National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for reduce peak demand

  1. THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-49947 THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND? ..................................... 8 What are the seasonal aspects of electric peak demand?............................ 9 What because of the California electricity crisis (Borenstein 2001). Uncertainties surrounding the reliability

  2. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in-home displays, programmable communicating thermostats, and access to a web portal (http:www.myOGEpower.com). The study measures demand reductions by customers during...

  3. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  4. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND Jonathan Koomey* andData to Improve Electricity Demand Forecasts–Final Report.further research. Electricity demand varies constantly. At

  5. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-09-01

    Peak power demand issues have come to the fore recently because of the California electricity crisis. Uncertainties surrounding the reliability of electric power systems in restructured markets as well as security worries are the latest reasons for such concerns, but the issues surrounding peak demand are as old as the electric utility system itself. The long lead times associated with building new capacity, the lack of price response in the face of time-varying costs, the large difference between peak demand and average demand, and the necessity for real-time delivery of electricity all make the connection between system peak demand and system reliability an important driver of public policy in the electric utility sector. This exploratory option paper was written at the request of Jerry Dion at the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE). It is one of several white papers commissioned in 2002 exploring key issues of relevance to DOE. This paper explores policy-relevant issues surrounding peak demand, to help guide DOE's research efforts in this area. The findings of this paper are as follows. In the short run, DOE funding of deployment activities on peak demand can help society achieve a more economically efficient balance between investments in supply and demand-side technologies. DOE policies can promote implementation of key technologies to ameliorate peak demand, through government purchasing, technology demonstrations, and improvements in test procedures, efficiency standards, and labeling programs. In the long run, R&D is probably the most important single leverage point for DOE to influence the peak demand issue. Technologies for time-varying price response hold great potential for radically altering the way people use electricity in buildings, but are decades away from widespread use, so DOE R&D and expertise can make a real difference here.

  6. Reducing Residential Peak Electricity Demand with Mechanical Pre-Cooling of Building Thermal Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, Will; Walker, Iain; Roux, Jordan

    2014-08-01

    This study uses an advanced airflow, energy and humidity modelling tool to evaluate the potential for residential mechanical pre-cooling of building thermal mass to shift electricity loads away from the peak electricity demand period. The focus of this study is residential buildings with low thermal mass, such as timber-frame houses typical to the US. Simulations were performed for homes in 12 US DOE climate zones. The results show that the effectiveness of mechanical pre-cooling is highly dependent on climate zone and the selected pre-cooling strategy. The expected energy trade-off between cooling peak energy savings and increased off-peak energy use is also shown.

  7. Optimization of Demand Response Through Peak Shaving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jul 5, 2013 ... Optimization of Demand Response Through Peak Shaving. G. Zakeri(g.zakeri *** at*** auckland.ac.nz) D. Craigie(David.Craigie ***at*** ...

  8. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developingin reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annualwill drive total electricity demand significantly above

  9. Optimization of Demand Response Through Peak Shaving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-06-19

    Jun 19, 2013 ... efficient linear programming formulation for the demand response of such a consumer who could be a price taker, industrial or commercial user ...

  10. Optimization of Demand Response Through Peak Shaving , D. Craigie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, Michael J.

    Optimization of Demand Response Through Peak Shaving G. Zakeri , D. Craigie , A. Philpott , M. Todd for the demand response of such a consumer. We will establish a monotonicity result that indicates fuel supply

  11. Scalable Scheduling of Building Control Systems for Peak Demand Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappas, George J.

    price for their maximum demand to discourage their energy usage in peak load conditions. In buildings of Pennsylvania {nghiem, mbehl, rahulm, pappasg}@seas.upenn.edu Abstract-- In large energy systems, peak demand might cause severe issues such as service disruption and high cost of energy production and distribution

  12. Smoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    % of the nation's total electricity consumption. Unfortunately, due to inefficient energy consumption patternSmoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid Shaojie Tang , Qiuyuan Huang of Software, TNLIST, Tsinghua University Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University

  13. Storing hydroelectricity to meet peak-hour demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenti, M.

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports on pumped storage plants which have become an effective way for some utility companies that derive power from hydroelectric facilities to economically store baseload energy during off-peak hours for use during peak hourly demands. According to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in Palo Alto, Calif., 36 of these plants provide approximately 20 gigawatts, or about 3 percent of U.S. generating capacity. During peak-demand periods, utilities are often stretched beyond their capacity to provide power and must therefore purchase it from neighboring utilities. Building new baseload power plants, typically nuclear or coal-fired facilities that run 24 hours per day seven days a week, is expensive, about $1500 per kilowatt, according to Robert Schainker, program manager for energy storage at the EPRI. Schainker the that building peaking plants at $400 per kilowatt, which run a few hours a day on gas or oil fuel, is less costly than building baseload plants. Operating them, however, is more expensive because peaking plants are less efficient that baseload plants.

  14. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search...

  15. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    This paper reports on the potential impact of demand response (DR) strategies in commercial buildings in California based on the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypes for office and retail buildings. The study describes the potential impact of building size, thermal mass, climate, and DR strategies on demand savings in commercial buildings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate how these factors influence the demand shift and shed during the peak period. The whole-building peak demand of a commercial building with high thermal mass in a hot climate zone can be reduced by 30percent using an optimized demand response strategy. Results are summarized for various simulation scenarios designed to help owners and managers understand the potential savings for demand response deployment. Simulated demand savings under various scenarios were compared to field-measured data in numerous climate zones, allowing calibration of the prototype models. The simulation results are compared to the peak demand data from the Commercial End-Use Survey for commercial buildings in California. On the economic side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic savings for different thermal mass and climate conditions. Our comparison of recent simulation to field test results provides an understanding of the DR potential in commercial buildings.

  16. Evidence is growing on demand side of an oil peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    After years of continued growth, the number of miles driven by Americans started falling in December 2007. Not only are the number of miles driven falling, but as cars become more fuel efficient, they go further on fewer gallons - further reducing demand for gasoline. This trend is expected to accelerate. Drivers include, along with higher-efficiency cars, mass transit, reversal in urban sprawl, biofuels, and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  17. Exploring Power-Voltage Relationship for Distributed Peak Demand Flattening in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adali, Tulay

    Exploring Power-Voltage Relationship for Distributed Peak Demand Flattening in Microgrids Zhichuan energy storage units in microgrids, how to regulate peak demand is one of the main challenges. Thus, it is possible that peak demand of the microgrid would not be flattened but only shifted to another period

  18. Industrial-Load-Shaping: The Practice of and Prospects for Utility/Industry Cooperation to Manage Peak Electricity Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bules, D. J.; Rubin, D. E.; Maniates, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    -LOAD-SHAPI1IG: TIlE PRACTICE OF AND PROSPECTS FOR UTILITY/INDUSTRY COOPERATION TO MAUGE PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND Donald J. BuIes and David E. Rubin Consultants, Pacific Gas and Electric Company San Francisco, California Michael F. Maniates Energy... and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, California ABSTRACT Load-management programs designed to reduce demand for electricity during peak periods are becoming increasingly important to electric utilities. For a gf'owing number...

  19. SmartCap: Flattening Peak Electricity Demand in Smart Homes Sean Barker, Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant Shenoy, and Jeannie Albrecht

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    SmartCap: Flattening Peak Electricity Demand in Smart Homes Sean Barker, Aditya Mishra, David Irwin--Flattening household electricity demand reduces generation costs, since costs are disproportionately affected by peak demands. While the vast majority of household electrical loads are interactive and have little scheduling

  20. Data Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via Workload Shifting and Local Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    Data Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via Workload Shifting and Local facilities. In this extended abstract we briefly de- scribe recent work in [1] on two demand response schemes Keywords Demand response, coincident peak pricing, data center, work- load shifting, online algorithm 1

  1. Monitoring System Used to Identify, Track and Allocate Peak Demand Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    , it was clear that the percentage contribution by department or area to the plant's peak demand was not the same as that assigned based solely upon consumption. With a monthly peak exceeding 8 MW and peak demand charges accounting for more than 60...

  2. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Building Codes Project for the 2013 Building...

  3. Social Networking Reduces Peak Power Consumption in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    in buildings represents approximately 74% of the nation's electricity consumption [1]. However, electricity the peak power consumption of schedulable jobs of electrical appliances of users under de- lay requirements1 Social Networking Reduces Peak Power Consumption in Smart Grid Qiuyuan Huang, Xin Li, Jing Zhao

  4. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6280E A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 2 Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial

  5. Demand Response and Peak Load Management; Programs, Products and Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, A.

    2015-01-01

    Management: Programs, Products, and Technology IETC 2015 ESL-IE-15-06-13 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 2Supply & Demand Power Demand Grid Stability Reliability Risk Price Availability... ESL-IE-15-06-13 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 What Should We Expect? 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 5 2 0 1 6 2 0 1 7 2 0 1 8 2 0 1 9 2 0...

  6. (2013) 128 Data Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    2013-01-01

    (2013) 1­28 Data Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via Workload Shifting.chen@hp.com Abstract Demand response is a crucial aspect of the future smart grid. It has the potential to provide centers' participation in demand response is becoming increasingly important given their high

  7. Peak demand reduction from pre-cooling with zone temperature reset in an office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Braun, James

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential for reducing peak-period electrical demand in moderate-weight commercial buildings by modifying the control of the HVAC system. An 80,000 ft{sup 2} office building with a medium-weight building structure and high window-to-wall ratio was used for a case study in which zone temperature set-points were adjusted prior to and during occupancy. HVAC performance data and zone temperatures were recorded using the building control system. Additional operative temperature sensors for selected zones and power meters for the chillers and the AHU fans were installed for the study. An energy performance baseline was constructed from data collected during normal operation. Two strategies for demand shifting using the building thermal mass were then programmed in the control system and implemented progressively over a period of one month. It was found that a simple demand limiting strategy performed well in this building. This strategy involved maintaining zone temperatures at the lower end of the comfort region during the occupied period up until 2 pm. Starting at 2 pm, the zone temperatures were allowed to float to the high end of the comfort region. With this strategy, the chiller power was reduced by 80-100% (1-2.3 W/ft{sup 2}) during normal peak hours from 2-5 pm, without causing any thermal comfort complaints. The effects on the demand from 2-5 pm of the inclusion of pre-cooling prior to occupancy are unclear.

  8. Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Braun, James

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential for reducing peak-period electrical demand in moderate-weight commercial buildings by modifying the control of the HVAC system. An 80,000 ft{sup 2} office building with a medium-weight building structure and high window-to-wall ratio was used for a case study in which zone temperature set-points were adjusted prior to and during occupancy. HVAC performance data and zone temperatures were recorded using the building control system. Additional operative temperature sensors for selected zones and power meters for the chillers and the AHU fans were installed for the study. An energy performance baseline was constructed from data collected during normal operation. Two strategies for demand shifting using the building thermal mass were then programmed in the control system and implemented progressively over a period of one month. It was found that a simple demand limiting strategy performed well in this building. This strategy involved maintaining zone temperatures at the lower end of the comfort region during the occupied period up until 2 pm. Starting at 2 pm, the zone temperatures were allowed to float to the high end of the comfort region. With this strategy, the chiller power was reduced by 80-100% (1-2.3 W/ft{sup 2}) during normal peak hours from 2-5 pm, without causing any thermal comfort complaints. The effects on the demand from 2-5 pm of the inclusion of pre-cooling prior to occupancy are unclear.

  9. Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    electricity. The benefits of microgrids are however a two-customer-operated microgrids can potentially reduce theIf the utility expects microgrids like SRJ to engage in this

  10. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic response (DR) is a process of managing customer consumption of electricity in response to supply conditions to reduce electricity costs or improve electrical system reliability. Generally, DR refers to mechanisms

  11. Electrical Energy Conservation and Peak Demand Reduction Potential for Buildings in Texas: Preliminary Results 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunn, B. D.; Baughman, M. L.; Silver, S. C.; Rosenfeld, A. H.; Akbari, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study of electrical energy conservation and peak demand reduction potential for the building sector in Texas. Starting from 1980 building stocks and energy use characteristics, technical conservation...

  12. How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the past 12 months designated in the database (LADWP does this) Home > Groups > Utility Rate Submitted by Marcroper on 11...

  13. The Impact of Residential Air Conditioner Charging and Sizing on Peak Electrical Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neal, L.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    of Residential Air Conditioner Charging and Sizing on Peak Electrical Demand Leon Neal North Carolina Alternate Energy Corporation Research Triangle Park, N.C. ABSTRACT Electric utilities have had a number of air conditioner rebate and maintenance... of the equipment), system sizing, and efficiency on the steady-state, coincident peak utility demand of a residential central air conditioning system. The study is based on the results of laboratory tests of a three-ton, capillary tube expansion, split...

  14. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability onThermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak- demandemployer. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand

  15. (2013) 128 Data Center Demand Response: Avoiding the Coincident Peak via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    significant peak demand reduction and to ease the incorporation of renewable energy into the grid. Data has the potential to significantly ease the adoption of renewable energy into the grid. Data centers.chen@hp.com Abstract Demand response is a crucial aspect of the future smart grid. It has the potential to provide

  16. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    reduction of peak electricity demand, and percentage savingsvariables and monthly electricity demand. Applied Energychanges of peak electricity demand. (a) large office, 90.1-

  17. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photo of homes in Premier Gardens. As the housing market continues to evolve toward zero net-energy ready homes, Building America research has provided essential guidance for...

  18. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7,DOERTI |Service ofConditioning Filter | Department

  19. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  20. Methods and apparatus for reducing peak wind turbine loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2007-02-13

    A method for reducing peak loads of wind turbines in a changing wind environment includes measuring or estimating an instantaneous wind speed and direction at the wind turbine and determining a yaw error of the wind turbine relative to the measured instantaneous wind direction. The method further includes comparing the yaw error to a yaw error trigger that has different values at different wind speeds and shutting down the wind turbine when the yaw error exceeds the yaw error trigger corresponding to the measured or estimated instantaneous wind speed.

  1. Duct Leakage Impacts on Airtightness, Infiltration, and Peak Electrical Demand in Florida Homes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, J. B.; Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N.

    1990-01-01

    (ACHSO). When the duct registers were sealed, ACHSO decreased to 11.04, indicating that 12.2% of the house leaks were in the duct system. Duct leaks have a dramatic impact upon peak electrical demand. Based on theoretical analysis, a fifteen percent...

  2. Phase-Change Frame Walls (PCFWs) for Peak Demand Reduction, Load Shifting, Energy Conservation and Comfort 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, M.; Stewart, R.

    2008-01-01

    of the wall via the high latent heats of the PCMs. The main goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of using PCFWs for peak air conditioning demand reduction, thermal load shifting, energy conservation, and thermal comfort. The results showed...

  3. The Influence of Air-Conditioning Efficiency in the Peak Load Demand for Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    A model co-relating the peak load demand of a utility with the allowable power rating (PR) of air-conditioning (AC) systems has been developed in this paper through a well defined methodology. The model is capable to predict the extent of allowable...

  4. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2013-06-02

    In much of the developed world, air-conditioning in buildings is the dominant driver of summer peak electricity demand. In the developing world a steadily increasing utilization of air-conditioning places additional strain on already-congested grids. This common thread represents a large and growing threat to the reliable delivery of electricity around the world, requiring capital-intensive expansion of capacity and draining available investment resources. Thermal energy storage (TES), in the form of ice or chilled water, may be one of the few technologies currently capable of mitigating this problem cost effectively and at scale. The installation of TES capacity allows a building to meet its on-peak air conditioning load without interruption using electricity purchased off-peak and operating with improved thermodynamic efficiency. In this way, TES has the potential to fundamentally alter consumption dynamics and reduce impacts of air conditioning. This investigation presents a simulation study of a large office building in four distinct geographical contexts: Miami, Lisbon, Shanghai, and Mumbai. The optimization tool DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model) is applied to optimally size TES systems for each location. Summer load profiles are investigated to assess the effectiveness and consistency in reducing peak electricity demand. Additionally, annual energy requirements are used to determine system cost feasibility, payback periods and customer savings under local utility tariffs.

  5. Abstract--This paper formulates and develops a peak demand control tool for electric systems within the framework of direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    techniques. Index Terms--Demand Side Management, direct load control, peak demand control, genetic algorithms in order to evaluate the suitability of the decision chosen. Demand Side Management (DSM) plans attempt of application has been developed in the field of demand management; however, the high energy consumption growth

  6. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  7. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. MethodologyImpacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. MethodologyFigure 3: Commercial electricity demand with and without the

  8. Strategies for reducing energy demand in the materials sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahni, Sahil

    2013-01-01

    This research answers a key question - can the materials sector reduce its energy demand by 50% by 2050? Five primary materials of steel, cement, aluminum, paper, and plastic, contribute to 50% or more of the final energy ...

  9. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to perform detailed hourly impact studies of building adaptation and mitigation strategies on energy use and electricity peak demand within the context of the entire grid and economy.

  11. AVTA: EVSE Charging Protocol for On and Off-Peak Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is a description of development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off and on-peak demand economics at facilities, as informed by the AVTA's testing on plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  12. Reducing Electricity Demand Charge for Data Centers with Partial Execution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Reducing Electricity Demand Charge for Data Centers with Partial Execution Hong Xu Department Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada bli@eecg.toronto.edu ABSTRACT Data centers consume a large amount of energy and incur substantial electricity cost

  13. Testing of peak demand limiting using thermal mass at a small commercial building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Braun, James E; Fredrickson, Steve; Konis, Kyle; Arens, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Submitted to the: Demand Response Research Center Preparedat Berkeley July 2007 Demand Response Research Center, Julywas coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

  14. Influence of Air Conditioner Operation on Electricity Use and Peak Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGarity, A. E.; Feuermann, D.; Kempton, W.; Norford, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Electricity demand due to occupant controlled room air conditioners in a large mater-metered apartment building is analyzed. Hourly data on the electric demand of the building and of individual air conditioners are used in analyses of annual...

  15. Dynamic Control of Electricity Cost with Power Demand Smoothing and Peak Shaving for Distributed Internet Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, A.K.M. Ashikur

    Dynamic Control of Electricity Cost with Power Demand Smoothing and Peak Shaving for Distributed a major part of their running costs. Modern electric power grid provides a feasible way to dynamically and efficiently manage the electricity cost of distributed IDCs based on the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP

  16. Testing of peak demand limiting using thermal mass at a small commercial building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Braun, James E; Fredrickson, Steve; Konis, Kyle; Arens, Edward

    2007-01-01

    5 Air Conditioningresults showed a peak air conditioning power reduction ofuc/item/19p737k1 Air Conditioning Equipment The HVAC

  17. Factors Influencing Water Heating Energy Use and Peak Demand in a Large Scale Residential Monitoring Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchelle, M. P.; Parker, D. S.; Anello, M. T.

