Sample records for reduce contaminated gw

  1. BerkeleyGW

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historianBenefits offorSPOT SuiteBerkeleyGW

  2. BerkeleyGW2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historianBenefits offorSPOT SuiteBerkeleyGW3

  3. BerkeleyGW2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplex historianBenefits offorSPOT SuiteBerkeleyGW34

  4. Effects of reduced contaminant loading on downgradient water quality in an idealized two-layer granular porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    : Remediation Back diffusion Groundwater quality 1. Introduction Reduced loading of contaminants to downgradient for testing other modeling approaches that can be applied to more complex problems. A set of field plumes is a primary objective of depleting subsurface sources and/or intercepting groundwater plumes

  5. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Household Wastewater Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Household wastewater treatment systems (septic systems) can contaminate ground water unless they are properly designed, constructed and maintained. This publication describes various kinds of systems and guides the homeowner in assessing...

  6. Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics of sediment from a naturally reduced zone in a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Peacock, Aaron D.; Lesher, E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Bargar, John R.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Figueroa, Linda A.; Ranville, James; Davis, James; Long, Philip E.

    2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Localized zones or lenses of naturally reduced sediments have the potential to play a significant role in the fate and transport of redox-sensitive metals and metalloids in aquifers. To assess the mineralogy, microbiology, and redox processes that occur in these zones, we examined several cores from a region of naturally occurring reducing conditions in a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO). Sediment samples from a transect of cores ranging from oxic/suboxic Rifle aquifer sediment to naturally reduced sediment were analyzed for uranium and iron content, oxidation state, and mineralogy, reduced sulfur phases, and solid phase organic carbon content using a suite of analytical and spectroscopic techniques on bulk sediment and size fractions. Solid-phase uranium concentrations were higher in the naturally reduced zone, with a high proportion of the uranium present as reduced U(IV). The sediments were also elevated in reduced sulfur phases and Fe(II), indicating it is very likely that U(VI), Fe(III), and sulfate reduction occurred or is occurring in the sediment. The microbial community was assessed using lipid- and DNA-based techniques, and statistical redundancy analysis was performed to determine correlations between the microbial community and the geochemistry. Increased concentration of solid phase organic carbon and biomass in the naturally reduced sediment suggests that natural bioreduction is stimulated by a zone of increased organic carbon concentration associated with fine-grained material and lower permeability to groundwater flow. Characterization of the naturally bioreduced sediment provides an understanding of the natural processes that occur in the sediment under reducing conditions and how they may impact natural attenuation of radionuclides and other redox sensitive materials. Results also suggest the importance of recalcitrant organic carbon for maintaining reducing conditions and uranium immobilization.

  7. Assessing beef hide interventions as a means to reduce carcass contamination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Bridget Elaine

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Food safety is a critical issue for beef harvest operations. There are multiple interventions available for treating carcasses; however, this project was designed to evaluate an intervention capable of reducing bacterial ...

  8. Evaluation of Methods to Assess and Reduce Bacterial Contamination of Surface Water from Grazing Lands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Kevin

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    assessed the ability of alternative water supplies and grazing management to reduce E. coli loading from cattle and evaluated the ability of quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of total and bovine-associated Bacteroides markers (AllBac and Bo...

  9. Method for producing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics and for stabilizing contaminants encapsulated therein utilizing reducing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Jeong, Seung-Young (Westmont, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions are stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  10. Characterization of Co(III) EDTA-Reducing Bacteria in Metal- and Radionuclide-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Weimin [Arizona State University; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Area Grouping 5 (WAG5) site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a potential to be a field site for evaluating the effectiveness of various bioremediation approaches and strategies. The site has been well studied in terms of its geological and geochemical properties over the past decade. However, despite the importance of microorganisms in bioremediation processes, the microbiological populations at the WAG5 site and their potential in bioremediation have not been similarly evaluated. In this study, we initiated research to characterize the microbial populations in WAG5 groundwater. Approximately 100 isolates from WAG5 groundwater were isolated and selected based on colony morphology. Fifty-five unique isolates were identified by BOX-PCR and subjected to further characterization. 16S rRNA sequences indicated that these isolates belong to seventeen bacterial genera including Alcaligenes (1 isolate), Aquamonas (1), Aquaspirillum (1), Bacillus (10), Brevundimonas (5), Caulobacter (7), Dechloromonas (2), Janibacter (1), Janthinobacterium (2), Lactobacillus (1), Paenibacillus (4), Pseudomonas (9), Rhodoferax (1), Sphingomonas (1), Stenotrophomonas (6), Variovorax (2), and Zoogloea (1). Metal respiration assays identified several isolates, which phylogenically belong or are close to Caulobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, capable of reducing Co(III)EDTA- to Co(II)EDTA{sup 2-} using the defined M1 medium under anaerobic conditions. In addition, using WAG5 groundwater directly as the inoculants, we found that organisms associated with WAG5 groundwater can reduce both Fe(III) and Co(III) under anaerobic conditions. Further assays were then performed to determine the optimal conditions for Co(III) reduction. These assays indicated that addition of various electron donors including ethanol, lactate, methanol, pyruvate, and acetate resulted in metal reduction. These experiments will provide useful background information for future bioremediation field experiments at the WAG5 site.

