Sample records for reduce harmful emissions

  1. Best Practices: Energy Savings Efficient energy use reduces Colorado State's total energy demand, decreases harmful

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Best Practices: Energy Savings Efficient energy use reduces Colorado State's total energy demand, decreases harmful emissions, and minimizes the cost of providing energy to the campus. As a result of energy conservation initiatives that have been implemented over the past 20 years, growth in the average demand per

  2. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

  3. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

  4. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPACT EMISSIONS HEV PHEV marginal power plant is a coalpower uses relatively little coal, but in other cases emissions

  5. The use of onboard diagnostics to reduce emissions in automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Alberto, Jr

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emissions from automobiles are very harmful and include gases such as Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide, and Sulfur Dioxide. One of the main reasons OBD was created was to control emissions however it currently only monitors ...

  6. Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for a Sectoral Approach Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport:...

  7. Yellowstone Agencies Plan to Reduce Emissions | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Yellowstone Agencies Plan to Reduce Emissions Yellowstone Agencies Plan to Reduce Emissions March 15, 2010 - 11:14am Addthis Castle Geyser at Yellowstone National Park | File photo...

  8. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by Cummins Power Generation, June 2011 Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by...

  9. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nationís finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nationís balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  10. Reducing emissions by addressing steam turbine inefficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.C. (Georgia Power Co., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Cioffi, D.H. (Encotech, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that inefficient steam turbines increase fossil plant emissions because additional fuel must be burned to meet the power output requirements. During a turbine outage, plant performance and maintenance staff make and prioritize repair decisions within tight time and budget constraints. This paper describes how Georgia Power identifies performance losses of degraded components in the steam path and determines their impact on heat rate. Turbine performance is assessed by a steam path audit program that Encotech has developed and make available to utilities. Georgia Power has conducted several operating tests that give good correlation with audit results. Georgia Power uses the audit information to make the most cost-effective repairs to maintain a low heat rate and to reduce emissions. The Clean Air Act presents electric utilities with the challenge of reducing emissions from fossil plants in the most cost-effective way possible. Meeting the stack emissions limitations often translates to large capital expenditures and increased cycle heat rate. One resource the electric utilities have to reduce the costly impact of compliance with the Clean Air Act is control over the efficiency of their steam turbines.

  11. Reduced Turbine Emissions Using Hydrogen-Enriched Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    optimal use of fuel lean combustion for NOx control ­ Replaces hydrocarbon fuels for reduced CO2 emissions ­ Enables use of domestically-produced H2 #12;U.S. CO2 EmissionsU.S. CO2 Emissions by Combustion Source 0 81Reduced Turbine Emissions Using Hydrogen-Enriched Fuels Robert W. Schefer Joseph C. Oefelein Jay O

  12. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that energy use and CO2 emissions in developed countries w icap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions from the electricalout and "sequester" the CO2 emissions, though the cost and

  13. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    estimated to produce CO2 emission reductions ranging frombetween low CO2 emissions and the reductions in the auto usea 16 percent reduction in CO2 traffic emissions within the

  14. Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at Dartmouth College Summary selected the mission: "To reduce Dartmouth College's fossil carbon emissions." We believe this mission's responsibility to educate others about how it is reducing its fossil carbon emissions and encourage them to do

  15. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  16. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted...

  17. Cleantech: Innovative Lab Partnership Reduces Emissions from Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how the National Energy Technology Laboratory is working to reduce the emission of pollutants from existing coal-fired power plants.

  18. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These technology pathways (which are described in greater detail in Appendix B, Technology Pathways) address three areas: energy efficiency, clean energy, and carbon sequestration (removing carbon from emissions and enhancing carbon storage). Based on an assessment of each of these technology pathways over a 30-year planning horizon, the directors of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) national laboratories conclude that success will require pursuit of multiple technology pathways to provide choices and flexibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Advances in science and technology are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the United States while sustaining economic growth and providing collateral benefits to the nation.

  19. EMISSION ABATEMENT VERSUS DEVELOPMENT AS STRATEGIES TO REDUCE VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE: AN APPLICATION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EMISSION ABATEMENT VERSUS DEVELOPMENT AS STRATEGIES TO REDUCE VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE development aid is more effective in reducing vulnerability than is emission abatement. The hypothesis, vulnerability, adaptive capacity, development #12;EMISSION ABATEMENT VERSUS DEVELOPMENT AS STRATEGIES TO REDUCE

  20. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  1. Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    torque output as compared to (non-turbocharged) naturally aspirated engines 13]. The power generated- ifold pressure, increased power generation by the turbine and increased ow of air from compressorControl of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions A.G. Stefanopoulouz

  2. Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Increasing efficiency, reducing emissions with hydrous ethanol in diesel engines Ethanol continuedOber 2013 Catalystcts.umn.edu Nearly all corn-based ethanol produced in the United States is anhydrous processes required to remove the water from ethanol consume a great deal of energy. Researchers from

  3. REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    mitigation effort post-2012. Reducing GHG emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)2 in developing of Environment of Mexico1 Esteve Corbera and Katrina Brown Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, UK School of Mexico or the Mexican Government. #12;ABSTRACT This paper provides a critical perspective to the debate

  4. Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO 2 : Implications for inversion analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Randerson, James T; Krakauer, Nir; Logan, Jennifer A; Jacob, Daniel J

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on thedescription of reduced carbon emission and oxidationInfluence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the

  5. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  6. Impacts of reducing shipboard NOx? and SOx? emissions on vessel performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caputo, Ronald J., Jr. (Ronald Joseph)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The international maritime community has been experiencing tremendous pressures from environmental organizations to reduce the emissions footprint of their vessels. In the last decade, air emissions, including nitrogen ...

  7. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 5:07pm Addthis Developed jointly...

  8. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

  9. Project Information Form Project Title Reducing Truck Emissions and Improving Truck Fuel Economy via ITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Project Information Form Project Title Reducing Truck Emissions and Improving Truck Fuel Economy new traffic flow and traffic light control concepts with respect to emissions and fuel economy. Some

  10. DOE and NNSA labs work with CTBTO to reduce medical isotope emissions...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and NNSA labs work with CTBTO to reduce medical isotope emissions, enhance the effectiveness of nuclear explosion monitoring | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook...

  11. Reducing emissions from deforestation--The ``combined incentives'' mechanism and empirical simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Reducing emissions from deforestation--The ``combined incentives'' mechanism and empirical throughout a century of climate-change (Gullison et al., 2007). The financial rationale for deforestation be sufficient to greatly reduce deforestation (Stern, 2007). For political and methodological reasons

  12. Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium Potential for Reducing Global Methane Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    for Reducing Global Methane Emissions From Landfills, 2000-2030 E. MATTHEWS1 , N. J. THEMELIS2 1 NASA Goddard methane (CH4 )annually to the world's total CH4 emission of ~550 Tg/yr. Recycling and thermal treatment destined for landfills and to mitigating CH4 emission. Waste generation is estimated to more than double

  13. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  14. Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series toESnet4: Networking for37 East and West Other SLACScienceSeniorEmission

  15. Teamwork Plus Technology Equals Reduced Emissions, Reduced Energy Usage, and Improved Productivity for an Oil Production Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Booker, G.; Robinson, J.

    Suncor Energy Inc. developed a long term plan to expand production from its oil sands operation north of Fort McMurray, Alberta up to 500,000 to 550,000 barrels/day in 2010-2012, while reducing the per barrel energy usage, emissions, and long term...

  16. Present Status and Marketing Prospects of the Emerging Hybrid-Electric and Diesel Technologies to Reduce CO2 Emissions of New Light-Duty Vehicles in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technologies to Reduce CO2 Emissions of New Light- Dutyreduce their CO2 emissions. The emerging technologiessignificantly reduce their CO2 emissions. These technologies

  17. Revamp of Ukraine VCM plant will boost capacity, reduce emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Oriana Concern (formerly P.O. Chlorvinyl) is revamping its 250,000 metric ton/year (mty) vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plant at Kalusch, Ukraine. At the core of the project area new ethylene dichloride (EDC) cracking furnace and direct chlorination unit, and revamp of an oxychlorination unit to use oxygen rather than air. The plant expansion and modernization will boost capacity to 370,000 mty. New facilities for by-product recycling and recovery, waste water treatment, and emissions reduction will improve the plant`s environmental performance. This paper shows expected feedstock and utility consumption for VCM production. Techmashimport and P.O. Chlorvinyl commissioned the Kalusch plant in 1975. The plant was built by Uhde GmbH, Dortmund, Germany. The paper also provides a schematic of the Hoechst/Uhde VCM process being used for the plant revamp. The diagram is divided into processing sections.

  18. Dynamics of Implementation of Mitigating Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Commercial Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Rahul

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing demand for air transportation and growing environmental concerns motivate the need to implement measures to reduce CO2 emissions from aviation. Case studies of historical changes in the aviation industry have ...

  19. Dynamics of implementation of mitigating measures to reduce CO? emissions from commercial aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Rahul, 1979-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing demand for air transportation and growing environmental concerns motivate the need to implement measures to reduce CO? emissions from aviation. Case studies of historical changes in the aviation industry have ...

  20. Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National Nuclear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST 800-53 National Renewable EnergyReducing

  1. Reducing Vehicle Emissions to Meet Environmental Goals | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes Office ofof EnergyReducingEnergy

  2. Shaping the Terms of Competition: Environmental Regulation and Corporate Strategies to Reduce Diesel Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Diesel Vehicle Emissions by Christine Bik-Kay Ng B.S., Civil and Environmental Engineering University Strategies to Reduce Diesel Vehicle Emissions by Christine Bik-Kay Ng Submitted to the Engineering Systems. This research explains the conditions under which competitive regulatory strategies are pursued in the diesel

  3. Curriculum Vitae Kyle E. Harms 1 KYLE EDWARD HARMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Curriculum Vitae ­ Kyle E. Harms ­ 1 KYLE EDWARD HARMS CURRICULUM VITAE ­ August 2013 ADDRESS Navarrete, #12;Curriculum Vitae ­ Kyle E. Harms ­ 2 Stuart J. Davies, Stephen P. Hubbell & James W. Dalling

  4. Curriculum Vitae Kyle E. Harms 1 KYLE EDWARD HARMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Curriculum Vitae ­ Kyle E. Harms ­ 1 KYLE EDWARD HARMS CURRICULUM VITAE ­ March 2014 ADDRESS. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280:9pp. #12;Curriculum Vitae ­ Kyle E. Harms ­ 2 63. Baldeck, Claire A

  5. Curriculum Vitae Kyle E. Harms 1 KYLE EDWARD HARMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Curriculum Vitae ­ Kyle E. Harms ­ 1 KYLE EDWARD HARMS CURRICULUM VITAE ­ December 2012 ADDRESS. Journal of Ecology 100:1174-1182. #12;Curriculum Vitae ­ Kyle E. Harms ­ 2 57. Ferro, Michael L., Matthew

  6. Curriculum Vitae Kyle E. Harms 1 KYLE EDWARD HARMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Curriculum Vitae ­ Kyle E. Harms ­ 1 KYLE EDWARD HARMS CURRICULUM VITAE ­ January 2014 ADDRESS forest communities. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280:9pp. #12;Curriculum Vitae ­ Kyle E. Harms ­ 2

  7. Options for reducing refrigerant emissions from supermarket systems. Final report, February-September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy, E.F.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characterizes the design of typical supermarket refrigeration systems and focuses on why these types of systems have high rates of refrigerant emissions. Three case studies are provided of companies that have successfully implemented emission-reducing practices and technologies. The report discusses a variety of technical and procedural options that can be applied to existing systems and in new construction.

  8. Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry production facilities in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Title: Using acidic electrolyzed water to reduce objectionable gas emissions from poultry Summary: There are increasing numbers of poultry production buildings, with large, densely housed flocks to allow producers to meet the increasing demand for poultry products and, yet, reduce the environmental

  9. The Morality of Collective Harm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nefsky, Julia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Andreou, Chrisoula. ďEnvironmental Damage and the Puzzle ofin. 39 Much environmental damage, and resulting harm tocould be defeated. Environmental damage, and resulting harm

  10. Federal, state and utility roles in reducing new building greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Shankle, D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Boulin, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will explore the role of implementation of building energy codes and standards in reducing US greenhouse gas emissions. It will discuss the role of utilities in supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency in improving the efficiency of new buildings. The paper will summarize Federal policies and programs that improve code compliance and increase overall greenhouse gas emission reductions. Finally, the paper will discuss the role of code compliance and the energy and greenhouse gas emission reductions that have been realized from various Federal, State and utility programs that enhance compliance.

  11. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

  12. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  13. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DM. 2003. Does Emissions Trading Encourage Innovation?A. 2001. Multi-lateral emission trading: lessons from inter-International Emissions Trading Association. 2010. Response

  14. Review of cost estimates for reducing CO2 emissions. Final report, Task 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the ground breaking work of William Nordhaus in 1977, cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions have been developed by numerous groups. The various studies have reported sometimes widely divergent cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Some recent analyses have indicated that large reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved at zero or negative costs (e.g. Rocky Mountain Institute 1989). In contrast, a recent study by Alan Manne of Stanford and Richard Richels of the Electric Power Research Institute (Manne-Richels 1989) concluded that in the US the total discounted costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level could be as much as 3.6 trillion dollars over the period from 1990 to 2100. Costs of this order of magnitude would represent about 5 percent of US GNP. The purpose of this briefing paper is to summarize the different cost estimates for CO{sub 2} emission reduction and to identify the key issues and assumptions that underlie these cost estimates.

  15. Project Information Form Project Title Eco-Driving to Reduce Emissions Cars (Behavioral Focus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Source(s) and Amounts Provided (by each agency or organization) USDOT $34,618.33 Total Project Cost $34Project Information Form Project Title Eco-Driving to Reduce Emissions ­ Cars (Behavioral Focus Description of Research Project The purpose of this review is to provide energy and environment policy makers

  16. Project Information Form Project Title Managing Roadway Systems to Reduce GHG Emissions and Improve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    or organization) $25,217 Total Project Cost $25,217 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 Start and EndProject Information Form Project Title Managing Roadway Systems to Reduce GHG Emissions and Improve Dates 4/1/14 ­ 3/30/15 Brief Description of Research Project There have been a variety of traffic

  17. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

  18. UA Researchers participate in a European project aimed to reduce pollutants emission with hemp ecological filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escolano, Francisco

    UA Researchers participate in a European project aimed to reduce pollutants emission with hemp activated carbon filters from waste hemp. The initiative, funded by the European Commission, has a total", Cazorla says. For the manufacture of the filters, hemp waste from agriculture and industrial processing

  19. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Drive Smarter, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Cities' Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

  20. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Cities Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) features a wide range of Web-based tools to help vehicle fleets and individual consumers reduce their petroleum use. This brochure lists and describes Clean Cities online tools related to vehicles, alternative fueling stations, electric vehicle charging stations, fuel conservation, emissions reduction, fuel economy, and more.

  1. Methane oxidation associated with submerged brown mosses reduces methane emissions from Siberian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Methane oxidation associated with submerged brown mosses reduces methane emissions from Siberian, University of Hamburg, Allende-Platz 2, 20146 Hamburg, Germany Summary 1. Methane (CH4) oxidation to Sphagnum species and low-pH peatlands. 2. Moss-associated methane oxidation (MAMO) can be an effective

  2. Zero Emission Vehicle Program Changes In 1990, California embarked on a plan to reduce vehicle emissions to zero through the gradual introduction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    12/10/01 Zero Emission Vehicle Program Changes In 1990, California embarked on a plan to reduce vehicle emissions to zero through the gradual introduction of zero emission vehicles (ZEVs). Specifically, and in 1998 to allow partial ZEV (PZEV) credits for extremely clean vehicles that were not pure ZEVs

  3. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  4. Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inversion analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakauer, Nir Y.

    Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2 carbon emissions. We used TransCom3 annual mean simulations from three transport models to evaluate carbon emission and oxidation processes in deriving inversion estimates of CO2 surface fluxes. Citation

  5. System and method for making metallic iron with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiesel, Richard F; Englund, David J; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for making metallic iron nodules with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions is disclosed. The method includes: assembling a linear hearth furnace having entry and exit portions, at least a conversion zone and a fusion zone, and a moving hearth adapted to move reducible iron bearing material through the furnace on contiguous hearth sections; assembling a shrouded return substantially free of air ingress extending adjacent at least the conversion and fusion zones of the furnace through which hearth sections can move from adjacent the exit portion to adjacent the entry portion of the furnace; transferring the hearth sections from the furnace to the shrouded return adjacent the exit portion; reducing reducible material in the linear hearth furnace to metallic iron nodules; and transporting gases from at least the fusion zone to the shrouded return to heat the hearth sections while in the shrouded return.