    2000-01-01

    , as well as obtain improved appliance energy consumption indexes and load profiles. A portion of the monitoring measures water heater energy use and demand in each home on a 15-minute basis....

  18. Potential For Energy, Peak Demand, and Water Savings in California Tomato Processing Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trueblood, A. J.; Wu, Y. Y.; Ganji, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato processing is a major component of California's food industry. Tomato processing is extremely energy intensive, with the processing season coinciding with the local electrical utility peak period. Significant savings are possible...

  19. Facility Scale Energy Storage for Peak Deman Management and Demand Response 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remillard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 1. Introduction 2. Definitions and key terminology 3. Facility scale value streams 4. Energy storage technologies 5. Technical and market barriers AGENDA ESL-IE-15-06-12a Proceedings of the Thrity...-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 ?To ensure power quality and level demand ? For integration of renewable generation Incentives ? NYSERDA and Con Edison ? $2,100/kW for batteries ? PG&E ? $1,620/kW for advanced energy...

  20. Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response Wei Zhang, Jianming Lian, Chin-Yao Chang, Karanjit Kalsi and Yannan Sun Abstract-- Demand Response is playing population of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness

  1. Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...

  2. Method and apparatus for reducing rotor blade deflections, loads, and/or peak rotational speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-17

    A method for reducing at least one of loads, deflections of rotor blades, or peak rotational speed of a wind turbine includes storing recent historical pitch related data, wind related data, or both. The stored recent historical data is analyzed to determine at least one of whether rapid pitching is occurring or whether wind speed decreases are occurring. A minimum pitch, a pitch rate limit, or both are imposed on pitch angle controls of the rotor blades conditioned upon results of the analysis.

  3. Peak-Coincident Demand Savings from Behavior-Based Programs: Evidence from PPL Electric's Behavior and Education Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, James

    2013-01-01

    hours caused by residential demand for air conditioning. Airto those of other residential demand-response programs?11 Most residential demand response programs fall into one

  4. A Power Scheduling Game for Reducing the Peak Demand of Residential Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    users select the cheapest time slots (minimizing their daily bill) while satisfying their energy. INTRODUCTION The electricity generation, distribution and consumption are in the throes of change due challenges that have emerged in electric systems. One of the most relevant challenges associated

  5. OG&E Uses Time-Based Rate Program to Reduce Peak Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOEDepartmentNew2008Group, Inc. Order(National4,

  6. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartmentHigh-EfficiencyPatrickMaterials forRancho

  7. Implementation and Evaluation of an On-Demand Parameter-Passing Strategy for Reducing Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    Implementation and Evaluation of an On-Demand Parameter-Passing Strategy for Reducing Energy M Abstract In this paper, we present an energy-aware parameter- passing strategy called on-demand parameter UMIST Manchester M60 1QD, UK W.Zhang CSE Department Penn State University University Park, PA, 16802

  8. Peak-Coincident Demand Savings from Behavior-Based Programs: Evidence from PPL Electric's Behavior and Education Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, James

    2013-01-01

    peak loads such as air conditioning. 1 The total peak loadand evenings when air conditioning loads are high. All ofelectric heat and air conditioning; (3) a complete monthly

  9. Method for reducing peak phase current and decreasing staring time for an internal combustion engine having an induction machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amey, David L. (Birmingham, MI); Degner, Michael W. (Farmington Hills, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A method for reducing the starting time and reducing the peak phase currents for an internal combustion engine that is started using an induction machine starter/alternator. The starting time is reduced by pre-fluxing the induction machine and the peak phase currents are reduced by reducing the flux current command after a predetermined period of time has elapsed and concurrent to the application of the torque current command. The method of the present invention also provides a strategy for anticipating the start command for an internal combustion engine and determines a start strategy based on the start command and the operating state of the internal combustion engine.

  10. Electrical Demand Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fetters, J. L.; Teets, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Demand Management Plan set forth in this paper has proven to be a viable action to reduce a 3 million per year electric bill at the Columbus Works location of Western Electric. Measures are outlined which have reduced the peak demand 5% below...

  11. Program Design Analysis using BEopt Building Energy Optimization Software: Defining a Technology Pathway Leading to New Homes with Zero Peak Cooling Demand; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.; Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2006-08-01

    An optimization method based on the evaluation of a broad range of different combinations of specific energy efficiency and renewable-energy options is used to determine the least-cost pathway to the development of new homes with zero peak cooling demand. The optimization approach conducts a sequential search of a large number of possible option combinations and uses the most cost-effective alternatives to generate a least-cost curve to achieve home-performance levels ranging from a Title 24-compliant home to a home that uses zero net source energy on an annual basis. By evaluating peak cooling load reductions on the least-cost curve, it is then possible to determine the most cost-effective combination of energy efficiency and renewable-energy options that both maximize annual energy savings and minimize peak-cooling demand.

  12. Reduces electric energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BENEFITS · Reduces electric energy consumption · Reduces peak electric demand · Reduces natural gas consumption · Reduces nonhazardous solid waste and wastewater generation · Potential annual savings products for the automotive industry, electrical equipment, and miscellaneous other uses nationwide. ALCOA

  13. Foundation damping reduces demand in yaw-misaligned offshore wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Foundation damping reduces demand in yaw-misaligned offshore wind turbines Hannah Johlas*, Casey magnitude & percent reduction) References 1 Musial, W., & Ram, B. (2010). Large-scale offshore wind power., Madshus, C., DeGroot, D. J., & Myers, A. T. (2015). Foundation damping and the dynamics of offshore wind

  14. Green Scheduling of Control Systems for Peak Demand Reduction Truong X. Nghiem, Madhur Behl, Rahul Mangharam and George J. Pappas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappas, George J.

    Mangharam and George J. Pappas Abstract-- Building systems such as heating, air quality control approach for fine-grained scheduling of control systems within an aggregate peak power envelop while this by combining: (a) minimization of the feasible peak power constraint of the systems; and (b) coordination

  15. Summary of the 2006 Automated Demand Response Pilot 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, M.; Kiliccote, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the specific concept for, design of, and results from a pilot program to automate demand response with critical peak pricing. California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak pricing (CPP) to help reduce peak...

  16. Reducing the demand forecast error due to the bullwhip effect in the computer processor industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Emily (Emily C.)

    2010-01-01

    Intel's current demand-forecasting processes rely on customers' demand forecasts. Customers do not revise demand forecasts as demand decreases until the last minute. Intel's current demand models provide little guidance ...

  17. Demand-response (DR) programs, in which facilities reduce their electric loads in response to a utility signal, represent a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Issue Demand-response (DR) programs, in which facilities reduce their electric loads (Figure 1). The testing covered four Lighting the Way to Demand ResponseLighting the Way to Demand Response California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research Program Technical Brief PIER

  18. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    pdf. ———. 2011b. Residential Demand Module of the Nationaland the Commercial and Residential Demand Modules (DOE EIAcommercial and residential electricity demand projections

  19. Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit; Sun, Yannan

    2012-12-12

    Demand Response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the behavior of populations of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of these demand response programs. In this paper, an aggregated model is proposed for a class of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs). The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. However, an accurate characterization of the collective dynamics however requires the aggregate model to have a high state space dimension. Most of the existing model reduction techniques require the stability of the underlying system which does not hold for the proposed aggregated model. In this work, a novel model reduction approach is developed for the proposed aggregated model, which can significantly reduce its complexity with small performance loss. The original and the reducedorder aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D, which is a realistic open source distribution simulation software. Index Terms – demand response, aggregated model, ancillary

  20. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small office; and 5) simulated energy savings and peak demand reduction by energy conservation measures using the TMY3 weather data can be significantly underestimated or overestimated. It is crucial to run multi-decade simulations with AMY weather data to fully assess the impact of weather on the long-term performance of buildings, and to evaluate the energy savings potential of energy conservation measures for new and existing buildings from a life cycle perspective.

  1. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    ngcc nuclear coal ngcc nuclear other peaking renewable otherpeaking renewable Terawatt- hours Terawatt-hoursnuclear other peaking renewable Marginal Capacity Starting

  2. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    energy performance and demand response. Accurate estimationto assess accurately demand response strategies. 3.6 Weatherincluding HVAC design, demand response for smart grids, and

  3. Smart (In-home) Power Scheduling for Demand Response on the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    1 Smart (In-home) Power Scheduling for Demand Response on the Smart Grid Gang Xiong, Chen Chen consumption are part of demand response, which relies on varying price of electricity to reduce peak demand

  4. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee

    2010-01-01

    promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrialchanges the time of electricity demand to off-peak hours.Load shedding curtails electricity demand during a DR event.

  5. Demand Reduction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  6. Renewable energies such as solar photovoltaics "PV" have been widely used to minimize the use of grid power. Nevertheless, solar PV is hampered by the lack of solar radiation during peak energy demand hours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable energies such as solar photovoltaics "PV" have been widely used to minimize the use of grid power. Nevertheless, solar PV is hampered by the lack of solar radiation during peak energy demand curve and make the energy accessible during peak hours can be accomplished through pairing solar PV

  7. THE STATE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE STATE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA Prepared For: California Energy in this report. #12; ABSTRACT By reducing system loads during criticalpeak times, demand response (DR) can.S. and internationally and lay out ideas that could help move California forward. KEY WORDS demand response, peak

  8. An Innovative Approach Towards National Peak Load Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; ElSherbini, A.; Alghimlas, F.; Al-Taqi, H.; Al-Hadban, Y.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative approach was developed and implemented in eight governmental buildings to reduce their load during the peak demand hours in summer of 2007. The innovative approach implemented in these buildings included pre-closing treatment (PCT...

  9. Improving the Power Grid with Superconducting Technology New superconducting technology will help America reduce the demand for additional electric power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    will help America reduce the demand for additional electric power generation and increased delivery because they have virtually no resistance to electric current, offering the possibility of new electric@ornl.gov #12;Working with Industry to Develop Electric Power Applications Superconducting technologies

  10. Promising Technology: Demand Control Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand control ventilation (DCV) measures carbon dioxide concentrations in return air or other strategies to measure occupancy, and accurately matches the ventilation requirement. This system reduces ventilation when spaces are vacant or at lower than peak occupancy. When ventilation is reduced, energy savings are accrued because it is not necessary to heat, cool, or dehumidify as much outside air.

  11. Climate control : smart thermostats, demand response, and energy efficiency in Austin, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, Brian (Brian Richard)

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency and demand response are critical resources for the transition to a cleaner electricity grid. Demand-side management programs can reduce electricity use during peak times when power is scarce and expensive, ...

  12. Statewide Electrical Energy Cost Savings and Peak Demand Reduction from the IECC Code-Compliant, Single-Family Residences in Texas (2002-2009) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.

    2011-01-01

    -02-01 STATEWIDE ELECTRICITY AND DEMAND CAPACITY SAVINGS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE (IECC) ADOPTION FOR SINGLE-FAMILY RESIDENCES IN TEXAS (2002-2009) Hyojin Kim Juan-Carlos Baltazar, Ph.D. Jeff Haberl, Ph.D., P... SUMMARY Statewide electricity and electric demand savings achieved from the adoption of the different International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) versions for single-family residences in Texas and the corresponding construction cost increases over...

  13. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    2013-05-31

    The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes that the electric peak...

  14. Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

    2009-07-15

    Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

  15. Optimal Demand Response Based on Utility Maximization in Power Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    -- Demand side management will be a key component of future smart grid that can help reduce peak load interesting properties of the proposed scheme. I. INTRODUCTION Demand side management will be a key componentOptimal Demand Response Based on Utility Maximization in Power Networks Na Li, Lijun Chen

  16. California Baseline Energy Demands to 2050 for Advanced Energy Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    demands. Residential and commercial demand has a significantDemand by Sector Residential Peak Demand (MW) Commercialwe convert residential electricity demand based upon climate

  17. Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, P.

    2010-01-01

    DEMAND . . . .Demand for Electricity and Power PeakDemand . . • . . ELECTRICITY REQUIREMENTS FOR AGRICULTUREResults . . Coriclusions ELECTRICITY SUPPLY Hydroelectric

  18. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning Commercial Building Controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-01-01

    efficiency, daily peak load management and demand response.Loads Efficiency, Daily Load Management and Demand ResponseOperations Peak Load Management (Daily) - TOU Savings - Peak

  19. Saving Power at Peak Hours (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2011-04-28

    California needs new, responsive, demand-side energy technologies to ensure that periods of tight electricity supply on the grid don't turn into power outages. Led by Berkeley Lab's Mary Ann Piette, the California Energy Commission (through its Public Interest Energy Research Program) has established a Demand Response Research Center that addresses two motivations for adopting demand responsiveness: reducing average electricity prices and preventing future electricity crises. The research seeks to understand factors that influence "what works" in Demand Response. Piette's team is investigating the two types of demand response, load response and price response, that may influence and reduce the use of peak electric power through automated controls, peak pricing, advanced communications, and other strategies.

  20. ,"Table 3a. January Monthly Peak Hour Demand, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Council Region, "

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008Wellhead PriceConsumption by9" ,"Released:3a. January Monthly Peak Hour

  1. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-15

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  2. Three Case Studues of the Application of Energy Systems Optimization Best Prectices for Automatic Demand Response 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y.; Guiberteau, K.; Yagua, C.; Watt, J.

    2013-01-01

    of the Application of Energy Systems Optimization Best Practices for Automatic Demand Response Yifu Shi Kelly Guiberteau Carlos Yagua, P.E. James Watt, P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University College Station, Texas Austin Energy... of the demand response program is to reduce facilities peak energy demand to reduce the cost of electricity for both Austin Energy and their customer. Reducing the demand mitigates the need to construct additional generation, transmission, and distribution...

  3. Power Strip Packing of Malleable Demands in Mohammad M. Karbasioun, Gennady Shaikhet, Evangelos Kranakis, Ioannis Lambadaris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kranakis, Evangelos

    of the main goals of Demand Side Management (DSM) in smart grid is to reduce the peak to average ratio (PAR1 Power Strip Packing of Malleable Demands in Smart Grid Mohammad M. Karbasioun, Gennady Shaikhet of electrical energy which has to be supplied during the time interval [0, 1]. We assume that each demand has

  4. Consideration of the environmental impact of aircraft has become critical in commercial aviation. The continued growth of air traffic has caused increasing demands to reduce aircraft emissions,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    aviation. The continued growth of air traffic has caused increasing demands to reduce aircraft emissions airframe, engine and mission. The environmental metrics considered in this investigation are CO2 emissions -- which are proportional to fuel burn -- and landing- takeoff NOx emissions. The results are compared

  5. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile Â… High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes Rancho Cordoba, CA

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics AndBerylliumDepartmentResolution ofBETTER|BrianOvercoat: Airtightness3.field studiesPulteGW95

  6. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...

  7. Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meckler, G.

    1985-01-01

    energy and off-peak electric resistance heating. Estimated energy and first cost savings, as compared with an all-electric VAV HVAC system, are: 30 to 50% in ductwork size and cost; 30% in fan energy; 25% in air handling equipment; 20 to 40% in utility...

  8. Enhanced Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems Toward Peak Power Reduction for an Office Building in Kuwait 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alghimlas, F.; Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G.P.; Al-Nakib, D.

    2012-01-01

    t i o n ( M W h / y ) * 1 0 6 P e a k P o w e r D e m a n d ( M W ) Years Peak power Yearly Electricity Consumption Typical?Power?Demand?Profile?for?Summer?Day 5 2 0 0 5 5 8 0 5 9 6 0 6 3 4 0 6 7 2 0... w er The focus to reduce the power demand during the peak hours Options?to?Reduce?Fossil?Fuel?Consumption? 1. Implement?energy?efficiency?and? conservation?measures?in?buildings?to? reduce?their?demand?for?electricity. 2. Generate...

  9. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Peak Load Managementdemand response, and load management programs in the Ebefore they undertake load management and demand response

  10. Decentralized Control of Aggregated Loads for Demand Response Di Guo, Wei Zhang, Gangfeng Yan, Zhiyun Lin, and Minyue Fu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    Decentralized Control of Aggregated Loads for Demand Response Di Guo, Wei Zhang, Gangfeng Yan of residential responsive loads for vari- ous demand response applications. We propose a general hybrid system and effectively reduce the peak power consumption. I. INTRODUCTION Demand response has the potential to shift

  11. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann [Director, Demand Response Research Center

    2011-06-08

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  12. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-02-02

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  13. California Baseline Energy Demands to 2050 for Advanced Energy Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    Figure 16 Annual peak electricity demand by sector. Tableincludes an hourly electricity demand (i.e. power) profileof aggregating sectoral electricity demands into a statewide

  14. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  15. Residential Customer Response to Real-time Pricing: The Anaheim Critical Peak Pricing Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolak, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    load in California. Residential demand is approximately 30%12% reduction in statewide residential demand on a statewidefor residential customers with an aggregate peak demand that

  16. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers will respond to this form of automation for CPP. (4) Evaluate what type of DR shifting and shedding strategies can be automated. (5) Explore how automation of control strategies can increase participation rates and DR saving levels with CPP. (6) Identify optimal demand response control strategies. (7) Determine occupant and tenant response.

  17. Peak mass and dynamical friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Del Popolo; M. Gambera

    1995-06-09

    We show how the results given by several authors relatively to the mass of a density peak are changed when small scale substructure induced by dynamical friction are taken into account. The peak mass obtained is compared to the result of Peacock \\& Heavens (1990) and to the peak mass when dynamical friction is absent to show how these effects conspire to reduce the mass accreted by the peak.