  11. Reduced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead of Contracting ActivityRedoxReduced

  12. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Pesticide Storage and Handling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper pesticide management is important to preventing ground water contamination. This publication contains helpful information about pesticide storage facilities, mixing and loading practices, and spill cleanup. A chart lists pesticides according...

  13. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Fertilizer Storage and Handling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Kantor, A. S.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Fertilizer is a major source of ground water contamination. This publication emphasizes the best management practices for storing fertilizers, whether you are building a new facility or modifying an existing one. It also includes information on safe...

  14. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Well-Head Management and Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The condition of a water well and its proximity to contamination sources determine the risk it poses to ground water. Topics covered include well location, well construction, well age and type, well depth, well maintenance, water testing...

  15. Motivation Green's functions The GW Approximation The Bethe-Salpeter Equation Introduction to Green's functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botti, Silvana

    Motivation Green's functions The GW Approximation The Bethe-Salpeter Equation Introduction to Green=whiteMotivation Green's functions The GW Approximation The Bethe-Salpeter Equation Outline 1 Motivation 2 Green's functions 3 The GW Approximation 4 The Bethe-Salpeter Equation #12;bg=whiteMotivation Green's functions

  16. Seismology of the Accreting White Dwarf in GW Lib

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean M. Townsley; Phil Arras; Lars Bildsten

    2004-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a first analysis of the g-mode oscillation spectrum for the white dwarf (WD) primary of GW Lib, a faint cataclysmic variable (CV). Stable periodicities have been observed from this WD for a number of years, but their interpretation as stellar pulsations has been hampered by a lack of theoretical models appropriate to an accreting WD. Using the results of Townsley and Bildsten, we construct accreting models for the observed effective temperature and approximate mass of the WD in GW Lib. We compute g-mode frequencies for a range of accreted layer masses, Macc, and long term accretion rates, . If we assume that the observed oscillations are from l=1 g-modes, then the observed periods are matched when M ~= 1.02 Msun, Macc ~= 0.31 x 10^-4 Msun and ~= 7.3 x 10^-11 Msun/yr. Much more sensitive observations are needed to discover more modes, after which we will be able to more accurately measure these parameters and constrain or measure the WD's rotation rate.

  17. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Livestock Holding Pen Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    of yard surface 7) Manure storage and utilization 8) Abandoned livestock yards 9) Evaluation table A glossary in the back of this publication will clarify the terminology used. Separation Distance From Well Wells should be located in an elevated area..., so it remains relatively dry except during and immediately after rainfall. Manure typically accumulates on the surface, and decaying or decomposing manure is mixed into the soil by animal traffic, sealing the sur- face and reducing infiltration. Water...

  18. Exploring approximations to the GW self-energy ionic gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faber, C; Attaccalite, C; Cannuccia, E; Duchemin, I; Deutsch, T; Blase, X

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accuracy of the many-body perturbation theory GW formalism to calculate electron-phonon coupling matrix elements has been recently demonstrated in the case of a few important systems. However, the related computational costs are high and thus represent strong limitations to its widespread application. In the present study, we explore two less demanding alternatives for the calculation of electron-phonon coupling matrix elements on the many-body perturbation theory level. Namely, we test the accuracy of the static Coulomb-hole plus screened-exchange (COHSEX) approximation and further of the constant screening approach, where variations of the screened Coulomb potential W upon small changes of the atomic positions along the vibrational eigenmodes are neglected. We find this latter approximation to be the most reliable, whereas the static COHSEX ansatz leads to substantial errors. Our conclusions are validated in a few paradigmatic cases: diamond, graphene and the C60 fullerene. These findings open the way f...