  6. Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing in Technology and Policy Abstract Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission

  7. People are willing to bear costs to reduce emissions, but they are only willing to go so far.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    People are willing to bear costs to reduce emissions, but they are only willing to go so far a small fraction of its subsidies on kerosene, diesel, and petroleum, with the inevitable result being. It says that even if people are willing to bear some costs to reduce emissions (and experience shows

  8. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  9. The use of combined heat and power (CHP) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asrael, J.; Milmoe, P.H.; Haydel, J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the sequential production of electric power and thermal energy. It is a more efficient way of providing electricity and process heat than producing them independently. Average overall efficiencies can range from 70% to more than 80%. CHP decisions often present an opportunity to switch to a cleaner fuel. CHP systems are an attractive opportunity to save money, increase overall efficiency, reduce net emissions, and improve environmental performance. Climate Wise, a US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) program helping industrial Partners turn energy efficiency and pollution prevention into a corporate asset, has increased awareness of CHP by providing implementation and savings information, providing peer exchange opportunities for its Partners, and recognizing the achievements of Partners that have implemented CHP at their facilities. This paper profiles Climate Wise Partners that have invested in CHP systems, including describing how CHP is used in their facilities and the resulting cost and emission reductions.

  10. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  11. Reducing cold start hydrocarbon emissions from port fuel injected spark ignition engines with improved management of hardware & controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Kevin R., 1980-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to investigate strategies for reducing cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from port fuel injected (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engines with better use of existing hardware and control ...

  12. USDA/CSREES IFAFS GRANT PROPOSAL Reducing ammonia emissions from poultry houses by enhanced manure and diet management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentucky, University of

    USDA/CSREES IFAFS GRANT PROPOSAL Reducing ammonia emissions from poultry houses by enhanced manure: Iowa State University Collaborators: Terry Ashby Institution: President, Kentucky Poultry Federation: Executive Director, Iowa PoultryAssociation Federal Agency Cooperators: Bruce D. Harris Institution: US

  13. Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies during 19802000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies; accepted 1 July 2002; published 24 October 2002. [1] Decreased methane emissions from paddy rice may have contributed to the decline in the rate of increase of global atmospheric methane (CH4) concentration over

  14. Emissions trading to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States : the McCain-Lieberman Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    The Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) is the most detailed effort to date to design an economy-wide cap-and-trade system for US greenhouse gas emissions reductions. The Act caps sectors at their 2000 emissions in ...

  15. Estakhri and Saylak 1 Potential for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Texas Through the Use of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    per cent of CO2 emissions come from the combustion of fossil fuels, and approximately 30% of those emissions are from the transportation sector. The next largest source of CO2 emissions is from the manufacture of cement and account for approximately 10% of all CO2 emissions (1). When faced

  16. Alcohol-Related Harm and Primary Health Care in British Columbia, Canada.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slaunwhite, Amanda Kathleen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ???In recent years there has been a renewed focus on reducing the harms of addictive substances such as alcohol while at the same time restrainingÖ (more)

  17. Reach: A low cost-approach to reducing stack emissions and improving the performance of oil-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giovanni, D.V.; McElroy, M.W.; Kerho, S.E. [Electric Power Technologies, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved oil combustion technology, based upon optimization of oil atomizer and flame stabilizer design, has been retrofit to oil-fired boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, particulate matter emissions, and opacity, and to provide operational and performance benefits. This technology, referred to as REACH, can be retrofit to wall-fired and tangential-fired boilers at a cost of less than $0.75/kW, a fraction of the cost of installing new burners. The technology is compatible with conventional NO{sub x} controls such as overfire air, flue gas recirculation, and low-NO{sub x} burners, and can be combined with these techniques to further reduce NO{sub x} emissions. REACH has been applied to eighty boilers representing over 14,000 MW of generating capacity. This paper describes REACH technology, its applicability and cost, and the emissions and performance results achieved in full scale applications.

  18. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but prone to rapid desiccation. Bacterial adsorption onto foam padding, natural sponge, and geotextile was successful. The most important factor for success appeared to be water holding capacity. Prototype biotarps made with geotextiles plus adsorbed methane oxidizing bacteria were tested for their responses to temperature, intermittent starvation, and washing (to simulate rainfall). The prototypes were mesophilic, and methane oxidation activity remained strong after one cycle of starvation but then declined with repeated cycles. Many of the cells detached with vigorous washing, but at least 30% appeared resistant to sloughing. While laboratory landfill simulations showed that four-layer composite biotarps made with two different types of geotextile could remove up to 50% of influent methane introduced at a flux rate of 22 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, field experiments did not yield high activity levels. Tests revealed that there were high hour-to-hour flux variations in the field, which, together with frequent rainfall events, confounded the field testing. Overall, the findings suggest that a methanotroph embedded biotarp appears to be a feasible strategy to mitigate methane emission from landfill cells, although the performance of field-tested biotarps was not robust here. Tarps will likely be best suited for spring and summer use, although the methane oxidizer population may be able to shift and adapt to lower temperatures. The starvation cycling of the tarp may require the capacity for intermittent reinoculation of the cells, although it is also possible that a subpopulation will adapt to the cycling and become dominant. Rainfall is not expected to be a major factor, because a baseline biofilm will be present to repopulate the tarp. If strong performance can be achieved and documented, the biotarp concept could be extended to include interception of other compounds beyond methane, such as volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents.

  19. Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released to the reference case. This option reduced carbon dioxide emissions from the power sector by 35 percent from 2005 to significant gains in public and environmental health. "When power plants limit carbon dioxide emissions

  20. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the worldís roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the worldís roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the worldís roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  1. Reduced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298,NIST 800-53 RevisionDivisionReduced intermittency in

  2. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the slotted baffle plates is recommended. Some particles will also deposit in the exhaust ducts

  3. Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

    2002-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

  4. Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

  5. Drive-by Motor Vehicle Emissions: Immediate Feedback in Reducing Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    , Denver, Colorado 80208 L E N O R A B O H R E N The National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control & Safety system. The Smart Sign used a combination of words, colors, and graphics to connect with its audience

  6. The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1,250,000 Forklifts 250,000 Locomotives 1,250,000 Carl Moyer Program 28 Mobile Source Air Pollution Emission Reduction Review Committee Total Available: 12,000,000 * On-road...

  7. The potential for reducing carbon emissions from increased efficiency : a general equilibrium methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blitzer, Charles R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a methodology for analyzing the potential for reduction in carbon emissions through increased fuel efficiency and provides an illustration of the method. The methodology employed is a multisectoral, ...

  8. The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

  9. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Drive Smarter, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Cities hosts a collection of calculators, interactive maps, and informational tools to assist fleets, fuel providers, and others looking to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector.

  10. The cost of reducing utility S02 emissions : not as low as you might think

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Anne E.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A common assertion in public policy discussions is that the cost of achieving the SO2 emissions reductions under the acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act ("Title IV") has been only one-tenth or less of what Title IV ...

  11. Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Tianyu

    We calculate CO2 emissions embodied in Chinaís net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of Chinaís export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment ...

  12. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  13. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded the direct value of the energy savings. Commissioning also improves worker comfort, mitigates indoor air quality problems

  14. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  15. Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A; Taylor, Margaret R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hazardous air pollutant removalí, Proceeding of SO 2 Controlto control emissions of harmful air pollutants from electric

  16. Clean Cities Tools: Tools to Help You Save Money, Use Less Petroleum, and Reduce Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  17. Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant, Schneider, Lee, Bubbosh 2 ABSTRACT Extended truck idling is a very large source of fuel wastage, greenhouse, most long-haul truck drivers idle their vehicles for close to 10 hours per day to operate heating

  18. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the cost-effective energy savings potential in case B increases to 22%.

  19. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the cost-effective energy savings potential in case B increases to 22%.

  20. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  1. Putting policy in drive : coordinating measures to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. light-duty vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Christopher W. (Christopher William)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The challenges of energy security and climate change have prompted efforts to reduce fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions in light-duty vehicles within the United States. Failures in the market for lower rates of fuel ...

  2. Speaker to Address Impact of Natural Gas Production on Greenhouse Gas Emissions When used for power generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    generation, Marcellus Shale natural gas can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but questions have been raised whether development of shale gas resources results in an overall lower greenhouse gas, "Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas," appeared in Environmental Research Letters

  3. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Stork, Kevin C. (Chicago, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  4. Reducing hazardous waste incinerator emissions through blending: A study of 1,1,1-trichloroethane injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, M.; Koshland, C.P.; Sawyer, R.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate whether blending liquid hazardous wastes with hydrocarbons such as alkanes can improve the destruction efficiency and reduce the combustion byproduct levels in the post-flame region of a laboratory scale combustor. Outlet species concentrations are measured with an FTIR spectrometer for mixtures of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 25% (by volume) dodecane or heptane injected as a spray of droplets. We also inject sprays of liquid pure 1,1,1-trichloroethane, gaseous pure 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and gaseous 1,1,1-trichloroethane with 25% (by volume) heptane. Once vaporized, the 1,1,1-trichloroethane decomposes to form CO{sub 2} and HCl through the intermediates 1,1-dichloroethylene, phosgene, acetylene, and carbon monoxide. The 1,1,1-trichloroethane/alkane mixtures also form the intermediate ethylene. No significant differences are observed between injecting the compounds as a droplet spray or as a gaseous jet, not as unexpected result as the mixing time of the gas jet is longer than the vaporization time of the droplets. The addition of heptane or dodecane to 1,1,1-trichloroethane produces two principal effects: an increase in ethylene, acetylene and carbon monoxide levels for injection temperatures between 950 to 1040 K, and a decrease in 1,1-dichloroethylene, phosgene, acetylene, and carbon monoxide levels for injection temperatures greater than 1050 K. Reaction of the injected alkane causes the former effect, while the additional heat of combustion of the alkane additives causes the latter. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Policy Choice:Forest or Fuel? The demand for biofuels, driven by the desire to reduce fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions, has resulted in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Policy Choice:Forest or Fuel? The demand for biofuels, driven by the desire to reduce fossil fuel, combined with the expanded demand for biofuels, will result in higher food prices, since less land by using biofuels (vegetable oils). But the use of biofuels may not reduce CO2 emissions, even when

  6. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealedc consensus. Harmful Algae 8:3Ė13. 2. Sunda WG, Graneli E,of the United States. Harmful Algae 8:39Ė53. 4. Smayda TJ (

  7. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost and the marginal fuel savings (assuming a base case of ten cents per kWhper kWh, which would bring it in line with the break-even costcost per mile: electricity vs. gasoline PRICE OF ELECTRICITY ($/kWh)

  8. Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

  9. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne?s research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions was also a major reason. The transportation sector alone consumes about 13 million barrels of crude oil per day (nearly 60% of which is imported) and is responsible for about 30% of the CO{sub 2} emission. When we consider manufacturing and other energy-intensive industrial processes, the amount of petroleum being consumed due to friction and wear reaches more than 20 million barrels per day (from official energy statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration). Frequent remanufacturing and/or replacement of worn parts due to friction-, wear-, and scuffing-related degradations also consume significant amounts of energy and give rise to additional CO{sub 2} emission. Overall, the total annual cost of friction- and wear-related energy and material losses is estimated to be rather significant (i.e., as much as 5% of the gross national products of highly industrialized nations). It is projected that more than half of the total friction- and wear-related energy losses can be recovered by developing and implementing advanced friction and wear control technologies. In transportation vehicles alone, 10% to 15% of the fuel energy is spent to overcome friction. If we can cut down the friction- and wear-related energy losses by half, then we can potentially save up to 1.5 million barrels of petroleum per day. Also, less friction and wear would mean less energy consumption as well as less carbon emissions and hazardous byproducts being generated and released to the environment. New and more robust anti-friction and -wear control technologies may thus have a significant positive impact on improving the efficiency and environmental cleanliness of the current legacy fleet and future transportation systems. Effective control of friction in other industrial sectors such as manufacturing, power generation, mining and oil exploration, and agricultural and earthmoving machinery may bring more energy savings. Therefore, this project was timely and responsive to the energy and environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based mater

  10. Upcoversion performance improvement of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er by Sn codoping: Enhanced emission intensity and reduced decay time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Han, E-mail: fjfzyh@fzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Cao, Wenbing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Huang, Qingming [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Ma, En [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhang, Xinqi [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Yu, Jianchang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this manuscript we report a phenomenon that upconversion emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased obviously by Sn codoping with Yb/Er into hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} synchronously. X-ray powder diffiraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relation of crystal structure and properties. From these characterizations we found that symmetry of the rare earth ion local crystal field could be tuned by different Sn codoping concentration. For the variable valence property of Sn the local crystal field asymmetry and emission intensity of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er arrived to the maximum when 3 mol% Sn was codoped, while decay time was reduced. The study of this changing tends of upconversion emission intensity and decay time constant may be helpful for design and fabrication of high performance upconversion materials. - Graphical abstract: Variable-valenced Sn is introduced with Yb/Er into NaFY{sub 4} to tune structure and local crystal field. Upconversion emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. Display Omitted - Highlights: ē NaYF{sub 4}: Yb, Er was codoped with different concentration Sn. ē Upconversion emission intensity was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. ē Introduction of variable-valenced Sn is effective to tune structure and crystal field of NaFY{sub 4}.

  11. The Health Risks: Seafood Contamination, Harmful Algal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    health products from the sea. What is the central issue? Why should I care? How will OHH researchThe Health Risks: Seafood Contamination, Harmful Algal Blooms and Polluted Beaches Seafood associated public health costs. Announcing a New Interagency Report on Oceans and Human Health Research

  12. Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klier, Thomas

    France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005Ė2010, a vehicleís tax is negatively correlated with its ...

  13. The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially reduce the energy used in buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    11 KTA@Bath Challenge The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially research and lead the education of highly skilled low carbon designers. These Centres will have strong

  14. Avoiding deforestation in Panamanian protected areas: An analysis of protection effectiveness and implications for reducing emissions from deforestation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    -energy sector GHG emissions and to encourage broader participation in climate change mitigation by generally, Col. Country Club, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Meīxico, C.P. 45010, Mexico 1. Introduction: avoiding deforestation and protected areas In the last decade, climate change mitigation has received much international

  15. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobler, C J; Grigoriev, I V; Berry, D L; Dyhrman, S T; Wilhelm, S W; Salamov, A; Lobanov, A V; Zhang, Y; Collier, J L; Wurch, L L; Kustka, A B; Dill, B D; Shah, M; VerBerkomes, N C; Kuo, A; Terry, A; Pangilinan, J; Lindquist, E A; Lucas, S; Paulsen, I; Hattenrath-Lehmann, T K; Talmage, S; Walker, E A; Koch, F; Burson, A M; Marcoval, M A; Tang, Y; LeCleir, G R; Coyne, K J; Berg, G M; Bertrand, E M; Saito, M A; Gladyshev, V N

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements demonstrated that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the first HAB genome (A. anophagefferens) and compared its gene complement to those of six competing phytoplankton species identified via metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on the gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 mbp) and more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen utilization, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

  16. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoriev, Igor; Gobler, Christopher; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Terry, Astrid; Pangillian, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Berry, Dianna; Dyhrman, Sonya; Wilhelm, Steven; Lobanov, Alexei; Zhang, Yan; Collier, Jackie; Wurch, Louie; Kusta, Adam; Dill, Brian; Shsh, Manesh; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Paulsen, Ian; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa; Talmage, Stephanie; Walker, Elyse; Koch, Florian; Burson, Amanda; Marcoval, Maria; Tang, Yin-Zhong; LeCleir, Gary; Coyne, Kathyrn; Berg, Gry; Bertrand, Erin; Saito, Mak; Gladyshev, Vadim

    2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.

  17. Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

  18. Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

  19. Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Sze-Bi

    Global Dynamics of Zooplankton and Harmful Algae in Flowing Habitats Sze-Bi Hsu Feng-Bin Wang Xiao from the dynamics of harmful algae and zooplankton in flowing- water habitats where a main channel. For the system modeling the dynamics of algae and their toxin that contains little limiting nutrient, we

  20. Portugal's Budget Austerity May Do More Harm Than Good

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Portugal's Budget Austerity May Do More Harm Than Good July 02, 2013 4:00 AM by LAUREN FRAYER severe budget austerity does more harm than good. LAUREN FRAYER, BYLINE: Of all the bailed-out countries. Portuguese Finance Minister Vitor Gaspar took it even further - doubling budget cuts and tax hikes. Last year

  1. IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: reduce emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-active perovskite oxide High-Efficiency Solar

  3. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  4. Russian Policy on Methane Emissions in the Oil and Gas Sector: A Case Study in Opportunities and Challenges in Reducing Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper uses Russian policy in the oil and gas sector as a case study in assessing options and challenges for scaling-up emission reductions. We examine the challenges to achieving large-scale emission reductions, successes that companies have achieved to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.