  18. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

  19. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research 50 (2014) 885-922 Submitted 4/14; published 8/14 Demand Side Energy Management via Multiagent Coordination in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    2014-01-01

    Side Energy Management via Multiagent Coordination in Consumer Cooperatives Andreas Veit ANDREAS are to increase the penetration of renewable sources, and to manage supply and demand so as to reduce demand peaks demand supply balance by adjusting only the supply side leads to the use of flexible (usually diesel

  20. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  1. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential Among Large Commercial and Industrial Customers: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan, Bernie; Cappers, Peter

    2007-01-01

    3–6 percent of non-residential peak demand, can be viewed as3–6 percent of non-residential peak demand, can be viewed asto large, non-residential customers with peak demand greater

  2. Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings:Field Tests, Simulation and Audits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Zagreus, Leah

    2005-09-01

    The principle of pre-cooling and demand limiting is to pre-cool buildings at night or in the morning during off-peak hours, storing cooling in the building thermal mass and thereby reducing cooling loads and reducing or shedding related electrical demand during the peak periods. Cost savings are achieved by reducing on-peak energy and demand charges. The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies (Braun 1990, Ruud et al. 1990, Conniff 1991, Andresen and Brandemuehl 1992, Mahajan et al. 1993, Morris et al. 1994, Keeney and Braun 1997, Becker and Paciuk 2002, Xu et al. 2003). This technology appears to have significant potential for demand reduction if applied within an overall demand response program. The primary goal associated with this research is to develop information and tools necessary to assess the viability of and, where appropriate, implement demand response programs involving building thermal mass in buildings throughout California. The project involves evaluating the technology readiness, overall demand reduction potential, and customer acceptance for different classes of buildings. This information can be used along with estimates of the impact of the strategies on energy use to design appropriate incentives for customers.

  3. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical...

  4. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  5. Social Network Users Share Electricity Consumption Habits to Reduce Energy Costs for Consumers and Utility Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dapeng Oliver

    Social Network Users Share Electricity Consumption Habits to Reduce Energy Costs for Consumers approximately 74 percent of the nation's electricity consumption. During peaks in electricity demand, generators companies keep generators on, ready to respond to sudden upswings in electricity consumption

  6. Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY A 20-year forecast of electricity demand is a required in electricity demand is, of course, crucial to determining the need for new electricity resources and helping of any forecast of electricity demand and developing ways to reduce the risk of planning errors

  7. Preliminary Assumptions for Natural Gas Peaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plants and capital cost estimates for peaking technologies Frame, Aeroderivative, Intercooled, Reciprocating Engines Next steps 2 #12;Definitions Baseload Energy: power generated (or conserved) across a period of time to serve system demands for electricity Peaking Capacity: capability of power generating

  8. Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    #12;#12;2008 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering Staff Report Federal Energy metering penetration and potential peak load reduction from demand response have increased since 2006. Significant activity to promote demand response or to remove barriers to demand response occurred at the state

  9. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-09-01

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

  10. Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shehabi, Arman

    2010-01-01

    DX Cooling Total Annual Energy Usage Peak Electric DemandDX Cooling Total Annual Energy Usage Scenario Supply/ ReturnDX Cooling Total Annual Energy Usage Peak Electric Demand

  11. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    energy efficiency, peak load management and demand response.minimization); peak load management (for daily operations);Energy Efficiency, Daily Load Management and DR Demand-Side

  12. OPPORTUNITIES FOR AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA’S DAIRY PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homan, Gregory K.; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  13. Risk Management for Video-on-Demand Servers leveraging Demand Forecast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Risk Management for Video-on-Demand Servers leveraging Demand Forecast Di Niu, Hong Xu, Baochun Li}@eecg.toronto.edu Shuqiao Zhao Multimedia Development Group UUSee, Inc. shuqiao.zhao@gmail.com ABSTRACT Video-on-demand (VoD) servers are usually over-provisioned for peak demands, incurring a low average resource effi- ciency

  14. Policy Choice:Forest or Fuel? The demand for biofuels, driven by the desire to reduce fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions, has resulted in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the global production of palm oil increased 4.6-fold from 4.5 million to 20.9 million tonnes per year. (1). · Indonesia and Malaysia produce 88 % of the world's palm oil. · Nearly half of a projected 57% increase in palm oil production is due to biofuel demand (3) · Palm oil price is up 70% in 2007 (11

  15. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    follows: • EDemand t : electricity demand during day t (incost of reducing electricity demand (in $/MWh e ) • HRDCost:maximum fraction of electricity demand to be met by demand

  16. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  17. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  18. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2013-10-01

    Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

  19. APPLICATION-FORM DEMANDED'ADMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Opportunities and Challenges for Data Center Demand Response Adam Wierman Zhenhua Liu Iris Liu of renewable energy into the grid as well as electric power peak-load shaving: data center demand response. Data center demand response sits at the intersection of two growing fields: energy efficient data

  20. Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Building Energy System Selection and Operation,” Microgen’II: Second International Confer-ence of Microgeneration and

  1. Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The installed battery has an energy capacity of 4 MWh and aof 6.5%. It is the energy capacity of the electric storage (and Lost Savings by Energy Capacity The technical parameters

  2. Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    generation fuel cell with heat recovery (2006) - 1 MW electricityfuel cell (c) is meant to provide 1 MW of base-load electricity generation,

  3. Microgrid Dispatch for Macrogrid Peak-Demand Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability onTable 2 August Electricity Bill by Storage Schedule ChargeSRJ electricity purchases (a) for the original no-storage

  4. Highly-reduced Fine-structure splitting in InAs/InP quantum dots offering efficient on-demand 1.55 $?$m entangled photon emitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lixin He; Ming Gong; Chuan-Feng Li; Guang-Can Guo; Alex Zunger

    2008-06-03

    To generate entangled photon pairs via quantum dots (QDs), the exciton fine structure splitting (FSS) must be comparable to the exciton homogeneous line width. Yet in the (In,Ga)As/GaAs QD, the intrinsic FSS is about a few tens $\\mu$eV. To achieve photon entanglement, it is necessary to Cherry-pick a sample with extremely small FSS from a large number of samples, or to apply strong in-plane magnetic field. Using theoretical modeling of the fundamental causes of FSS in QDs, we predict that the intrinsic FSS of InAs/InP QDs is an order of magnitude smaller than that of InAs/GaAs dots, and better yet, their excitonic gap matches the 1.55 $\\mu$m fiber optic wavelength, therefore offer efficient on-demand entangled photon emitters for long distance quantum communication.

  5. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Reduce the high level of risk during the early stages of geothermal project development by conducting a multi-faceted and innovative exploration and drilling program at Silver Peak. Determine the combination of techniques that are most useful and cost-effective in identifying the geothermal resource through a detailed, post-project evaluation of the exploration and drilling program.

  6. What China Can Learn from International Experiences in Developing a Demand Response Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    of preferred resources, placing energy efficiency and demandPromoting Energy Efficiency as a Cost-Effective Resource infor energy efficiency and demand response resources. Peak

  7. Participation through Automation: Fully Automated Critical PeakPricing in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote,Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-06-20

    California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak prices (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a tariff design to promote demand response. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows: Manual Demand Response involves a potentially labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed demand response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. They refer to this as Auto-DR. This paper describes the development, testing, and results from automated CPP (Auto-CPP) as part of a utility project in California. The paper presents the project description and test methodology. This is followed by a discussion of Auto-DR strategies used in the field test buildings. They present a sample Auto-CPP load shape case study, and a selection of the Auto-CPP response data from September 29, 2005. If all twelve sites reached their maximum saving simultaneously, a total of approximately 2 MW of DR is available from these twelve sites that represent about two million ft{sup 2}. The average DR was about half that value, at about 1 MW. These savings translate to about 0.5 to 1.0 W/ft{sup 2} of demand reduction. They are continuing field demonstrations and economic evaluations to pursue increasing penetrations of automated DR that has demonstrated ability to provide a valuable DR resource for California.

  8. Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

    2002-01-01

    the potential peak load reductions from residential energy efficiency upgrades in hot and humid climates. First, a baseline scenario is established. Then, the demand and consumption impacts of individual upgrade measures are assessed. Several of these upgrades...

  9. LNG production for peak shaving operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, B.C.

    1999-07-01

    LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

  10. InDemandInDemandInDemand Energize Your Career

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    InDemandInDemandInDemand Energize Your Career You can join the next generation of workers who in Energy #12;#12;In Demand | 1 No, this isn't a quiz...but if you answered yes to any or all and Training Administration wants you to have this publication, In Demand: Careers in Energy. It will let you

  11. Findings from Seven Years of Field Performance Data for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Mathieu, Johanna; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    California is a leader in automating demand response (DR) to promote low-cost, consistent, and predictable electric grid management tools. Over 250 commercial and industrial facilities in California participate in fully-automated programs providing over 60 MW of peak DR savings. This paper presents a summary of Open Automated DR (OpenADR) implementation by each of the investor-owned utilities in California. It provides a summary of participation, DR strategies and incentives. Commercial buildings can reduce peak demand from 5 to 15percent with an average of 13percent. Industrial facilities shed much higher loads. For buildings with multi-year savings we evaluate their load variability and shed variability. We provide a summary of control strategies deployed, along with costs to install automation. We report on how the electric DR control strategies perform over many years of events. We benchmark the peak demand of this sample of buildings against their past baselines to understand the differences in building performance over the years. This is done with peak demand intensities and load factors. The paper also describes the importance of these data in helping to understand possible techniques to reach net zero energy using peak day dynamic control capabilities in commercial buildings. We present an example in which the electric load shape changed as a result of a lighting retrofit.

  12. THE STATE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE STATE OF DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA Prepared For: California Energy in this report. #12; ABSTRACT By reducing system loads during criticalpeak times, demand response can help reduce the threat of planned rotational outages. Demand response is also widely regarded as having

  13. VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand Video on Demand Testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eleftheriadis, Alexandros

    VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment S.-F. Chang and A Columbia UniversityColumbia University www.www.ctrctr..columbiacolumbia..eduedu/advent/advent #12;VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand

  14. VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand Video on Demand Testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eleftheriadis, Alexandros

    #12;VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment H.H. KalvaKalva, A.www.eeee..columbiacolumbia..eduedu/advent/advent #12;VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand VoD Testbed ArchitectureVoD Testbed Architecture Video

  15. Semantic Information Integration and Processing for Demand Response Optimization Qunzhi Zhou, Sreedhar Natarajan, Yogesh Simmhan and Viktor Prasanna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Kai

    Semantic Information Integration and Processing for Demand Response Optimization Qunzhi Zhou Demand response optimization (DR) deals with curtailing power consumption when peak demand on the power for Dynamic Demand Response Optimization Existing DR programs are typically based on static planning

  16. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2011-05-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

  17. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-3047E Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers G described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers. California Energy

  18. California DREAMing: the design of residential demand responsive technology with people in mind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peffer, Therese E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Metering and Demand Response in ElectricityChen, X. (2008). Demand Response-enabled Autonomous Controlfor Thermal Comfort, Demand Response, and Reduced Annual

  19. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: 2006 Pilot Program Description and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01

    13.   Linking energy efficiency, load management, and Operations Peak Load Management (Daily) - TOU Savings - Peakof  energy  efficiency,  load  management,  and  demand 

  20. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Kiliccote, Sila; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Wikler, Greg; Prijyanonda, Joe; Chiu, Albert

    2008-04-21

    Demand Response (DR) can be defined as actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies and congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, or market conditions raise supply costs. California utilities have offered price and reliability DR based programs to customers to help reduce electric peak demand. The lack of knowledge about the DR programs and how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs, as is the lack of automation of DR systems. Most DR activities are manual and require people to first receive notifications, and then act on the information to execute DR strategies. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows. Manual Demand Response involves a labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed demand response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. We refer to this as Auto-DR (Piette et. al. 2005). Auto-DR for commercial and industrial facilities can be defined as fully automated DR initiated by a signal from a utility or other appropriate entity and that provides fully-automated connectivity to customer end-use control strategies. One important concept in Auto-DR is that a homeowner or facility manager should be able to 'opt out' or 'override' a DR event if the event comes at time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. Therefore, Auto-DR is not handing over total control of the equipment or the facility to the utility but simply allowing the utility to pass on grid related information which then triggers facility defined and programmed strategies if convenient to the facility. From 2003 through 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) developed and tested a series of demand response automation communications technologies known as Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In 2007, LBNL worked with three investor-owned utilities to commercialize and implement Auto-DR programs in their territories. This paper summarizes the history of technology development for Auto-DR, and describes the DR technologies and control strategies utilized at many of the facilities. It outlines early experience in commercializing Auto-DR systems within PG&E DR programs, including the steps to configure the automation technology. The paper also describes the DR sheds derived using three different baseline methodologies. Emphasis is given to the lessons learned from installation and commissioning of Auto-DR systems, with a detailed description of the technical coordination roles and responsibilities, and costs.

  1. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated energy consumers, it has been possible to improve the DR 'state of the art' with a manageable commitment of technical resources on both the utility and consumer side. Although numerous C & I DR applications of a DRAS infrastructure are still in either prototype or early production phases, these early attempts at automating DR have been notably successful for both utilities and C & I customers. Several factors have strongly contributed to this success and will be discussed below. These successes have motivated utilities and regulators to look closely at how DR programs can be expanded to encompass the remaining (roughly) half of the state's energy load - the light commercial and, in numerical terms, the more important residential customer market. This survey examines technical issues facing the implementation of automated DR in the residential environment. In particular, we will look at the potential role of home automation networks in implementing wide-scale DR systems that communicate directly to individual residences.

  2. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Kirby, Brendan J; Kueck, John D; Todd, Duane; Caulfield, Michael; Helms, Brian

    2009-02-01

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter, electric power accounts for 30% to 40% of the factory cost of producing primary aluminum. In the continental United States, Alcoa Inc. currently owns and/or operates ten aluminum smelters and many associated fabricating facilities with a combined average load of over 2,600 MW. This presents Alcoa Inc. with a significant opportunity to respond in areas where economic opportunities exist to help mitigate rising energy costs by supplying demand response services into the energy system. This report is organized into seven chapters. The first chapter is the introduction and discusses the intention of this report. The second chapter contains the background. In this chapter, topics include: the motivation for Alcoa to provide demand response; ancillary service definitions; the basics behind aluminum smelting; and a discussion of suggested ancillary services that would be particularly useful for Alcoa to supply. Chapter 3 is concerned with the independent system operator, the Midwest ISO. Here the discussion examines the evolving Midwest ISO market structure including specific definitions, requirements, and necessary components to provide ancillary services. This section is followed by information concerning the Midwest ISO's classifications of demand response parties. Chapter 4 investigates the available opportunities at Alcoa's Warrick facility. Chapter 5 involves an in-depth discussion of the regulation service that Alcoa's Warrick facility can provide and the current interactions with Midwest ISO. Chapter 6 reviews future plans and expectations for Alcoa providing ancillary services into the market. Last, chapter 7, details the conclusion and recommendations of this paper.

  3. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert; Hsieh, Sean; Lee, Joon; Baghzouz, Yahia; Cross, Andrew; Chatterjee, Sarah

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by adjusting settings. In a sense the customer can choose between greater comfort and greater money savings during demand response circumstances. Finally a battery application was to be considered. Initially it was thought that a large battery (probably a sodium-sulfur type) would be installed. However, after the contract was awarded, it was determined that a single, centrally-located battery system would not be appropriate for many reasons, including that with the build out plan there would not be any location to put it. The price had risen substantially since the budget for the project was put together. Also, that type of battery has to be kept hot all the time, but its use was only sought for summer operation. Hence, individual house batteries would be used, and these are discussed at the end of this report. Many aspects of the energy use for climate control in selected houses were monitored before residents moved in. This was done both to understand the magnitude of the energy flows but also to have data that could be compared to the computer simulations. The latter would be used to evaluate various aspects of our plan. It was found that good agreement existed between actual energy use and computed energy use. Hence, various studies were performed via simulations. Performance simulations showed the impact on peak energy usage between a code built house of same size and shape compared to the Villa Trieste homes with and without the PV arrays on the latter. Computations were also used to understand the effect of varying orientations of the houses in this typical housing development, including the effect of PV electrical generation. Energy conservation features of the Villa Trieste homes decreased the energy use during peak times (as well as all others), but the resulting decreased peak occurred at about the same time as the code-built houses. Consideration of the PV generation decreases the grid energy use further during daylight hours, but did not extend long enough many days to decrease the peak. Hence, a demand response approach, as planned, was needed. With p

  4. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  5. Desert Peak EGS Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 20153Danielthrough theKDesert Peak EGS Project DOE Award:

  6. Demand Control Utilizing Energy Management Systems - Report of Field Tests 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, B. D.; Heller, R. P.; Perry, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Energy Management systems and particularly demand controllers are becoming more popular as commercial and light industrial operations attempt to reduce their electrical usage and demand. Numerous techniques are used to control energy use and demand...

  7. Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center demand responsive lighting systems ­ Importance of dimming ­ New wireless controls technologies · Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) #12;Objectives · Provide up-to-date information

  8. Reduce Demand Rather than Increase Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoup, Donald C.

    2006-01-01

    Assumptions Conservative Optimistic 1. In-lieu parking fee ($/parking space) (Mountain View) 2.Parking requirement (Palo Alto) (Mountain View) (

  9. Modeling Energy Demand Aggregators for Residential Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modeling Energy Demand Aggregators for Residential Consumers G. Di Bella, L. Giarr`e, M. Ippolito, A. Jean-Marie, G. Neglia and I. Tinnirello § January 2, 2014 Abstract Energy demand aggregators- response paradigm. When the energy provider needs to reduce the current energy demand on the grid, it can

  10. Deployment of Behind-The-Meter Energy Storage for Demand Charge Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how economically motivated customers will use energy storage for demand charge reduction, as well as how this changes in the presence of on-site photovoltaic power generation, to investigate the possible effects of incentivizing increased quantities of behind-the-meter storage. It finds that small, short-duration batteries are most cost effective regardless of solar power levels, serving to reduce short load spikes on the order of 2.5% of peak demand. While profitable to the customer, such action is unlikely to adequately benefit the utility as may be desired, thus highlighting the need for modified utility rate structures or properly structured incentives.

  11. Beyond Leaks: Demand-side Strategies for Improving Compressed Air Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howe, B.; Scales, B.

    1997-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-97-04-27.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 18135 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-97-04-27.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Beyond Leaks: Demand.... Adding sensors to detect when compressed air is required, and then automating how the compressed air is applied, can dramatically reduce both compressed air use and peak demand. COMPRESSED AIR DELIVERY AND CONTROL How compressed air is delivered...

  12. Off Peak Power - An Alternative to Interruptible Service 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordyke, H. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Georgia Power's Off-Peak Rider encourages load reductions up to 40% during on-peak periods over four summer months each year. Since summer on-peak time represents about 50% of available time, the customer's productive summer capacity may be reduced...

  13. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-06-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  14. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  15. Peak Power Reduction Strategies for the Lighting Systems in Government Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A. A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    Lighting systems are the second major contributor to the peak power demand and energy consumption in buildings after A/C systems. They account for nearly 20% of the peak power demand and 15% of the annual energy consumption. Thus energy efficient...