  19. Bacterial and Protozoal Contamination of Nearshore Marine Environments in California, with Ecologically Sustainable Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwill, Edward R.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title: Reducing microbial contamination in runoff fromBacterial and Protozoal Contamination of Nearshore Marine

  20. Bacterial and Protozoal Contamination of Nearshore Marine Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwill, Rob; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tate. Reducing microbial contamination in storm runoff fromManagement of microbial contamination in storm runoff fromBacterial and Protozoal Contamination of Nearshore Marine

  1. A mathematical analysis of the GW0 method for computing electronic excited energies of molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Cancès; David Gontier; Gabriel Stoltz

    2015-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyses the GW method for finite electronic systems. In a first step, we provide a mathematical framework for the usual one-body operators that appear naturally in many-body perturbation theory. We then discuss the GW equations which construct an approximation of the one-body Green's function, and give a rigorous mathematical formulation of these equations. Finally, we study the well-posedness of the GW0 equations, proving the existence of a unique solution to these equations in a perturbative regime.

  2. A mathematical analysis of the GW0 method for computing electronic excited state energies of molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Cancès; David Gontier; Gabriel Stoltz

    2015-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyses the GW method for finite electronic systems. In a first step, we provide a mathematical framework for the usual one-body operators that appear naturally in many-body perturbation theory. We then discuss the GW equations which construct an approximation of the one-body Green's function, and give a rigorous mathematical formulation of these equations. Finally, we study the well-posedness of the GW0 equations, proving the existence of a unique solution to these equations in a perturbative regime.

  3. A mathematical analysis of the GW0 method for computing electronic excited energies of molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Cancès; David Gontier; Gabriel Stoltz

    2015-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyses the GW method for finite electronic systems. In a first step, we provide a mathematical framework for the usual one-body operators that appear naturally in many-body perturbation theory. We then discuss the GW equations which construct an approximation of the one-body Green's function, and give a rigorous mathematical formulation of these equations. Finally, we study the well-posedness of the GW0 equations, proving the existence of a unique solution to these equations in a perturbative regime.

  4. A Bayesian analysis pipeline for continuous GW sources in the PTA band

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Justin Ellis

    2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct detection of Gravitational Waves (GWs) by Pulsar Timing Arrays (PTAs) is very likely within the next decade. While the stochastic GW background is a promising candidate for detection it is also possible that single resolvable sources may be detectable as well. In this work we will focus on the detection and characterization of single GW sources from supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs). We introduce a fully Bayesian data analysis pipeline that is meant to carry out a search, characterization, and evaluation phase. This will allow us to rapidly locate the global maxima in parameter space, map out the posterior, and finally weigh the evidence of a GW detection through a Bayes Factor. Here we will make use of an adaptive metropolis (AM) algorithm and parallel tempering. We test this algorithm on realistic simulated data that are representative of modern PTAs.

  5. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry C. (Augusta, GA); Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

  6. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are described for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants. An oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth. Withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene. 3 figures.

  7. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 125205 (2013) Role of the plasmon-pole model in the GW approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ­14 could significantly improve electronic-structure calculations, their accuracy depends on parametrization to evaluate the dynamic screening matrix. Although the Hybertsen-Louie PPM is often adopted in GW calculations on electronic band structures. Thus, the true performance of the GW approx- imation is obscured

  8. AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN TRANSGENIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotty, Peter J.

    108 AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN TRANSGENIC BT COTTONSEED P.J. Cotty and C. Bock cotton may have reduced susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination as a result of pink bollworm resistance) from one highly contaminated (>6,000 ppb aflatoxin B1) Bt seed lot indicated that most contamination

  9. Quasiparticle and Optical Excitations in Solid Ne and Ar: GW and BSE Approximations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Charles H.; Galamic-Mulaomerovic, S. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2007-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) have been used to calculate quasiparticle and optical excitations in solid Ne and Ar. Absolute positions of quasiparticle and quasihole energies are found to be in very good agreement with experimental values. Binding energies of Frenkel excitons for these systems calculated using the BSE are also in good agreement with experiment. Splitting of excitons into longitudinal and transverse modes is calculated and found to be approximately twice the experimentally measured value.

  10. Containment of subsurface contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A barrier is disclosed for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates. 5 figs.

  11. Containment of subsurface contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John C. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A barrier for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates.