  5. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

    2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling energy in India. Meteorological simulations in this study indicated that a reduction of 2C in air temperature in the Hyderabad area would be likely if a combination of increased surface albedo and vegetative cover are used as urban heat-island control strategies. In addition, air-temperature reductions on the order of 2.5-3.5C could be achieved if moderate and aggressive heat-island mitigation measures are adopted, respectively. A large-scale deployment of mitigation measures can bring additional indirect benefit to the urban area. For example, cooling outside air can improve the efficiency of cooling systems, reduce smog and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and indirectly reduce pollution from power plants - all improving environmental health quality. This study has demonstrated the effectiveness of cool-roof technology as one of the urban heat-island control strategies for the Indian industrial and scientific communities and has provided an estimate of the national energy savings potential of cool roofs in India. These outcomes can be used for developing cool-roof building standards and related policies in India. Additional field studies, built upon the successes and lessons learned from this project, may be helpful to further confirm the scale of potential energy savings from the application of cooler roofs in various regions of India. In the future, a more rigorous meteorological simulation using urbanized (meso-urban) meteorological models should be conducted, which may produce a more accurate estimate of the air-temperature reductions for the entire urban area.

  6. Molecular insights into the niche of harmful brown tides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurch, Louie L. (Louie Lorne)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recurrent brown tide blooms caused by the harmful alga Alureococcus anophagefferens have decimated coastal ecosystems and shellfisheries along the Eastern U.S and South Africa. The exact mechanisms controlling bloom ...

  7. Niche of harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens revealed through ecogenomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertrand, Erin Marie

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the ...

  8. the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) adopted a resolution that not only accepted a long-term strat-egy for reducing emissions but also excluded language intended to prevent unilateral application of EU legislation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    of atmospheric pollution, airliners cross many borders and fly through many regula- tory jurisdictions a long-term strat- egy for reducing emissions but also excluded language intended to prevent unilateral-standing disagreement between in- dustrialized and developing countries about preventing climate change. Secondly

  9. Opportunities for market-based programs worldwide that reduce greenhouse gas emissions: Initial Observations from Missions to the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton-Hoyle, D.R.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Globally, governments and industries are implementing innovative voluntary programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Often these programs encourage groups to use cost effective technologies that capture market-based forces. These programs are successful because they capitalize on existing opportunities where both the environment and the participants can benefit (i.e., win-win opportunities). This paper documents efforts to investigate these kinds of win-win opportunities in three developing countries: the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico. Initial observations are provided as fresh information from the field, drawing on six missions during the last nine months. Utility costs, interest rates, and overall economic health appear to critically affect opportunities in each country. By contrast, details of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) design and local climate were often important differences between countries. These affect opportunities, for example, to achieve significant savings from cooling systems or not. Looking at the success of ESCOs was somewhat surprising. One might expect to see the most successful ESCO activity where utility costs are high and upgrade opportunities are plentiful (such as in the Philippines). This was not the case, however, as research in the Philippines did not reveal even one active ESCO contract yet. Design practices for new construction were in need of the same thing that helps US design teams do a better job of energy-efficient design, better communications between design team members. Finally, industrial firms were doing a variety of EE upgrades in each country, but this level of activity was relatively small compared to what should be cost effective.

  10. The relationship between policy choice and the size of the policy region: Why small jurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accordino, Megan H.; Rajagopal, Deepak

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissionsmay prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO 2www.dsireusa.org Renewable Energy Policy Network, http://

  11. Using market-based dispatching with environmental price signals to reduce emissions and water use at power plants in the Texas grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhajeri, Nawaf S.

    The possibility of using electricity dispatching strategies to achieve a 50% nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission reduction from electricity generating units was examined using the grid of the Electricity Reliability Council of ...

  12. Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

  13. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loureiro, S.M., E-mail: saulo@lima.coppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rovere, E.L.L., E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mahler, C.F., E-mail: mahler0503@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68506, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalitiesí boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

  14. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the demand for cooling energy, urban trees indirectly reducesurfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improvethe energy savings and GHG benefits of cool roofs and tree

  15. The relationship between policy choice and the size of the policy region: Why small jurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accordino, Megan H.; Rajagopal, Deepak

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity from renewable energy is always more expensivejurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reducejurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce

  16. Biomass torrefaction and CO2 capture using mining wastes A new approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of co-firing plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devernal, Anne

    for an efficient biomass/coal co-firing could thus be further enhanced by curbing the overall process CO2 emissions as well as using ionic-liquid-impregnated torrefac- tion to increase birch wood constituents' torrefaction saturation, and carbon monoxide and methane concen- trations on mining residues CO2 uptake was studied

  17. Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, however current market penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency that California will not reach the targets for combined heat and power set for it by the Air Resources Board (ARB of combined heat and power into the new ARB Emissions Cap and Trade scheme. This potential failure would

  18. Consideration of the environmental impact of aircraft has become critical in commercial aviation. The continued growth of air traffic has caused increasing demands to reduce aircraft emissions,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    ABSTRACT Consideration of the environmental impact of aircraft has become critical in commercial. Demands by the public, environ- mentalists, and governments to reduce aircraft environmental impact, have technologies can reduce the environmental impact of air travel per passenger-mile flown. However, with current

  19. Comparison of emissions from on-road sources using a mobile laboratory under various driving and operational sampling modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavala-Perez, Miguel Angel

    Mobile sources produce a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in large cities and have harmful effects on air quality at multiple spatial scales. Mobile emissions are intrinsically difficult to ...

  20. ALTERNATE POWER AND ENERGY STORAGE/REUSE FOR DRILLING RIGS: REDUCED COST AND LOWER EMISSIONS PROVIDE LOWER FOOTPRINT FOR DRILLING OPERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verma, Ankit

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    on alternate drilling energy sources which can make entire drilling process economic and environmentally friendly. One of the major ways to reduce the footprint of drilling operations is to provide more efficient power sources for drilling operations...

  1. The relationship between policy choice and the size of the policy region: Why small jurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accordino, Megan H.; Rajagopal, Deepak

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be generated by quali?ed renewable resources. In the U.S. ,production from renewable resources, the cost of reducing COrenewable and non-renewable resources. Burtraw et al. (2012)

  2. Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochlan, William P.

    Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus J. Heisler a,3 , P.M. Glibert b between water quality and eutrophication and the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). This meeting in revised form 21 January 2008 Accepted 1 August 2008 Keywords: Eutrophication Harmful algal blooms HABs

  3. Young Children Selectively Avoid Helping People With Harmful Intentions Amrisha Vaish, Malinda Carpenter, and Michael Tomasello

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, M.alinda

    Young Children Selectively Avoid Helping People With Harmful Intentions Amrisha Vaish, Malinda. In Study 1 (N = 54), 3-year-olds watched 1 adult (the actor) harming or helping another adult. Children subsequently helped the harmful actor less often than a third (previously neutral) adult, but helped

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - acanthopanax senticosus harms Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phosphate monobasic Harmful KOH Potassium hydroxide Source: Manning, Sturt - Cornell Tree-Ring Laboratory, Cornell University Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 8...

  5. Emission Abatement System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  6. 0 20 4010 Miles NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    0 20 4010 Miles NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Texas Forecast Region Maps to Sargent BCH NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Texas Forecast Region Maps 0 5 102 Bloom Operational Forecast System Texas Forecast Region Maps 0 5 102.5 Miles West Bay #12;Aransas Bay

  7. Development of Hyperspectral remote sensing capability for the early detection and monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blooms (HABs) in the western basin of Lake Erie and Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron. The HABs can be very of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the Great Lakes John Lekki1 , Robert Anderson2 , Quang-Viet Nguyen3 Lakes is to detect and monitor the development of potentially Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Two

  8. How Perceived Exposure to Environmental Harm Influences Environmental Behavior in Urban China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, M. Nils

    √Ā Pro-environmental behavior INTRODUCTION Environmental degradation and the impact it has on society attitudes, perceived exposure to environmental harm tends to have more impact on individuals' environmentalREPORT How Perceived Exposure to Environmental Harm Influences Environmental Behavior in Urban

  9. Using Cell Phones to Detect Harmful Airborne Engineering lab named after company that hopes to commercialize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using Cell Phones to Detect Harmful Airborne Substances Engineering lab named after company focused on using mobile devices, such as cell phones, to detect harmful airborne substances in real detection capabilities with mobile devices, including cell phones that can interface global positioning

  10. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, liquefied propaneelectric vehicle CNGV: compressed natural gas vehicle Dl CIgasoline vehicles. Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles

  11. Reducing Emissions in Plant Flaring Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duck, B.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Water Saving Management which was applied to all operating equipment in the 13 company owned oil and gas fields, the 22 refineries and 3 pipeline companies. The plan for the refineries focused on key areas such as improving energy efficiency, utilizing...

  12. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Per Year Thanks to Car-Sharing. Press Release. Montreal,responsibilities of ownership. Car- sharing is most commonly

  13. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    climate change/stern_re- view_report.cfm. (2006). RGGI.Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI): An Initia≠ tive of theGreenhouse Gas Initia≠ tive (RGGI). Currently, Connecticut,

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-active perovskite oxideplatform size

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Reducing Emissions using Methanotrophic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik SpoerkeSolar Regional TestClimateResearchRecovery Act (ARRA)

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIAL ACTION Ė ARE WE DOING MORE HARM THAN GOOD?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce W. Church

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1) has stated that interventions i.e., remedial actions should do more good than harm. This paper examines completed cleanup projects to answer the question posed in the title. Various researchers have published that toxins in the environment only cause a small percentage of cancers i.e., 1-3 percent (2,3). Estimates of hypothetical fatal cancers are inflated because primarily it is assumed that people will change their living habits and move onto or near uncontrolled waste sites. An occupancy factor of 100 % is used and by using large populations exposed to miniscule levels of radiation (4) unreal levels of fatal cancers are predicted. What we observe are technically indefensible numbers of cancers being calculated for these hypothetical people. This and other maximizing assumptions inflate the risk. The inflated risk, along with very conservative criteria, drives the removal of large volumes of soil and debris. An unintended consequence of these costly well-intentioned (5) remedial actions is the real fatalities and injuries that occur to workers doing the construction and to members of the public through transportation activities. Even though some analysis include the estimates of worker risk, there is little or no discussion which highlights the fact that real risk is being traded for hypothetical risk. This paper is an attempt to review this situation and through cited literature and case studies, come to a better understanding of what if any good is really being done. Maybe it is time to consider this transfer of risk from hypothetical victims to the real victims in remedial action decision-making.

  17. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to reduce vehicle miles traveled, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  18. Vehicle Electrification is Key to Reducing Petroleum Dependency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Electrification is Key to Reducing Petroleum Dependency and Greenhouse Gas Emission Vehicle Electrification is Key to Reducing Petroleum Dependency and Greenhouse Gas...

  19. Why Plaintiffs Should Have to Prove Irreparable Harm in Copyright Preliminary Injunction Cases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuelson, Pamela

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    harm that might find support in Sony is applicable to a caseL.J. 829 (2008)(discussing Sony?s legacy for technologyand interesting than they might Sony, 450 U.S. at 451. Sony

  20. Deep Water Mixing Prevents Harmful Algal Bloom Formation: Implications for Managed Fisheries Refugia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Natanya Jeanne

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    bloom initiation and development, they are benign to other aspects of the lower food web and environment. The results from using deep lake water to suppress harmful algal blooms indicate this may be a promising management approach and further studies...

  1. INTRODUCTION With increasing awareness of the potential harm-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xin

    the perspective of cellular network opera- tors, reducing electrical energy consumption is not only a matter of the world's annual electrical energy consumption and 2 percent of CO2 emis- sions are caused by the information and commu- nication technology (ICT) infrastructure. Moreover, it is estimated that ICT energy con

  2. EU-California Environmental Agreements: The Role of Trade in Emissions Permits and Escape Clauses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the role of trade in emissions permits and escape clauses. (agreements. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and inAlthough trade in emissions permits reduces the aggregate

  3. Properties, performance and emissions of biofuels in blends with gasoline.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eslami, Farshad

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The emission performance of fuels and their blends in modern combustion systems have been studied with the purpose of reducing regulated and unregulated emissions, understandingÖ (more)

  4. RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Anthony L [ORNL; Martin, Michaela A [ORNL; Gemmer, Bob [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Scheihing, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program; Quinn, James [U.S. Department of Energy

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

  5. Quantifying avoided emissions from renewable generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Gabriel R. (Gabriel Rodriguez)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantifying the reduced emissions due to renewable power integration and providing increasingly accurate emissions analysis has become more important for policy makers in the age of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and ...

  6. Unraveling the fish kill mechanism(s) of the harmful alga Chattonella marina, from the perspective of osmotic disturbance.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingliang (???)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ???The harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, Chattonella marina, has caused severe economic loss to marine fisheries worldwide. In the past three decades, suffocation or respiratoryÖ (more)

  7. Changes in Acoustic Impedance of Marine Sediment Covered with Liquid Henning Harms, Wlner Matuschek, Volker Mellert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vormann, Matthias

    ) with different densities and sound speeds as a function of grazing angle. The measurements clearly show of the liqui~, TABLE1, Sound speed and density of the chemicals wed in the experiments. substance lChanges in Acoustic Impedance of Marine Sediment Covered with Liquid Pollutants Henning Harms

  8. NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Southwest Florida Forecast Region Maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forecast System Southwest Florida Forecast Region Maps 0 20 4010 Miles #12;Bay-S Pinellas Bay-UPR Bay Bloom Operational Forecast System Southwest Florida Forecast Region Maps 0 5 102.5 Miles #12;Bay Harmful Algal Bloom Operational Forecast System Southwest Florida Forecast Region Maps 0 5 102.5 Miles #12

  9. Ad Hoc Synchronization Considered Harmful Weiwei Xiong+, Soyeon Park, Jiaqi Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhou, Zhiqiang Ma*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yuanyuan

    Ad Hoc Synchronization Considered Harmful Weiwei Xiong+, Soyeon Park, Jiaqi Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhou Abstract Many synchronizations in existing multi­threaded pro­ grams are implemented in an ad hoc way. The first part of this paper does a comprehensive characteristic study of ad hoc synchronizations

  10. Invasive Species, Harmful Algae & Hypoxia in the Great Lakes: An Ecosystem Approach Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Invasive Species, Harmful Algae & Hypoxia in the Great Lakes: An Ecosystem Approach Introduction. Hypoxia has occurred frequently in the summer in western Lake Erie. HABs have been responsible The Laurentian Great Lakes are a major resource to North America, containing 18% of the world's surface

  11. Great Lakes & Ohio River Division Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) Response Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    USACE Great Lakes & Ohio River Division Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) Response Plan Erich Emery USACE Louisville District 28-29 MAY 2014 #12;Great Lakes & Ohio River Division 2 #12;Lake Erie 3 NOAA processed satellite imagery showing concentrations of cyanobacteria in Western Basin Lake Erie 7/27/2010 #12;Focus

  12. Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend, David W.

    Harmful algal blooms and eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of cultural eutrophication linked to the pressures of increasing human population including animal and plant on some aspects of the relationship between eutrophication and HABs (Heisler et al., 2008), recognizing

  13. The evolution of helping and harming on graphs: the return of the inclusive fitness effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Nadir

    The evolution of helping and harming on graphs: the return of the inclusive fitness effect L relatedness between individuals promotes helping behaviour, evolu- tionary graph theory emphasizes., 2006; Ohtsuki & Nowak, 2006). Evolutionary graph theory models allow the effect of space on helping

  14. APPENDIX C Colorado Statewide Forest Resource Assessment Protect Forests From Harm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 APPENDIX C ­ Colorado Statewide Forest Resource Assessment Data Gaps Protect Forests From Harm o. Enhance Public Benefits from Trees and Forests o Water Supply Need data that will allow assessment Economic Opportunities Need a state level assessment of biomass supply for both wood products

  15. Animal carcasses must be handled properly to prevent harm to people, herds, flocks,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Animal carcasses must be handled properly to prevent harm to people, herds, flocks, water (Fig. 1): · Diseases can be spread to people and animals. · Carcass fluids can leach into and pollute, or rivers). · Obnoxious gases and odors can be emitted to the atmosphere. · The carcasses can attract

  16. Deepwater Horizon Study Finds Crude Oil Harmful to Bluefin, Yellowfin Tuna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosell, Martin

    Deepwater Horizon Study Finds Crude Oil Harmful to Bluefin, Yellowfin Tuna This photo from April 24, 2010 shows oil in the Gulf of Mexico, more than 50 miles southeast of Venice on Louisiana's tip sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, found that crude oil from the 2010

  17. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality-controlled stove and emissions equipment at levels scalable to meet global demand; and 3) global distribution through a variety of channels and partners. ARC has been instrumental in designing and improving more than 100 stove designs over the past thirty years. In the last four years, ASAT and ARC have played a key role in the production and sales of over 200,000 improved stoves in the developed and developing world. The ARC-designed emissions equipment is currently used by researchers in laboratories and field studies on five continents. During Phase I of the DOE STTR grant, ASAT and ARC worked together to apply their wealth of product development experience towards creating the next generation of improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment. Highlights of Phase I for the biomass cookstove project include 1) the development of several new stove technologies that reached the DOE 50/90 benchmark; 2) fabrication of new stove prototypes by ASATís manufacturing partner, Shengzhou Stove Manufacturing (SSM); 3) field testing of prototype stoves with consumers in Puerto Rico and the US; and 4) the selection of three stove prototypes for further development and commercialization during Phase II. Highlights of Phase I for the emissions monitoring equipment project include: 1) creation of a new emissions monitoring equipment product, the Laboratory Emissions Monitoring System (LEMS 2) the addition of gravimetric PM measurements to the stove testing systems to meet International Standards Organization criteria; 3) the addition of a CO{sub 2} sensor and wireless 3G capability to the IAP Meter; and 4) and the improvement of sensors and signal quality on all systems. Twelve Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers purchased this equipment during the Phase I project period.