  16. Opportunities and Challenges for Data Center Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    Opportunities and Challenges for Data Center Demand Response Adam Wierman Zhenhua Liu Iris Liu of renewable energy into the grid as well as electric power peak-load shaving: data center demand response. Data center demand response sits at the intersection of two growing fields: energy efficient data

  17. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Availability of cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. One potential solution is to use ice thermal storage (ITS) systems that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses the ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS also provides a way to shift a large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ITS systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss during hot weather so that new plants could be considered in regions lack of cooling water. This paper will review light water reactor cooling issues and present the feasibility study results.

  18. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01

    solar generation can reduce costs and emissions associated with supplying vehicle electricity demand dramatically. Sensitivity Analysis of Long-term

  19. Electricity Demand and Energy Consumption Management System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarmiento, Juan Ojeda

    2008-01-01

    This project describes the electricity demand and energy consumption management system and its application to the Smelter Plant of Southern Peru. It is composted of an hourly demand-forecasting module and of a simulation component for a plant electrical system. The first module was done using dynamic neural networks, with backpropagation training algorithm; it is used to predict the electric power demanded every hour, with an error percentage below of 1%. This information allows management the peak demand before this happen, distributing the raise of electric load to other hours or improving those equipments that increase the demand. The simulation module is based in advanced estimation techniques, such as: parametric estimation, neural network modeling, statistic regression and previously developed models, which simulates the electric behavior of the smelter plant. These modules allow the proper planning because it allows knowing the behavior of the hourly demand and the consumption patterns of the plant, in...

  20. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second, market and reliability rules have, understandably, been written around the capabilities and limitations of generators, the historic reliability resources. Responsive load limitations and capabilities are often not accommodated in markets or reliability criteria. Third, because of the institutional structure, demand response alternatives are treated as temporary solutions that can delay but not replace transmission enhancement. Financing has to be based on a three to five year project life as opposed to the twenty to fifty year life of transmission facilities. More can be done to integrate demand response options into transmission expansion planning. Given the societal benefits it may be appropriate for independent transmission planning organizations to take a more proactive role in drawing demand response alternatives into the resource mix. Existing demand response programs provide a technical basis to build from. Regulatory and market obstacles will have to be overcome if demand response alternatives are to be routinely considered in transmission expansion planning.

  1. Pacific Northwest Demand Response Project Lee Hall, BPA Smart Grid Program Manager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pacific Northwest Demand Response Project Lee Hall, BPA Smart Grid Program Manager February 14 utilities to invest in DR Regional situational analysis ­ issues to address #12;Nationally ­ Demand ResponseSource: FERC Demand Response & Advanced Metering Report, February 2011 Peak DR 65,000 MW 1,062 MW Peak DR

  2. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    of integrating demand response and energy efficiencyand D. Kathan (2009), Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityFRAMEWORKS THAT PROMOTE DEMAND RESPONSE 3.1. Demand Response

  3. The Economics of Energy (and Electricity) Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platchkov, Laura M.; Pollitt, Michael G.

    25 3.3.2 Electrification of personal transport New sources of electricity demand may emerge which substantially change the total demand for electricity and the way electricity is consumed by the household. The Tesla Roadster12 stores 53 k... substantial battery storage capacity to the electricity grid, both when stationary at home and when at work. They may thus be very useful in providing short term back-up at system demand peaks or for dumping electricity to the batteries when supply is at a...

  4. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01

    benefits of Demand Side Management (DSM) are insufficient toefficiency, demand side management (DSM) cost effectivenessResearch Center Demand Side Management Demand Side Resources

  5. Museum-on-Demand: Dynamic management of resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celentano, Augusto

    A DEMAND-DRIVEN APPROACH FOR EFFICIENT INTERPROCEDURAL DATA FLOW ANALYSIS by Evelyn Duesterwald M Duesterwald 1996 ii #12;A DEMAND-DRIVEN APPROACH FOR EFFICIENT INTERPROCEDURAL DATA FLOW ANALYSIS Evelyn to interprocedural data ow analysis that is demand-driven rather than exhaus- tive. Demand-driven analysis reduces

  6. Peak Oil, Peak Energy Mother Nature Bats Last

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sereno, Martin

    Peak Oil, Peak Energy Mother Nature Bats Last Martin Sereno 1 Feb 2011 (orig. talk: Nov 2004) #12;Oil is the Lifeblood of Industrial Civilization · 80 million barrels/day, 1000 barrels/sec, 1 cubicPods to the roads themselves) · we're not "addicted to oil" -- that's like saying a person has an "addiction

  7. Texas Nuclear Profile - Comanche Peak

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Comanche Peak" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  8. Providing Regulation Services and Managing Data Center Peak Power Budgets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    -based peak shaving. However, none of these publications consider the feasibility of using the energy storage AND RELATED WORK Substantial integration of electric vehicles and renewable energy sources into the electric utility companies use to ensure stability. It includes multiple mechanisms, such as demand-response (DR

  9. Residential Demand Sector Data, Commercial Demand Sector Data, Industrial Demand Sector Data - Annual Energy Outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Tables describing consumption and prices by sector and census division for 2006 - includes residential demand, commercial demand, and industrial demand

  10. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Dudley, Junqiao

    2010-03-17

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) demonstrated and evaluated open automated demand response (OpenADR) communication infrastructure to reduce winter morning and summer afternoon peak electricity demand in commercial buildings the Seattle area. LBNL performed this demonstration for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in the Seattle City Light (SCL) service territory at five sites: Seattle Municipal Tower, Seattle University, McKinstry, and two Target stores. This report describes the process and results of the demonstration. OpenADR is an information exchange model that uses a client-server architecture to automate demand-response (DR) programs. These field tests evaluated the feasibility of deploying fully automated DR during both winter and summer peak periods. DR savings were evaluated for several building systems and control strategies. This project studied DR during hot summer afternoons and cold winter mornings, both periods when electricity demand is typically high. This is the DRRC project team's first experience using automation for year-round DR resources and evaluating the flexibility of commercial buildings end-use loads to participate in DR in dual-peaking climates. The lessons learned contribute to understanding end-use loads that are suitable for dispatch at different times of the year. The project was funded by BPA and SCL. BPA is a U.S. Department of Energy agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon and serving the Pacific Northwest. BPA operates an electricity transmission system and markets wholesale electrical power at cost from federal dams, one non-federal nuclear plant, and other non-federal hydroelectric and wind energy generation facilities. Created by the citizens of Seattle in 1902, SCL is the second-largest municipal utility in America. SCL purchases approximately 40% of its electricity and the majority of its transmission from BPA through a preference contract. SCL also provides ancillary services within its own balancing authority. The relationship between BPA and SCL creates a unique opportunity to create DR programs that address both BPA's and SCL's markets simultaneously. Although simultaneously addressing both market could significantly increase the value of DR programs for BPA, SCL, and the end user, establishing program parameters that maximize this value is challenging because of complex contractual arrangements and the absence of a central Independent System Operator or Regional Transmission Organization in the northwest.

  11. Predictive Caching for Video on Demand CDNs Bogdan Carbunar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbunar, Bogdan

    Gestural Interaction on the Steering Wheel ­ Reducing the Visual Demand Tanja Döring1 , Dagmar Kern systems in terms of driver distraction. The main outcome was that driver's visual demand is reduced interfaces, multi-touch, gestural input, driver distraction, user-defined gestures, visual demand ACM

  12. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2013-01-01

    that pre-cool, rebound, or otherwise shift energy use to theexhibit almost no rebound and save some energy on DR days,min) Rebound (kW) Daily peak demand (%) Daily energy (%)

  13. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01

    that pre-cool, rebound, or otherwise shift energy use to theexhibit almost no rebound and save some energy on DR days,min) Rebound (kW) Daily peak demand (%) Daily energy (%)

  14. Control and Optimization Meet the Smart Power Grid: Scheduling of Power Demands for Optimal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    technologies to enforce sensible use of energy through effective demand load management. We envision a scenario of effective management of power supply and demand loads. Load management is primarily employed by the power by transferring non-emergency power demands at off-peak-load times. Demand load management does not significantly

  15. The Demand Reduction Potential of Smart Appliances in U.S. Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-08-14

    The widespread deployment of demand respond (DR) enabled home appliances is expected to have significant reduction in the demand of electricity during peak hours. The work documented in this paper focuses on estimating the energy shift resulting from the installation of DR enabled smart appliances in the U.S. This estimation is based on analyzing the market for smart appliances and calculating the total energy demand that can potentially be shifted by DR control in appliances. Appliance operation is examined by considering their sub components individually to identify their energy consumptions and savings resulting from interrupting and shifting their load, e.g., by delaying the refrigerator defrost cycle. In addition to major residential appliances, residential pool pumps are also included in this study given their energy consumption profiles that make them favorable for DR applications. In the market analysis study documented in this paper, the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) databases are used to examine the expected life of an appliance, the number of appliances installed in homes constructed in 10 year intervals after 1940 and home owner income. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the smart appliances in reducing electrical demand have been drawn and a ranking of appliances in terms of their contribution to load shift is presented. E.g., it was concluded that DR enabled water heaters result in the maximum load shift; whereas, dishwashers have the highest user elasticity and hence the highest potential for load shifting through DR. This work is part of a larger effort to bring novel home energy management concepts and technologies to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak electricity demand, integrate renewables and storage technology, and change homeowner behavior to manage and consume less energy and potentially save consumer energy costs.

  16. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ON PEAK POWER CLIPPING THRESHOLDS IN MICROGRIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ON PEAK POWER CLIPPING THRESHOLDS IN MICROGRIDS Thorsten Vogt1 , Norbert One goal of grid coupled microgrid operating strategies is to reduce the maximum power drawn from the maximum feed-in power into the grid. 1. INTRODUCTION Peak power reduction of microgrids provides different

  17. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, R.L.; Bezdek, Roger; Wendling, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  18. The Summer of 2006: A Milestone in the Ongoing Maturation of Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Engel, Dan

    2007-01-01

    presentation to Peak Load Management Alliance Fall Meeting,Midwest ISO 2006 Load Management Response Survey Summary,appeals, demand-side management, utility load conservation,

  19. The Effects of the Peak-Peak Correlation on the Peak Model of Hierarchical Clustering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Manrique; A. Raig; J. M. Solanes; G. Gonzalez-Casado; P. Stein; E. Salvador-Sole

    1997-12-05

    In two previous papers a semi-analytical model was presented for the hierarchical clustering of halos via gravitational instability from peaks in a random Gaussian field of density fluctuations. This model is better founded than the extended Press-Schechter model, which is known to agree with numerical simulations and to make similar predictions. The specific merger rate, however, shows a significant departure at intermediate captured masses. The origin of this was suspected as being the rather crude approximation used for the density of nested peaks. Here, we seek to verify this suspicion by implementing a more accurate expression for the latter quantity which accounts for the correlation among peaks. We confirm that the inclusion of the peak-peak correlation improves the specific merger rate, while the good behavior of the remaining quantities is preserved.

  20. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  1. DEMAND INTERPROCEDURAL PROGRAM ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reps, Thomas W.

    1 DEMAND INTERPROCEDURAL PROGRAM ANALYSIS USING LOGIC DATABASES Thomas W. Reps Computer Sciences@cs.wisc.edu ABSTRACT This paper describes how algorithms for demand versions of inerprocedural program­ analysis for all elements of the program. This paper concerns the solution of demand versions of interprocedural

  2. Capacity Demand Power (GW)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Capacity Demand Power (GW) Hour of the Day The "Dip" Electricity Demand in Electricity Demand Every weekday, Japan's electricity use dips about 6 GW at 12 but it also shows that: · Behavior affects naHonal electricity use in unexpected ways

  3. Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION This appendix provides more detail on some of the topics raised in Chapter 4, "Demand Response" of the body of the Plan. These topics include 1. The features, advantages and disadvantages of the main options for stimulating demand response (price mechanisms

  4. Real-time Pricing Demand Response in Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Berliner, Teri; Graves, Alan

    2012-07-26

    Abstract—Dynamic pricing schemes have been implemented in commercial and industrial application settings, and recently they are getting attention for application to residential customers. Time-of-use and critical-peak-pricing rates are in place in various regions and are being piloted in many more. These programs are proving themselves useful for balancing energy during peak periods; however, real-time (5 minute) pricing signals combined with automation in end-use systems have the potential to deliver even more benefits to operators and consumers. Besides system peak shaving, a real-time pricing system can contribute demand response based on the locational marginal price of electricity, reduce load in response to a generator outage, and respond to local distribution system capacity limiting situations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is teaming with a mid-west electricity service provider to run a distribution feeder-based retail electricity market that negotiates with residential automation equipment and clears every 5 minutes, thus providing a signal for lowering or raising electric consumption based on operational objectives of economic efficiency and reliability. This paper outlines the capability of the real-time pricing system and the operational scenarios being tested as the system is rolled-out starting in the first half of 2012.

  5. The Pacific Northwest Demand Response Market Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; DeSteese, John G.

    2008-07-20

    This paper describes the implementation and results of a field demonstration wherein residential electric water heaters and thermostats, commercial building space conditioning, municipal water pump loads, and several distributed generators were coordinated to manage constrained feeder electrical distribution through the two-way communication of load status and electric price signals. The field demonstration took place in Washington and Oregon and was paid for by the U.S. Department of Energy and several northwest utilities. Price is found to be an effective control signal for managing transmission or distribution congestion. Real-time signals at 5-minute intervals are shown to shift controlled load in time. The behaviors of customers and their responses under fixed, time-ofuse, and real-time price contracts are compared. Peak loads are effectively reduced on the experimental feeder. A novel application of portfolio theory is applied to the selection of an optimal mix of customer contract types. Index Terms—demand response, power markets, retail markets, distribution automation, distributed resources, load control.

  6. A Demand-Side Management Experience in Existing Building Commissioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franconi, E.; Selch, M.; Bradford, J.; Gruen, B.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a suite of demand-side management (DSM) program offerings, Xcel Energy provides a recommissioning program to its Colorado commercial customers. The program has a summer peak-demand savings goal of 7.8 MW to be achieved by 2005. Commenced...

  7. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  8. Management of Power Demand through Operations of Building Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ElSherbini, A. I.; Maheshwari, G.; Al-Naqib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.

    2009-01-01

    In hot summers, the demand for electrical power is dominated by the requirements of the air-conditioning and lighting systems. Such systems account for more than 80% of the peak electrical demand in Kuwait. A study was conducted to explore...

  9. Electric power demand limit for variable speed heat pumps and integrated water heating heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a method of operating an integrated heat pump and hot water system that is capable of providing heating or cooling to an environmental comfort zone. The heat pump and hot water system including a variable speed compressor whose operating speed is substantially linearly related to the difference between outdoor air temperature and indoor air temperature in the comfort zone, and also including means to receive a utility peak demand limit signal to initiate automatic power limiting to reduce the power demand imposed by the heat pump and hot water system, the method comprising sensing the outdoor temperature T{sub OD}; sensing the indoor temperature T{sub ID} in the comfort zone; sensing the speed S{sub 1} of the variable speed compressor; and in response to receiving the utility peak demand limit signal DLS calculating a reference speed S{sub R} for the compressor as a function of the speed S{sub 1}, the outdoor temperature T{sub OD}, the indoor temperature T{sub ID}, and predetermined values that correspond to a reference indoor temperature T{sub ID} and a zero-load temperature difference {Delta}T{sub Z} that corresponds to the difference between the outdoor and indoor temperatures that result in a zero load requirement on the compressor; and during occurrence of the signal DLS operating the compressor at a reduced operating speed limited to a predetermined fraction, less than unity, times the reference speed S{sub R}.

  10. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    DECC aggregator managed portfolio automated demand responseaggregator designs their own programs, and offers demand responseaggregator is responsible for designing and implementing their own demand response

  11. U.S. Energy Demand, Offshore Oil Production and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    U.S. Energy Demand, Offshore Oil Production and BP's Macondo Well Spill Tad Patzek, Petroleum that run the U.S. Complexity, models, risks Gulf of Mexico's oil and gas production Conclusions ­ p.3/4 #12;Summary of Conclusions. . . The global rate of production of oil is peaking now, coal will peak in 2

  12. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2008-2018 STAFF REVISED FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Mitch Tian prepared the peak demand forecast. Ted Dang prepared the historic energy consumption data Office. Andrea Gough ran the summary energy model and supervised data preparation. Glen Sharp prepared models. Both the staff revised energy consumption and peak forecasts are slightly higher than

  13. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David G.; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-05-01

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic growth and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study focuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. In the past years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced the China End-Use Energy Model based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not likely be the case because of saturation effects in appliances, residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that the 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

  14. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Piette, MaryAnn

    2009-08-01

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This ?electricity value chain? defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to"demo" potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives.1 In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies of refrigerated warehouses and wastewater treatment facilities are used to illustrate OpenADR load reduction potential. Typical shed and shift strategies include: turning off or operating compressors, aerator blowers and pumps at reduced capacity, increasing temperature set-points or pre-cooling cold storage areas and over-oxygenating stored wastewater prior to a DR event. This study concludes that understanding industrial end-use processes and control capabilities is a key to support reduced service during DR events and these capabilities, if DR enabled, hold significant promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrial sector during utility peak periods.

  15. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Piette, Mary Ann; Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex

    2008-08-01

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This 'electricity value chain' defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to 'demo' potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives. In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies of refrigerated warehouses and wastewater treatment facilities are used to illustrate OpenADR load reduction potential. Typical shed and shift strategies include: turning off or operating compressors, aerator blowers and pumps at reduced capacity, increasing temperature set-points or pre-cooling cold storage areas and over-oxygenating stored wastewater prior to a DR event. This study concludes that understanding industrial end-use processes and control capabilities is a key to support reduced service during DR events and these capabilities, if DR enabled, hold significant promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrial sector during utility peak periods.

  16. Lighting/HVAC interactions and their effects on annual and peak HVAC requirements in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sezgen, A.O.; Huang, Y.J.

