluidized-bed reactor chars from IBC-105 coal (4.1--4.3 wt% sulfur) were completed. Desulfurization conditions were 1400{degrees}F, 100--200 psig and reactant gas compositions of 15-49 vol% CH{sub 4} in H{sub 2}. Sulfur removal ranged from 28 to 95%, with carbon losses from 5 to 29%. Acid-washing of the coal prior to mild gasification or the char prior to desulfurization increased its susceptibility to desulfurization, with sulfur content reduced to as low as 0.10 wt% dry char. Fluidized-bed chars were easier to desulfurize than entrained chars, and were less affected by acid-washing.

Knight, R.A. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations set limits on the sulfur content of allowable fuels (1.0%

317

Mechanism of Sulfur-containing Aryl Polyphosphonate as Flame ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Mechanism of Sulfur-containing Aryl Polyphosphonate as Flame Retardant for PET. Author(s), Deng Yi. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Deng Yi.

318

Polymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium/Sulfur Batteries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With the rapid development of portable electronics, hybrid-electric and electric cars, there is great interest in utilization of sulfur as cathodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. (more)

Zhao, Yan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Better Batteries from Waste Sulfur - Materials Technology@TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Posted on: 04/28/2013. Transforming waste sulfur into lightweight plastic that could lead to better batteries for electric cars is possible through a new chemical

320

Reductive Sulfur-fixation Smelting of Stibnite Concentrate in Sodium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A new process to extracted antimony directly from stibnite concentrate by reductive sulfur-fixation smelting in sodium molten salt has been...

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321

Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery  

Berkeley Lab researcher Gao Liu has developed an innovative design for a battery, made primarily of sodium and sulfur, that holds promise for both ...

322

Available Technologies: Lithium / Sulfur Cells with Long Cycle ...  

A team of Berkeley Lab battery researchers led by Elton Cairns has invented an advanced lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell that, for the first time, offers ...

323

Nanostructured Sulfur Electrodes for Long-Life Lithium Batteries  

Berkeley Lab researcher Elton Cairns has developed a technology that addresses limitations of developing a commercial-grade lithium / sulfur battery. ...

324

Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery ...  

Berkeley Lab researcher Gao Liu has developed an innovative design for a battery, made primarily of sodium and sulfur, that holds promise for both large-scale grid ...

325

Conventional methods for removing sulfur and other contaminants...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conventional methods for removing sulfur and other contaminants from syngas typically rely on chemical or physical absorption processes operating at low temperatures. When cooled...

326

Catalytic partial oxidation of n-tetradecane using Rh and Sr substituted pyrochlores: Effects of sulfur  

SciTech Connect

The presence of high levels of organosulfur compounds hinders the catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) of logistic fuels into a H2-rich gas stream for fuel cells. These species poison traditional supported metal catalysts because the sulfur adsorbs strongly to electron dense metal clusters and promotes the formation of carbon on the surface. To minimize deactivation by sulfur, two substituted lanthanum zirconate (LZ) pyrochlores (La2Zr2O7), identified in a previous study [D.J. Haynes, D.A. Berry, D. Shekhawat, J.J. Spivey, Catal. Today 136 (2008) 206], were investigated: (a) LaRhZr (LRZ) and LaSr RhZr (LSRZ). Using unsubstituted lanthanum zirconate and a conventional 0.5 wt% Rh/g-Al2O3 as comparisons, these four catalysts were exposed to a feed containing 1000 ppmw dibenzothiophene (DBT) in n-tetradecane (TD). DBT rapidly deactivated both the 0.5 wt% Rh/g-Al2O3 and LZ. The LRZ catalyst experienced a gradual deactivation, suggesting that Rh substitution into the pyrochlore structure, by itself, cannot completely eliminate deactivation by sulfur. However, the additional substitution of Sr stabilized yields of H2 and CO in the presence of DBT at levels only slightly below those observed without sulfur in the feed. After sulfur was removed from the feed, each catalyst was able to recover some activity. The recovery appears to be linked to carbon formed on active sites. The 0.5 wt% Rh/g-Al2O3, LZ, and LRZ all had comparable amounts of carbon formed on the surface: 0.90, 0.80 and 0.86 gcarbon/gcat, respectively. Of these three catalysts, only the LRZ was able to recover a significant portion of initial activity, suggesting that the carbon formed indiscriminately on the surface, and not solely on the active sites. LSRZ was able to regain almost its initial activity once sulfur was removed from the feed, and had the least amount of carbon on the surface (0.30 gcarbon/gcat). It is hypothesized that oxygen-ion mobility, which results from Sr substitution, reduces carbon formation and the deactivation by sulfur.

Haynes, D.; Berry, D.; Shekhawat, D. Spivey, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Sulfur Management of NOx Adsorber Technology for Diesel Light-Duty Vehicle and Truck Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sulfur poisoning from engine fuel and lube is one of the most recognizable degradation mechanisms of a NOx adsorber catalyst system for diesel emission reduction. Even with the availability of 15 ppm sulfur diesel fuel, NOx adsorber will be deactivated without an effective sulfur management. Two general pathways are currently being explored for sulfur management: (1) the use of a disposable SOx trap that can be replaced or rejuvenated offline periodically, and (2) the use of diesel fuel injection in the exhaust and high temperature de-sulfation approach to remove the sulfur poisons to recover the NOx trapping efficiency. The major concern of the de-sulfation process is the many prolonged high temperature rich cycles that catalyst will encounter during its useful life. It is shown that NOx adsorber catalyst suffers some loss of its trapping capacity upon high temperature lean-rich exposure. With the use of a disposable SOx trap to remove large portion of the sulfur poisons from the exhaust, the NOx adsorber catalyst can be protected and the numbers of de-sulfation events can be greatly reduced. Spectroscopic techniques, such as DRIFTS and Raman, have been used to monitor the underlying chemical reactions during NOx trapping/ regeneration and de-sulfation periods, and provide a fundamental understanding of NOx storage capacity and catalyst degradation mechanism using model catalysts. This paper examines the sulfur effect on two model NOx adsorber catalysts. The chemistry of SOx/base metal oxides and the sulfation product pathways and their corresponding spectroscopic data are discussed. SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-3245 {copyright} 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

Fang, Howard L.; Wang, Jerry C.; Yu, Robert C. (Cummins, Inc.); Wan, C. Z. (Engelhard Corp.); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Diesel Emission Control-- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program-- Phase II Summary Report: NOx Adsorber Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The investigations performed in this project demonstrated the ability to develop a NO{sub x} regeneration strategy including both an improved lean/rich modulation cycle and rich engine calibration, which resulted in a high NO{sub x} conversion efficiency over a range of operating temperatures. A high-temperature cycle was developed to desulfurize the NO{sub x} absorber catalyst. The effectiveness of the desulfurization process was demonstrated on catalysts aged using two different sulfur level fuels. The major findings of this project are as follows: (1) The improved lean/rich engine calibration achieved as a part of this test project resulted in NO{sub x} conversion efficiencies exceeding 90% over a catalyst inlet operating temperature window of 300 C-450 C. This performance level was achieved while staying within the 4% fuel economy penalty target defined for the regeneration calibration. (2) The desulfurization procedure developed showed that six catalysts, which had been exposed to fuel sulfur levels of 3-, 16-, and 30-ppm for as long as 250 hours, could be recovered to greater than 85% NO{sub x} conversion efficiency over a catalyst inlet operating temperature window of 300 C-450 C, after a single desulfurization event. This performance level was achieved while staying within the 4% fuel economy penalty target defined for the regeneration calibration. (3) The desulfurization procedure developed has the potential to meet in-service engine operating conditions and provide acceptable driveability conditions. (4) Although aging with 78-ppm sulfur fuel reduced NO{sub x} conversion efficiency more than aging with 3-ppm sulfur fuel as a result of sulfur contamination, the desulfurization events restored the conversion efficiency to nearly the same level of performance. However, repeatedly exposing the catalyst to the desulfurization procedure developed in this program caused a continued decline in the catalyst's desulfurized performance. Additional work will be necessary to identify the cause of this performance decline. (5) The rate of sulfur contamination during aging with 78-ppm sulfur fuel increased with repeated aging/desulfurization cycles (from 10% per ten hours to 18% per ten hours). This was not observed with the 3-ppm fuel, where the rate of decline during aging was fairly constant at approximately 2% per ten hours.