  18. Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy or creating waste? Big changes for a smaller carbon footprint and less pollution The Lab is working to reduce emissions by nearly 30 percent from energy use in...

  19. Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section sets state goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 10 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.

  20. The determination of regionalised wind roses for the UK, for use with the HARM acid depositional model.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe Dr. Claire Jarvis & Dr. Jim Nicholson #12;Abstract- The Hull acid rain (HARM) depositional model of Geography) is not permitted. #12;1 INTRODUCTION The Hull acid rain (HARM) Lagrangian receptor depositional, 2002, p1 & 6). Other acid rain models that use the Lagrangian receptor technique such as the original

  1. Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≠√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬źEnergy, Carbon-√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≠Dioxide-√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≠Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

    2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC-based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

  2. Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system developed to meet EPA 2010 and final Tier 4 emission regulations show substantial improvements in system performance while reducing system...

  3. New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Report: Integrating More Wind and Solar Reduces Utilities' Carbon Emissions and Fuel Costs October 1, 2013 - 3:51pm Addthis The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)...

  4. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  5. Dynamic reduced order modeling of entrained flow gasifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monaghan, Rory F. D. (Rory Francis Desmond)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification-based energy systems coupled with carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from continued use of abundant and secure fossil fuels. Dynamic reduced ...

  6. Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal Biofuels at the National Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Fishman, Daniel; Frank, Edward D.; Johnson, Michael C.; Jones, Susanne B.; Kinchin, Christopher; Skaggs, Richard; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr-1 (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and inter-annual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, and economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  7. The King's College London HEI project Health, Environment and Reducing air pollution in London, combating cardio-respiratory illness,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    The King's College London HEI project ­ Health, Environment and Innovation Reducing air pollution & partners London suffers with the worst air pollution in the UK and some of poorest in Europe. Poor air effective way of quickly reducing pollutants that are amongst the most harmful to human health, ERG played

  8. ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (CO2) emission reduction estimates were obtained for each of the measures. The package of measures the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian transportation sector. Reductions-makers will require estimates of both the potential emission reductions and the costs or benefits associated

  9. Room to Grow How California Agriculture Can Help Reduce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Room to Grow March 2010 How California Agriculture Can Help Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions #12 for helping to edit this report. Additional information was provided by Drs. James Fadel, William Horwath to Grow: How California Agriculture Can Help Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Berkeley Law \\ UCLA Law #12

  10. 2013 R&D 100 Award: 'SHIELD' protects NIF optics from harmful pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Jason

    2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past, it took as long as 12 hours to manually screen 48 critical checkpoints at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for harmful laser pulses. The screening equipment had to be moved from point to point throughout a facility the size of three football fields. Now with a new technology, called Laser SHIELD (Screening at High-throughput to Identify Energetic Laser Distortion), and with the push of a button, the screening can be done in less than one second. Proper screening of pulses is critical for the operation of high-energy lasers to ensure that the laser does not exceed safe operating conditions for optics. The energetic beams of light are so powerful that, when left uncontrolled, they can shatter the extremely valuable glass inside the laser. If a harmful pulse is found, immediate adjustments can be made in order to protect the optics for the facility. Laser SHIELD is a custom-designed high-throughput screening system built from low-cost and commercially available components found in the telecommunications industry. Its all-fiber design makes it amenable to the unique needs of high-energy laser facilities, including routing to intricate pick-off locations, immunity to electromagnetic interference and low-loss transport (up to several kilometers). The technology offers several important benefits for NIF. First, the facility is able to fire more shots in less time-an efficiency that saves the facility millions of dollars each year. Second, high-energy lasers are more flexible to wavelength changes requested by target physicists. Third, by identifying harmful pulses before they damage the laser's optics, the facility potentially saves hundreds of thousands of dollars in maintenance costs each year.

  11. 2013 R&D 100 Award: 'SHIELD' protects NIF optics from harmful pulses

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chou, Jason

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past, it took as long as 12 hours to manually screen 48 critical checkpoints at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for harmful laser pulses. The screening equipment had to be moved from point to point throughout a facility the size of three football fields. Now with a new technology, called Laser SHIELD (Screening at High-throughput to Identify Energetic Laser Distortion), and with the push of a button, the screening can be done in less than one second. Proper screening of pulses is critical for the operation of high-energy lasers to ensure that the laser does not exceed safe operating conditions for optics. The energetic beams of light are so powerful that, when left uncontrolled, they can shatter the extremely valuable glass inside the laser. If a harmful pulse is found, immediate adjustments can be made in order to protect the optics for the facility. Laser SHIELD is a custom-designed high-throughput screening system built from low-cost and commercially available components found in the telecommunications industry. Its all-fiber design makes it amenable to the unique needs of high-energy laser facilities, including routing to intricate pick-off locations, immunity to electromagnetic interference and low-loss transport (up to several kilometers). The technology offers several important benefits for NIF. First, the facility is able to fire more shots in less time-an efficiency that saves the facility millions of dollars each year. Second, high-energy lasers are more flexible to wavelength changes requested by target physicists. Third, by identifying harmful pulses before they damage the laser's optics, the facility potentially saves hundreds of thousands of dollars in maintenance costs each year.

  12. VEHICLE EMISSIONS AND TRAFFIC MEASURES: EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF FIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    VEHICLE EMISSIONS AND TRAFFIC MEASURES: EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF FIELD OBSERVATIONS AT SIGNALIZED between vehicle emissions and traffic control measures is an important step toward reducing the potential roadway design and traffic control, have the ability to reduce vehicle emissions. However, current vehicle

  13. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    -6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... it is essential to estimate accurately baseline NOx emissions. ? This will establish each units current compliance status. ? Emissions ? Current excess air level ? Carbon monoxide ? Combustibles ? NOx corrected to 3% 02 314 ESL-IE-00-04-46 Proceedings...

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  15. Driving Down Diesel Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harley, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is adapted from ďEffects of Diesel Particle Filter Retro?tstís official: exposure to diesel exhaust harms human health.its rankings, shifting diesel exhaust from a probable to a

  16. An Analysis of the European Emission Trading Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John M.

    An international emissions trading system is a featured instrument in the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases among major industrial countries. The ...

  17. The effects of secondary air injection on particulate matter emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pritchard, Joseph James

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on particulate matter (PM) emissions. SAI was developed to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and has been shown to be effective ...

  18. Emission abatement system utilizing particulate traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  19. Why are allowance prices so low? : an analysis of the SO2 emissions trading program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an analysis of the reduction in SO2 emissions by electric utilities between 1985 and 1993. We find that emissions have been reduced for reasons largely unrelated to the emission reduction mandate ...

  20. Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Implications. J. ofcommitment to reduce CO2 emissions from new passenger carsACEAís Commitment on CO2 Emission Reductions from Passenger

  1. Fluidized bed controls refinery emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulally, I.F.; Kersey, B.R.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 1983, two fluidized bed, waste heat boilers entered into service at the Ashland Petroleum Company refinery site in Ashland, Kentucky. These fluidized bed units are coupled to the regeneration end of a newly developed reduced crude conversion (RCC) process and served the purpose of reducing CO, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions while recuperating waste heat from the regenerator process off gases.

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.

    2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclideís concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2013, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from 0.2% to a maximum of 10.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000011 mrem/yr, more than 900,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, R.

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclideís concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2012, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 0.5% to a maximum of 11.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  5. Page 1 of 10 Assessing the effectiveness of policy options to reduce CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contributor to UK CO2 emissions, and whilst efficiency improvements are expected to reduce emissions per of 10 indicated that the potential for policies to deliver carbon emissions reduction through to current UK energy policy, and address the key question: What policies are effective at reducing carbon

  6. Reduces electric energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BENEFITS · Reduces electric energy consumption · Reduces peak electric demand · Reduces natural gas consumption · Reduces nonhazardous solid waste and wastewater generation · Potential annual savings products for the automotive industry, electrical equipment, and miscellaneous other uses nationwide. ALCOA

  7. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    end date: 09312012 * Percent complete: 16.67% * Barriers addressed - Lean NOx emission reduction - Particulate filtering using new catalysts - New catalysts for reducing...

  8. Energy Department Announces $10 Million to Advance Zero-Emission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vehicles and infrastructure will reduce petroleum use, carbon emissions, and air pollution at transportation hubs, such as ports. The Energy Department seeks...

  9. Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    already exceeds 5% of the on-highway diesel market Biodiesel also reduces greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum 3 Barriers 1. Biodiesel quality: Some biodiesel...

  10. Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4. Applying Calibration Measures to a GDI Concept 5. Summary 3. Process Description 4 Russia Currently: Euro 4 2014: Euro 5 Currently: Euro 2 Currently: ADR7902 (Test method Euro...

  11. The Power to Reduce CO2 Emissions: the Full Portfolio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy- efficient CO 2 capture for pulverized coal and integrated gasification combined cycle plants. Both nuclear and advanced coal with CCS technologies are...

  12. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Institute of SME, vol. 35, pp. 193Ė200, 2007. [80]Research Insti- tute of SME, Monterrey, Mexico, vol. 35,Research Institute of SME, vol. 34, pp. 381Ė388, 2006. [6

  13. Iowa: Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will be used to close up their buildings-making them more energy efficient, as well as to offset the costs of hooking up to the geothermal system. All mini-grant funds are...

  14. Model Project Streamlines Compliance, Reduces Emissions and Energy Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vining, S. K.

    refinery components. A typical refinery may have units or operations subject to the LDAR requirements of 40 CFR 60 Subparts W, GGG; 40 CFR 61 Subparts FF, J, and V:. 40 CFR 63 Subparts F, H, and CC; 40 CFR 264 Subpart BB and 40 CFR 265 Subpart BB... Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1998 monitored component if a leak is detected above a certain threshold, commonly 10,000 parts per million (ppm). However, under Phase III of the Hazardous Organic NESHAP's (HON), limits...

  15. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    engines and engine parts Wiring devices Mechanical measuring devices Laboratory and optical instruments Plastics materials and resins Magnetic

  16. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    how to think about green manufacturing and sustainability.for sustainable or green manufacturing is that it is not anthe implementation of green manufacturing, where a wedge

  17. Emission Regulations Reduced Impact of Climate Change in CA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    black carbon on California. In conducting the study, scientists used computer models and air pollution data collected by aircraft, satellite and ground monitors. The study's...

  18. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful tool52] EIO-LCA, ďEconomic input-output life cycle assessment,Ē

  19. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    European Commission, ďFrance energy mix fact sheet, http://European Commission, ďGermany energy mix fact sheet, http://ways, including regional energy mix variations, resource

  20. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to GHG/kWh of the USA electricity supply chain are coalGHG/kWh of electricity example based on USA. Distributionnuclear (USA) are different because of the electricity mix

  1. Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and engine parts Wiring devices Mechanical measuring devices Laboratory and optical instruments Plastics materials and resins Magnetic and

  2. Florida County Seeks to Reduce Emissions and Improve Traffic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Idling vehicles use up to several billion gallons of fuel and emit large quantities of air pollution and greenhouse gases each year. Saving money with shorter stops St. Johns is...

  3. Reducing Fossil Carbon Emissions and Building Environmental Awareness at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faiia, Earth Sciences Department, Dartmouth College David Foster, Head Electrical Engineer, Dartmouth

  4. Policies to Reduce Emissions from the Transportation Sector | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocusOskiPhilips Color KineticsGrowth Jump to:

  5. Reducing Forestry Emissions in Indonesia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerType Jump to:Co JumpRETScreenJam Home

  6. DOE Releases Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chuofthrough

  7. Iowa: Geothermal System Creates Jobs, Reduces Emissions in Rural Community

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA,Fermi NationalBusinessDepartmentat Larger Scale || Department of

  8. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNationalNewportBig Eddyof H-2 andNot519hep-ph/0511180- Energy

  9. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNationalNewportBig Eddyof H-2 andNot519hep-ph/0511180-

  10. New Generating Technology to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 20024.95 4.96

  11. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement3 Beryllium-Associated Worker2014Department of Energy 3Keene - Cummins Power

  12. Capturing Fugitives to Reduce DOE's GHG Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power Systems EngineeringDepartment of4 Federal6CleanCaithness ShepherdsCapturing Fugitives to

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: reduce emissions from wasted energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-active perovskite oxide High-Efficiency Solaremissions from

  14. Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for a Sectoral

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, search RAPIDColoradosourceRausWyoming: EnergyElec AssnRedmond,OpenApproach |

  15. Reducing the Particulate Emission Numbers in DI Gasoline Engines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes Office ofofDepartment of Energy the

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OFFuelsPropane TankWashington Information to

  17. Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions with Fuel-Flexible Burners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN7 RoadmapProgram| Department ofat This

  18. Increased European biofuel cultivation could harm human health1 by James Morgan for www.scienceomega.com2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Bohemia, University of

    Increased European biofuel cultivation could harm human health1 by James Morgan for www that the large-scale production of biofuels in4 Europe could result in increased human mortality and crop losses that many biofuel plant species, including poplar and willow, release more isoprene ­ an6 ozone precursor

  19. "Real-Time Coastal Observing Systems for Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms" Resubmitted 4 March 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    Initiation and Prediction in Large European Marine Ecosystems (HABILE) in the North Sea, Fisheries & Oceans"Real-Time Coastal Observing Systems for Ecosystem Dynamics and Harmful Algal Blooms" Resubmitted 4 ________________________________________________________________________ X.1 Introduction X X.2 Processes in the coastal ocean X X.2.1 Physical processes X X.2.2 Biological

  20. Choose the most appropriate answer 1. A The predicted increase in global population will be particularly harmful in Africa where

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    will be particularly harmful in Africa where lack of food and water is already a serious problem. B-40 years Western countries have changed old programs such as sex education, abortion and the role of women. A Conservative politicians don't want to interfere with individual free choice. Certain religions forbid abortion

  1. Guidance Document Fume hoods are used when handling toxic or hazardous chemicals. Harmful gases, vapors and fumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance Document FumeHoods Fume hoods are used when handling toxic or hazardous chemicals. Harmful the maximum safe mark (provided by Facilities Management during annual test) Use secondary containment (a hood without permission from EHS. Call EHS or Facilities Management if a hood is not functioning

  2. Growth of Nanoscale Nickel Ferrite on Carbonaceous Matrix- A Novel Method of Turning Harmful Particulates into a Functional Nanocomposite: An XAFS Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattanaik, S.; Huggins, F; Huffman, G

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate matter (PM) emission from residual oil combustion typically consists of carbonaceous material accompanied by inorganic matter notably transition metal sulfates. Often a minor sulfide form is found in the coarse fraction while an oxide form is more common in the fine and ultrafine fractions. A composite comprising of nanoscale nickel ferrite dispersed on carbonaceous matrix has been obtained following liberation of metal sulfates from the fine PM - a novel method of turning harmful particulates into a functional nanocomposite without the need for elaborate preparation using expensive precursors. The nickel ferrite content in the composite varies with the Fe/Ni ratio in particulate, fuel type, and combustion condition. Such variation may lead to the composite exhibiting diverse physical behaviors. Detailed structure and cation distribution in dispersed ferrite have been studied using Fe and Ni K-edges XAFS spectroscopy. Peaks are identified in the radial structure function with specific atom pair correlations within the spinel ferrite from which the relative occupancy of the cations in the octahedral and tetrahedral sites can be discerned. The results show that Ni(II) has strong preference for the octahedral site, while Fe(III) prefers both sites which is consistent with that of an inverted spinel ferrite.

  3. Most people now understand the necessity to reduce greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everest, Graham R

    ? Reducing your authority's per capita carbon emissions can require costly planning, engagement, recording in the community to pledge energy-saving actions to help them reach their carbon reduction ambition greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Action by Local Authorities will be criticalinachievingthe

  4. Reducing the uncertainties in carbon emissions fromReducing the uncertainties in carbon emissions from tropical deforestation -the BIOMASS mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from tropical deforestation - the BIOMASS mission Shaun Quegan University of Sheffield x average biomassCem = deforested area x average biomass (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Good Practice Guide 2003) #12;How well is biomass known? Model Model + SatelliteInterpolation Model

  5. Plating under reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.; Beat, T.G.; Cowden, W.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Ryan, L.E.; Hewitt, W.B. (TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA (United States))

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plating under reduced pressure was evaluated for both electroless nickel and electrodeposited copper systems. The objective was to reduce pitting of these coatings thereby further enhancing their usage for diamond turning applications. Cursory experiments with electroless nickel showed reduced porosity when deposition was done at around 500 torr. Detailed experiments with electrodeposited copper at around 100 torr provided similar results. Scanning tunneling microscopy was effectively used to show the improvement in the copper deposits plated under reduced pressure. Benefits included reduced surface roughness and finer and denser grain structure.