    1994-08-01

    Lighting measures is one effective strategy for reducing energy use in commercial buildings. Reductions in lighting energy have secondary effects on cooling/heating energy consumption and peak HVAC requirements; in general, they increase the heating and decrease cooling requirements of a building. Net change in a building`s annual and peak energy requirements, however, is difficult to quantify and depends on building characteristics, operating conditions, climate. This paper characterizes impacts of lighting/HVAC interactions on annual and peak heating/cooling requirements of prototypical US commercial buildings through computer simulations using DOE-2.1E building energy analysis program. Ten building types of two vintages and nine climates are chosen to represent the US commercial building stock. For each combination, a prototypical building is simulated with two lighting power densities, and resultant changes in heating and cooling loads are recorded. Simple concepts of Lighting Coincidence Factors are used to describe the observed interactions between lighting and HVAC requirements. (Coincidence Factor (CF) is ratio of changes in HVAC loads to those in lighting loads, where load is either annual or peak load). The paper presents tables of lighting CF for major building types and climates. These parameters can be used for regional or national cost/benefit analyses of lighting- related policies and utility DSM programs. Using Annual CFs and typical efficiencies for heating and cooling systems, net changes in space conditioning energy use from a lighting measure can be calculated. Similarly, Demand CFs can be used to estimate the changes in HVAC sizing, which can then be converted to changes in capital outlay using standard-design curves; or they can be used to estimate coincident peak reductions for the analysis of the utility`s avoided costs. Results from use of these tables are meaningful only when they involve a significantly large number of buildings.

  17. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles

    2009-01-30

    In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This report describes the results of a comprehensive survey conducted by LBNL in support of the Customer Response Task Force and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into wholesale markets in the SPP region. LBNL conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs administered by SPP's member utilities. Survey respondents were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g. seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. Nearly all of the 30 load-serving entities in SPP responded to the survey. Of this group, fourteen SPP member utilities administer 36 DR programs, five dynamic pricing tariffs, and six voluntary customer response initiatives. These existing DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs have a peak demand reduction potential of 1,552 MW. Other major findings of this study are: o About 81percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;14percent. o Arkansas accounts for ~;;50percent of the DR resources in the SPP footprint; these DR resources are primarily managed by cooperatives. o Publicly-owned cooperatives accounted for 54percent of the existing DR resources among SPP members. For these entities, investment in DR is often driven by the need to reduce summer peak demand that is used to set demand charges for each distribution cooperative. o About 65-70percent of the interruptible/curtailable tariffs and DLC programs are routinely triggered based on market conditions, not just for system emergencies. Approximately, 53percent of the DR resources are available with less than two hours advance notice and 447 MW can be dispatched with less than thirty minutes notice. o Most legacy DR programs offered a reservation payment ($/kW) for participation; incentive payment levels ranged from $0.40 to $8.30/kW-month for interruptible rate tariffs and $0.30 to $4.60/kW-month for DLC programs. A few interruptible programs offered incentive payments which were explicitly linkedto actual load reductions during events; payments ranged from 2 to 40 cents/kWh for load curtailed.

  18. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Fully-Automated Demand Response Test in Large Facilities14in DR systems. Demand Response using HVAC in Commercialof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”

  19. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    F) Enhanced ACP Date RAA ACP Demand Response – SpinningReserve Demonstration Demand Response – Spinning Reservesupply spinning reserve. Demand Response – Spinning Reserve

  20. Demand Response Programs for Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Programs for Oregon Utilities Public Utility Commission May 2003 Public Utility ....................................................................................................................... 1 Types of Demand Response Programs............................................................................ 3 Demand Response Programs in Oregon

  1. Peak finding using biorthogonal wavelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, C.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The authors show in this paper how they can find the peaks in the input data if the underlying signal is a sum of Lorentzians. In order to project the data into a space of Lorentzian like functions, they show explicitly the construction of scaling functions which look like Lorentzians. From this construction, they can calculate the biorthogonal filter coefficients for both the analysis and synthesis functions. They then compare their biorthogonal wavelets to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) wavelets when used for peak finding in noisy data. They will show that in this instance, their filters perform much better than the FBI wavelets.

  2. Near Optimal Demand-Side Energy Management Under Real-time Demand-Response Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    1999 when abnormal hot weather combined with electricity generation shortage resulted in unheard management and is a major con- tributor of electric grid faults. Although peak demand happens very infrastructure (Figure 1): technology upgrade of the electric grid system, all-digital management infrastructure

  3. Exponential Demand Simulation Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Derek D.

    2015-05-15

    Operant behavioral economics investigates the relation between environmental constraint and reinforcer consumption. The standard approach to quantifying this relation is through the use of behavioral economic demand curves. ...

  4. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  5. Robust Unit Commitment Problem with Demand Response and ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long Zhao

    2010-10-31

    Oct 31, 2010 ... Abstract: To improve the efficiency in power generation and to reduce the greenhouse gas emission, both Demand Response (DR) strategy ...

  6. Demand response pilot event conducted August 2,2011 : summary report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Donald; Evans, Christoper

    2012-01-01

    Energy management in a commercial facility can be segregated into two areas: energy efficiency and demand response (DR). Energy efficiency focuses on steady-state load minimization. Demand response reduces load for event driven periods during the peak load. Demand-response-driven changes in electricity use are designed to be short-term in nature, centered on critical hours during the day when demand is high or when the electricity supplier's reserve margins are low. Due to the recent Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 745, Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets the potential annual compensation to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) from performing DR ranges from $300K to $2,400K. While the current energy supply contract does not offer any compensation for participating in DR, there is benefit in understanding the issues and potential value in performing a DR event. This Report will be helpful in upcoming energy supply contract negotiations to quantify the energy savings and power reduction potential from DR at SNL. On August 25, 2011 the Facilities Management and Operations Center (FMOC) performed the first DR pilot event at SNL/NM. This report describes the details and results of this DR event.

  7. Optimal Power Flow Based Demand Response Offer Price Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    Optimal Power Flow Based Demand Response Offer Price Optimization Zhen Qiu 1 Introduction-time energy balance. Demand response programs are offered by the utility companies to reduce the load response cost in exchange for load reduction. A considerable amount of papers have discussed the demand

  8. Optimal demand response: problem formulation and deterministic case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    Optimal demand response: problem formulation and deterministic case Lijun Chen, Na Li, Libin Jiang load through real-time demand response and purchases balancing power on the spot market to meet, optimal demand response reduces to joint scheduling of the procurement and consumption decisions

  9. Relative Economic Merits of Storage and Combustion Turbines for Meeting Peak Capacity Requirements under Increased Penetration of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; Diakov, Victor; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Batteries with several hours of capacity provide an alternative to combustion turbines for meeting peak capacity requirements. Even when compared to state-of-the-art highly flexible combustion turbines, batteries can provide a greater operational value, which is reflected in a lower system-wide production cost. By shifting load and providing operating reserves, batteries can reduce the cost of operating the power system to a traditional electric utility. This added value means that, depending on battery life, batteries can have a higher cost than a combustion turbine of equal capacity and still produce a system with equal or lower overall life-cycle cost. For a utility considering investing in new capacity, the cost premium for batteries is highly sensitive to a variety of factors, including lifetime, natural gas costs, PV penetration, and grid generation mix. In addition, as PV penetration increases, the net electricity demand profile changes, which may reduce the amount of battery energy capacity needed to reliably meet peak demand.

  10. Highly-reduced Fine-structure splitting in InAs/InP quantum dots offering efficient on-demand 1.55 $\\mu$m entangled photon emitter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lixin; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Zunger, Alex

    2008-01-01

    To generate entangled photon pairs via quantum dots (QDs), the exciton fine structure splitting (FSS) must be comparable to the exciton homogeneous line width. Yet in the (In,Ga)As/GaAs QD, the intrinsic FSS is about a few tens $\\mu$eV. To achieve photon entanglement, it is necessary to Cherry-pick a sample with extremely small FSS from a large number of samples, or to apply strong in-plane magnetic field. Using theoretical modeling of the fundamental causes of FSS in QDs, we predict that the intrinsic FSS of InAs/InP QDs is an order of magnitude smaller than that of InAs/GaAs dots, and better yet, their excitonic gap matches the 1.55 $\\mu$m fiber optic wavelength, therefore offer efficient on-demand entangled photon emitters for long distance quantum communication.

  11. Centralized and Decentralized Control for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-04-29

    Demand response has been recognized as an essential element of the smart grid. Frequency response, regulation and contingency reserve functions performed traditionally by generation resources are now starting to involve demand side resources. Additional benefits from demand response include peak reduction and load shifting, which will defer new infrastructure investment and improve generator operation efficiency. Technical approaches designed to realize these functionalities can be categorized into centralized control and decentralized control, depending on where the response decision is made. This paper discusses these two control philosophies and compares their relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of delay time, predictability, complexity, and reliability. A distribution system model with detailed household loads and controls is built to demonstrate the characteristics of the two approaches. The conclusion is that the promptness and reliability of decentralized control should be combined with the predictability and simplicity of centralized control to achieve the best performance of the smart grid.

  12. Distributed Load Demand Scheduling in Smart Grid to Minimize Electricity Generation Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Distributed Load Demand Scheduling in Smart Grid to Minimize Electricity Generation Cost Siyu Yue of electricity consumers is an effective way to alleviate the peak power demand on the elec- tricity grid- ple users cooperate to perform load demand scheduling in order to minimize the electricity generation

  13. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    such as wind, solar, and electric vehicles as well as dispatchable loads and microgrids. Many of these resources will be "behind-the-meter" (i.e., demand resources) and...

  14. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  15. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  16. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    H. , and James M. Gri¢ n. 1983. Gasoline demand in the OECDof dynamic demand for gasoline. Journal of Econometrics 77(An empirical analysis of gasoline demand in Denmark using

  17. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical

  18. A DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load during the study period was 1175 kW. Several new tools facilitated this work, such as the Smart Energy Box, the distributed load controller or Energy Information Gateway, the web-­based DR controller (dubbed the Central Load-­Shed Coordinator or CLSC), and the Demand Response Capacity Assessment & Operation Assistance Tool (DRCAOT). In addition, an innovative data aggregator called sMAP (simple Measurement and Actuation Profile) allowed data from different sources collected in a compact form and facilitated detailed analysis of the building systems operation. A smart phone application (RAP or Rapid Audit Protocol) facilitated an inventory of the building’s plug loads. Carbon dioxide sensors located in conference rooms and classrooms allowed demand controlled ventilation. The extensive submetering and nimble access to this data provided great insight into the details of the building operation as well as quick diagnostics and analyses of tests. For example, students discovered a short-­cycling chiller, a stuck damper, and a leaking cooling coil in the first field tests. For our final field tests, we were able to see how each zone was affected by the DR strategies (e.g., the offices on the 7th floor grew very warm quickly) and fine-­tune the strategies accordingly.

  19. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sterner. 1991. Analysing gasoline demand elasticities: A2011. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and incomeMutairi. 1995. Demand for gasoline in Kuwait: An empirical

  20. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01

    No. ER06-615-000 CAISO Demand Response Resource User Guide -8 2.1. Demand Response Provides a Range of Benefits to8 2.2. Demand Response Benefits can be Quantified in Several

  1. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  2. Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang Steven Low Computing + Math Sciences Electrical Engineering Caltech Oct 2011 #12;Outline Caltech smart grid research Optimal demand response #12;Global trends 1

  3. ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ....................................................................................................1-16 Energy Consumption Data...............................................1-15 Data Sources for Energy Demand Forecasting ModelsCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT Companion Report

  4. Estimating a Demand System with Nonnegativity Constraints: Mexican Meat Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlini, David

    Estimating a Demand System with Nonnegativity Constraints: Mexican Meat Demand Amos Golan* Jeffrey an almost ideal demand system for five types of meat using cross-sectional data from Mexico, where most households did not buy at least one type of meat during the survey week. The system of demands is shown

  5. Peer-Assisted On-Demand Streaming: Characterizing Demands and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Peer-Assisted On-Demand Streaming: Characterizing Demands and Optimizing Supplies Fangming Liu Abstract--Nowadays, there has been significant deployment of peer-assisted on-demand streaming services over the Internet. Two of the most unique and salient features in a peer-assisted on-demand streaming

  6. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    demand, bunker fuel (heavy oil) demand will continue to risea gasoline exporter, as demand for other oil products is notof oil equivalent, but increase annual electricity demand by

  7. The Effect of CO2 Pricing on Conventional and Non- Conventional Oil Supply and Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Méjean, Aurélie; Hope, Chris

    demand modelling Meling (StatoilHydro) 1.6%/year No detailed demand modelling Total 1.4%/year No detailed demand modelling Exxon Mobil 1.4%/year Detailed demand modelling Energyfiles 1.8%/year Demand not modelled, exogenous rate Adapted from (UKERC... of unconventional oil and gas) “By 2015, growth in the production of easily accessible oil and gas will not match the projected rate of demand growth.” UKERC (2009b p33) ExxonMobil 2008 101 in 2030 (excl. non-conventional oil) No peak before 2030 UKERC...

  8. Energy Demand Staff Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisen, Michael

    #12;Sources: China National Bureau of Statistics; U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook. Overview:Overview: Energy Use in China and the U.S.Energy Use in China and the U.S. 5 0Energy Demand in China Lynn Price Staff Scientist February 2, 2010 #12;Founded in 1988 Focused

  9. Firing Excess Refinery Butane in Peaking Gas Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.; Schreiber, H.; Zwillenberg, M.

    1989-01-01

    normal butane production, which will reduce refinery normal butane value and price. Explored is an opportunity for a new use for excess refinery normal butane- as a fuel for utility peaking gas turbines which currently fire kerosene and #2 oil. Our paper...

  10. California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    fraction of residential and commercial demands, leading16 Residential electricity demand endspecific residential electricity demands into electricity

  11. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Rongxin

    2010-01-01

    2007). “Impact of Electricity Rate Structure on Energy Costside, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate theto understand the impact of electricity rate structures on

  12. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Rongxin

    2010-01-01

    and Passive Building Thermal Storage Utilization. ” JournalControl of Passive Thermal Storage. ” ASHRAE Transactions,due to the high thermal storage during the pre-cooling

  13. Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Control of Building Thermal Storage. ASHRAE Transactions 96(Control of Building Thermal Storage. ASHRAE Transactions1992. Heat Storage in Building Thermal Mass: A Parametric

  14. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Rongxin

    2010-01-01

    of HVAC Simulations Between EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 for DataTool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypesprototypical building using an EnergyPlus simulation model (

  15. Impact of Reflective Roofing on Cooling Electrical Use and Peak Demand in a Florida Retail Mall 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sonne, J. K.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    in California's climate (Akbari et al., 1991, 1992, 1997). In Florida, field research by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) since 1993 has quantified the impact of reflective roof coatings on sub-metered air conditioning (AC) consumption in tests in a dozen...

  16. How are flat demand charges based on the highest peak over the past 12

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View NewGuam: Energyarea,Magazine Jump to:II

  17. Peak Travel, Peak Car and the Future of Mobility: Evidence, Unresolved...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peak Travel, Peak Car and the Future of Mobility: Evidence, Unresolved Issues, Policy Implications, and a Research Agenda Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  18. Electrical Energy and Demand Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC at Fort Polk, LA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    1997-06-01

    At Fort Polk, Louisiana, the space-conditioning systems of an entire city (4,003 military family housing units) have been converted to geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) under an energy savings performance contract. At the same time, other efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lights, low-flow hot water outlets, and attic insulation, were installed. Pre- and post-retrofit data were taken at 15-minute intervals on energy flows through the electrical distribution feeders that serve the family housing areas of the post. Fifteen-minute interval data were also taken on energy use from a sample of the residences. The analysis presented in this paper shows that for a typical meteorological year, the retrofits result in an electrical energy savings of approximately 25.6 million kWh, or 32.4% of the pre-retrofit electrical use in family housing. Peak electrical demand has also been reduced by about 6.8 MW, which is 40% of pre-retrofit peak demand. In addition, the retrofits save about 260,000 therms per year of natural gas. It should be noted that the energy savings presented in this document are the 'apparent' energy savings observed in the monitored data and are not to be mistaken for the 'contracted' energy savings used as the basis for payments. To determine the 'contracted' energy savings, the 'apparent' energy savings may require adjustments for such things as changes in indoor temperature performance criteri, addition of ceiling fans, and other factors.

  19. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-28

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.?

  20. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    retail regulatory authority prohibit such activity. Demand response integration into US wholesale power marketsretail or wholesale level. 17 While demand response began participating at scale in wholesale power markets

  1. Demand Relief and Weather Sensitivity in Large California Commercial Office Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, S.; Piette, M. A.; Gu, L.; Haves, P.

    2001-01-01

    A great deal of research has examined the weather sensitivity of energy consumption in commercial buildings; however, the recent power crisis in California has given greater importance to peak demand. Several new loadshedding programs have been...