None

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

American Electric Power (AEP): Mountaineer Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration (WITHDRAWN AT CONCLUSION OF PHASE 1)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Electric Power (AEP): American Electric Power (AEP): Mountaineer Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Demonstration (WITHDRAWN AT CONCLUSION OF PHASE 1) Background A need exists to further develop carbon management technologies that capture and store or beneficially reuse carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that would otherwise be emitted into the atmosphere from coal-based electric power generating facilities. Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies offer great potential for reducing CO

330

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Smith, Dennis N. (Herminie, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

1987-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

332

Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the U.S. and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loading of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Yim, Sung Paal; Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess elemental sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the US and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loadings of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing.

Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Korea, Republic of); Dyer, R.S.; Michaud, W.R. [Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

K. C. Kwon

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

335

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Latest Estimates Latest Estimates Atmos CO2 Level 397.31 ppm Fossil CO2 Emissions 9,167 MMT Carbon Global Temp Anomaly +0.56°C / +1.01°F Global Sea Level Rise +2.9 ± 0.4 mm/y Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gases; carbon cycle and terrestrial carbon management datasets and analyses; and

336

Canada, carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

One of the major contributors to the greenhouse effect is carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Even with its low population density, Canada, on a per capita basis, has the dubious distinction of being the world's fourth largest producer of carbon from carbon dioxide. This paper considers the impact of Canadian carbon dioxide emissions on the greenhouse effect in light of the 1988 Conference on the Changing Atmosphere's recommendations. A computer model has been developed that, when using anticipated Canadian fossil fuel demands, shows that unless steps are taken immediately, Canada will not be able to meet the conference's proposed carbon dioxide reduction of 20 percent of 1988 levels by the year 2005, let alone meet any more substantial cuts that may be required in the future.

Hughes, L.; Scott, S. (Dept. of Mathematics and Computing Science, Saint Mary' s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Turning unwanted carbon dioxide into electricity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and use it as a tool to boost electric power. Turning unwanted carbon dioxide into electricity Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov High Resolution Image The...

338

Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Coal Seams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide in Coal Seams K. Schroeder (schroede@netl.doe.gov; 412.386.5910) U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236...

339

Carbon Dioxide Variability and Atmospheric Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly values of the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) formed the basis for an investigation of concentration fluctuations on daily to monthly time scales. In agreement with earlier studies we found no ...

James C. Sadler; Colin S. Ramage; Arnold M. Hori

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Regulating carbon dioxide capture and storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage ("CCS"). Legal, regulatory, and organizational ...

De Figueiredo, Mark A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

William Watson

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Complete genome sequence of the sulfur compounds oxidizing chemolithoautotroph Sulfuricurvum kujiense type strain (YK-1T)  

SciTech Connect

Sulfuricurvum kujiense Kodama and Watanabe 2004 is the type species of the monotypic genus Sulfuricurvum, which belongs to the family Helicobacteriaceae in the class Epsilonproteobacteria. The species is of interest because it is frequently found in crude oil and oil sands where it utilizes various reduced sulfur compounds such as elemental sulfur, sulfide and thiosulfate as electron donors. Members of the species do not utilize sugars, organic acids and hydrocarbons as carbon and energy sources. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Sulfuricurvum. The genome, which consists of a circular chromosome of 2,574,824 bp length and four plasmids of 118,585 bp, 71,513 bp, 51,014 bp, and 3,421 bp length, respectively, harboring a total of 2,879 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kotsyurbenko, Oleg [Technical University of Braunschweig; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

Belle, J.; Berman, R.M. (eds.)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Household carbon dioxide production in relation to the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

A survey of 655 households from eastern suburbs of Melbourne was undertaken to determine householders[prime] attitudes to, and understanding of, the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from car, electricity and gas use were computed and household actions which could reduce CO[sub 2] emissions were addressed. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates that householders in this area are aware of, and concerned about, the greenhouse effect, although their understanding of its causes is often poor. Many appreciate the contribution of cars, but are unclear about the relative importance of other household activities. Carbon dioxide emissions from the three sources examined averaged 21[center dot]2 tonnes/year per household and 7[center dot]4 tonnes/year per person. Electricity was the largest contributor (8[center dot]6 tonnes/year), cars the next largest (7[center dot]7 tonnes/year) and gas third (5[center dot] tonnes/year) per household. Emissions varied considerably from household to household. There was a strong positive correlation between availability of economic resources and household CO[sub 2] output from all sources. Carbon dioxide production, particularly from car use, was greater from households which were most distant from a railway station, and from larger households, and numbers of children in the household had little effect on emissions. There were also some economics of scale for households containing more adults. Understanding the causes of the greenhouse bore little relation to change in CO[sub 2] emissions; being concerned about it was associated with a small reduction; but actual actions to reduce car use and household heating, however motivated, produced significant reductions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Stokes, D.; Lindsay, A.; Marinopoulos, J.; Treloar, A.; Wescott, G. (Deakin Univ., Clayton (Australia))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Redox Reactions of Metalloporphyrins and their Role in Catalyzed Reduction of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis are used to study redox processes of metalloporphyrins and related complexes in order to evaluate these light absorbing molecules as sensitizers and intermediates in solar energy conversion schemes. The main thrust of the current studies is to investigate the role of reduced metalloporphyrins as intermediates in the catalyzed reduction of carbon dioxide. Studies involve cobalt and iron porphyrins, phthalocyanines, corroles, and corrins as homogeneous catalysts for reduction of carbon dioxide in solution. The main aim is to understand the mechanisms of these photochemical schemes in order to facilitate their potential utilization.

Neta, P.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Distribution and origin of sulfur in Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The sulfur content of 1,225 samples of Green River oil shale from two core holes in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, ranges from nearly 0 to 4.9 weight percent. In one core hole, the average sulfur content of a sequence of oil shale 555 m thick, which represents nearly the maximum thickness of oil shale in the basin, is 0.76 weight percent. The vertical distribution of sulfur through the oil shale is cyclic. As many as 25 sulfur cycles have lateral continuity and can be traced between the core holes. Most of the sulfur resides in iron sulfides (pyrite, marcasite, and minor. pyrrhotite), and small amounts are organically bound in kerogen. In general, the concentration of sulfur correlates moderately with oil shale yield, but the degree of association ranges from quite high in the upper 90 m of the oil shale sequence to low or none in the leached zone and in illitic oil shale in the lower part of the sequence. Sulfur also correlates moderately with iron in the carbonate oil shale sequence, but no correlation was found in the illitic samples. Sulfide mineralization is believed to have occurred during early and late stages of diagenesis, and after lithification, during development of the leached zone. Significant amounts of iron found in ankeritic dolomite and in illite probably account for the lack of a strong correlation between sulfur and iron.