  6. Exhaust emissions from two intercity passenger locomotives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, S.G. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Emissions Research)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To enhance the effectiveness of intercity passenger rail service in mitigating exhaust emissions in California, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) included limits on exhaust emissions in its intercity locomotive procurement specifications. Because there were no available exhaust emission test data on which emission reduction goals could be based, Caltrans funded a test program to acquire gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions data, along with smoke opacity data, from two state-of-the-art intercity passenger locomotives. The two passenger locomotives (an EMD F59PH and a GE DASH8-32BWH) were tested at the Association of American Railroads Chicago Technical Center. The EMD locomotive was equipped with a separate Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 8V-149 diesel engine used to provide 480 V AC power for the trailing passenger cars. This DDC engine was also emission tested. These data were used to quantify baseline exhaust emission levels as a challenge to locomotive manufacturers to offer new locomotives with reduced emissions. Data from the two locomotive engines were recorded at standard fuel injection timing and with the fuel injection timing retarded 4 deg in an effort to reduce NO[sub x] emissions. Results of this emissions testing were incorporated into the Caltrans locomotive procurement process by including emission performance requirements in the Caltrans intercity passenger locomotive specification, and therefore in the procurement decision. This paper contains steady-state exhaust emission test results for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate matter (PM) from the two locomotives. Computed sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions are also given, and are based on diesel fuel consumption and sulfur content. Exhaust smoke opacity is also reported.

  7. Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management Challenge Many organisations are facing increasing cost challenges and pressure to reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions consideration is the carbon dioxide emissions per square metre of floor space. While an important metric

  8. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min ◊ 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  9. International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities, Horsens, Jutland, Denmark 1-4 June, 2003 Ammonia Emissions from Broiler Houses in Pennsylvania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentucky, University of

    International Symposium on Gaseous and Odour Emissions from Animal Production Facilities, Horsens, Jutland, Denmark 1-4 June, 2003 1 Ammonia Emissions from Broiler Houses in Pennsylvania During Cold of reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions are under study. Ammonia emissions during cold weather conditions from

  10. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  11. Reducing home lighting expenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimone, M.A.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ways to reduce lighting expenses are summarized. These include: turning off lights when not in use; keeping fixtures and lamps clean; replacing lamps with more efficient types; using three-way bulbs; use of daylighting; buying fewer lamps and reducing lamp wattage; consider repainting rooms; replacing recessed fixtures with tracklighting; and using efficient lamps for outdoor use. (MCW)

  12. Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Emissions Review - 2011 (so far) Tim Johnson October 4, 2011 DOE DEER Conference, Detroit JohnsonTV@Corning.com 2 Summary * California LD criteria emission regs are tightening....

  13. Reduce generating costs and eliminate brownouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogaja, R.; Menezes, M. [Emerson Process Management (United States)

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the manoeuverability of a coal-fired plant to allow it to participate in primary frequency support will reduce generation cost and minimize brownouts. The challenge is to do so without compromising efficiency or emissions. This article describes an approach - activation of stored energy - that is cost-effective and applicable to both greenfield and brownfield installations. It requires a new control philosophy, plus the correct application of new level and flow measurement 'best practices'. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W?s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  15. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  16. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  17. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  18. EU promises new biofuel rules won't harm the environment http://www.pr-inside.com/eu-promises-new-biofuel-rules-won-t-r385258.htm 1 of 2 1/16/2008 12:32 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EU promises new biofuel rules won't harm the environment http://www.pr-inside.com/eu-promises-new-biofuel promises new biofuel rules won't harm the environment © AP 2008-01-14 16:21:49 - BRUSSELS, Belgium (AP) - The European Union promised Monday that its new push to promote biofuels will try to prevent harming

  19. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  20. 8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Prospects for Biological Carbon Sinks in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Systems John Reilly1. With emissions trading, emitters who found they could cheaply reduce their emissions might have allowances- ing Australia, Canada, Japan and Russia. This group also pushed strongly for inter- national emissions

  1. Making Up Self Harmers: an investigation of the concept over time and from the perspective of two different self harm groups†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattingley, Helena

    2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis aims to illustrate the processes involves in Ďmaking upí the human kind of self harmers. Psychiatric attempts at defining, explaining, and controlling self harm behaviours are shaped by the people who they diagnose as much as they shape...

  2. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  3. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    way of reducing total energy consumption and CO2 emissions.deducted from the total energy consumption to avoid double-However, total energy consumption and CO2 emissions will

  4. BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nationís site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides that are resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds, dust-devils) along with historically-contaminated soils on the NTS. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (40 Code of Federal Regulations 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent (EDE) to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS for inhaling radioactive particles that may be carried by wind off of the NTS. This limit assumes that members of the public surrounding the NTS may also inhale ďbackground levelsĒ or radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities that come from naturally-occurring elements in the environment (e.g., radon gas from the earth or natural building materials) or from other man-made sources (e.g., cigarette smoke). The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires DOE facilities (e.g., the NTS) to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP dose limit by annually estimating the dose to a hypothetical member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI), or the member of the public who resides within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the facility who would experience the highest annual dose. This dose to a hypothetical person living close to the NTS cannot exceed 10 mrem/yr. C.1 This report has been produced annually for the EPA Region IX, and for the state of Nevada since 1992 and documents that the estimated EDE to the MEI has been, and continues to be, well below the NESHAP dose limit. The report format and level of technical detail has been dictated by the EPA and DOE Headquarters over the years. It is read and evaluated for NESHAP compliance by federal and state regulators. Each section and appendix presents technical information (e.g., NTS emission source estimates, onsite air sampling data, air transport model input parameters, dose calculation methodology, etc.), which supports the annual dose assessment conclusions. In 2005, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the estimated dose to the public from inhalation of radiological emissions from current and past NTS activities is shown to be well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. This was demonstrated by air sampling data collected onsite at each of six EPA-approved ďcritical receptorĒ stations on the NTS. The sum of measured EDEs from the four stations at the NTS boundaries is 2.5 mrem/yr. This dose is 25 percent of the allowed NESHAP dose limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, this individual receives only a small fraction of this dose. NESHAP compliance does not require DOE facilities to estimate annual inhalation dose from non-DOE activities. Therefore, this report does not estimate public radiation doses from any other sources or activities (e.g., naturally-occurring radon, global fallout).

  6. Universal decay rule for reduced widths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delion, D. S. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 407 Atomistilor, Bucharest-Magurele 077125 (Romania) and Academy of Romanian Scientists, 54 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest 050094 (Romania)

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission processes including {alpha} decay, heavy cluster decay, and proton and di-proton emission are analyzed in terms of the well-known factorization between the penetrability and the reduced width. By using a shifted harmonic oscillator plus Coulomb cluster-daughter interaction it is possible to derive a linear relation between the logarithm of the reduced width squared and the fragmentation potential, defined as the difference between the Coulomb barrier and the Q value. This relation is fulfilled with a good accuracy for transitions between ground states, as well as for most {alpha} decays to low-lying 2{sup +} excited states. The well-known Viola-Seaborg rule, connecting half-lives with the Coulomb parameter and the product between fragment charge numbers, as well as the Blendowske scaling rule, connecting the spectroscopic factor with the mass number of the emitted cluster, can be easily understood in terms of the fragmentation potential. It is shown that the recently evidenced two regions in the dependence of reduced proton half-lives versus the Coulomb parameter are directly connected with the corresponding regions of the fragmentation potential.

  7. Excess Emissions (New Mexico)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This regulation establishes requirements for a source whose operation results in an excess emission and to establish criteria for a source whose operation results in an excess emission to claim an...

  8. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Howard L. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  9. Emissions Trading and Social Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farber, Daniel A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    David †M. †Driesen, †Does †Emissions †Trading †Encourage †Jason †Coburn, †Emissions †Trading † and † Environmental †Szambelan, †U.S. †Emissions †Trading †Markets †for †SO 2 †

  10. Carbon dioxide emissions from the U.S. electricity sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Baxter, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As climate change negotiators from around the world prepared together in 1996 to consider new international targets and policies for greenhouse-gas reductions, the US Department of Energy asked the authors to review the options available to the electricity sector to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The charge was to focus on supply-side options and utility demand-side management (DSM) programs because other researchers were considered energy efficiency options for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The next section presents the EIA baseline projections of electricity production, use, and CO{sub 2} emissions to the year 2010. Subsequent sections briefly summarize the options available to the electricity industry to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions, speculate on how industry restructuring might affect the ability of the industry and its regulators to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and discuss the policies available to affect those emissions: research and development, voluntary programs, regulation, and fiscal policies.

  11. State Regulations on Airborne Emissions: Update Through 2006 (Update) (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In May 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency published two final rules aimed at reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) requires 28 states and the District of Columbia to reduce emissions of SO2 and/or NOx. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) requires the states to reduce emissions of mercury from new and existing coal-fired plants.

  12. Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

  13. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes Office ofof EnergyReducing Peak DemandLow

  14. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI); Thiel, Matthew P. (Madison, WI)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  15. Improving UK greenhouse gas emission estimates using tall tower observations†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howie, James Edward

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gases in the Earthís atmosphere play an important role in regulating surface temperatures. The UK is signatory to international agreements that legally commit the UK to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and ...

  16. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  17. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  18. Quantifying emissions reductions from New England offshore wind energy resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlinski, Michael Peter

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Access to straightforward yet robust tools to quantify the impact of renewable energy resources on air emissions from fossil fuel power plants is important to governments aiming to improve air quality and reduce greenhouse ...

  19. Measuring congestion and emissions : a network model for Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amano, Yasuaki Daniel, 1978-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Congestion is a major problem for the major cities of today. It reduces mobility, slows economic growth, and is a major cause of emissions. Vehicles traveling at slow speeds emit significantly more pollutants than vehicles ...

  20. Secretary of Energy Memorandum on DOE Greenhouse Gas Emission...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to a low-carbon economy. We must also lead by example in reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with our own operations and facilities. On October 5,2009, the...

  1. Vehicle emissions and energy consumption impacts of modal shifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallett, Vickie Lynn

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growing concern over air quality has prompted the development of strategies to reduce vehicle emissions in these areas. Concern has also been expressed regarding the current dependency of the U,S, on foreign oil. An option for addressing...

  2. Field Emission Measurements from Niobium Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. BastaniNejad, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, S. Covert, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Mammei, M. Poelker

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing the operating voltage of a DC high voltage photogun serves to minimize space charge induced emittance growth and thereby preserve electron beam brightness, however, field emission from the photogun cathode electrode can pose significant problems: constant low level field emission degrades vacuum via electron stimulated desorption which in turn reduces photocathode yield through chemical poisoning and/or ion bombardment and high levels of field emission can damage the ceramic insulator. Niobium electrodes (single crystal, large grain and fine grain) were characterized using a DC high voltage field emission test stand at maximum voltage -225kV and electric field gradient > 10MV/m. Niobium electrodes appear to be superior to diamond-paste polished stainless steel electrodes.

  3. Is GRB afterglow emission intrinsically anisotropic ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beloborodov, A M; Mochkovitch, R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The curvature of a relativistic blast wave implies that its emission arrives to observers with a spread in time. This effect is believed to wash out any fast variability in the lightcurves of GRB afterglows. We note that the spreading effect is reduced if emission is anisotropic in the rest-frame of the blast wave (i.e. if emission is limb-brightened or limb-darkened). In particular, synchrotron emission is almost certainly anisotropic, and may be strongly anisotropic, depending on details of electron acceleration in the blast wave. Anisotropic afterglows can display fast and strong variability at high frequencies (above the 'fast-cooling' frequency). This may explain the existence of bizarre features in the X-ray afterglows of GRBs, such as sudden drops and flares. We also note that a moderate anisotropy can significantly delay the 'jet break' in the lightcurve, which makes it harder to detect.

  4. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    goal to reduce its carbon intensity (CO2 emissions per unitmeet the national carbon intensity reduction target, Chinaísthe leakage issue of carbon intensity targets with trade

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - assessment program emissions Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Enhanced program is reducing ... Source: Denver, University of - Fuel Efficiency Automobile Test Data Center Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 5 Emissions...

  6. Can Future Emissions Limits be Met with a Hybrid EGR System Alone...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    out NOx emissions through highest possible EGR rates Fuel consumption through reduced turbo charger pumping work While providing Highest flexibility for the engine's combustion...

  7. Achieving Californiaís Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    want to reduce their Ďcarbon footprint,í not by law, but todecreases of its carbon footprint could reduce emissions byTo decrease the carbon footprint of transportation, the

  8. Queuing Models of Airport Departure Processes for Emissions Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gummadi, Ramakrishna

    is validated through a comparison of its predictions with observed data at Boston's Logan International AirportQueuing Models of Airport Departure Processes for Emissions Reduction Ioannis Simaiakis burn and emissions at airports. This paper investigates the possibility of reducing fuel burn

  9. Design of Environmental Regulatory Policies for Sustainable Emission Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    regulations to reduce and control pollution. This article will contrast three different types of regulations for lowering air emissions from industry: Command-and-control policy, environmental tax, and emission trading on establishing legal limits on the permissible amount of pollutants discharged to the atmosphere, ambient air

  10. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  11. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  12. Anomalous Microwave Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kogut

    1999-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved knowledge of diffuse Galactic emission is important to maximize the scientific return from scheduled CMB anisotropy missions. Cross-correlation of microwave maps with maps of the far-IR dust continuum show a ubiquitous microwave emission component whose spatial distribution is traced by far-IR dust emission. The spectral index of this emission, beta_{radio} = -2.2 (+0.5 -0.7) is suggestive of free-free emission but does not preclude other candidates. Comparison of H-alpha and microwave results show that both data sets have positive correlations with the far-IR dust emission. Microwave data, however, are consistently brighter than can be explained solely from free-free emission traced by H-alpha. This ``anomalous'' microwave emission can be explained as electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The anomalous component at 53 GHz is 2.5 times as bright as the free-free emission traced by H-alpha, providing an approximate normalization for models with significant spinning dust emission.

  13. Treading Lightly Steps Toward Reducing Our Carbon Footprint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Kin

    saved: 7,668,501 driving miles 383,425 gallons of gasoline $3.7 million 219,100 pounds of pollution stations. These alternative transportation programs help to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions charging stations On earth Day 2011, the University of arizona became the first university in the nation

  14. Way to reduce arc voltage losses in hybrid thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tskhakaya, V.K.; Yarygin, V.I.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are reported concerning the output and emission characteristics of the arc and hybrid regimes in a plane-parallel thermionic converter with Pt--Zr--O electrode pair. It is shown that arc voltage losses can be reduced to values below those obtainable in ordinary arc thermionic converters.

  15. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  16. Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Tim Johnson October 16, 2012 2 Environmental Technologies Summary * Regulations - LEVIII finalized, Tier 3? RDE in Europe developing and very...

  17. Reducing energy use comes at a costReducing energy use comes at a cost ----the EU casethe EU case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deputy Director and Chief Economist Centre for Global Energy StudiesCentre for Global Energy Studies Athens emissions, which are deemed to cause globalemissions, which are deemed to cause global warming regions ofsupplies (especially oil) from unstable regions of the world.the world. Why reduce energy use

  18. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  20. A simple model of spontaneous emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krzysztof Piotr Wůjcik

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a very simple model of a spontaneous emission from a two-level atom, interacting with a field of a finite number of states. Such a process is often said to occur because of the large number of equally-probable states of environment. We show that in our model increasing the number of field states may and may not cause a practically permanent emission, depending on the details of the model. We also describe how irreversibility emerges with growing number of states. Mathematical tools are reduced to a necessary minimum and hopefully can be well understood by undergraduate students.

  1. Carbon permit prices in the European emissions trading system : a stochastic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    See, Wee Chiang

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and in its test phase will operate from 2005-2007. It is a cap-and-trade system where an aggregate cap on emissions ...

  2. Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System: A Stochastic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System: A Stochastic Analysis By Wee Chiang, Technology and Policy Program 1 #12;Carbon Permit Prices in the European Emissions Trading System Abstract The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cornerstone for European efforts to reduce greenhouse gas

  3. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  4. Reducing energy usage in a manufacturing facility through a behavior change based approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norelli, Michael A., IV (Michael Anthony)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many companies have developed energy reduction programs for their manufacturing facilities to reduce their operational costs while also decreasing their greenhouse gas emissions. The majority of these manufacturing facilities ...