  2. Deep Demand Response: The Case Study of the CITRIS Building at the University of California-Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Deep Demand Response: The Case Study of the CITRIS Building at the University of California quality. We have made progress towards achieving deep demand response of 30% reduction of peak loads modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless

  3. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

  4. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2DepartmentDelta Dental Claim Form PDF iconDemand

  5. Revelation on Demand Nicolas Anciaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revelation on Demand Nicolas Anciaux 1 · Mehdi Benzine1,2 · Luc Bouganim1 · Philippe Pucheral1 "revelation on demand". Keywords: Confidentiality and privacy, Secure device, Data warehousing, Indexing model

  6. by popular demand: Addiction II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niv, Yael

    by popular demand: Addiction II PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making: Psychological, size of other non-drug rewards, and cost (but ultimately the demand is inelastic, or at least

  7. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProject Developsfor UCNIEnvironmental Impact StatementRecoveryRedDepartmentof

  8. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7,DOERTI |Service of ColoradoHybridReducingofCodes

  9. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeedingConnect(Conference) |(Patent) | SciTech ConnectRedSilica

  10. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeedingConnect(Conference) |(Patent) | SciTech ConnectRedSilicaSilica

  11. Chord on Demand Alberto Montresor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jelasity, Márk

    Chord on Demand Alberto Montresor University of Bologna, Italy montresor@cs.unibo.it M´ark Jelasity to solve a specific task on demand. We introduce T- CHORD, that can build a Chord network efficiently to solve a specific task on demand. Existing join protocols are not designed to handle the massive

  12. Supply Chain Supernetworks Random Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands June Dong and Ding Zhang Department of Marketing of three tiers of decision-makers: the manufacturers, the distributors, and the retailers, with the demands equilibrium model with electronic commerce and with random demands for which modeling, qualitative analysis

  13. Chord on Demand Alberto Montresor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chord on Demand Alberto Montresor University of Bologna, Italy montresor@cs.unibo.it Mark Jelasity to solve a specific task on demand. We introduce T- CHORD, that can build a Chord network efficiently on demand. Existing join protocols are not designed to handle the massive concurrency involved in a jump

  14. ERCOT Demand Response Paul Wattles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    ERCOT Demand Response Paul Wattles Senior Analyst, Market Design & Development, ERCOT Whitacre;Definitions of Demand Response · `The short-term adjustment of energy use by consumers in response to price to market or reliability conditions.' (NAESB) #12;Definitions of Demand Response · The common threads

  15. Assessment of Demand Response Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for PGE and Pacific Power Prepared for: Portland January 15, 2004 K:\\Projects\\2003-53 (PGE,PC) Assess Demand Response\\Report\\Revised Report_011504.doc #12;#12;quantec Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for I-1 PGE and Pacific Power I. Introduction

  16. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and increased awareness of the need to standardize on emerging wireless technologies are evidence of this transformation. In addition to increased standardization of digital control protocols controller capabilities, the lighting industry has improved the performance of dimming lighting systems over the last two years. The system efficacy of today's current dimming ballasts is approaching that of non-dimming program start ballasts. The study finds that the benefits of applying digital controls technologies to California's unique commercial buildings market are enormous. If California were to embark on an concerted 20 year program to improve the demand responsiveness and energy efficiency of commercial building lighting systems, the State could avoid adding generation capacity, improve the elasticity of the grid, save Californians billion of dollars in avoided energy charges and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    for the same data. Two methods are described for forecasting daily peak loads up to one week ahead through, including generator unit commitment, hydro-thermal coordination, short-term maintenance, fuel allocation forecasting accuracies. STLF forecasting covers the daily peak load, total daily energy, and daily load curve

  18. Demand-Aware Price Policy Synthesis and Verification Services for Smart Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tronci, Enrico

    at the same time (peak hour), this may result in an economical damage (both for usage of peak power plants forcing residential end users to cut their power demand. On the other hand, if all users require energy interconnection. The first service, which we call EDN Virtual Tomography (EVT) service, considers the whole EDN

  19. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Description and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-01-01

    Development for Demand Response Calculation - Findings andStrategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency.and Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

  20. The Boson peak in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep Kumar; K. Thor Wikfeldt; Daniel Schlesinger; Lars G. M. Pettersson; H. E. Stanley

    2013-05-19

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the TIP4P/2005 model of water to investigate the origin of the Boson peak reported in experiments on supercooled water in nanoconfined pores, and in hydration water around proteins. We find that the onset of the Boson peak in supercooled bulk water coincides with the crossover to a predominantly low-density-like liquid below the Widom line $T_W$. The frequency and onset temperature of the Boson peak in our simulations of bulk water agree well with the results from experiments on nanoconfined water. Our results suggest that the Boson peak in water is not an exclusive effect of confinement. We further find that, similar to other glass-forming liquids, the vibrational modes corresponding to the Boson peak are spatially extended and are related to transverse phonons found in the parent crystal, here ice Ih.

  1. Demand relief and weather sensitivity in large California commercial office buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann; Gu, Lixing; Haves, Philip

    2001-05-01

    A great deal of research has examined the weather sensitivity of energy consumption in commercial buildings; however, the recent power crisis in California has given greater importance to peak demand. Several new load-shedding programs have been implemented or are under consideration. Historically, the target customers have been large industrial users who can reduce the equivalent load of several large office buildings. While the individual load reduction from an individual office building may be less significant, there is ample opportunity for load reduction in this area. The load reduction programs and incentives for industrial customers may not be suitable for commercial building owners. In particular, industrial customers are likely to have little variation in load from day to day. Thus a robust baseline accounting for weather variability is required to provide building owners with realistic targets that will encourage them to participate in load shedding programs.

  2. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  3. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating Demand for...

  4. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    of Energy demand-side management energy information systemdemand response. Demand-side management (DSM) program goalsa goal for demand-side management (DSM) coordination and

  5. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01

    3 2.1 Demand-Side Managementbuildings. The demand side management framework is discussedIssues 2.1 Demand-Side Management Framework Forecasting

  6. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McParland, Charles

    2010-01-01

    LBNL Commercial and Residential Demand Response Overview ofmarket [5]. Residential demand reduction programs have beenin the domain of residential demand response. There are a

  7. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    2008-01-01

    their partnership in demand response automation research andand Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities.

  8. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    8.4 Demand Response Integration . . . . . . . . . . .for each day type for the demand response study - moderatefor each day type for the demand response study - deep

  9. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities”of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

  10. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01

    2 2.0 Demand ResponseFully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

  11. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    and D. Kathan (2009). Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityEnergy Financial Group. Demand Response Research Center [2008). Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering.

  12. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Like HECO actual utility demand response implementations canindustry-wide utility demand response applications tend toobjective. Figure 4. Demand Response Objectives 17  

  13. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2009-01-01

    23 ii Retail Demand Response in SPP List of Figures and10 Figure 3. Demand Response Resources by11 Figure 4. Existing Demand Response Resources by Type of

  14. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence 2009 Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool (January...

  15. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Eto

    2014-01-01

    Barat, and D. Watson. 2007. Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby. 2009. Demand Response Spinning Reserveand B. Kirby. 2012. The Demand Response Spinning Reserve

  16. California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    duty fuel demand in alternate scenarios. ..for light-duty fuel demand in alternate scenarios. Minimum52 Heavy-duty vehicle fuel demand for each alternate

  17. California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    2006-2016: Staff energy demand forecast (Revised SeptemberCEC (2005b) Energy demand forecast methods report.California energy demand 2003-2013 forecast. California

  18. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    technology and demand side management. This study uses twoGeneration Growth Demand Side Management EV mandates or

  19. US electric utility demand-side management, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-26

    The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in US at the national, regional, and utility levels. Objective is provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions, and costs attributable to DSM.

  20. Demand Response Technology Roadmap A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meetings and workshops convened to develop content for the Demand Response Technology Roadmap. The project team has developed this companion document in the interest of providing...

  1. A perspective on the CMB acoustic peak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. A. Marriage

    2002-03-11

    CMB angular spectrum measurements suggest a flat universe. This paper clarifies the relation between geometry and the spherical harmonic index of the first acoustic peak ($\\ell_{peak}$). Numerical and analytic calculations show that $\\ell_{peak}$ is approximately a function of $\\Omega_K/\\Omega_M$ where $\\Omega_K$ and $\\Omega_M$ are the curvature ($\\Omega_K > 0$ implies an open geometry) and mass density today in units of critical density. Assuming $\\Omega_K/\\Omega_M \\ll 1$, one obtains a simple formula for $\\ell_{peak}$, the derivation of which gives another perspective on the widely-recognized $\\Omega_M$-$\\Omega_\\Lambda$ degeneracy in flat models. This formula for near-flat cosmogonies together with current angular spectrum data yields familiar parameter constraints.

  2. QER- Comment of Cloud Peak Energy Inc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Dear Ms Pickett Please find attached comments from Cloud Peak Energy as input to the Department of Energy’s Quadrennial Energy Review. If possible I would appreciate a confirmation that this email has been received Thank you.

  3. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  4. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01

    Tables Table 1: Energy efficiency, daily load management andoptimization); peak load management (for daily operations);Operations Peak Load Management (Daily) - TOU Savings - Peak

  5. Supply Chain Supernetworks With Random Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Supernetworks With Random Demands June Dong Ding Zhang School of Business State Field Warehouses: stocking points Customers, demand centers sinks Production/ purchase costs Inventory Customer Demand Customer Demand Retailer OrdersRetailer Orders Distributor OrdersDistributor Orders

  6. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  7. Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the Better...

  8. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection for Demand-side Management for QualifyingPrepared by Demand-side Management Task Force of the

  9. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility,...

  10. Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, P.

    2010-01-01

    Acknowledgments SUMMARY Electricity Demand ElectricityAdverse Impacts ELECTRICITY DEMAND . . . .Demand forElectricity Sales Electricity Demand by Major Utility

  11. An Autonomous Demand Response Program in Smart Grid with Foresighted Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    An Autonomous Demand Response Program in Smart Grid with Foresighted Users Shahab Bahrami, Vancouver, Canada email: {bahramis, vincentw}@ece.ubc.ca Abstract--In smart grid, demand response also benefit by reducing its total cost. In most of the existing studies, the demand response program

  12. Real-Time Pricing for Demand Response Based on Stochastic Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    1 Real-Time Pricing for Demand Response Based on Stochastic Approximation Pedram Samadi, Student to reduce their energy expenses. Keywords: Demand response, real-time pricing, PAR minimiza- tion, stochastic approximation, simultaneous perturbation. I. INTRODUCTION Demand response (DR) is an important

  13. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-10-08

    The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

  14. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  15. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01

    capacity prices Lower energy prices Participant Reduced svc$42 million); lxi Reduced energy prices during tight supply+ Reduced wholesale energy prices due to sustained energy

  16. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  17. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  18. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

  19. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

  20. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    electricity. In this manner, demand side management is directly integrated into the wholesale capacity marketcapacity market U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Reliability Coordinating Council incremental auctions independent electricity

  1. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-

  2. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management``, presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. AMI Communication Requirements to Implement Demand-Response: Applicability of Hybrid Spread Spectrum Wireless

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2011-09-30

    While holistically defining the smart grid is a challenge, one area of interest is demand-response. In 2009, the Department of Energy announced over $4 billion in grant and project funding for the Smart Grid. A significant amount of this funding was allotted to utilities for cost sharing projects to deploy Smart Grid technologies, many of whom have deployed and are deploying advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI is an enabler to increase the efficiency of utilities and the bulk power grid. The bulk electrical system is unique in that it produces electricity as it is consumed. Most other industries have a delay between generation and consumption. This aspect of the power grid means that there must be enough generation capacity to meet the highest demand whereas other industries could over produce during off-peak times. This requires significant investment in generation capacity to cover the few days a year of peak consumption. Since bulk electrical storage doesn't yet exist at scale another way to curb the need for new peak period generation is through demand-response; that is to incentivize consumers (demand) to curtail (respond) electrical usage during peak periods. Of the various methods proposed for enabling demand-response, this paper will focus on the communication requirements for creating an energy market using transactional controls. More specifically, the paper will focus on the communication requirements needed to send the peak period notices and receive the response back from the consumers.

  5. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Wray, Craig; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  6. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and implement a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of demand response resources and to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to assess economic value of the realizable potential of demand response for ancillary services.

  7. Physically-based demand modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calloway, Terry Marshall

    1980-01-01

    nts on the demand. Of course the demand of a real a1r cond1t1oner has lower and upper bounds equal to 0 and 0 , respec- u tively. A constra1ned system can be simulated numerically, but there 1s no explicit system response formula s1m11ar... sect1on. It may now be instruct1ve to relate this model to that of Jones and Bri ce [5] . The average demand pred1 cted by their model is the expected value of the product of a load response factor 0 and a U sw1tching process H(t), which depends...

  8. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric power purchase agreement peak timein structure to a power purchase agreement (PPA) that athe need to purchase high-priced power, all customers in a

  9. Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

    2014-09-05

    Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

  10. Demand Controlled Filtration in an Industrial Cleanroom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulkner, David; DiBartolomeo, Dennis; Wang, Duo

    2007-09-01

    In an industrial cleanroom, significant energy savings were realized by implementing two types of demand controlled filtration (DCF) strategies, one based on particle counts and one on occupancy. With each strategy the speed of the recirculation fan filter units was reduced to save energy. When the control was based on particle counts, the energy use was 60% of the baseline configuration of continuous fan operation. With simple occupancy sensors, the energy usage was 63% of the baseline configuration. During the testing of DCF, no complaints were registered by the operator of the cleanroom concerning processes and products being affected by the DCF implementation.

  11. Seasonality in air transportation demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichard Megwinoff, H?tor Nicolas

    1988-01-01

    This thesis investigates the seasonality of demand in air transportation. It presents three methods for computing seasonal indices. One of these methods, the Periodic Average Method, is selected as the most appropriate for ...

  12. Demand response enabling technology development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring in an Agent-Based Smart Home, Proceedings of theConference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, September,Smart Meter Motion sensors Figure 1: Schematic of the Demand Response Electrical Appliance Manager in a Home.

  13. Full Rank Rational Demand Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T; Pope, Rulon D.

    2006-01-01

    Dover Publications 1972. Barnett, W.A. and Y.W. Lee. “TheEconometrica 53 (1985): 1421- Barnett, W.A. , Lee, Y.W. ,Laurent demand systems (Barnett and Lee 1985; Barnett, Lee,

  14. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  15. Marketing Demand-Side Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neill, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    Demand-Side Management is an organizational tool that has proven successful in various realms of the ever changing business world in the past few years. It combines the multi-faceted desires of the customers with the increasingly important...

  16. Preliminary Assumptions for Natural Gas Peaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; adjusted to 2012$, state construction cost index, vintage of cost estimate, scope of estimate to extent's Discussion Aeroderivative Gas Turbine Technology Proposed reference plant and assumptions Preliminary cost Robbins 2 #12;Peaking Power Plant Characteristics 6th Power Plan ($2006) Unit Size (MW) Capital Cost ($/k

  17. Recovery Act: Data Center Transfer from “Always On” to “Always Available” to Reduce Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeiffer, Clemens; Kulali, Emre

    2012-12-31

    The project encompasses the solution to the problem of underutilized IT resources in and across data centers, which is to develop an “On Demand” operational model. Within this context, by keeping the optimum number of servers online at any time to meet actual customer demand, data center operators are able to generate significant cost and energy savings. Servers that are not needed to meet demand are taken offline automatically. They are brought online dynamically as demand increases, thus matching customer demand with the computing supply needed to guarantee expected service levels. The swings between peak and non-peak usage become a cost reduction opportunity.

  18. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  19. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01

    A. Barat, D. Watson. 2006 Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby 2008. Demand Response Spinning ReserveReport 2009. Open Automated Demand Response Communications

  20. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mares, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    Standardized Automated Demand Response Signals. Presented atand Automated Demand Response in Industrial RefrigeratedActions for Industrial Demand Response in California. LBNL-

  1. Optimal Demand Response and Power Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willett, Rebecca

    Optimal Demand Response and Power Flow Steven Low Computing + Math Sciences Electrical Engineering #12;Outline Optimal demand response n With L. Chen, L. Jiang, N. Li Optimal power flow n With S. Bose;Optimal demand response Model Results n Uncorrelated demand: distributed alg n Correlated demand

  2. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    vis- à-vis lowering electricity demand), as efficiencygce/kWh) in 2050 Total electricity demand reaches 9100 TWhin 2050 Total electricity demand reaches 7,764 TWh in 2050

  3. Dense Servers for Reduced Energy Use and Facility Space Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    architecture where hundreds of mini motherboards are linked together with integrated switching for load balancing to meet computing demand. SeaMicro's servers reduce power...

  4. REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022 Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Demand Bill Junker Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS

  5. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 REVISED FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates, and relatively low CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 REVISED FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION

  6. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2014­2024 FINAL FORECAST Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Demand Gough Office Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS

  7. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Eto

    2014-01-01

    Barat, and D. Watson. 2007. Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby. 2009. Demand Response Spinning ReserveFormat of 2009-2011 Demand Response Activity Applications.

  8. Central peaking of magnetized gas discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Francis F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Curreli, Davide [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Partially ionized gas discharges used in industry are often driven by radiofrequency (rf) power applied at the periphery of a cylinder. It is found that the plasma density n is usually flat or peaked on axis even if the skin depth of the rf field is thin compared with the chamber radius a. Previous attempts at explaining this did not account for the finite length of the discharge and the boundary conditions at the endplates. A simple 1D model is used to focus on the basic mechanism: the short-circuit effect. It is found that a strong electric field (E-field) scaled to electron temperature T{sub e}, drives the ions inward. The resulting density profile is peaked on axis and has a shape independent of pressure or discharge radius. This “universal” profile is not affected by a dc magnetic field (B-field) as long as the ion Larmor radius is larger than a.

  9. Desert Peak EGS Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 20153Danielthrough theKDesert Peak EGS Project DOE

  10. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  11. Peak power tracking for a solar buck charger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Jeremy Michael, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design, implementation, and testing of a buck converter with peak power tracking. The peak power tracker uses a perturb and observe algorithm to actively track the solar panel's peak power point ...

  12. An alternative interpretation for cosmic ray peaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Doojin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an alternative mechanism based upon dark matter (DM) interpretation for anomalous peak signatures in cosmic ray measurements, assuming an extended dark sector with two DM species. This is contrasted with previous effort to explain various line-like cosmic-ray excesses in the context of DM models where the relevant DM candidate directly annihilates into Standard Model (SM) particles. The heavier DM is assumed to annihilate to an on-shell intermediate state. As the simplest choice, it decays directly into the lighter DM along with an unstable particle which in turn decays to a pair of SM states corresponding to the interesting cosmic anomaly. We show that a sharp continuum energy peak can be readily generated under the proposed DM scenario, depending on dark sector particle mass spectra. Remarkably, such a peak is robustly identified as half the mass of the unstable particle. Furthermore, other underlying mass parameters are analytically related to the shape of energy spectrum. We apply this idea to ...

  13. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  14. Analysis of Residential Demand Response and Double-Auction Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-10-10

    Demand response and dynamic pricing programs are expected to play increasing roles in the modern Smart Grid environment. While direct load control of end-use loads has existed for decades, price driven response programs are only beginning to be explored at the distribution level. These programs utilize a price signal as a means to control demand. Active markets allow customers to respond to fluctuations in wholesale electrical costs, but may not allow the utility to control demand. Transactive markets, utilizing distributed controllers and a centralized auction can be used to create an interactive system which can limit demand at key times on a distribution system, decreasing congestion. With the current proliferation of computing and communication resources, the ability now exists to create transactive demand response programs at the residential level. With the combination of automated bidding and response strategies coupled with education programs and customer response, emerging demand response programs have the ability to reduce utility demand and congestion in a more controlled manner. This paper will explore the effects of a residential double-auction market, utilizing transactive controllers, on the operation of an electric power distribution system.

  15. On-Demand Based Wireless Resources Trading for Green Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Wenchi; Zhang, Hailin; Wang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Green Communications is to reduce the energy consumption of the communication system as much as possible without compromising the quality of service (QoS) for users. An effective approach for Green Wireless Communications is On-Demand strategy, which scales power consumption with the volume and location of user demand. Applying the On-Demand Communications model, we propose a novel scheme -- Wireless Resource Trading, which characterizes the trading relationship among different wireless resources for a given number of performance metrics. According to wireless resource trading relationship, different wireless resources can be consumed for the same set of performance metrics. Therefore, to minimize the energy consumption for given performance metrics, we can trade the other type of wireless resources for the energy resource under the demanded performance metrics. Based on the wireless resource trading relationship, we derive the optimal energy-bandwidth and energy-time wireless resource trading ...