Dyni, J.R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Sodium sulfur container with chromium/chromium oxide coating  

SciTech Connect

A coating of chromium/chromium oxide is disclosed for coating the surfaces of electrically conducting components of a sodium sulfur battery. This chromium/chromium oxide coating is placed on the surfaces of the electrically conducting components of the battery which are in contact with molten polysulfide and sulfur reactants during battery operation.

Ludwig, Frank A. (Irvine, CA); Higley, Lin R. (Santa Ana, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas  

SciTech Connect

A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

351

High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

NETL: News Release - Frio Formation Test Well Injected With Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

19, 2004 19, 2004 Frio Formation Test Well Injected With Carbon Dioxide Researchers Perform Small Scale, Short Term Carbon Sequestration Field Test HOUSTON, TX - In the first U.S. field test to investigate the ability of brine formations to store greenhouse gasses, researchers funded by the U.S. Department of Energy are closely monitoring 1,600 tons of carbon dioxide that were injected into a mile-deep well in Texas in October. The test is providing unique data to help investigators understand the viability of geologic sequestration as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Frio Brine Pilot experimental site is 30 miles northeast of Houston, in the South Liberty oilfield. Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology drilled a 5,753 foot injection well earlier this year, and developed a nearby observation well to study the ability of the high-porosity Frio sandstone formation to store carbon dioxide.

353

Molten salt synthesis and localized surface plasmon resonance study of vanadium dioxide nanopowders  

SciTech Connect

Rutile-type vanadium dioxide nanopowders with four different sizes were successfully synthesized by carbothermal reducing V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in KCl-LiCl molten salt. XRD and TEM characterizations suggested that vanadium dioxide particles formed by a broken and reunited process of vanadium oxide. Molten salt and organic carbon sources are crucial to the size of final particles. In the presence of the molten salt, the organic carbon with a shorter chain length would induce smaller particles. The UV-VIS-IR spectral measurements for as-prepared vanadium dioxide announced an obvious localized surface plasmon resonance band in the near infrared region at 90 deg. C. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the formation mechanism of VO{sub 2}(M) nanoparticles in molten salt, particles size can be controlled by choosing organic carbon sources with different chain length.

Wang Fu [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials of Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100806 (China); Liu Yun [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials of Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu Chunyan, E-mail: cyliu@mail.ipc.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials of Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reduction of carbon dioxide. IR-SpectroelectrochemicalElectrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide mediated by Re(Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide Mediated by (

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Methane Title: Carbon Dioxide Mixed Hydrates Tae-Hyukof methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposedsequestration of carbon dioxide ( CO 2 ) and/or production

Kwon, T.H.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved, would reduce energy use and concomitant water consumption. These inefficiencies include air heater inefficiencies, boiler corrosion, low operating temperatures, fuel inefficiencies, and older components that are subject to strain and failure. A variety of nanotechnology applications that could potentially be used to reduce the amount of freshwater consumed - either directly or indirectly - by these areas and activities was identified. These applications include membranes that use nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials for improved water purification and carbon capture; nano-based coatings and lubricants to insulate and reduce heat loss, inhibit corrosion, and improve fuel efficiency; nano-based catalysts and enzymes that improve fuel efficiency and improve sulfur removal efficiency; nanomaterials that can withstand high temperatures; nanofluids that have better heat transfer characteristics than water; nanosensors that can help identify strain and impact damage, detect and monitor water quality parameters, and measure mercury in flue gas; and batteries and capacitors that use nanotechnology to enable utility-scale storage. Most of these potential applications are in the research stage, and few have been deployed at coal-fired power plants. Moving from research to deployment in today's economic environment will be facilitated with federal support. Additional support for research development and deployment (RD&D) for some subset of these applications could lead to reductions in water consumption and could provide lessons learned that could be applied to future efforts. To take advantage of this situation, it is recommended that NETL pursue funding for further research, development, or deployment for one or more of the potential applications identified in this report.

Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

357

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4: April 9, 2007 4: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions on AddThis.com... Fact #464: April 9, 2007 Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector began to

358

Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

359

Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Vacuum carbonate desulfurization and claus sulfur recovery system at No. 11 battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vacuum carbonate process functions above 90% efficiency and satisfactorily removes the HCN and sulfur compounds from the coke oven gas generated at No. 11 Battery. It has been noted that a large quantity of energy is required for the operation of the vacuum carbonate system. Normally 544,617 kg (1.2 million lbs of steam) and 5.4 thousand kWh of electricity are used per day to maintain the system's temperatures and pressures. The processed coke oven gases from the system satisfy industrial and environmental standards as a combustible fuel. The HCN destruction unit reduces the corrosive HCN to concentrations below .07% of the acid gas stream and offers the necessary protection to the downstream modified Claus unit. The Claus unit at No. 11 Battery operates at 98% efficiency and produces 5896 kg (6.5 tons) of sulfur per day. The liquid sulfur generated in the Claus unit is a high quality product of 99% purity. 7 figures, 3 tables.

Ellis, A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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361

SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft{sup 3} pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containing > 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containing < 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product.

ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to develop engineering evaluations of technologies for the capture, use, and disposal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestering of unused CO{sub 2}. Commercially available CO{sub 2}-capture technology is providing a performance and economic baseline against which to compare innovative technologies. The intent is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The value used for the {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget is 1 kg of CO{sub 2} per kilowatt-hour (electric). The base case is a 458-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production of 454 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.835 kg/kWhe. Two additional life-cycle energy balances for emerging technologies were considered: (1) high-temperature CO{sub 2} separation with calcium- or magnesium-based sorbents, and (2) ambient-temperature facilitated-transport polymer membranes for acid-gas removal.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Structural insight into SoxC and SoxD interaction and their role in electron transport process in the novel global sulfur cycle in Paracoccus pantotrophus  

SciTech Connect

Microbial oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds mainly sulfur anions in the environment is one of the major reactions of the global sulfur cycle mediated by phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes. The sulfur oxidizing gene cluster (sox) of {alpha}-Proteobacteria comprises of at least 16 genes, which form two transcriptional units, viz., soxSRT and soxVWXYZABCDEFGH. Sequence analysis reveals that soxD gene product (SoxD) belongs to the di-heme cytochrome c family of electron transport proteins whereas soxC gene product (SoxC) is a sulfur dehydrogenase. We employed homology modeling to construct the three-dimensional structures of the SoxC and SoxD from Paracoccus pantotrophus. SoxD protein is known to interact with SoxC. With the help of docking studies we have identified the residues involved in the interaction of SoxC and SoxD. The putative active site geometries of these two proteins as well as the structural basis of the involvements of these proteins in electron transport process during the oxidation of sulfur anions are also investigated.