  5. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  6. Examining the Costs and Benefits of Technology Pathways for Reducing Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Examining the Costs and Benefits of Technology Pathways for Reducing Fuel Use and Emissions from On policy harmonized Tax credits Anti-idling Low Carbon Fuel Standard #12;Lifecycle Emissions Modeled in TOP-HDV 5 Fuel production, refining, and distribution Material acquisition, processing, and vehicle assembly

  7. Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Nikhil

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of †Spontaneous †Emission †in †a †Semiconductor †nanoLED,Ē †emission †rate †enhancement †using †the †Fluorescent †Emission †by †Lattice † Resonances †in †

  8. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  9. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  10. Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life -Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution/ultraviolet.php 1 of 2 8/7/2007 1:45 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life - Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution Water E Coli UVB Sunscreen #12;Ultraviolet-B Radiation Harms Aquatic Life - Current Results http://www.currentresults.com/Water/Water-Pollution/ultraviolet.php 2 of 2 8/7/2007 1:45 PM Home | About | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use | Advertise on This Site

  11. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  12. Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

  13. Approaches to representing aircraft fuel efficiency performance for the purpose of a commercial aircraft certification standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yutko, Brian M. (Brian Matthew)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing concern over the potential harmful effects of green house gas emissions from various sources has motivated the consideration of an aircraft certification standard as one way to reduce aircraft C02 emissions and ...

  14. Approaches to Representing Aircraft Fuel Efficiency Performance for the Purpose of a Commercial Aircraft Certification Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yutko, Brian

    2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing concern over the potential harmful effects of green house gas emissions from various sources has motivated the consideration of an aircraft certification standard as one way to reduce aircraft CO2 emissions and ...

  15. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  16. Intelligent field emission arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Ching-yin, 1973-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field emission arrays (FEAs) have been studied extensively as potential electron sources for a number of vacuum microelectronic device applications. For most applications, temporal current stability and spatial current ...

  17. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

  19. Impact of Vehicle Air-Conditioning on Fuel Economy, Tailpipe Emissions, and Electric Vehicle Range: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.; Rugh, J.

    2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Vehicle air-conditioning can significantly impact fuel economy and tailpipe emissions of conventional and hybrid electric vehicles and reduce electric vehicle range. In addition, a new US emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure, has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the US. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. Current air-conditioning systems can reduce the fuel economy of high fuel-economy vehicles by about 50% and reduce the fuel economy of today's mid-sized vehicles by more than 20% while increasing NOx by nearly 80% and CO by 70%.

  20. Field emission electron source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  1. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

  2. Reduced-dimension transistors: Reduced-dimension transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    1 Reduced-dimension transistors: the HEMT LECTURE 20 ¬∑ Reduced-dimension transistors ¬∑ HEMT ¬∑ 2-D;8 For a finite well ¬∑ Wavefunction not completely confined ¬∑ Use undoped spacer #12;9 Employment of a spacer scattering (¬Ķ ). ¬∑ Electrons and donors separated no I I scattering, i.e., ¬Ķ ¬∑ Undoped spacer also helps

  3. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  4. The sensitivity of modeled ozone to the temporal distribution of point, area, and mobile source emissions in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stehr, Jeffrey

    the emissions of NOx from day to night, for example in electric powered vehicles recharged at night, could have vehicles to the fleet (Bloomer et al., 2009) many regulators are focusing on reducing emissions at peak a memorandum of under- standing to reduce NOx emissions from peaking units on high electrical demand days (HEDD

  5. Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal resolution. Published studies indicate higher emission rates from soils and animal wastes at higher temperatures, and temporal variation in fertilizer application. A recent inverse modeling study indicates temporal variation in regional NH{sub 3} emissions. Monthly allocation factors were derived to estimate monthly emissions from soils, livestock and wild animal waste based on annual emission estimates. Monthly resolution of NH{sub 3} emissions from fertilizers is based on fertilizer sales to farmers. Statewide NH{sub 3} emissions are highest in the late spring and early summer months.

  6. REVIEW PAPER Strategies for reducing the carbon footprint of field crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    REVIEW PAPER Strategies for reducing the carbon footprint of field crops for semiarid areas emission. To provide the potential solution, we estimated the carbon footprint [i.e., the total amount the effect of crop sequences on the carbon footprint of durum wheat. Key strategies for reducing the carbon

  7. Neem extract as an inhibitor for biocorrosion influenced by sulfate reducing bacteria: A preliminary investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -reducing bacteria (SRB), iron and CO2 reducing bacteria and iron and manganese oxidizing bacteria [1,2]. Among these were characterized with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy of water for cellular maintenance and growth [4], (5) couple sulfate reduction to the intracellular

  8. Generalized Emission Functions for Photon Emission from Quark-Gluon Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. V. Suryanarayana

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effects on photon emission from the quark gluon plasma have been studied as a function of photon mass, at a fixed temperature of the plasma. The integral equations for the transverse vector function (${\\bf \\tilde{f}(\\tilde{p}_\\perp)}$) and the longitudinal function ($\\tilde{g}({\\bf \\tilde{p}_\\perp})$) consisting of multiple scattering effects are solved by the self consistent iterations method and also by the variational method for the variable set \\{$p_0,q_0,Q^2$\\}, considering the bremsstrahlung and the $\\bf aws$ processes. We define four new dynamical scaling variables, $x^b_T$,$x^a_T$,$x^b_L$,$x^a_L$ for bremsstrahlung and {\\bf aws} processes and analyse the transverse and longitudinal components as a function of \\{$p_0,q_0,Q^2$\\}. We generalize the concept of photon emission function and we define four new emission functions for massive photon emission represented by $g^b_T$, $g^a_T$, $g^b_L$, $g^a_L$. These have been constructed using the exact numerical solutions of the integral equations. These four emission functions have been parameterized by suitable simple empirical fits. In terms of these empirical emission functions, the virtual photon emission from quark gluon plasma reduces to one dimensional integrals that involve folding over the empirical $g^{b,a}_{T,L}$ functions with appropriate quark distribution functions and the kinematic factors. Using this empirical emission functions, we calculated the imaginary part of the photon polarization tensor as a function of photon mass and energy.

  9. Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

    2004-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

  10. Optimal irreversible stimulated emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.

  11. Controlled spontaneous emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

  12. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cement factories are small inefficient vertical shaft kilnvertical shaft kilns (VSKs). Only the USís 73 and Indiaís cementcement plants creates incentives to carry out the phase out of the factories that use small inefficient vertical shaft kilns.

  13. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for wind, biomass and hydropower projects in India, Iat wind power, biomass energy and hydropower projects inassumptions 43 Hydropower projects: inappropriate

  14. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in China, energy intensity per GDP decreased steeply betweenterms of energy consumption per unit of GDP, by 20% between

  15. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008), of which wind and small hydro dominate (Ministry oflarge & small) Wind in India Biomass in India Hydro in India

  16. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to developing countries for climate change mitigation. Theclimate change mitigation in developing countries,support climate change mitigation in developing countries

  17. Carbon Offsetting: An Efficient Way to Reduce Emissions or to Avoid Reducing Emissions? An Investigation and Analysis of Offsetting Design and Practice in India and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haya, Barbara

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2002. Renewable energy markets in developing countries.developing countries. 31% of all registered CDM projects are renewable energy

  18. Reduced shedding regenerator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

  19. 34 AEROSPACE AMERICA/MAY 2011 Copyright 2011 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Long gone are the days when weekend

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    during the past 50 years have markedly reduced harm ful engine emissions. But more still needs to be done of environmentally beneficial, or `green,' aviation initiatives designed to elim inate as much potential harm. Emissions, nuisance noise, fuel burn ef ficiency, air traffic management, and the use of alternate fuels all

  20. Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM and Toxics Regulation in the South Coast Air Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Nancy J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fugitive emissions in an emissions trading program, as theexists between an emissions trading program that allows aircreation of other ROC emissions trading programs. JOURNAL OF

  1. Secondary emission gas chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    .5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

  3. Graphene Coating Coupled Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

  4. The quantum mechanics of ion-enhanced field emission and how it influences microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yingjie [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Go, David B., E-mail: dgo@nd.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of a positive gas ion can enhance cold electron field emission by deforming the potential barrier and increasing the tunneling probability of electronsóa process known as ion-enhanced field emission. In microscale gas discharges, ion-enhanced field emission produces additional emission from the cathode and effectively reduces the voltage required to breakdown a gaseous medium at the microscale (<10??m). In this work, we enhance classic field emission theory by determining the impact of a gaseous ion on electron tunneling and compute the effect of ion-enhanced field emission on the breakdown voltage. We reveal that the current density for ion-enhanced field emission retains the same scaling as vacuum cold field emission and that this leads to deviations from traditional breakdown theory at microscale dimensions.

  5. Control of SOx emission in tail gas of the Claus Plant at Kwangyang Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.S.; Park, J.W.; Hyun, H.D. [POSCO, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works; Lee, D.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; Paik, S.C. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chung, J.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pilot and/or laboratory studies were conducted in order to find methods for reducing the SOx emission in the Claus tail gas of the cokes unit. The TGT process which is based on the complete hydrogenation of the sulfur-containing compounds (SO{sub 2}, S) into H{sub 2}S and returning to the COG main line can reduce the SOx emission to zero. In case the return to the COG main is impossible, the SPOR process (Sulfur removal based on Partial Oxidation and Reduction) can be successfully applied to reduce the SOx emission.

  6. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goff, David R. (Star City, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interferring blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  7. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goff, D.R.; Notestein, J.E.

    1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interfering blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  8. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  9. Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.

    2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.

  10. Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

  11. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Warren and Robert F. Grossman

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NTS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to under-ground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NTS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by winds) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium were also emitted to air at the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF), an NTS support complex in the city of North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2008a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation not related to NTS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements or from other man-made sources such as medical treatments. The NTS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NTS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration of each detected radionuclide at each of these locations is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2008a). At any one location, if multiple radionuclides are detected then compliance with NESHAP is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2008, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, from both current and past NTS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was a maximum of 1.9 mrem/yr; well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all six pseudo-critical receptor stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61 (CFR, 2008a). Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 19 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS. Potential dose to the public from NLVF was also very low at 0.00006 mrem/yr; more than 160,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

  12. Field emission from organic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kymissis, Ioannis, 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field emission displays (FEDs) show great promise as high performance flat panel displays. The light emission process is efficient, long lifetimes are possible with high brightness, and bright passive matrix displays can ...

  13. Emission altitude in radio pulsars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kijak

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a method of estimation of emission altitudes using observational data - precise measurements of pulse profile widths at low intensity level. The analysis of emission altitudes obtained using this method for a large number of pulsars gives constraints that should be useful for theory of coherent pulsar emission. It seems that radio emission originates at altitudes of about few percent of the light cylinder and that they depend on frequency, pulsar period and period derivative.

  14. 6, 57735796, 2006 Vehicular emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, dur-10 of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO20 and CO2

  15. Emission Controls for Heavy-Duty Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DEER Conference Emission Controls for Heavy-Duty Trucks Overview Emission Standards - US and Worldwide Technology Options for Meeting Emissions System Integration ...

  16. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    470E-20Ő1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared by:Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standardsfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

  18. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation RyanEnergy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation Ryanand/or site-attributable carbon emissions at commercial and

  19. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and September of 2005 and are included in Appendices E and F.

  20. The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  2. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  3. 4, 507532, 2004 Emission uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and Physics Discussions Impact of different emission inventories on simulated tropospheric ozone over China The importance of emission inventory uncertainty on the simulation of summertime tro- pospheric Ozone over China has been analyzed using a regional chemical transport model. Three independent emissions inventories

  4. 5, 94059445, 2005 Methane emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 9405­9445, 2005 Methane emissions from SCIAMACHY observations J. F. Meirink et al. Title and Physics Discussions Sensitivity analysis of methane emissions derived from SCIAMACHY observations through, 9405­9445, 2005 Methane emissions from SCIAMACHY observations J. F. Meirink et al. Title Page Abstract

  5. 5, 243270, 2008 Methane emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 5, 243­270, 2008 Methane emissions from plant biomass I. Vigano et al. Title Page Abstract and temperature on the emission of methane from plant biomass and structural components I. Vigano 1 , H. van.roeckmann@phys.uu.nl) 243 #12;BGD 5, 243­270, 2008 Methane emissions from plant biomass I. Vigano et al. Title Page Abstract

  6. 6, 68416852, 2006 Methane emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 6841­6852, 2006 Methane emission from savanna grasses E. Sanhueza and L. Donoso Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Methane emission from tropical savanna Trachypogon sp. grasses E. Sanhueza;ACPD 6, 6841­6852, 2006 Methane emission from savanna grasses E. Sanhueza and L. Donoso Title Page

  7. Coronal emission lines as thermometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judge, Philip G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coronal emission line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

  8. Gas Turbine Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederick, J. D.

    technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry ??? ? (1...., "Authority to Construct for Badger Creek Limited," Kern County Air Pollution Control District, Bakersfield.. Ca., June 20, 1989. 3) Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., Air Pollution - Its Origin and Control, Harper and Row, New York, New York, 1976, pp. 453...

  9. Analysis of Emission Shapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Danielewicz

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

  10. Analysis of Emission Shapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danielewicz, P

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

  11. Reduced Harmonic Representation of Partitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalis Psimopoulos

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present article the reduced integral representation of partitions in terms of harmonic products has been derived first by using hypergeometry and the new concept of fractional sum and secondly by studying the Fourier series of the kernel function appearing in the integral representation. Using the method of induction, a generalization of the theory has also been obtained.

  12. Announcing: All Recycling Reduce your

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papautsky, Ian

    Announcing: All Recycling Go Green! Reduce your contribution to the landfill, by choosing to voluntarily recycle acceptable items in the green All Recycling toters and containers around campus. ONLY THE ITEMS BELOW ARE ACCEPTED FOR ALL RECYCLING Please do not contaminate the recycling containers with trash

  13. Conservation Stand! Reducing My Commute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    . + Diverts plastic waste for food production. + Placed beside window, replaces light input with solarConservation Stand! Reducing My Commute 72.6 mi to 5.1 mi #12;#12;Conserving Water and Energy or contribution to sedimentation. + Food produced on site without transportation costs. - Depends on energy input

  14. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI)

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver and a platinum group metal on a particulate alumina support, the atomic fraction of the platinum group metal being less than or equal to about 0.25. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which silver is impregnated on alumina particles.

  15. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver on a particulate alumina support, the silver having a diameter of less than about 20 nm. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which ionic silver is impregnated on particulate hydroxylated alumina particles.

  16. Texas Emissions Reductions Program (TERP) Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEXAS EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS PROGRAM (TERP) ENERGY EFFICIENCY/RENEWABLE ENERGY (EE/RE) UPDATE October 2012 Jeff Haberl, Bahman Yazdani, Charles Culp Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University p. 2 Energy Systems Laboratory... Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 Legislation to reduce energy/emissions 2001 to Present Senate Bill 5 (77th Legislature, 2001) Ch. 386. Texas Emissions Reduction Plan Sec. 386.205. Evaluation Of State Energy Efficiency Programs (with PUC) Ch...

  17. EE/RE Impacts on Emission Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as long as they are not otherwise relied on to meet air quality attainment requirements in air quality programs related to your SIP. Enforceability: Measures that reduce emissions from electricity generation may be: (1) Enforceable directly... Dec. 16-18 SAVINGS FROM CODE COMPLIANT CONSTRUCTION Login Screen Energy Code/Site Address/Project DetailsFloors/BedRooms/FoundationWindowsInsulationDHWR of/C ilingReportCertificateCertif cate n Electrical P nelSha ngM chanical Sys m 5 ESL-KT-13...

  18. Emissions and Performance Tradeoffs for Advanced Marine Diesel Propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    the turbocharger and the diesel engine in steady-state 5]. Secondly, it modi es the power transfer to the turbineEmissions and Performance Tradeoffs for Advanced Marine Diesel Propulsion Anna Stefanopoulouy is designed that reduces smoke generation on an experimental marine Diesel engine equipped with a variable

  19. Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Quality and Emissions Impacts of Heat Island Mitigation Strategies ENVIRONMENTAL AREA RESEARCH the temperature of the ground surface and the ambient air. This situation creates areas called urban heat summertime temperatures reduces electricity demand for air conditioning, which lowers air pollution levels

  20. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambus, Per

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Agro-biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from theÖ (more)

  2. Forecasting and Capturing Emission Reductions Using Industrial Energy Management and Reporting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mandatory 2010 Green House Gas (GHG) Reporting Regulations and pending climate change legislation has increased interest in Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) as a means of both reducing and reporting GHG emissions. This paper...

  3. Carbon Emissions Analysis of Rail Resurfacing Work: A Case Study, Practical Guideline, and Systems Thinking Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krezo, S.

    Carbon pollution has become a sensitive topic across the globe in recent times. In Australia, incentive has been provided to industry in order to reduce carbon emissions in heavy polluting industries. The railway transportation ...