  16. OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY Richard Perez-shore wind and PV generation using the city of New York as a test case. While wind generation is not known one year's worth of hourly site & time-specific data including electrical demand PV and off-shore wind

  17. Exponential Communication Ine ciency of Demand Queries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandholm, Tuomas W.

    FORECAST COMBINATION IN REVENUE MANAGEMENT DEMAND FORECASTING SILVIA RIEDEL A thesissubmitted Combination in RevenueManagement Demand Forecasting Abstract The domain of multi level forecastcombination

  18. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating...

  19. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    demand response: ? Distribution utility ? ISO ? Aggregator (demand response less obstructive and inconvenient for the customer (particularly if DR resources are aggregated by a load aggregator).

  20. California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    annual per-capita electricity consumption by demand15 California electricity consumption projections by demandannual per-capita electricity consumption by demand

  1. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    California Long-term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan. B-2 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response> B-4 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

  2. Supply chain planning decisions under demand uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanfeng Anna

    2008-01-01

    Sales and operational planning that incorporates unconstrained demand forecasts has been expected to improve long term corporate profitability. Companies are considering such unconstrained demand forecasts in their decisions ...

  3. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    > B-2 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response> B-4 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Responseand integration is: Energy efficiency, energy conservation,

  4. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades May 14, 2015 12:30PM to 2:00PM EDT Learn more...

  5. Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission January 6, 2005 Mike Koszalka Director;Demand Response Results, 2004 Load Control ­ Cool Keeper ­ ID Irrigation Load Control Price Responsive

  6. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balat, M. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  7. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  9. Adaptive architectures for peak power management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kontorinis, Vasileios

    2013-01-01

    center (capital expenses, or capex) and monthly recurringexpenses (opex) [HB09]. Capex costs are proportional to thethe data center to reduce both capex and opex costs. Power

  10. Adaptive architectures for peak power management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kontorinis, Vasileios

    2013-01-01

    targeted at the average power), saving wall power. Realisticassociated costs like wall-power cost, cooling, and powertranslates to reduced wall power costs, that is lower elec-

  11. Demand Response and Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IC-09-11-05.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 14615 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IC-09-11-05.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Demand Response... 4 An Innovative Solution to Get the Ball Rolling ? Demand Response (DR) ? Monitoring Based Commissioning (MBCx) EnerNOC has a solution involving two complementary offerings. ESL-IC-09-11-05 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference...

  12. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    when called to do so. Daily Peak Load Management: Dailypeak load management is done in many buildings to minimizeimplement daily peak load management. Decisions about when

  13. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01

    Operations Peak Load Management (Daily) - TOU Savings - Peakefficiency, daily load management and DR Energy Efficiency:methods Daily Peak Load Management: Advances in metering

  14. First symposium on safety and standardisation of ultrasound in obstetrics 0 G. KOSSOFFand S. B. BARNETT 101 peak positive and peak negative acoustic pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    . BARNETT 101 peak positive and peak negative acoustic pressure (P' and a-) location of both of the peak

  15. Pilot Peak Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | Open EnergyPhoenicia,Creek,Pilgrim Hot SpringsPillow,Peak

  16. Mt Peak Utility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to: navigation, searchsource HistoryCharleston,Peak Utility Jump to:

  17. Revelation on Demand Nicolas Anciaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is willing to reveal the aggregate response (according to his company's policy) to the customer dataRevelation on Demand Nicolas Anciaux 1 · Mehdi Benzine1,2 · Luc Bouganim1 · Philippe Pucheral1 time to support epidemiological studies. In these and many other situations, aggregate data or partial

  18. Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services: A Comparison of Opportunities and Challenges in US to operate (likely price takers) ­ Statistical reliability (property of large aggregations of small resources size based on Mid-Atlantic Reserve Zone #12;Market Rules: Resource Size Min. Size (MW) Aggregation

  19. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% ? 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  20. Water demand management in Kuwait

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...

  1. On-demand data broadcasting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kothandaraman, Kannan

    1998-01-01

    related to on-demand data broadcasting. We look at the problem of data broadcasting in an environment where clients make explicit requests to the server. The server broadcasts requested data items to all the clients, including those who have not requested...

  2. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01

    nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, asPakenas Energy extraction from municipal effluent streamsthe waste stream also greatly reduces the amount of energy

  3. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure,study of automated demand response in wastewater treatmentopportunities for demand response control strategies in

  4. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01

    Report 2009. Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsand Techniques for Demand Response. California Energyand S. Kiliccote. Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts:

  5. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee T.

    2009-01-01

    and Techniques for Demand Response, report for theand Reliability Demand Response Programs: Final Report.Demand Response

  6. Incorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satchwell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Aggregator Programs. Demand Response Measurement andIncorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection13 Demand Response Dispatch

  7. Upply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Upply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands June Dong & Ding Zhang School of Business State Warehouses: stocking points Field Warehouses: stocking points Customers, demand centers sinks Production Commerce and Value Chain Management, 1998 Customer Demand Customer Demand Retailer OrdersRetailer Orders

  8. Design and Implementation of an Open, Interoperable AutomatedDemand Response Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automating demand response (DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation and improved reliability and repeatability of the demand response and customer facilities. Automated DR systems have been deployed for critical peak pricing and demand bidding and are being designed for real time pricing. The system is designed to generate, manage, and track DR signals between utilities and Independent System Operators (ISOs) to aggregators and end-use customers and their control systems.

  9. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Han, Junqiao; Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Asano, Hiroshi; Kiliccote, Sila

    2009-06-28

    This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. The proposed models examined their performances from the viewpoint of validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial customers who participated in the 2008 Critical Peak Pricing program including Manual and Automated Demand Response.

  10. Optimal Deployment of Thermal Energy Storage under Diverse Economic and Climate Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California. J. Appl.driver of summer peak electricity demand [1]. Cooling loadsalso reduced peak electricity demand by 13% to 30% across

  11. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  12. Gamow peak approximation near strong resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachie Kimura; Aldo Bonasera

    2013-05-09

    We discuss the most effective energy range for charged particle induced reactions in a plasma environment at a given plasma temperature. The correspondence between the plasma temperature and the most effective energy should be modified from the one given by the Gamow peak energy, in the presence of a significant incident-energy dependence in the astrophysical S-factor as in the case of resonant reactions. The suggested modification of the effective energy range is important not only in thermonuclear reactions at high temperature in the stellar environment, e.g., in advanced burning stages of massive stars and in explosive stellar environment, as it has been already claimed, but also in the application of the nuclear reactions driven by ultra-intense laser pulse irradiations.

  13. Demand Response For Power System Reliability: FAQ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2006-12-01

    Demand response is the most underutilized power system reliability resource in North America. Technological advances now make it possible to tap this resource to both reduce costs and improve. Misconceptions concerning response capabilities tend to force loads to provide responses that they are less able to provide and often prohibit them from providing the most valuable reliability services. Fortunately this is beginning to change with some ISOs making more extensive use of load response. This report is structured as a series of short questions and answers that address load response capabilities and power system reliability needs. Its objective is to further the use of responsive load as a bulk power system reliability resource in providing the fastest and most valuable ancillary services.

  14. Examining Uncertainty in Demand Response Baseline Models and Variability in Automated Response to Dynamic Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01

    that pre-cool, rebound, or otherwise shift energy use to theexhibit almost no rebound and save some energy on DR days,kW) Rebound (kW) Daily Peak Demand (kW) Daily Energy (kWh) a

  15. Bottom-Up Self-Organization of Unpredictable Demand and Supply under Decentralized Power Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wedde, Horst F.

    level of granularity, with short-term power balance fluctuation, in terms of a peak demand and supply, distributed power production at lower voltage levels (through wind turbines or solar panels) is considered, as this depends on external environmental conditions (e.g. solar and wind power). In Electrical Engineering

  16. Reducing the Peak Power through Real-Time Scheduling Techniques in Cyber-Physical Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipari, Giuseppe

    districts organized in smart grids [5]. On the other hand, the diffusion of compact, flexible and low], large networks of electric cars [4], and automated energy supply and distribution for town and city

  17. INTEGRATING MEA REGENERATION WITH CO2 COMPRESSION AND PEAKING TO REDUCE CO2 CAPTURE COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    by combining use of the heat integration configurations evaluated in this study and for the support and guidance of the DOE/NETL project manager, Jose D. Figueroa. Platte River Power Authority's insight on integrating a CO2 capture system into a full-scale power plant was also of great value

  18. Peak Population: Timing and Influences of Peak Energy on the World and the United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warner, Kevin 1987-

    2012-11-28

    Peak energy is the notion that the world’s total production of usable energy will reach a maximum value and then begin an inexorable decline. Ninety-two percent of the world’s energy is currently derived from the non-renewable sources (oil, coal...

  19. Off-peak cooling using phase change material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Charles Crisp

    1979-01-01

    The electric utilities in the United States are faced with continued rapid growth in electrical demand. The traditional response to growth in demand has been the expansion of generating capacity. However, economic, ...

  20. A Truthful Incentive Mechanism for Emergency Demand Response in Colocation Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Shaolei

    program, the operator has to rely on the highly expensive and/or environmentally-unfriendly on-site energy--Data centers are key participants in demand re- sponse programs, including emergency demand response (EDR of incentives to reduce energy consumption by tenants who control their servers and are typically on fixed power

  1. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01

    to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improvedue to reduced wholesale energy and capacity prices; (5)DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve

  2. Peak-Coincident Demand Savings from Behavior-Based Programs: Evidence from PPL Electric's Behavior and Education Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, James

    2013-01-01

    such as cooling degree hours as explanatory variables on thethe equation . A cooling degree hour (CDH) is the maximum of

  3. Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity Peak-demand Mitigation: A Solution in Developing and Developed World Alike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    N ATIONAL L ABORATORY Thermal Energy Storage for Electricity20, 2012. I. Dincer, On thermal energy storage systems andin research on cold thermal energy storage, International

  4. Abstract--This paper formulates and develops a peak demand control tool for electric systems within the framework of direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    . The generic model presented herein is evaluated in an actual urban substation, characterized by a predominant commercial consumption, by the contribution of the air conditioning systems in the substation loads expansions. Currently, the high investment costs in new capacity have taken distribution firms to search

  5. Peak-Coincident Demand Savings from Behavior-Based Programs: Evidence from PPL Electric's Behavior and Education Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, James

    2013-01-01

    kW from residential load management programs (EIA, 2012).States are employing load-management strategies to reducefrom residential load management programs. Thus, from a

  6. Peak-Coincident Demand Savings from Behavior-Based Programs: Evidence from PPL Electric's Behavior and Education Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, James

    2013-01-01

    savings derived from air-conditioning efficiency measures.measures that increased air-conditioning efficiency, their electricity use and savings

  7. Managing the Night Off-Peak Power Demand in the Central Region UPS with Newly Commissioned NPP Capacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aminov, R. Z. [Saratov Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Pron’, D. M. [Yu. A. Gagarin Saratov State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-15

    The use of hydrogen technologies as a controlled-load consumer based on the newly commissioned base-load nuclear power plants to level out the daily load profile is justified for the Unified Power System (UPS) of the Central Region of Russia, as an example, for the period till 2020.

  8. Reducing Energy Costs And Minimizing Capital Requirements: Case Studies of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrepont, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Large cooling systems typically represent substantial capital investments and incur high operating energy costs. Cooling loads tend to peak during times of year and times of day when high ambient temperatures create a maximum demand for power...

  9. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The2/01/12 Page 1NEWSSupportcoal demand seen below

  10. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Wang, Qiao

    2014-03-20

    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ? ? 3 is ?11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ?7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg{sup 2}, the bias in (? {sub m}, ?{sub 8}) is already intolerably large and close to 3?. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter fitting.

  11. Exploiting User Generated Content for Mountain Peak Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tagliasacchi, Marco

    Exploiting User Generated Content for Mountain Peak Detection Roman Fedorov Politecnico di Milano.g. snow water availability maps based on mountain peaks states extracted from photographs hosting services). User Generated Content(UGC); collective intelligence; passive crowdsourcing; environmental models

  12. Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xiaoming

    Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands Tianyin Xu, Yang Chen, Lei Jiao, Ben-server architecture has not scaled with user demands, lead- ing to server overload and significant impairment

  13. Michel Meulpolder Managing Supply and Demand of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Meulpolder Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities #12;#12;Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de

  14. REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022 Volume 2: Electricity Demand by Utility OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION Robert P

  15. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates, and relatively low efficiency program CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Manager Bill Junker Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

  16. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    incorporates relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION Robert P. Oglesby Executive

  17. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    incorporates relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION Robert P

  18. Solar in Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar in Demand Solar in Demand June 15, 2012 - 10:23am Addthis Kyle Travis, left and Jon Jackson, with Lighthouse Solar, install microcrystalline PV modules on top of Kevin...

  19. Demand Effects in Productivity and Efficiency Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chia-Yen

    2012-07-16

    Demand fluctuations will bias the measurement of productivity and efficiency. This dissertation described three ways to characterize the effect of demand fluctuations. First, a two-dimensional efficiency decomposition (2DED) of profitability...

  20. Industrial Equipment Demand and Duty Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, E. S.; Heffington, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    Demand and duty factors have been measured for selected equipment (air compressors, electric furnaces, injection molding machines, centrifugal loads, and others) in industrial plants. Demand factors for heavily loaded air ...

  1. Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in California Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatikar, Girish; McKane, Aimee; Goli, Sasank; Therkelsen, Peter; Olsen, Daniel

    2012-01-18

    California's electricity markets are moving toward dynamic pricing models, such as real-time pricing, within the next few years, which could have a significant impact on an industrial facility's cost of energy use during the times of peak use. Adequate controls and automated systems that provide industrial facility managers real-time energy use and cost information are necessary for successful implementation of a comprehensive electricity strategy; however, little is known about the current control capacity of California industries. To address this gap, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in close collaboration with California industrial trade associations, conducted a survey to determine the current state of controls technologies in California industries. This,study identifies sectors that have the technical capability to implement Demand Response (DR) and Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In an effort to assist policy makers and industry in meeting the challenges of real-time pricing, facility operational and organizational factors were taken into consideration to generate recommendations on which sectors Demand Response efforts should be focused. Analysis of the survey responses showed that while the vast majority of industrial facilities have semi- or fully automated control systems, participation in Demand Response programs is still low due to perceived barriers. The results also showed that the facilities that use continuous processes are good Demand Response candidates. When comparing facilities participating in Demand Response to those not participating, several similarities and differences emerged. Demand Response-participating facilities and non-participating facilities had similar timings of peak energy use, production processes, and participation in energy audits. Though the survey sample was smaller than anticipated, the results seemed to support our preliminary assumptions. Demonstrations of Auto-Demand Response in industrial facilities with good control capabilities are needed to dispel perceived barriers to participation and to investigate industrial subsectors suggested of having inherent Demand Response potential.

  2. Demand-based Optimal Control to Save Energy: A Case-Study in a Medical Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, I. S.; Song, L.; Liu, M.; Carico, M.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous Commissioning®1 (CC®) strategies include reducing simultaneous heating and cooling, scheduling the facility’s occupancy needs, utilizing free cooling, and minimizing excessive supply air and outside air. Most significantly, this demand...

  3. The Window Market in Texas: Opportunities for Energy Savings and Demand Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarnikau, J.; Campbell, L.

    2002-01-01

    The use of high performance windows represents a promising opportunity to reduce energy consumption and summer electrical demand in homes and commercial buildings in Texas and neighboring states. While low-e glass coatings and other energy...

  4. CO2 - Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation Control Strategies for Multi-Zone HVAC Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nassif, N.

    2011-01-01

    CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV strategy offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC systems while providing the required ventilation. However, implementing CO2-based DCV under ASHRAE 62.1.2004 through 2010...

  5. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes existing research and discusses current practices, opportunities, and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response programs.

  6. Decentralized demand management for water distribution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabolio, Dow Joseph

    1989-01-01

    OF THE DEMAND CURVE 30 31 35 39 Model Development Results 39 45 VI CONTROLLER DESIGN AND COSTS 49 Description of Controller Production and Installation Costs 49 50 VII SYSTEM EVALUATION AND ECONOMICS 53 System Response and Degree of Control... Patterns 9 Typical Winter Diurnal Patterns 10 Trace of Marginal Pump Efficiency and Hourly Demand 11 Original Demand Distribution and Possible Redistributions 33 34 40 41 43 46 12 Typical Nodal Responses to Demand Change 54 ix LIST OF TABLES...

  7. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  8. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across U.S. Regions of the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles for demand response that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study.

  9. GTA P.M. PEAK MODEL Version 2.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    WORKING DRAFT GTA P.M. PEAK MODEL Version 2.0 And HALTON REGION SUB-MODEL Documentation & Users' Guide Prepared by Peter Dalton July 2001 #12;GTA P.M. Model Page 2 30/05/2002 Contents 1.0 P.M. Peak ................................................................................................ 4 Table 1 - Features of the P.M. Peak Period Model

  10. The University of Oklahoma Peak People Temporary Services Appointment Notification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    The University of Oklahoma Peak People Temporary Services Appointment Notification Please read of Oklahoma. Peak Appointment -This section is to be completed by the hiring department. Print Peak Person will not be eligible for any of the University of Oklahoma's benefit programs except for the 403(b) and 457(b

  11. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  12. Demand Queries with Preprocessing Uriel Feige

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Queries with Preprocessing Uriel Feige and Shlomo Jozeph May 1, 2014 )>IJH=?J Given a set of items and a submodular set-function f that determines the value of every subset of items, a demand query, the value of S minus its price. The use of demand queries is well motivated in the context of com

  13. DemandDriven Pointer Analysis Nevin Heintze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tardieu, Olivier

    Demand­Driven Pointer Analysis Nevin Heintze Research, Agere Systems (formerly Lucent Technologies analysis of a pro­ gram or program component. In this paper we introduce a demand­driven approach for pointer analysis. Specifically, we describe a demand­driven flow­insensitive, subset­based, context

  14. Airline Pilot Demand Projections What this is-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    60 Mobile applications constantly demand additional memory, and traditional designs increase but also e-mail, Internet access, digital camera features, and video on demand. With feature expansion demanding additional storage and memory in all com- puting devices, DRAM and flash memory densities

  15. Algorithms Demands and Bounds Applications of Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kabanets, Valentine

    2/28/2014 1 Algorithms ­ Demands and Bounds Applications of Flow Networks Design and Analysis of Algorithms Andrei Bulatov Algorithms ­ Demands and Bounds 12-2 Lower Bounds The problem can be generalized) capacities (ii) demands (iii) lower bounds A circulation f is feasible if (Capacity condition) For each e E

  16. Adapton: Composable, Demand-Driven Incremental Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Michael

    Adapton: Composable, Demand-Driven Incremental Computation CS-TR-5027 -- July 12, 2013 Matthew A demands on the program output; that is, if a program input changes, all depen- dencies will be recomputed. To address these problems, we present cdd ic , a core calculus that applies a demand-driven seman- tics

  17. Pricing Cloud Bandwidth Reservations under Demand Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Heap Assumptions on Demand Andreas Podelski1 , Andrey Rybalchenko2 , and Thomas Wies1 1 University analysis produces heap assumptions on demand to eliminate counterexamples, i.e., non-terminating abstract of a non-terminating abstract computation, i.e., it applies shape analysis on demand. The shape analysis

  18. Demand And Response Transportation Rider's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Demand And Response Transportation Rider's Guide http://www.virginia.edu/parking/disabilities/dart Version 14.5 (8/13/14) Welcome DART Rider: The Demand and Response Transportation (DART) Service rides: #12;Demand And Response Transportation Rider's Guide http

  19. Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands Tianyin Xu1 , Yang Chen1 , Lei Jiao1 client-server architecture has not scaled with user demands, leading to server overload and significant #12;Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands 21 producing effective predictions

  20. Demande de diplmes NOM,Prnom : ......................................................................................................................