  12. Approximate treatment of semicore states in GW calculations with application to Au clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xian, Jiawei [SISSA – Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)] [SISSA – Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Baroni, Stefano [SISSA – Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy) [SISSA – Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM Democritos, Theory-Elettra group, Trieste (Italy); Umari, P., E-mail: paolo.umari@unipd.it [CNR-IOM Democritos, Theory-Elettra group, Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the treatment of transition metal atoms in GW electronic-structure calculations within the plane-wave pseudo-potential formalism. The contributions of s and p semi-core electrons to the self-energy, which are essential to grant an acceptable accuracy, are dealt with using a recently proposed scheme whereby the exchange components are treated exactly at the G{sub 0}W{sub 0} level, whereas a suitable approximation to the correlation components is devised. This scheme is benchmarked for small gold nano-clusters, resulting in ionization potentials, electron affinities, and density of states in very good agreement with those obtained from calculations where s and p semicore states are treated as valence orbitals, and allowing us to apply this same scheme to clusters of intermediate size, Au{sub 20} and Au{sub 32}, that would be otherwise very difficult to deal with.

  13. Excited electron dynamics in bulk ytterbium: Time-resolved two-photon photoemission and GW+T ab initio calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschlimann, Martin

    relaxation dynamics is played by the electronic structure of the system close to the Fermi level. For exampleExcited electron dynamics in bulk ytterbium: Time-resolved two-photon photoemission and GW+T ab November 2007 The excited electron dynamics in ytterbium is investigated by means of the time-resolved two

  14. 550 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 28, NO. 3, JUNE 2000 Overmoded GW-Class Surface-Wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassam, Adil

    --High-power microwave (HPM), overmoded, sur- face-wave oscillator. I. INTRODUCTION APPLICATIONS of high-power microwave (HPM) devices capable of generating gigawatt (GW) levels of output power at centimeter wavelengths of electronic systems. However, the maximum peak-power handling capability of HPM sources is severely limited

  15. An 8-GW long-pulse generator based on Tesla transformer and pulse forming network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Xibo; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang, E-mail: zhaoliang0526@163.com; Sun, Xu; Wang, Limin; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Ying; Peng, Jianchang; Song, Xiaoxin [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A long-pulse generator TPG700L based on a Tesla transformer and a series pulse forming network (PFN) is constructed to generate intense electron beams for the purpose of high power microwave (HPM) generation. The TPG700L mainly consists of a 12-stage PFN, a built-in Tesla transformer in a pulse forming line, a three-electrode gas switch, a transmission line with a trigger, and a load. The Tesla transformer and the compact PFN are the key technologies for the development of the TPG700L. This generator can output electrical pulses with a width as long as 200 ns at a level of 8 GW and a repetition rate of 50 Hz. When used to drive a relative backward wave oscillator for HPM generation, the electrical pulse width is about 100 ns on a voltage level of 520 kV. Factors affecting the pulse waveform of the TPG700L are also discussed. At present, the TPG700L performs well for long-pulse HPM generation in our laboratory.

  16. Contaminant treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Andrew Philip (Schenectady, NY); Thornton, Roy Fred (Schenectady, NY); Salvo, Joseph James (Schenectady, NY)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method for treating contaminated media. The method comprises introducing remediating ions consisting essentially of ferrous ions, and being peroxide-free, in the contaminated media; applying a potential difference across the contaminated media to cause the remediating ions to migrate into contact with contaminants in the contaminated media; chemically degrading contaminants in the contaminated media by contact with the remediating ions; monitoring the contaminated media for degradation products of the contaminants; and controlling the step of applying the potential difference across the contaminated media in response to the step of monitoring.

  17. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  18. Remediation and Recovery of Uranium from Contaminated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    that Geobacter species can effectively remove uranium from contaminated groundwater by reducing soluble U emplaced in flow- through columns of uranium-contaminated sediments readily removed U(VI) from the groundwater, and 87% of the uranium that had been removed was recovered from the electrode surface after

  19. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Y.-J.; Yankulin, L.; Thomas, P.; Mbanaso, C.; Antohe, A.; Garg, R.; Wang, Y.; Murray, T.; Wuest, A.; Goodwin, F.; Huh, S.; Cordes, A.; Naulleau, P.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Gullikson, E.; Denbeaux, G.