  4. Spectral analysis for cascade-emission-based quantum communication in atomic ensembles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. H. Jen

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The ladder configuration of atomic levels provides a source for telecom photons (signal) from the upper atomic transition. \\ For rubidium and cesium atoms, the signal field has the range around 1.3-1.5 $\\mu$m that can be coupled to an optical fiber and transmitted to a remote location. \\ Cascade emission may result in pairs of photons, the signal entangled with the subsequently emitted infrared photon (idler) from the lower atomic transition.\\ This correlated two-photon source is potentially useful in the (Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller) DLCZ protocol for the quantum repeater.\\ We implement the cascade emission to construct a modified DLCZ quantum repeater and investigate the role of time-frequency entanglement in the protocol.\\ The dependence of protocol on photon-number resolving and non-resolving detectors is also studied.\\ We find that frequency entanglement deteriorates the performance but the harmful effect can be diminished by using shorter pump pulses to generate the cascade emission.\\ An optimal cascade-emission-based DLCZ scheme is realized by applying a pure two-photon source in addition to using detectors of perfect quantum efficiency.

  5. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  6. Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions Zero Emission transportation goals Zero Emission MAP makes available technical assistance to states and cities to support the growth of zero emission mobility markets. 1 Research shows

  7. Implementation of SB 1368 Emission Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ........................................................................................................ 18 Calculation of Biomass, Biogas or Landfill Net Emissions ..................................... 19

  8. Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Professor David B. Kittelson Department Meeting Ultra Fine Particles in the Atmosphere 15 March 2000 Engine Exhaust Particle Emissions: Some Perkins Engine Company #12;Emissions of Ultrafine and Nanoparticles from Engines ∑ Current emission

  9. Primary aluminum: statistical analysis of potline fluoride emissions and alternate sampling frequency. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical analyses were performed on 4 years of fluoride emissions data from a primary aluminum reduction plant. These analyses were used to develop formulae and procedures for use by regulatory agencies in determining alternate sampling frequencies for secondary (roof monitor) emissions testing on a case-by-case basis. Monitoring procedures for ensuring compliance even with a reduced test frequency are also addressed.

  10. Earth'sFuture Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    Earth'sFuture Remote sensing of fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production in North and tight oil reservoirs to exploit formerly inaccessible or unprofitable energy resources in rock and oil provide an opportunity to achieve energy self-sufficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  11. Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishimura, Eriko

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

  12. Economic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Words): Use of biofuels diminishes fossil fuel combustion thereby also reducing net greenhouse gasEconomic Potential of Biomass Based Fuels for Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Uwe A. Schneider emissions. However, subsidies are needed to make agricultural biofuel production economically feasible

  13. Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Oritz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Marlow, William H. (College Station, TX)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles. A continuous air monitoring sampler is described for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. An inlet fractionating screen has been demonstrated to remove about 95% of freshly formed radon progeny from the aerosol sample, and approximately 33% of partially aged progeny. Addition of an electrical condenser and a modified dichotomous virtual impactor are expected to produce considerable improvement in these numbers, the goal being to enrich the transuranic (TRU) fraction of the aerosols. This offers the possibility of improving the signal-to-noise ratio for the detected alpha-particle energy spectrum in the region of interest for detecting TRU materials associated with aerosols, thereby enhancing the performance of background-compensation algorithms for improving the quality of alarm signals intended to warn personnel of potentially harmful quantities of TRU materials in the ambient air.

  14. The Potential of Turboprops to Reduce Aviation Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirti, Megan; Hansen, Mark

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Grimme, W.G. , 2007. Emissions trading for internationalinvestigating an open emission trading system for aviationin the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (Wit et al. ,

  15. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Abstract: In the...

  16. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies 2011 DOE...

  17. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  18. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated aftertreatment, high-molecular-weight fuel components and unburned lubricant were emitted at higher rates than in vehicles in good repair, with functioning emissions systems. Light-duty gasoline, medium-duty diesel, and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles produced more particles with fresh oil than with aged oil. The opposite trend was observed in light- and medium-duty high PM emitters. This effect was not readily apparent with heavy-duty diesel vehicles, perhaps because the lubricant represented a much smaller fraction of the total PM in those trucks.

  19. Emission difference between natural gas usage and digester gas usage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghorbanian, Mahyar, 1986-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??M.S. It is important to burn the air toxics and harmful gases which come from water and wastewater treatment processes. In common practice, instead ofÖ (more)

  20. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-00T23:59:59.000Z

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  1. Emission control technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Fumihiko

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental protection is indispensable for preserving the earth for later generations. Indeed, industrial development has made our life rich; however, it also accelerates environmental pollution. Above all, such global problems as acid rain caused by SOx and NOx emissions and air pollution caused by particulates have become serious in recent years. Countermeasures currently in service or under development for these problems include: upgrading of fuel-burning systems; conversion of energy sources to clean fuels; pretreatment of fuels; and flue gas treatment. This chapter focuses on technologies that treat flue gases including the circumstances of the development of the technologies.

  2. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  3. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  4. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  5. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

  6. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  7. field emission electron microprobe | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field emission electron microprobe Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

  8. EMSL - field emission electron microprobe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field-emission-electron-microprobe en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

  9. Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

    2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

  10. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the state's 1997 electric utility restructuring legislation, Illinois established provisions for the disclosure of fuel mix and emissions data. All electric utilities and alternative...

  11. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Virginiaís 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity providers to disclose -- "to the extent feasible" -- fuel mix and emissions data regarding electric generation....

  12. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ohio's 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions to customers. Electric utilities and...

  13. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marylandís 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires all electric companies and electricity suppliers to provide customers with details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of...

  14. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oregon's 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires electricity companies and electric service suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions of electric...

  15. Emissions trading under market imperfections.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lappi, Pauli

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study theÖ (more)

  16. Emissions trading and technological change.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calel, Raphael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Emissions trading programmes have grown in number and scope over the last forty years, and in the last decade they have become a centrepiece ofÖ (more)

  17. A Computer Generated Reduced Iso-Octane Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Applied to Simulation of HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S M; Martinez-Frias, J; Flowers, D; Smith, J R; Dibble, R; Chen, J Y

    2002-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows how a computer can systematically remove non-essential chemical reactions from a large chemical kinetic mechanism. The computer removes the reactions based upon a single solution using a detailed mechanism. The resulting reduced chemical mechanism produces similar numerical predictions significantly faster than predictions that use the detailed mechanism. Specifically, a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for iso-octane has been derived from a detailed mechanism by eliminating unimportant reaction steps and species. The reduced mechanism has been developed for the specific purpose of fast and accurate prediction of ignition timing in an HCCI engine. The reduced mechanism contains 199 species and 383 reactions, while the detailed mechanism contains 859 species and 3606 reactions. Both mechanisms have been used in numerical simulation of HCCI combustion. The simulations show that the reduced mechanism predicts pressure traces and heat release with good accuracy, similar to the accuracy obtained with the detailed mechanism. As may be expected, emissions of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide are not as well predicted with the reduced mechanism as with the detailed mechanism, since the reduced mechanism was targeted for predicting HCCI ignition and not HC and CO emissions. Considering that the reduced mechanism requires about 25 times less computational time than the detailed mechanism (2 hours vs. 2 days), the ability to automatically generate a problem specific reduced mechanism is an important new tool for combustion research in general.

  18. Top-down estimate of anthropogenic emission inventories and their interannual variability in Houston using a mesoscale inverse modeling technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brioude, J.; Kim, S. W.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Frost, G. J.; Lee, S. H.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, Michael; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Holloway, J. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Williams, E. J.; Petron, Gabrielle; Fast, Jerome D.

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2000 and 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000 and 2006) field campaigns took place in eastern Texas in August-October of 2000 and 2006. Several flights of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) research aircraft were dedicated to characterizing anthropogenic emissions over Houston. Houston is known for having serious problems with non-attainment of air quality standards. We present a method that uses three models and aircraft observations to assess and improve existing emission inventories using an inverse modeling technique. We used 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional variational (3D-VAR and 4D-VAR) inverse modeling techniques based on a least-squares method to improve the spatial and temporal distribution of CO, NOy (sum of all reactive nitrogen compounds), and SO2 emissions predicted by the 4-km-resolution U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emission Inventory (NEI) for 2005. Differences between the prior and posterior inventories are discussed in detail. We found that in 2006 the prior daytime emissions in the urban area of Houston have to be reduced by 40% {+-} 12% for CO and 7% {+-} 13% for NOy. Over the Houston Ship Channel, where industrial emissions are predominant, the prior emissions have to be reduced by 41% {+-} 15% for CO and 51% {+-} 9% for NOy. Major ports around Houston have their NOy emissions reduced as well, probably due to uncertainties in near-shore ship emissions in the EPA NEI inventory. Using the measurements from the two field campaigns, we assessed the interannual emission variability between 2000 and 2006. Daytime CO emissions from the Houston urban area have been reduced by 8% {+-} 20%, while the NOy emissions have increased by 20% {+-} 12% from 2000 to 2006. In the Houston Ship Channel, the daytime NOy emissions have increased by 13% {+-} 17%. Our results show qualitative consistencies with known changes in Houston emissions sources.

  19. Nevada Test Site National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Grossman; Ronald Warren

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. From 1951 through 1992, the NTS was operated as the nation's site for nuclear weapons testing. The release of man-made radionuclides from the NTS as a result of testing activities has been monitored since the first decade of atmospheric testing. After 1962, when nuclear tests were conducted only underground, the radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NTS was greatly reduced. After the 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing, radiation monitoring on the NTS focused on detecting airborne radionuclides which come from historically contaminated soils resuspended into the air (e.g., by winds) and tritium-contaminated soil moisture emitted to the air from soils through evapotranspiration. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy facility (e.g., the NTS) to 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This is the dose limit established for someone living off of the NTS from radionuclides emitted to air from the NTS. This limit does not include the radiation doses that members of the public may receive through the intake of radioactive particles unrelated to NTS activities, such as those that come from naturally occurring elements in the environment (e.g., naturally occurring radionuclides in soil or radon gas from the earth or natural building materials), or from other man-made sources (e.g., medical treatments). The NTS demonstrates compliance using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the NTS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. There are six critical receptor locations on the NTS that are actually pseudocritical receptor locations because they are hypothetical receptor locations; no person actually resides at these onsite locations. Annual average concentrations of detected radionuclides are compared with Concentration Levels (CL) for Environmental Compliance values listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. Compliance is demonstrated if the sum of fractions (CL/measured concentrations) of all detected radionuclides at each pseudo-critical receptor location is less than one. In 2007, as in all previous years for which this report has been produced, the NTS has demonstrated that the potential dose to the public from radiological emissions to air from current and past NTS activities is well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected onsite at each of the six pseudo-critical receptor stations on the NTS had average concentrations of nuclear test-related radioactivity that were a fraction of the limits listed in Table 2 in Appendix E of 40 CFR 61. They ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 20 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) from the NTS boundary, concentrations at this location would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NTS.

  20. Silicate emission in Orion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Cesarsky; A. P. Jones; J. Lequeux; L. Verstraete

    2000-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present mid-infrared spectro-imagery and high-resolution spectroscopy of the Orion bar and of a region in the Orion nebula. These observations have been obtained in the Guaranteed Time with the Circular Variable Filters of the ISO camera (CAM-CVF) and with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), on board the European Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Our data shows emission from amorphous silicate grains from the entire HII region and around the isolated O9.5V star Theta2 Ori A. The observed spectra can be reproduced by a mixture of interstellar silicate and carbon grains heated by the radiation of the hot stars present in the region. Crystalline silicates are also observed in the Orion nebula and suspected around Theta2 Ori A. They are probably of interstellar origin. The ionization structure and the distribution of the carriers of the Aromatic Infrared Bands (AIBs) are briefly discussed on the basis of the ISO observations.

  1. Reduced Rank Models for Contingency Tables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan de Leeuw; Peter van der Heijden

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solution problem 73-14, Rank factorization of nonnegativein Great Britain Reduced rank models for contingency tablesclass analysis; Reduced rank models. 1. INTRODUCTION In

  2. Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost from Mobile Source Emission Reduction Credits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschein, Perry S.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost From Mobilehave tested various emissions trading policies to supplementAn Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program, 6 YALE J. ON

  3. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, Bill; Price, Lynn

    2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    After over two decades of staggering economic growth and soaring energy demand, China has started taking serious actions to reduce its economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short and medium-term intensity reduction targets, renewable generation targets and various supporting policies and programs. In better understanding how further policies and actions can be taken to shape China's future energy and emissions trajectory, it is important to first identify where the largest opportunities for efficiency gains and emission reduction lie from sectoral and end-use perspectives. Besides contextualizing China's progress towards reaching the highest possible efficiency levels through the adoption of the most advanced technologies from a bottom-up perspective, the actual economic costs and benefits of adopting efficiency measures are also assessed in this study. This study presents two modeling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China's efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors. The results of this study show that total annual energy savings potential of over one billion tonne of coal equivalent exists beyond the expected reference pathway under Max Tech pathway in 2030. CO2 emissions will also peak earlier under Max Tech, though the 2020s is a likely turning point for both emission trajectories. Both emission pathways must meet all announced and planned policies, targets and non-fossil generation targets, or an even wider efficiency gap will exist. The savings potential under Max Tech varies by sector, but the industrial sector appears to hold the largest energy savings and emission reduction potential. The primary source of savings is from electricity rather than fuel, and electricity savings are magnified by power sector decarbonization through increasing renewable generation and coal generation efficiency improvement. In order to achieve the maximum energy savings and emission reduction potential, efficiency improvements and technology switching must be undertaken across demand sectors as well as in the growing power sector. From an economic perspective, the cost of conserved energy analysis indicates that nearly all measures for the iron and steel and cement industry are cost-effective. All 23 efficiency measures analyzed for the cement industry are cost-effective, with combined CO2 emission reduction potential of 448 Mt CO2. All of the electricity savings measures in the iron and steel industry are cost-effective, but the cost-effective savings potential for fuel savings measures is slightly lower than total technical savings potential. The total potential savings from these measures confirm the magnitude of savings in the scenario models, and illustrate the remaining efficiency gap in the cement and iron and steel industries.

  4. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  5. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downer Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  6. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  7. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

  8. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESCRIPTION DETAILS * Radioactive Waste Source Reduction 1,500 Radioactive Waste $6,000 $2,500 $6,000 Waste Yard Sorting Table surveying to sort clean waste from radioactive waste Radioactive Emissions Emission lives. Radioactive Waste generated through wet chemistry Waste Minimization 30 Mixed waste / Liquid

  9. Social and economic scenarios for reducing and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    's ambition for a 60% cut in carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. s Our research focuses on the East of England, and social inclusion. s In the UK, the move towards regionalism means that the Regions and Local Authorities) and cutting their GHG emissions (mitigation). The Government's 2003 Energy White Paper stated the nation

  10. Flue gas cleaning with ammonia reduces SO{sub 2} emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emish, G.J. [Krupp Wilputte Corp., Bridgeville, PA (United States); Schulte, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Ellison, W. [Ellison Consultants, Monrovia, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the technical and commercial development and basis for application in North America for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) of the AMASOX{reg_sign} (i.e. Ammonia Absorbs Sulfur Oxides) Process of Krupp Uhde (Germany) employing ammonia reagent. This process technology has been emerging slowly and stepwise over a twenty-year period in reaching the present stage of commercial applicability. The discussion herein considers the need for accommodating to and advantageously addressing the increasing number of applications with high and ultra-high flue-gas concentrations of SO{sub 2} at the boiler outlet accompanied by significant levels of other pollutants. Key measures in accomplishing this include use of important process innovations. This, as well, calls for the effective use, when applicable, of wet electrostatic precipitator mist-elimination means to gain low/minimum-opacity stack plume trailoff in wet scrubber use together with reduction of air toxics to low concentrations. With cost-effectiveness in electric utility service, detailed herein, superior to FGD processes commonly used to date in high-sulfur service, utilization of this technology is expanding. Important, potentially trend-setting types of powerplant applications of ammonia FGD are reviewed to identify foreseen market sectors and procurement trends that will at the same time serve to substantially broaden lowest-cost coal utilization.

  11. Impact of the energy sector upon environment, policies of reducing the polluting emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teodorescu, S.; Popescu, M.A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The deep changes in Romania is facing during the transition from a planned, centralized economy to a market economy and Romania's integration into the European Community, have imposed the necessity to adopt some proper strategies for the energy sector reorganization and development, taking account the economic, social, public health and environmental aspects. The environmental protection, the pollution reduction, their positive direct and indirect effects the increasing energy efficiency in using fossil fuels, have an important role on energy policies as well as on the planning of long term measures. For the future evolution of the energy sector in order to cover the electric and thermal energy consumption, a special attention is given to impact of different development strategies, upon environment, the stress being also laid on the expenses required for affiliating the sector to the limits imposed by the convention which Romania has adhered.

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in BPs PTA Manufacturing Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, F.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BP is the worldís leading producer of purified terephthalic acid, or PTA, a commodity chemical used in the production of polyester. Through both self-help initiatives and innovations in our state-of-art process technology, the energy efficiency...