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamroukhi, Faicel

    Optimal demand response: problem formulation and deterministic case Lijun Chen, Na Li, Libin Jiang load through real-time demand response and purchases balancing power on the spot market to meet the aggregate demand. Hence optimal supply procurement by the LSE and the consumption decisions by the users

  1. Precision On Demand: An Improvement in Probabilistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precision On Demand: An Improvement in Probabilistic Hashing Igor Melatti, Robert Palmer approach Precision on Demand or POD). #12;This paper provides a scientific evaluation of the pros and cons time likely to increase by a factor of 1.8 or less. #12;Precision On Demand: An Improvement

  2. ADAPTON: Composable, Demand-Driven Incremental Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Michael

    ADAPTON: Composable, Demand- Driven Incremental Computation Abstract Many researchers have proposed important drawbacks. First, recomputation is oblivious to specific demands on the program output; that is ic , a core calculus that applies a demand-driven semantics to incremental computa- tion, tracking

  3. Constructing Speculative Demand Functions in Equilibrium Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the Convergence of Statistical Techniques for Inferring Network Traffic Demands Alberto Medina1 of traffic demands in a communication net- work enables or enhances a variety of traffic engineering and net set of these demands is prohibitively expensive because of the huge amounts of data that must

  4. Heap Assumptions on Demand Andreas Podelski1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wies, Thomas

    Heap Assumptions on Demand Andreas Podelski1 , Andrey Rybalchenko2 , and Thomas Wies1 1 University checker and shape analysis. The shape analysis pro- duces heap assumptions on demand to eliminate.e., it applies shape analysis on demand. The shape analysis produces a heap assumption, which is an assertion

  5. Appeld'offrespublic Demanded'approvisionnement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montréal, Université de

    ATM for Video and Audio on Demand David Greaves. University of Cambridge and ATM Ltd. email: djg fast, particularly for video- on-demand. These digital streams require constant-rate digi- tal channels of the Cambridge Digital Interactive Television Trial, where Video and Audio on demand are transported to the Home

  6. Precision On Demand: An Improvement in Probabilistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precision On Demand: An Improvement in Probabilistic Hashing Igor Melatti, Robert Palmer approach Precision on Demand or POD). #12; This paper provides a scientific evaluation of the pros and cons time likely to increase by a factor of 1.8 or less. #12; Precision On Demand: An Improvement

  7. FORECAST COMBINATION IN REVENUE MANAGEMENT DEMAND FORECASTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Demandness in Rewriting and Narrowing Sergio Antoy1 and Salvador Lucas2 1 Computer Science by a strategy to compute a step. The notion of demandness provides a suitable framework for pre- senting that the notion of demandness is both atomic and fundamental to the study of strategies. 1 Introduction Modern

  8. Resolution on Demand Bianka BuschbeckWolf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyle, Uwe

    Resolution on Demand Bianka Buschbeck­Wolf Universit¨at Stuttgart Report 196 May 1997 #12; May 1997¨ur den Inhalt dieser Arbeit liegt bei der Autorin. #12; Resolution on Demand Abstract Following the strategy of resolution on demand, the transfer component triggers inference processes in analysis

  9. Heap Assumptions on Demand Andreas Podelski1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wies, Thomas

    PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATION OF A DEMAND DRIVEN NETWORK MONITORING ARCHITECTURE Augusto Ciuffoletti for demand driven monitoring, named gd2, that can be potentially integrated in the gLite framework. We capable of managing the scalability challenge offered by a Grid environment: i) demand driven

  10. Pricing Cloud Bandwidth Reservations under Demand Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Pricing Cloud Bandwidth Reservations under Demand Uncertainty Di Niu, Chen Feng, Baochun Li's utility depends not only on its bandwidth usage, but more importantly on the portion of its demand that can be made by all tenants and the cloud provider, even with the presence of demand uncertainty

  11. Transportation Energy: Supply, Demand and the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    trends in China, India, Eastern Europe and other developing areas. China oil demand +104% by 2030, India 2000 2020 2040 2060 Supply demand Energy UWM-CUTS 14 U.S. DOE viewpoint, source:http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/features/longterm.pdf#search='oilTransportation Energy: Supply, Demand and the Future http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CUTS//2050/energy05

  12. INTEGRATION OF PV IN DEMAND RESPONSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    INTEGRATION OF PV IN DEMAND RESPONSE PROGRAMS Prepared by Richard Perez et al. NREL subcontract the case that distributed PV generation deserves a substantial portion of the credit allotted to demand response programs. This is because PV generation acts as a catalyst to demand response, markedly enhancing

  13. Demand Response for Computing Jerey S. Chase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chase, Jeffrey S.

    Chapter 1 Demand Response for Computing Centers Jerey S. Chase Duke University 1.1 Introduction ............................................................... 3 1.2 Demand Response in the Emerging Smart Grid .......................... 5 1.2.1 Importance of Demand Response for Energy E ciency .......... 6 1.2.2 The Role of Renewable Energy

  14. Response to changes in demand/supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Response to changes in demand/supply through improved marketing 21.2 http with the mill consuming 450 000 m3 , amounting to 30% of total plywood log demand in 1995. The composites board, statistics of demand and supply of wood, costs and competitiveness were analysed. The reactions

  15. Response to changes in demand/supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Response to changes in demand/supply through improved marketing 21.2 #12;#12;111 Impacts of changes log demand in 1995. The composites board mills operating in Korea took advantage of flexibility environment changes on the production mix, some economic indications, statistics of demand and supply of wood

  16. Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response and Ancillary Services September 2008 #12;© 2008 EnerNOC, Inc. All Rights Reserved programs The purpose of this presentation is to offer insight into the mechanics of demand response and industrial demand response resources across North America in both regulated and restructured markets As of 6

  17. Demand Response Resources in Pacific Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Resources in Pacific Northwest Chuck Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory cagoldman@lbl.gov Pacific Northwest Demand Response Project Portland OR May 2, 2007 #12;Overview · Typology Annual Reports ­ Journal articles/Technical reports #12;Demand Response Resources · Incentive

  18. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-62226 Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study F. Rubinstein, S. Kiliccote Energy Environmental Technologies Division January 2007 #12;LBNL-62226 Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California Energy

  19. Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-2294E Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response F. Rubinstein, G. Ghatikar, J Ann Piette of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC and Environment's (CIEE) Demand Response Emerging Technologies Development (DRETD) Program, under Work for Others

  20. Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Goldman, Charles; Heffner, Grayson; Sedano, Richard

    2008-05-27

    The Organization of Midwest ISO States (OMS) launched the Midwest Demand Resource Initiative (MWDRI) in 2007 to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) region and develop policies to overcome them. The MWDRI stakeholders decided that a useful initial activity would be to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating practices. This additional detail could then be used to assess any"seams issues" affecting coordination and integration of retail DR resources with MISO's wholesale markets. Working with state regulatory agencies, we conducted a detailed survey of existing DR programs, dynamic pricing tariffs, and their features in MISO states. Utilities were asked to provide information on advance notice requirements to customers, operational triggers used to call events (e.g. system emergencies, market conditions, local emergencies), use of these DR resources to meet planning reserves requirements, DR resource availability (e.g., seasonal, annual), participant incentive structures, and monitoring and verification (M&V) protocols. This report describes the results of this comprehensive survey and discusses policy implications for integrating legacy retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs into organized wholesale markets. Survey responses from 37 MISO members and 4 non-members provided information on 141 DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs with a peak load reduction potential of 4,727 MW of retail DR resource. Major findings of this study area:- About 72percent of available DR is from interruptible rate tariffs offered to large commercial and industrial customers, while direct load control (DLC) programs account for ~;;18percent. Almost 90percent of the DR resources included in this survey are provided by investor-owned utilities. - Approximately, 90percent of the DR resources are available with less than two hours advance notice and over 1,900 MW can be dispatched on less than thirty minutes notice. These legacy DR programs are increasingly used by utilities for economic in addition to reliability purposes, with over two-thirds (68percent) of these programs callable based on market conditions. - Approximately 60percent of DLC programs and 30percent of interruptible rate programs called ten or more DR events in 2006. Despite the high frequency of DR events, customer complaints remained low. The use of economic criteria to trigger DR events and the flexibility to trigger a large number of events suggests that DR resources can help improve the efficiency of MISO wholesale markets. - Most legacy DR programs offered a reservation payment ($/kW) for participation; incentive payment levels averaged about $5/kW-month for interruptible rate tariffs and $6/kW-month for DLC programs. Few programs offered incentive payments that were explicitly linked to actual load reductions during events and at least 27 DR programs do not have penalties for non-performance. - Measurement and verification (M&V) protocols to estimate load impacts vary significantly across MISO states. Almost half of the DR programs have not been evaluated in recent times and thus performance data for DR events is not available. For many DLC programs, M&V protocols may need to be enhancedin order to allow participation in MISO's proposed EDR schedule. System operators and planners will need to develop more accurate estimates of the load reduced capability and actual performance.

  1. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  2. Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

  3. Demande de casier 20142015 1. Demande ( remplir par l'lve)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demande de casier 20142015 1. Demande (à remplir par l'élève) Nom : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Demande l'attribution d'un casier pour y déposer) : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . En cas d'acceptation de ma demande, je retirerai ma clé contre un chèque de caution d'un montant de

  4. DEMANDE DE CONGE Cette demande doit tre effectue un mois avant le dbut du semestre.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    DEMANDE DE CONGE Cette demande doit être effectuée un mois avant le début du semestre. Date de la demande .......................................................... NOM-mail .......................................................................................................................................................................... @etu.unige.ch Demande à être mis au bénéfice d'un congé pour le(s) semestre(s) suivant(s) (2 semestres

  5. Secure Demand Shaping for Smart Grid On constructing probabilistic demand response schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    Secure Demand Shaping for Smart Grid On constructing probabilistic demand response schemes. Developing novel schemes for demand response in smart electric gird is an increasingly active research area/SCADA for demand response in smart infrastructures face the following dilemma: On one hand, in order to increase

  6. Balancing China's Seasonal Intercity Travel Demand: Alternatives for Freight Rail Expansion to Reduce Seasonal Passenger Rail Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Lingling

    2013-12-31

    overwhelmedintercity transportation systems, particularly passenger rail. This transportation problem has emerged due to spatial economic imbalance: workers have had to travel betweentheir homes in rural hinterlands to factory jobs on the industrial coast, which had...

  7. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee T.

    2009-01-01

    13 Table 2. Demand Side Management Framework for IndustrialDR Strategies The demand-side management (DSM) frameworkpresented in Table 2. Demand Side Management Framework for

  8. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure.and Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayand Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

  9. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudley, June Han

    2009-01-01

    of Fully Automated Demand  Response in Large Facilities.  Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities.  Open Automated  Demand Response Communication Standards: 

  10. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    warming and electricity demand: A study of California.Extreme Heat, and Electricity Demand in California Norman L.high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned

  11. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    with Residential Electricity Demand in India's Future - How2008). The Boom of Electricity Demand in the residential2005). Forecasting Electricity Demand in Developing

  12. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01

    fuel efficiency and electricity demand assumptions used into added vehicle electricity demand in the BAU (no IGCC)to added vehicle electricity demand in the Mixed technology

  13. SAN ANTONIO SPURS DEMAND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SAN ANTONIO SPURS DEMAND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY SAN ANTONIO SPURS DEMAND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY SAN ANTONIO SPURS DEMAND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY As a city that experiences seasonal...

  14. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    2007). Coping with Residential Electricity Demand in India'sResidential Electricity Demand in China –Can EfficiencyBoom of Electricity Demand in the residential sector in the

  15. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, N.L.

    2008-01-01

    Peirson. 1998. Residential energy demand and the interactionresponse of residential cooling energy demand to climaterise in residential and commercial electricity demand can be

  16. Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2008-01-01

    Robinson, Michael, 2008, "Demand Response in Midwest ISOPresentation at MISO Demand Response Working Group Meeting,Coordination of Retail Demand Response with Midwest ISO

  17. Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    Roger. 2002. Using Demand Response to Link Wholesale andfor advanced metering, demand response, and dynamic pricing.EPRI. 2001. Managing Demand-Response To Achieve Multiple

  18. Open Automated Demand Response Dynamic Pricing Technologies and Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-01-01

    Goodin. 2009. “Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsin Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services. ” InOpen Automated Demand Response Demonstration Project. LBNL-

  19. Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    A. Barat, D. Watson. Demand Response Spinning ReserveOpen Automated Demand Response Communication Standards:Dynamic Controls for Demand Response in a New Commercial

  20. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Reliability Corporation. Demand response data task force:Energy. Benefits of demand response in electricity marketsAssessment of demand response & advanced metering, staff

  1. LEED Demand Response Credit: A Plan for Research towards Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-01-01

    C. McParland, Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsand Open Automated Demand Response", Grid Interop Forum,Testing of Automated Demand Response for Integration of

  2. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    and Techniques for Demand Response. May 2007. LBNL-59975.to facilitate automating  demand response actions at the Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure,

  3. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goli, Sasank

    2012-01-01

    and Open Automated Demand Response. In Grid Interop Forum.work was sponsored by the Demand Response Research Center (load-management.php. Demand Response Research Center (2009).

  4. Results and commissioning issues from an automated demand response pilot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, Dave; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya

    2004-01-01

    of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities"Management and Demand Response in Commercial Buildings", L Band Commissioning Issues from an Automated Demand Response.

  5. California Baseline Energy Demands to 2050 for Advanced Energy Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    CEC (2005b) Energy demand forecast methods report.growth in California energy demands forecast in the baseline2006-2016: Staff energy demand forecast (Revised September

  6. National Action Plan on Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting-discusses the National Assessment of Demand Response study, the National Action Plan for Demand Response, and demand response as...

  7. CORRELATION BETWEEN PEAK ENERGY AND PEAK LUMINOSITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Chen, D. Y. [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Huang, Y. F., E-mail: sci.zbzhang@gzu.edu.cn, E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-08-10

    A correlation between the peak luminosity and the peak energy has been found by Yonetoku et al. as L{sub p} {proportional_to}E{sup 2.0}{sub p,i} for 11 pre-Swift long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this study, for a greatly expanded sample of 148 long GRBs in the Swift era, we find that the correlation still exists, but most likely with a slightly different power-law index, i.e., L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i}. In addition, we have collected 17 short GRBs with necessary data. We find that the correlation of L{sub p} {proportional_to} E{sup 1.7}{sub p,i} also exists for this sample of short events. It is argued that the radiation mechanism of both long and short GRBs should be similar, i.e., of quasi-thermal origin caused by the photosphere, with the dissipation occurring very near the central engine. Some key parameters of the process are constrained. Our results suggest that the radiation processes of both long and short bursts may be dominated by thermal emission, rather than by the single synchrotron radiation. This might put strong physical constraints on the theoretical models.

  8. Electric Utility Demand-Side Evaluation Methodologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treadway, N.

    1986-01-01

    UTILITY DEMAND-SIDE EVALUATION METHODOLOGIES* Nat Treadway Public Utility Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT The electric. util ity industry's demand-side management programs can be analyzed ?from various points of view using a standard... cost and certification proceedings. A s~andard benefit-cost methodology analyzes demand-slde management programs from various ~oints of view. The benefit-cost methodology now ln use by several electric utilities and the * The views presented...

  9. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, S.; Piette, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-15-06-13.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7608 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-IE-15-06-13.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Demand Response & Peak Load... additional generation resources • Hurdles to adding additional resources Why Demand Response Exists ESL-IE-15-06-13 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 What are my Options? • Efficiency...

  10. Regression analysis for peak designation in pulsatile pressure signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scalzo, Fabien; Xu, Peng; Asgari, Shadnaz; Bergsneider, Marvin; Hu, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    5 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Regression analysis for peak designationwith more versatile regression models. The experimentalof different state-of-the-art regression analysis methods is

  11. Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herter, Karen

    2006-01-01

    residential peak-load electricity rate structures. Journalefficiency efforts. Keywords: electricity rates, residentialmust suffer higher electricity rates to pay for the bill

  12. Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing of electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herter, Karen

    2006-01-01

    to time-of-day electricity pricing: first empirical results.S. The trouble with electricity markets: understandingresidential peak-load electricity rate structures. Journal

  13. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Desert Peak Area Exploration Technique Modeling-Computer Simulations Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References...

  14. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01

    3 3.0 Previous Experience with Demand Responsive Lighting11 4.3. Prevalence of Lighting13 4.4. Impact of Title 24 on Lighting

  15. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rollout Scenario Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout Scenario Analysis Presentation by Margo Melendez at the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for...

  16. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Analysis Presentation by NREL's Margo Melendez at the 2010 - 2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles...

  17. Operationalizing demand forecasts in the warehouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Dan, Ph. D. University of Rochester

    2015-01-01

    Demand planning affects the subsequent business activities including distribution center operational planning and management. Today's competitive environment requires distribution centers to rapidly respond to changes in ...

  18. Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    January 16, 2011 Conference Call transcript: "Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies," from the U.S. Department of Energy. Conference call transcript More...

  19. Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation, Renewable Energy Sources, and Energy Storages: State-of-the-Art Report, Volume 1, Main Report Jump to: navigation,...

  20. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Energy efficiency programson energy efficiency program types, see National Action PlanNational Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Most demand response programs