Bagchi, Angshuman [Bioinformatics Center, Bose Institute, AJC Bose Centenary Building, P1/12 CIT Scheme VIIM, Kolkata 700 054 (India)]. E-mail: angshu@bic.boseinst.ernet.in; Roy, Pradosh [Department of Microbiology, Bose Institute, AJC Bose Centenary Building, P1/12 CIT Scheme VIIM, Kolkata 700 054 (India)]. E-mail: prodosh@bic.boseinst.ernet.in

2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

364

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What are people doing now to manage CO2? What are people doing now to manage CO2? SECARB's injection operations at the Mississippi test site in Escatawpa, Mississippi SECARB's injection operations at the Mississippi test site in Escatawpa, Mississippi. A combined portfolio of carbon management options is being implemented to reduce current emission levels associated with energy production while enhancing energy security and building the technologies and knowledge base for export to other countries faced with reducing emissions. The U.S. portfolio includes: (1) use fuels with reduced carbon intensity - renewables, nuclear, and natural gas; (2) adopt more efficient technologies on both the energy demand and supply sides; and (3) use carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology. CCS is a viable emission management option

365

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

366

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

367

TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON, ORGANIC RESIDUE AND PRODUCTION CHEMICAL DAMAGE MECHANISMS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Core specimens and several material samples were collected from two natural gas storage reservoirs. Laboratory studies were performed to characterize the samples that were believed to be representative of a reservoir damage mechanism previously identified as arising from the presence of hydrocarbons, organic residues or production chemicals. A series of laboratory experiments were performed to identify the sample materials, use these materials to damage the flow capacity of the core specimens and then attempt to remove or reduce the induced damage using either carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and other chemicals. Results of the experiments showed that pure carbon dioxide was effective in restoring flow capacity to the core specimens in several different settings. However, in settings involving asphaltines as the damage mechanism, both pure carbon dioxide and mixtures of carbon dioxide and other chemicals provided little effectiveness in damage removal.

Lawrence J. Pekot; Ron Himes

2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

Sulfur content of heating oil to be reduced in northeastern states ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Also, the Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve has switched to ULSD. The Northeast is the largest regional consumer of heating oil in the United States.

369

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations Kevin T. Raterman (ratekt@inel.gov; 208-526-5444) Michael McKellar (mgq@inel.gov; 208-526-1346) Anna Podgorney (poloak@inel.gov; 208-526-0064) Douglas Stacey (stacde@inel.gov; 208-526-3938) Terry Turner (tdt@inel.gov; 208-526-8623) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415-2110 Brian Stokes (bxs9@pge.com; 415-972-5591) John Vranicar (jjv2@pge.com; 415-972-5591) Pacific Gas & Electric Company 123 Mission Street San Francisco, CA 94105 Introduction Many analysts 1,2,3 identify carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA)

370

Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

CHLORINE DIOXIDE AND CHLORITE Chlorine Dioxide CAS # 10049-04-4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about chlorine dioxide and chlorite. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. It is important you understand this information because these substances may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. HIGHLIGHTS: Chlorine dioxide is a gas that does not occur naturally in the environment. It is used to disinfect drinking water and make it safe to drink. Chlorite is formed when chlorine dioxide reacts with water. High levels of chlorine dioxide can be irritating to the nose, eyes, throat, and lungs. Chlorine dioxide and chlorite have not been found in any of the 1,647 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). What are chlorine dioxide and chlorite? Chlorine dioxide is a yellow to reddish-yellow manufactured gas. It does not occur naturally in the environment. When

Chlorite Cas

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Coal Cleaning Using Resonance Disintegration for Mercury and Sulfur Reduction Prior to Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Coal-cleaning processes have been utilized to increase the heating value of coal by extracting ash-forming minerals in the coal. These processes involve the crushing or grinding of raw coal followed by physical separation processes, taking advantage of the density difference between carbonaceous particles and mineral particles. In addition to the desired increase in the heating value of coal, a significant reduction of the sulfur content of the coal fed to a combustion unit is effected by the removal of pyrite and other sulfides found in the mineral matter. WRI is assisting PulseWave to develop an alternate, more efficient method of liberating and separating the undesirable mineral matter from the carbonaceous matter in coal. The approach is based on PulseWave's patented resonance disintegration technology that reduces that particle size of materials by application of destructive resonance, shock waves, and vortex generating forces. Illinois No.5 coal, a Wyodak coal, and a Pittsburgh No.8 coal were processed using the resonance disintegration apparatus then subjected to conventional density separations. Initial microscopic results indicate that up to 90% of the pyrite could be liberated from the coal in the machine, but limitations in the density separations reduced overall effectiveness of contaminant removal. Approximately 30-80% of the pyritic sulfur and 30-50% of the mercury was removed from the coal. The three coals (both with and without the pyritic phase separated out) were tested in WRI's 250,000 Btu/hr Combustion Test Facility, designed to replicate a coal-fired utility boiler. The flue gases were characterized for elemental, particle bound, and total mercury in addition to sulfur. The results indicated that pre-combustion cleaning could reduce a large fraction of the mercury emissions.

Andrew Lucero

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-???????­???¢???????Energy, Carbon-???????­Dioxide-???????­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC-based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

374

Low Temperature Sorbents for removal of Sulfur Compounds from fluid feed Streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjan

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

375

Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

Siriwardane, Ranjani

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Investigation of a technique for sulfur reduction of mild gasification char. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the desulfurization of mild gasification char using H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4}, mixtures at the laboratory scale. Mild gasification produces solid, liquid, and gaseous co-products at 1000{degree} to 1500{degree}F and near-ambient pressure. Char comprises about 60 to 70% of the dry coal yield. Form coke for steelmaking and foundries presents potential high-value markets for chars from eastern bituminous coals, Metallurgical cokes generally contain less than 1 wt% sulfur, and mild gasification char from high-sulfur Illinois coals must be upgraded to meet these criteria. One method to accomplish this is desulfurization with reducing gases derived from the.co-product gases. In the first year of the two-year program, granular chars were treated with H{sub 2}:CH{sub 4}, blends at temperatures of 1100{degree} to 1600{degree}F and pressures of 50 to 200 psig. During the year, 23 tests were performed with 10 chars. Fluidized-bed tests were conducted for 120 to 240 minutes with superficial gas velocities from 0.067 to 0.150 ft/s. The desulfurization medium was H{sub 2} gas containing 9 to 24 vol% CH{sub 4}. The data from these tests show sulfur conversions ranging from 6.0 to 92.5 wt%, with carbon conversions from zero to 35.3 wt%. The maximum sulfur conversion was 92.5 wt% at 1400{degree}F and 200 psig in 76% H, for 120 minutes residence time, using IFFR char produced from IBC-106 coal at 1200{degree}F in helium. The sulfur content of the char in that test was reduced from 3.78 to 0.39 wt%.

Knight, R.A. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

A Soft Approach to Encapsulate Sulfur: Polyaniline Nanotubes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life  

SciTech Connect

Applications of rechargeable batteries are diverse and range from storing energy from renewable resources such as wind generators and solar arrays , powering electric vehicles and portable electronic devices. Significant R&D efforts have focused on achieving high energy density, long cycling life, low cost, and safety.1 Among all known rechargeable battery systems, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted considerable attention.2, 3 Elemental sulfur is abundant, and is a very attractive cathode material for lithium batteries because of its high theoretical capacity (1672 mAh g-1) and specific energy (2600 Wh kg-1), assuming complete reaction of lithium with sulfur to form Li2S.

Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Jie; Schwenzer, Birgit; Engelhard, Mark H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Nie, Zimin; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Liu, Jun

2012-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

378

Ultracompact Vanadium Dioxide Dual-Mode Plasmonic Waveguide Electroabsorption Modulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Subwavelength modulators play an indispensable role in integrated photonic-electronic circuits. Due to weak light-matter interactions, it is always a challenge to develop a modulator with a nanometer scale footprint, low switching energy, low insertion loss and large modulation depth. In this paper, we propose the design of a vanadium dioxide dual-mode plasmonic waveguide electroabsorption modulator using a metal-insulator-VO$_2$-insulator-metal (MIVIM) waveguide platform. By varying the index of vanadium dioxide, the modulator can route plasmonic waves through the low-loss dielectric insulator layer during the "on" state and high-loss VO$_2$ layer during the "off" state, thereby significantly reducing the insertion loss while maintaining a large modulation depth. This ultracompact waveguide modulator, for example, can achieve a large modulation depth of ~10dB with an active size of only 200x50x220nm$^3$ (or ~{\\lambda}$^3$/1700), requiring a drive-voltage of ~4.6V. This high performance plasmonic modulator co...

Ooi, Kelvin J A; Chu, Hong Son; Ang, Lay Kee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2005, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 7 percent. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 72 percent. Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 (Percent per Year). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

380

Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground February 5, 2013 - 12:05pm Addthis The Air Products and...

382

How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much carbon dioxide is produced by burning gasoline and diesel fuel? About 19.64 pounds of carbon dioxide (CO 2) are produced from burning a gallon of gasoline ...

383

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics Recycling Carbon Dioxide to Make Plastics May 20, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis Novomers thermoplastic pellets incorporate waste CO2 into a...

384

Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

385

Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions --A New Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calculating Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions -- A New Approach Larry Hughes, Kathleen Bohan to submit an annual national greenhouse gas inventory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate different sectors and their associated greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide, methane

Hughes, Larry

386

Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into Saline Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factorcarbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor

Garcia, Julio Enrique

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2004, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide were greater than OECD emissions for the first time. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 57 percent. Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center on 202-585-8800. Figure Data Figure 78. World energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is the most abundant anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse

388

Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

2006-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

389

Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goals of this project are to investigate the behavior of sulfur and chlorine during pyrolysis and combustion of Illinois coals, the chemistry and mineralogy of boiler deposits, the effects of combustion gases on boiler materials, and remedial measures to reduce the sulfur and chlorine compounds in combustion gases. Replicate determinations of chlorine and sulfur evolution during coal pyrolysis-gas combustion were conducted using a pyrolysis apparatus in conjunction with a quadrupole gas analyzer. HCl is the only gaseous chlorine species measured in combustion gases. Pyrolysis of coal IBC-109 spiked with NaCl solution shows a strong peak of HCl evolution above 700C. The absence of this peak during pyrolysis of Illinois coal indicates that little chlorine in Illinois coal occurs in the NaCl form. Evolution of sulfur during coal pyrolysis was studied; the sulfur evolution profile may be explained by the sulfur forms in coal. To determine the fate of sulfur and chlorine during combustion, a set of six samples of boiler deposits from superheater and reheater tubes of an Illinois power plant was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy shows microscopic calcium sulfate droplets on cenospheres. Superheater deposits are high in mullite, hematite, and cristobalite, whereas a reheater deposit is enriched in anhydrite. The chlorine content is very low, indicating that most of the chlorine in the feed coal is lost as volatile HCl during he combustion process. The profiles of SO{sub 2} released during combustion experiments at 825 C indicate that calcium hydroxide added to the coal has a significant effect on reducing the SO{sub 2} vapors in combustion gases.

Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Cao, J.; Moore, D.M.; Xu, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Upchurch, M.L.; Cao, H.B. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

391

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural Factors Affecting Energy Use and Carbon DioxideStructural Factors Affecting Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility Facility Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Sector Biomass Facility Type Non-Fossil Waste Location Contra Costa County, California Coordinates 37.8534093°, -121.9017954° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.8534093,"lon":-121.9017954,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

393

Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program Status  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be implemented to lower emissions of NO{sub x} and PM from on-highway trucks in the 2002-2004 time frame.

None

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

394

THE EFFECT OF SULFUR ON METHANE PARTIAL OXIDATION AND REFORMING PROCESSES FOR LEAN NOX TRAP CATALYSIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lean NOx trap catalysis has demonstrated the ability to reduce NOx emissions from lean natural gas reciprocating engines by >90%. The technology operates in a cyclic fashion where NOx is trapped on the catalyst during lean operation and released and reduced to N2 under rich exhaust conditions; the rich cleansing operation of the cycle is referred to as "regeneration" since the catalyst is reactivated for more NOx trapping after NOx purge. Creating the rich exhaust conditions for regeneration can be accomplished by catalytic partial oxidation of methane in the exhaust system. Furthermore, catalytic reforming of partial oxidation exhaust can enable increased quantities of H2 which is an excellent reductant for lean NOx trap regeneration. It is critical to maintain clean and efficient partial oxidation and reforming processes to keep the lean NOx trap functioning properly and to reduce extra fuel consumption from the regeneration process. Although most exhaust constituents do not impede partial oxidation and reforming, some exhaust constituents may negatively affect the catalysts and result in loss of catalytic efficiency. Of particular concern are common catalyst poisons sulfur, zinc, and phosphorous. These poisons form in the exhaust through combustion of fuel and oil, and although they are present at low concentrations, they can accumulate to significant levels over the life of an engine system. In the work presented here, the effects of sulfur on the partial oxidation and reforming catalytic processes were studied to determine any durability limitations on the production of reductants for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Ponnusamy, Senthil [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

HYBRID SULFUR ELECROLYZER DEVELOPMENT, NHI WORK PACKAGE N-SR07TC0301, FY08 FIRST QUARTER REPORT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen has been identified as a leading candidate to replace petroleum as part of the transition to a sustainable energy system, and major efforts are being conducted worldwide to develop the technologies and supporting activities required for this transition. In the United States, the federal research efforts are led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program is an integrated inter-office program being conducted by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fossil Energy and Office of Science. The primary objective of the DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is to develop the nuclear hydrogen production technologies necessary to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with other alternative transportation fuels. The focus of the NHI is on thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with the primary responsibility to perform research and development in order to characterize, evaluate and develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) thermochemical process. The HyS Process uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to split water and produce hydrogen. During FY05 and FY06, SRNL designed and conducted proof-of-concept testing for a SDE using a low temperature, PEM fuel cell-type design concept. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint, characteristics that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. During FY07, SRNL extended the range of testing of the SDE to higher temperature and pressure, conducted a 100-hour longevity test, and designed and built a larger, multi-cell stack electrolyzer. The proof of concept of SO2 electrolysis for the HyS Process is a priority research target for the FY 2008 NHI Program. Technical options must be better defined and the challenges better understood. The current status of electrolyzer performance must be established by operation at elevated temperature (>90C) and pressure (>10 atmospheres) and during a long duration run (>100 hours). SRNL is pursuing the liquid-phase sulfur dioxide decoupled electrolyzer (SDE) option, which is the main focus of the NHI work. The rate of development of HyS will depend on the identification of a promising membrane or an alternative means for controlling sulfur formation at the cathode of the cell. SRNL will work with Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), universities, and industry to address this issue. Electrolyzers of larger size will be required as the process development proceeds, and SRNL will test a multi-cell stack that was built in FY 2007. Work will be initiated for a Hybrid Sulfur Integrated Laboratory-Scale (ILS) Experiment that will combine a SRNL electrolyzer with the sulfuric acid decomposer developed by SNL for the S-I ILS. A review will be held at mid-year, and if progress warrants, work will progress to the ILS level including ILS system design, electrolyzer fabrication and infrastructure development. Benchmarks to be considered include electrochemical efficiency, membrane durability, and minimization of SO2 crossover.