  13. Wildlife conservation and reduced emissions from deforestation in a case study of Nantu National Park,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    more effective than the PAs without international investment. In contrast with the recent hopes Park, Sulawesi 1. The effectiveness of forest protection--many measures, one goal Ewan A. Macdonald a o Published on line 3 April 2011 Keywords: Protected area Sulawesi REDD Wildlife conservation

  14. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is fraction of total electricity consumption for commercialy) ! calculate total electricity consumption for the end-useis fraction of total electricity consumption for residential

  15. Aluminum Microfoams for Reduced Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions of Transportation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    less considerate metal. .Usually, carbide (e.g. , SiC, BaC)particles carbide since they are used to weld metal piecesmetal. These particles are bigger than the oxides and the carbides (

  16. ESTABLISHING THE LINK BETWEEN AMMONIA EMISSION CONTROL AND MEASUREMENTS OF REDUCED NITROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneja, Viney P.

    , Slovakia; 10 Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forest and Landscape (SAEFL), Air Pollution Control Division Norwegian Meteorological Institute (DNMI), Blindern, Oslo, Norway; 13 Swiss Federal Research Station of Agroecology and Agriculture (FAL), Bern-Liebefeld, Switzerland; 14 Energie Centrum Nederland (ECN), Petten

  17. Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions from the Regeneration Air System of a Butane Dehydrogenation Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T. P.

    Texas Petrochemicals operates a butane dehydrogenation unit producing MTBE for reformulated gasoline that was originally constructed when energy was cheap and prior to environmental regulation. The process exhausts 900,000 pounds per hour of air...

  18. Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B.; Keon, E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ....'::::;::::::: Il-~:!=;~:o:oo:t(.~ _.;:::::=:;:::::.":':::"':'::':":::":::.lIoo:...:...:_:?.:""'.:::::::::::::::::::;::~ . ??:.:?????????????::: Precipitator :.- .......?......... ~ ........ . ... :.:.:.:. ..:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.. ? ? ? ? ......w.;."w,1o&.I1.&r...

  19. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ngcc nuclear coal ngcc nuclear other peaking renewable otherpeaking renewable Terawatt- hours Terawatt-hoursnuclear other peaking renewable Marginal Capacity Starting

  20. Reducing nitrogen oxides emissions from the combustion of LCV gas staged firing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Stanley Frank

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by fluidized bed gasification at temperatures below the 1090 K (1500 F) ash fusion temperatur es. Subsequent burning of the LCV gas r esulted in the same type of severe slagging, fouling, and cor r osion pr oblems as wer e encounter ed dur ing combustion... concentrations during fuel rich combustion, can also fix N2 to give CN and HCN (Fenimore, 1971), thus contributing to the amount of fixed nitrogen available for the fuel NOx path. NOx formed by this path, suggested by Fenimore (1971), is known as "prompt...

  1. Aluminum Microfoams for Reduced Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions of Transportation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the foamability of Aluminum alloy . Journal of MaterialFoamability of particle reinforced Aluminum Melt. Ma. -wiss.particle-stabilised Aluminum foams . Advanced Engineering

  2. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  3. Shaping the terms of competition : environmental regulation and corporate strategies to reduce diesel vehicle emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Christine Bik-Kay, 1979-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental regulations are typically portrayed as an outside force stimulating development of environmental technologies in regulated industries. In reality, firms influence regulation by communicating their technological ...

  4. Secretary Chu Announces Two New Projects to Reduce Emissions from Coal

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Energy fromCommentsRevolvingPerformanceIndustrial| Department of

  5. Secretary Chu Announces Two New Projects to Reduce Emissions from Coal

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power.pdf11-161-LNG |September2-SCORECARD-01-24-13 PageUraniumDepartment ofofFederal Government

  6. Vietnam-Integrated Action Plan to Reduce Vehicle Emissions | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov PtyInformation UCOpenVerona, New Jersey:012225¬į,(EC-LEDS) |

  7. The Need to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions in the South Coast Air Basin |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage ¬Ľof EnergyThe Energy Department Feeds11,Industrial Sector,T T H

  8. A Path to Reduce Methane Emissions from Gas Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered¬ČPNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe ő≤-ResearchNew Method andA... ALiftingA PA

  9. Reduced Turbine Emissions Using Hydrogen-Enriched Fuels R.W. Schefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a fuel for aircraft gas turbine operation. The burner configuration consisted of nine 6.73 mm diameter capabilities for gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen- blended hydrocarbon fuels in gas turbine applications source of cost-effective fuels for gas turbines. A second need is related to the recognition that ultra

  10. Methods and systems to facilitate reducing NO.sub.x emissions in combustion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Clifton Park, NY); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Lipinski, John Joseph (Simpsonville, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for assembling a gas turbine combustor system is provided. The method includes providing a combustion liner including a center axis, an outer wall, a first end, and a second end. The outer wall is orientated substantially parallel to the center axis. The method also includes coupling a transition piece to the liner second end. The transition piece includes an outer wall. The method further includes coupling a plurality of lean-direct injectors along at least one of the liner outer wall and the transition piece outer wall such that the injectors are spaced axially apart along the wall.

  11. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2011).pdf. óóó. 2012a. ďAnnual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2012. Ē2013. ďAnnual Energy Outlook - Model Documentation. Ēforecast, the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (DOE EIA 2012a).

  12. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    types Oil & Gas Steam and Combustion Turbine/Diesel. Diesel.of Oil & Gas Steam plus Combustion Combustio Turbine/Diesel,Natural Gas Steam Combined Cycle Combustion Turbine/Diesel

  13. Increasing Security and Reducing Carbon Emissions of the U.S...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen production Final feedstock preprocessing, gasification, clean-up, FT synthesis, upgrading, CO 2 compression and delivery Plant-to-pump Transportation and piping to Air...

  14. DOE and NNSA labs work with CTBTO to reduce medical isotope emissions,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases onOrganization FYBeauTransition Documents - 2008Wells |ofenhance

  15. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Presentation by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Termpaul_fini@cree.com CREECummins Power

  16. Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in the Cement Sector | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte GmbH Jump to: navigation,Metalysis JumpMetzger,Energy| Open

  17. Tennessee: Da Vinci Fuel-in-Oil Reduces Emissions, Wins R&D 100 Award |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartment of Energyof theRestoration atStandardsAnalysis ¬ĽTechnologyEnergyDepartment

  18. New Process for Producing Styrene Cuts Costs, Saves Energy, and Reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S iPartnership Program | Departmentof Energy

  19. Low-Cost Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIanJenniferLeslieEnergy LoanOfficialLow-CostALTEXDepartment

  20. Reduce Your Company's Energy Costs and Carbon Emissions with DOE Tools and Resources (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-page overview fact sheet that describes the Industrial Technologies Program's Save Energy Now initiative and voluntary pledge program.

  1. On the Road to Climate Stability: The Parable of the Secretary A-Team Report on Prospects for Halting the Growth of CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    for Halting the Growth of CO2 Emissions James Hansen1,2, Darnell Cain3, Robert Schmunk3 After President Bush) reducing non-CO2 climate forcings, and (2) getting CO2 emissions to level out in the near-term and decline for a path in which the United States achieves an energy and CO2 emissions pathway consistent

  2. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  3. X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen/s)Velocity (km/s) #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;The

  4. EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

  5. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  6. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency improvement over equivalent gasoline-fueled trucks. (2) Develop by 2004 the enabling technology for a Class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) that will meet prevailing emission standards, using either diesel or a liquid alternative fuel. (3) Develop by 2006 diesel engines with fuel flexibility and a thermal efficiency of 55% with liquid alternative fuels, and a thermal efficiency of 55% with dedicated gaseous fuels. (4) Develop a methodology for analyzing and evaluating the operation of a heavy vehicle as an integrated system, considering such factors as engine efficiency; emissions; rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; friction, wear, and lubrication effects; auxiliary power units; material substitutions for reducing weight; and other sources of parasitic energy losses. Overarching these considerations is the need to preserve system functionality, cost, competitiveness, reliability, durability, and safety.

  7. The reduced environmental liability of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie, A.C.D. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); McMillen, M. [Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the authors will discuss the waste stream minimization that future commercially operated clean coal technologies can effect. They will explore the ability of these now-beginning-to-mature technologies to reduce those aspects of the emission streams that have greatest potential for what the authors term as environmental liability. Environmental liability is manifested in a variety of forms. There are both current liabilities and future liabilities. In addition, uncertainties may reside in future anticipated regulatory compliance and the costs of such compliance. Exposure to liability translates into perceived risk which creates an air of uncertainty to the power industry and its lenders who provide the capital to build new power plants. In the context of electric power generation, newer, high efficiency power generation technologies developed in the course of the Clean Coal Technology Program of the US Department of Energy result in reduced waste stream emissions when compared against more aging conventional combustion technologies. This paper will discuss how the introduction of new clean coal technologies will help balance the conflict between adverse environmental impact and the global demand for increased energy. The authors will discuss how clean coal technologies will facilitate compliance with future air standards that may otherwise expose power producers to modification and cleanup costs, noncompliance penalties, or premature shut down.

  8. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S. [Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Erickson, D.; Papar, R. [Energy Concepts Co., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1998-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  9. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  10. Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

  11. Cofiring waste biofuels and coal for emissions reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouwer, J.; Owens, W.D.; Harding, N.S. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion tests have been performed in two pilot-scale combustion facilities to evaluate the emissions reduction possible while firing coal blended with several different biofuels. Two different boiler simulations, pulverized coal fired boilers and stoker coal fired boilers, were simulated. The pc-fired studies investigated the use of waste hardwood and softwood with pulverized coal, or using the biofuels as potential reburning fuels. The use of these wood waste is attractive because: wood contains little nitrogen and virtually no sulfur; wood is a regenerable biofuel; and wood utilization results in a net reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. The wood reburning results indicate a reduction of 50-60% NO with approximately 10% wood heat input. Reburn stoichiometry was the most important variable. The NO reduction was strongly dependent upon initial NO and only slightly dependent upon temperature and wood moisture content. Cofiring of wood with pulverized coal; however, did not lead to significant NO reductions with the current NO{sub x} burner configuration. The stoker program investigated barriers for the successful blending of coal with waste railroad ties. Parameters evaluated included blending firing rate, chip size, optimum feed location, overfire/underfire air ratio, and natural gas addition. The results of this study demonstrate that NO emissions can be reduced by more than 50% without any significant increase in CO or THC emissions by the proper use of zoned reburning. Both programs demonstrated several benefits of biofuel cofiring, including: (1) lower operating costs due to reduced fuel prices; (2) reduced waste disposal; (3) reduced maintenance costs; (4) reduced environmental costs; and (5) extension of the useful life of existing equipment.

  12. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  13. Phase-resolved optical emission of dusty rf discharges: Experiment and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melzer, Andre; Huebner, Simon; Lewerentz, Lars; Schneider, Ralf [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universiaet, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Matyash, Konstantin [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Ikkurthi, Ramana [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Ghandinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral emission of atoms in a dusty radio frequence (rf) discharge plasma in argon and helium has been measured with a gated ICCD camera. The spatially and temporally resolved emission/excitation of the argon and helium atoms during the rf cycle in the dusty discharge was compared to the dust-free case. In the bulk plasma above the dust cloud, the emission is clearly enhanced in the dusty discharge with respect to the pure discharge, whereas in the sheath the emission is reduced. In addition, the emission of a dusty argon plasma is studied via particle-particle particle-mesh (P{sup 3}M) simulations. The rf dynamics with a single dust particle trapped in the sheath was calculated. Like in the experiment the dust modifies the atomic emission. The spatiotemporal excitation pattern of the experiment is reproduced and a detailed understanding of the difference in excitation of the discharge with and without dust is presented.

  14. An overview of airborne radioactive emissions at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guevara, F.A.; Dvorak, R.F.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strict control is essential over any emissions of radioactivity in the ventilation exhaust from facilities where radioactive materials may become airborne. At Los Alamos National Laboratory there are 87 stacks exhausting ventilation air to the environment from operations with a potential for radioactive emissions. These stacks cover the diverse operations at all Laboratory facilities where radioactive materials are handled and require continuous sampling/monitoring to detect levels of contamination. An overview is presented of the operations, associated ventilation exhaust cleanup systems, and analysis of the emissions. In keeping with the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable concept, emissions of radionuclides are reduced whenever practicable. A specific example describing the reduction of emissions from the linear accelerator beam stop area at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility during 1985 by a factor of 8 over previous emissions is presented.

  15. Reduced models for quantum gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Thiemann

    1999-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The preceding talks given at this conference have dealt mainly with general ideas for, main problems of and techniques for the task of quantizing gravity canonically. Since one of the major motivations to arrange for this meeting was that it should serve as a beginner's introduction to canonical quantum gravity, we regard it as important to demonstrate the usefulness of the formalism by means of applying it to simplified models of quantum gravity, here formulated in terms of Ashtekar's new variables. From the various, completely solvable, models that have been discussed in the literature we choose those that we consider as most suitable for our pedagogical reasons, namely 2+1 gravity and the spherically symmetric model. The former model arises from a dimensional, the latter from a Killing reduction of full 3+1 gravity. While 2+1 gravity is usually treated in terms of closed topologies without boundary of the initial data hypersurface, the toplogy for the spherically symmetric system is chosen to be asymptotically flat. Finally, 2+1 gravity is more suitably quantized using the loop representation while spherically symmetric gravity is easier to quantize via the self-dual representation. Accordingly, both types of reductions, both types of topologies and both types of representations that are mainly employed in the literature in the context of the new variables come into practice. What makes the discussion especially clear is the fact that for both models the reduced phase space turns out to be finitely dimensional.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

  17. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the attributes of oscillating combustion and on the results of an earlier project at GTI and Air Liquide, to determine which applications for oscillating combustion would show the greatest probability for technical success and greatest probability for market acceptability. The market study indicated that furnaces in the steel, glass, and metal melting industries would perform well in both categories. These findings guided the selection of burners for laboratory testing and, with the results of the laboratory testing, guided the selection of field test sites.

  18. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the attributes of oscillating combustion and on the results of an earlier project at GTI and Air Liquide, to determine which applications for oscillating combustion would show the greatest probability for technical success and greatest probability for market acceptability. The market study indicated that furnaces in the steel, glass, and metal melting industries would perform well in both categories. These findings guided the selection of burners for laboratory testing and, with the results of the laboratory testing, guided the selection of field test sites.

  19. Emission Inventories and Projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D. G.; van Aardenne, John; Battye, Bill; Garivait, Savitri; Grano, D.; Guenther, Alex; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lu, Zifeng; Maenhout, Greet; Ohara, Toshimasa; Parrish, David J.; Smith, Steven J.; Vallack, Harry

    2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    When the Executive Body to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution took the decision to establish the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) in December 2004, it was on the basis of a growing understanding of the issues surrounding the hemispheric and intercontinental transport of air pollutants. It was recognised that whilst current regional emissions on their own created pollution levels that exceeded internationally-agreed air quality objectives, hemispheric transport could exacerbate local and regional air quality problems.Two particular pollutants of concern, and the focus of this report, are ozone and particulate matter (PM), known for their detrimental impacts on human health (these impacts and others are described in Chapter 5). There was well-documented evidence for the intercontinental transport of ozone and PM but, at that time, the significance of this intercontinental influence on the design of air pollution control policies was not well understood. The European Union, in drawing up its Thematic Strategy on Clean Air for Europe during 2004, became aware of the significance of intercontinental transport and the importance of sources of pollution beyond its borders and sphere of influence, in meeting its air quality goals.

  20. Generalized local emission tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katsevich, Alexander J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

  1. CatalystF a l l 2 0 0 6 Volume 1 Issue 1 The art of the practical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    for electric-powered vehicles, and reduce the harmful emissions mimic photosynthesis + Is the solar power future already here? COLLEGE OF CHEMISTRY · UNIVERSITY alter- natives to fossil fuels, improve solar power technology, create more efficient batteries

  2. Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research...

  3. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In almost all cases, the emissions related to traded fuelsextraction (F Er ) and production (F Pr ) emissions (i.e. ,the net effect of emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top),

  4. Recent increases in global HFC-23 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2007, Rep.A. Lindley (2007), Global emissions of HFC-23 estimated to2009), Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data, http://unfccc.int/ghg_

  5. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Cementfor Fuel Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron andElectricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron

  6. Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions The anthropogenic emission of mercury is directly adopted from global mercury emission inventory [Pacyna et al., 2005]. The anthropogenic emissions are shown in annual averaged total mercury emissions. (Unit: ¬Ķg/m2 /day) 2. Land

  8. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

  9. Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogeshwar Sahai

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy conservation. In this program, the salt metal interactions were studies and the emissions at laboratory scale at OSU were monitored. The goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding, based on first principles, of the pollutant formation that occurs when the salts are used in furnaces. This information will be used to control process parameters so that emissions are consistently below the required levels. The information obtained in these experiments will be used in industrial furnaces at aluminum plants and which will help in optimizing the process.

  10. Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL EMSL produced this video for the annual congressional science expo organized by the National User...

  11. Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

  12. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  13. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

  14. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-470E-20Ő1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

  15. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  16. Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a variety of photoexcitation sources including synchrotron emission, femtosecond laser pulses and conventional UV lamp emission. Each source has advantages, for example, fs...

  17. Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary...

  18. Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  19. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

  20. International Emissions Trading: Design and Political Acceptability.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading atÖ (more)