Summers, W

2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

396

Carbon Dioxide as Cushion Gas for Natural Gas Storage  

Carbon dioxide injection during carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery can be carried out to produce the methane while

397

Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gas Reduction Metallurgy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gas Reduction Metallurgy - 2011.

398

Novel Sulfur-Tolerant Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the unique advantages of SOFCs over other types of fuel cells is the potential for direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels (it may involve internal reforming). Unfortunately, most hydrocarbon fuels contain sulfur, which would dramatically degrade SOFC performance at parts-per-million (ppm) levels. Low concentration of sulfur (ppm or below) is difficult to remove efficiently and cost-effectively. Therefore, knowing the exact poisoning process for state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFCs with Ni-YSZ cermet anodes, understanding the detailed anode poisoning mechanism, and developing new sulfur-tolerant anodes are essential to the promotion of SOFCs that run on hydrocarbon fuels. The effect of cell operating conditions (including temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, cell voltage/current density, etc.) on sulfur poisoning and recovery of nickel-based anode in SOFCs was investigated. It was found that sulfur poisoning is more severe at lower temperature, higher H{sub 2}S concentration or lower cell current density (higher cell voltage). In-situ Raman spectroscopy identified the nickel sulfide formation process on the surface of a Ni-YSZ electrode and the corresponding morphology change as the sample was cooled in H{sub 2}S-containing fuel. Quantum chemical calculations predicted a new S-Ni phase diagram with a region of sulfur adsorption on Ni surfaces, corresponding to sulfur poisoning of Ni-YSZ anodes under typical SOFC operating conditions. Further, quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the adsorption energy and bond length for sulfur and hydrogen atoms on various metal surfaces. Surface modification of Ni-YSZ anode by thin Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} coating was utilized to enhance the sulfur tolerance. A multi-cell testing system was designed and constructed which is capable of simultaneously performing electrochemical tests of 12 button cells in fuels with four different concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Through systematical study of state-of-the-art anode-supported SOFC button cells, it is seen that the long-term sulfur poisoning behavior of those cells indicate that there might be a second-stage slower degradation due to sulfur poisoning, which would last for a thousand hour or even longer. However, when using G-18 sealant from PNNL, the 2nd stage poisoning was effectively prohibited.

Lei Yang; Meilin Liu

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

Manufacturing sector carbon dioxide emissions in nine OECD countries 1973--87: A Divisia index decomposition to changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, industry structure, energy intensities, and international structure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper the reduction in energy-related manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions for nine OECD countries in the period 1973 to 1987 is analyzed. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from energy use data. The emphasis is on carbon dioxide intensities, defined as emissions divided by value added. The overall manufacturing carbon dioxide intensity for the nine OECD countries was reduced by 42% in the period 1973--1987. Five fuels are specified together with six subsectors of manufacturing. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from fossil fuel consumption, employing emissions coefficients for gas, oil and solids. In addition, electricity consumption is specified. For electricity use an emission coefficient index is calculated from the shares of fossil fuels, nuclear power and hydro power used to generate electricity, and the efficiency in electricity generation from these energy sources. A Divisia index approach is used to sort out the contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity from different components. The major finding is that the main contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity is from the general reduction in manufacturing energy intensity, most likely driven by economic growth and increased energy prices, giving incentives to invest in new technology and new industrial processes. There is also a significant contribution from reduced production in the most carbon dioxide intensive subsectors, and a contribution from higher efficiency in electricity generation together with a larger nuclear power share at the expense of oil. 19 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

Torvanger, A. (Senter for Anvendt Forskning, Oslo (Norway) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Analysis for sulfur forms in coal and on coal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

A review and critical evaluation of all available literature on the determination of sulfur and sulfur forms in coal and on coal and pyrite surfaces is being performed. Approximately 200 citations through 1984 have been catalogued and reviewed, and approximately 100 additional citations since 1984 have been identified. Work is nearing completion on the collection and critical evaluation of the more recent literature. A few articles requested through the interlibrary loan system still need to be received and analyzed, and several articles in unusual foreign languages need to be evaluated. Methods used for sampling, sample preparation, and analysis of sulfur and sulfur forms in samples arising from the spherical oil agglomeration process have been reviewed. Recommendations are being made for assessing the quality of analyses provided by commercial laboratories, for assuring that preparation procedures do not alter sulfur forms in samples, and for determining the ability of sampling procedures to obtain representative samples. Several concerns about the applicability of the ASTM procedure for the determination of pyrite sulfur in micronized coal and oil-agglomerated samples have been raised. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Markuszewski, R.; Chriswell, C.D.; Norton, G.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

OBSERVATION Microbial Electrosynthesis: Feeding Microbes Electricity To Convert Carbon Dioxide and Water to Multicarbon Extracellular Organic Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The possibility of providing the acetogenic microorganism Sporomusa ovata with electrons delivered directly to the cells with a graphite electrode for the reduction of carbon dioxide to organic compounds was investigated. Biofilms of S. ovata growing on graphite cathode surfaces consumed electrons with the reduction of carbon dioxide to acetate and small amounts of 2-oxobutyrate. Electrons appearing in these products accounted for over 85 % of the electrons consumed. These results demonstrate that microbial production of multicarbon organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water with electricity as the energy source is feasible. IMPORTANCE Reducing carbon dioxide to multicarbon organic chemicals and fuels with electricity has been identified as an attractive strategy to convert solar energy that is harvested intermittently with photovoltaic technology and store it as covalent chemical bonds. The organic compounds produced can then be distributed via existing infrastructure. Nonbiological electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide has proven problematic. The results presented here suggest that microbiological catalysts may be a robust alternative, and when coupled with photovoltaics, current-driven microbial carbon dioxide reduction represents a new form of photosynthesis that might convert solar energy to organic products more effectively than traditional biomass-based strategies.

Kelly P. Nevin; Trevor L. Woodard; Ashley E. Franks; Zarath M. Summers; Derek R. Lovley

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Portions of a bench-scale model of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle have been operated at General Atomic Company as part of a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technology for hydrogen production from nonfossil sources. The hydrogen program is funded by the US Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, and General Atomic Company. The bench-scale model consists of three subunits which can be operated separately or together and is capable of producing as much as 4 std liters/min (6.7 x 10/sup -5/ m/sup 3//s at standard conditions) of gaseous hydrogen. One subunit (main solution reaction) reacts liquid water, liquid iodine (I/sub 2/) and gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) to form two separable liquid phases: 50 wt % sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) and a solution of iodine in hydriodic acid (HI/sub x/). Another subunit (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration and decomposition) concentrates the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ phase to the azeotropic composition, then decomposes it at high temperature over a catalyst to form gaseous SO/sub 2/ and oxygen. The third subunit (HI separation and decomposition) separates the HI from water and I/sub 2/ by extractive distillation with phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) and decomposes the HI in the vapor phase over a catalyst to form I/sub 2/ and product hydrogen. This paper presents the results of on-going parametric studies to determine the operating characteristics, performance, and capacity limitations of major components.

O'Keefe, D.; Allen, C.; Besenbruch, G.; McCorkle, K.; Norman, J.; Sharp, R.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Cation Adsorption on Manganese Dioxide Impregnated Fibers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The complete removal of radioactive cations by standard mixed-bed ion-exchange resins is sometimes not achieved in liquid radwaste systems. This report documents an alternative ion adsorption process for the purification of liquid wastes, specifically, the use of manganese dioxide (MnO2) impregnated fibers to remove selected cations from PWR liquid waste streams.

1993-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

404

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

406

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Anderson, SC)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Recovery Act: Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Water Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsion for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) distributed a portion of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds to advance technologies for chemical conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) captured from industrial sources. The focus of the research projects is permanent sequestration of CO 2 through mineralization or development

408

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of part of the mixed collected waste gas from the sinterEOS), part of the mixed collected waste gas from the whole

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transmission, and distribution of electricity used toelectricity supply, generation efficiency, dispatch, transmission and distribution,and distribution losses associated with the electricity used

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

incentive polices for the use of electric arc furnace steel production, encourage the use of natural gas

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

blending of additives in cement production, and reduction of coalblending of additives in cement production, and reduction of coal

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

preferences, energy and technology costs, settlement andof Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).and MAIN. 1993. Energy Technology in the Cement Industrial

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+ Nuclear + Renewable + Hydro Power Sector Total CO 2renewable plus hydro and nuclear power) increase their shareHydro + Renewable + Nuclear Base SO2 Control Accelerated SO2 Control Total Power

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Breeze Other Net Electricity Residual Fuel Oil DistillateFuel Oil Coal used for coking Natural Gas Coal used as fuelSolar Biomass and other Renew Oil Fired Units Hydropower NG

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

steel, and power sectors to 2030 in China. An integratedSO 2 emissions reductions in 2030 of 0.16 Mt SO 2 and annual2 emissions reductions in 2030 of 1.3 Mt SO 2 and annual CO

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

possible. Thus, cost-effective energy efficiency and CO 2Costs and O&M Costs of Energy-Efficiency Measures for themaintenance (O&M) costs for 34 energy-efficiency measures

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CDQ) Programmed heating Coke oven gas (COG) Variable speedheating, and cooling) in pelletization, and coke ovenheating, and cooling) in pelletization, and coke oven

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water outflow of the steam turbine condenser. Due to theHigh-temperature CHP Steam expansion turbine Combined CycleNatural gas expansion turbine Steam Distribution System

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Remediation of chromium(VI) in the vadose zone: stoichiometry and kinetics of chromium(VI) reduction by sulfur dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Immobilization and detoxification of chromium in the vadose zone is made possible by the existence of an effective reductant, SO2, that exists in a gaseous form at room temperature. Experimental studies were designed to characterize stoichiometry and kinetics of chromium reduction both in aqueous solutions at pH values near neutrality and in soil. First, batch experiments and elemental analyses were conducted to characterize the stoichiometry and kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction in water. The stoichiometric ratio of S(IV) removed to Cr(VI) removed ranged between 1.6 and 1.8. The overall reaction is believed to be the result of a linear combination of two reactions in which dithionate is an intermediate and sulfate is the stable oxidized product. The reaction was also rapid, with the half-time of about 45 minutes at pH 6 and about 16 hours at pH 7. A two-step kinetic model was developed to describe changes in concentrations of Cr(VI), S(IV), and S(V). Nonlinear regression was applied to obtain the kinetic parameters. The rate of reaction was assumed to be second-order with respect to [Cr(VI)] and first-order with respect to [S(IV)], and [S(V)]. The values for the rate coefficient for the first reaction (k1) were found to be 4.5 (?10%), 0.25 (?9.4%) (mM-2h-1) at pH 6 and 7, respectively. The values of the rate coefficient for the second reaction (k2) were 25 (?29%), 1.1 (? 30%) (mM-2h-1) at pH 6 and 7, respectively. The reaction rate decreased as pH increased. Experiments showed that the rate at pH 7 was lower than that at pH 6 by one order of magnitude. Second, batch experiments and elemental analyses were conducted to characterize the stoichiometry and kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction in soil. The stoichiometric ratio of S(IV) removed to Cr(VI) removed was almost 2, which is slightly higher than that for the reaction in water. This higher value may be due to S(IV) oxidation by soil-derived Fe(III). The reaction was rapid, with the half-time less than 2 minutes, which is faster than in water. The rate coefficients, k1 and k2, were 22 (?41%) and 13 (?77%) (M-2h-1), respectively.

Ahn, Min

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bridge scraper or bucket wheel reclaimer or a circular pre-store with bridge scraper reclaimer for pre- blending (pre-

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "reduce sulfur dioxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

china_mitigation_power_generation_sector.pdf Asia PacificEssentials: Biomass for Power Generation and CHP. AvailableWaste Heat Recovery and Power Generation Project in Shandong

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas expansion turbine Steam Distribution System Energy-Shutting of steam traps Reduction of distribution pipe leaksoff excess distribution lines Checking and monitoring steam

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy consumption of fossil fuels, as well as from non-and utilization of non-fossil fuel generation includingsolar capacity. Non-fossil fuels (renewable plus hydro and

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Board of China Iron and Steel Industry Yearbook (EBCISIY).Years. China Iron and Steel Industry Yearbook. Beijing,for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

which is sprayed in a spray tower. The absorbent is calciumindustry, all of them spray towers. The slurry is sprayed inabsorbing SO 2 in a spray tower with a calcium (Ca or

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PA. Wen. , L. 2007. Any Coal Combustion Needs to Have SO 2of Multiple Pollutants in Coal Fired Power Plants in China.the energy performance of coal fired power plants with post-

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steel Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and PlantAn ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers.

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Accelerating Small Coal-fired Plants Closures from NDRC.Accelerating Small Coal- fired Plants Closures. January 20,Situation on 2007 Small Coal-fired Plants Closures. August

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Method of detecting sulfur dioxide. [DOE patent application; 1,1,1-trimethyl-N-sulfinyl silanamine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

(CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiNSO is produced by the reaction of ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/NH with SO/sub 2/. Also produced in the reaction are ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/O and a new solid compound (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/). Both (C/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiNSO and (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/) have fluorescent properties. The reaction of the subject invention is used in a method of measuring the concentration of SO/sub 2/ pollutants in gases. By the method, a sample of gas is bubbled through a solution of ((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/Si)/sub 2/NH, whereby any SO/sub 2/ present in the gas will react to produce the two fluorescent products. The measured fluorescence of these products can then be used to calculate the concentration of SO/sub 2/ in the original gas sample. The solid product (NH/sub 4/)((CH/sub 3/)/sub 3/SiOSO/sub 2/) may be used as a standard in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

Spicer, L.D.; Bennett, D.W.; Davis, J.F.

1981-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

430

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

further reduction. Biomass co-firing is a proven technology.retrofitted to accommodate co-firing with limited impacts onthere is much more to co-firing than simply adding a

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power factor correction Rewinding of motors Minimizing voltage unbalances Pump Systems Operation and maintenance Adjustable speed drives (ASDs) Monitoring Avoiding throttling valves Controls

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Steel Industry, 2006 Imported Coke and Breeze Other Netconversion (e.g. from coal to coke) within the industry isdirect use of coal and coke but rising electricity demand (

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity Council. 2010. Smart Grid Snapshot: China Topswww.zpryme.com/reports/smart_grid_snapshot_global_and_china%$200 million more than federal smart grid investments in the

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE  

SciTech Connect

A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Management Opportunities for Enhancing Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide Sinks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential for mitigating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through the use of terrestrial biological carbon (C) sequestration is substantial. Here, we estimate the amount of C being sequestered by natural processes at global, North American, and national US scales. We present and quantify, where possible, the potential for deliberate human actions through forestry, agriculture, and use of biomass-based fuels to augment these natural sinks. Carbon sequestration may potentially be achieved through some of these activities but at the expense of substantial changes in land-use management. Some practices (eg reduced tillage, improved silviculture, woody bioenergy crops) are already being implemented because of their economic benefits and associated ecosystem services. Given their cumulative greenhouse-gas impacts, other strategies (eg the use of biochar and cellulosic bioenergy crops) require further evaluation to determine whether widespread implementation is warranted.

Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, Tristram O.; Liebig, Mark A.; King, Anthony W.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Proceedings: 2005 EPRI/ANL/NRC Workshop on Effects of Lead (Pb) and Sulfur (S) on the Performance of Secondary Side Tubing of Steam Generators in PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This workshop reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of lead and reduced sulfur species on the occurrence of intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) on the secondary sides of PWR steam generators and discussed possible strategies for mitigating this IGA/SCC.

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

437

Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key partsa positive and negative electrode and an electrolytethat exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a batterys chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage Project Summary Full Title: Techno-Economic Models for Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity Project ID: 195 Principal Investigator: David McCollum Brief Description: This project addresses several components of carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs, provides technical models for determining the engineering and infrastructure requirements of CCS, and describes some correlations for estimating CO2 density and viscosity. Keywords: Pipeline, transportation, greenhouse gases (GHG), costs, technoeconomic analysis Purpose Estimate costs of carbon dioxide capture, compression, transport, storage, etc., and provide some technical models for determining the engineering and

439

Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of supermarkets can be reached by the combination of several innovative components and the continuous optimization of their operation. A German food retail chain developed a new supermarket concept combining several innovative solutions for the refrigeration, lighting and heating/ventilation with the goal to reduce the energy consumption by about 30% compared to a standard subsidiary. A highly insulated building envelope, the use of daylight and covered refrigeration units contribute jointly to reach the goals. The key component of the concept is a carbon dioxide refrigeration plant with waste heat recovery. To reduce the efficiency losses in supercritical operation, carbon dioxide is cooled through a borehole heat exchanger using the ground as a heat sink. In the paper the design concept, the results of simulation studies and of the first monitoring year are presented and discussed.

Rehault, N.; Kalz, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Hybrid Sulfur Thermochemical Process Development Annual Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Thermochemical Process is a means of producing hydrogen via water-splitting through a combination of chemical reactions and electrochemistry. Energy is supplied to the system as high temperature heat (approximately 900 C) and electricity. Advanced nuclear reactors (Generation IV) or central solar receivers can be the source of the primary energy. Large-scale hydrogen production based on this process could be a major contributor to meeting the needs of a hydrogen economy. This project's objectives include optimization of the HyS process design, analysis of technical issues and concerns, creation of a development plan, and laboratory-scale proof-of-concept testing. The key component of the HyS Process is the SO2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Studies were performed that showed that an electrolyzer operating in the range of 500-600 mV per cell can lead to an overall HyS cycle efficiency in excess of 50%, which is superior to all other currently proposed thermochemical cycles. Economic analysis indicated hydrogen production costs of approximately $1.60 per kilogram for a mature nuclear hydrogen production plant. However, in order to meet commercialization goals, the electrolyzer should be capable of operating at high current density, have a long operating lifetime , and have an acceptable capital cost. The use of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) technology, which leverages work for the development of PEM fuel cells, was selected as the most promising route to meeting these goals. The major accomplishments of this project were the design and construction of a suitable electrolyzer test facility and the proof-of-concept testing of a PEM-based SDE.

Summers, William A.; Buckner, Melvin R.

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Program on Technology Innovation: Drying of Low-Rank Coal with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Technology Innovation Program to assess the potential to achieve increased process efficiency and reduced capital cost by drying low-rank coal with supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). This study follows the EPRI report Program on Technology Innovation: Assessment of the Applicability of Drying Low-Rank Coal With Supercritical Carbon Dioxide in IGCC Plants (1016216), which concluded that this system has potential benefits with respect to...

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

442

SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative

443

International Energy Outlook 2006 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 7: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect patterns of energy use around the world and alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Figure 65. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 66. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1980-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the

444

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2010 Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2007, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 17 percent. In the IEO2010 Reference case, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from non-OECD countries in 2035 are about double those from OECD countries. Overview Because anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, world energy use continues to be at the center of the climate change debate. In the IEO2010 Reference case, world energy-related carbon dioxide emissions29 grow from 29.7 billion metric tons in 2007 to 33.8 billion metric tons in 2020 and 42.4 billion metric tons in 2035 (Table 18).30

445

Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent. Final report, [September 1989--1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The studies had as original objective the analysis of conditions for using liquid iron oxysulfide as a desulfuring agent during coal gasification. Ancillary was a comparison of iron oxysulfide with lime as sorbents under conditions where lime reacts with S-bearing gases to form Ca sulfate or sulfide. Primary thrust is to determine the thermodynamic requirements for desulfurization by iron additions (e.g., taconite concentrate) during combustion in gasifiers operating at high equivalence ratios. Thermodynamic analysis of lime-oxygen-sulfur system shows why lime is injected into burners under oxidizing conditions; reducing conditions forms CaS, requiring its removal, otherwise oxidation and release of S would occur. Iron as the oxysulfide liquid has a range of stability and can be used as a desulfurizing agent, if the burner/gasifier operates in a sufficiently reducing regime (high equivalence ratio); this operating range is given and is calculable for a coal composition, temperature, stoichiometry. High moisture or hydrogen contents of the coal yield a poorer degree of desulfurization. Kinetic tests on individual iron oxide particles on substrates or Pt cups with a TGA apparatus fail to predict reaction rates within a burner. Preliminary tests on the Dynamic Containment Burner with acetylene give some promise that this system can produce the proper conditions of coal gasification for use of added iron as a sulfur sorbent.

Hepworth, M.T.

1993-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

446

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Breon, F.-M. [CEA/DSM/LSCE, Gif sur Yvette, France; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Davis, S. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Erickson, D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gregg, J. S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Marland, Gregg [Appalachian State University; Miller, J. [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Oda, T [NOAA ESRL/Boulder, CO/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State Univ.; Oliver, J. G. J. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Raupach, Michael [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Rayner, P [University of Melbourne, Australia; Treanton, K. [Energy Statistics Division, International Energy Agency, Paris, France

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z