    2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of carbon contamination on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks is significant due to throughput loss and potential effects on imaging performance. Current carbon contamination research primarily focuses on the lifetime of the multilayer surfaces, determined by reflectivity loss and reduced throughput in EUV exposure tools. However, contamination on patterned EUV masks can cause additional effects on absorbing features and the printed images, as well as impacting the efficiency of cleaning process. In this work, several different techniques were used to determine possible contamination topography. Lithographic simulations were also performed and the results compared with the experimental data.

  20. Monitoring and Managing Contamination in the San Francisco Estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000Update Monitoring and Managing Contamination in the San Francisco Estuary of the Estuary Pulse status of chemical contamination in the Estuary and efforts by environmental managers to reduce and prevent contamination problems. Most of the monitoring results in the report are a product of the San

  1. Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, J.F.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants. 2 figs.

  2. Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants.

  3. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  4. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

  5. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  6. A Comprehensive Study of Detectability and Contamination in Deep Rapid Optical Searches for Gravitational Wave Counterparts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowperthwaite, P S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first direct detection of gravitational waves (GW) by the ground-based interferometers is expected to occur within the next few years. These interferometers will detect the mergers of compact object binaries composed of neutron stars and/or black holes to a fiducial distance of ~200 Mpc and a localization region of ~100 sq. deg. To maximize the science gains from such GW detections it is essential to identify electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. The most promising such counterpart is optical/IR emission powered by the radioactive decay of r-process elements synthesized in the neutron-rich merger ejecta - a "kilonova". Here we present detailed simulated observations that encompass a range of strategies for kilonova searches during GW follow-up. We assess both the detectability of kilonovae and our ability to distinguish them from a wide range of contaminating transients. We find that if pre-existing template images for the localization region are available, then nightly observations to a depth of i=24 mag an...

  7. Through GW's physics program, you can study the fundamental laws discovered in physics and see how they apply to all the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Physics PHYSICS Through GW's physics program, you can study the fundamental laws discovered in physics and see how they apply to all the sciences and the world in which we live. Physics is part. Through courses ranging from classical mechanics to electromagnetic theory, the physics program aims

  8. Announcing: All Recycling Reduce your

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papautsky, Ian

    Announcing: All Recycling Go Green! Reduce your contribution to the landfill, by choosing to voluntarily recycle acceptable items in the green All Recycling toters and containers around campus. ONLY THE ITEMS BELOW ARE ACCEPTED FOR ALL RECYCLING Please do not contaminate the recycling containers with trash

  9. Reducing Customer Acquisition Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012Energy ReliabilityNews FlashesRedbird Red HabitatReduce9

  10. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  11. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  12. Simulation of Contamination Through the Post-Harvest Environment Using Surrogate Organisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarreal Silva, Mariana

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The beef industry has made tremendous strides in reducing pathogen contamination on carcasses. Multiple antimicrobial interventions have been validated for their use during harvesting. Information in regards to cross-contamination with pathogens...

  13. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  14. Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

  15. Bioremediation of contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, J.B.; Jee, V.; Ward, C.H. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminants in bottom sediments have historically been considered to have minimal environmental impact because they are buried, sorbed or electrostatically bound to clay particles, or incorporated into humus. Physical and chemical conditions such as alkalinity, pH, and redox of the sediments also play a part in sequestering contaminants. As long as the sediments are undisturbed, the contaminants are considered stabilized and not an immediate environmental problem. Resuspension of bottom sediments makes contaminants more available for dispersal into the marine environment. Events that can cause resuspension include storm surges, construction activity, and dredging. During resuspension, sediment particles move from an anaerobic to aerobic environment, changing their redox characteristics, and allowing the indigenous aerobic bacteria to grow and utilize certain classes of contaminants as energy sources. The contaminants are also more available for use because the mixing energy imparted to the particles during resuspension enhances mass transfer, allowing contaminants to enter the aqueous phase more rapidly. The contaminants targeted in this research are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of contaminant commonly found in bottom sediments near highly industrialized areas. PAH sources include fossil fuel combustion and petroleum spills. Previous research has shown that PAHs can be biodegraded. Size and structure, i.e., number and configuration of condensed rings, can affect compound disappearance. The focus of this research was to examine the relationship between resuspension and biodegradation of PAHs in lab scale slurry reactors. The rate and extent of contaminant release from the sediments into an uncontaminated water column was determined. Oxygen demand of initially anaerobic sediments were investigated. Then rate and extent of phenanthrene biodegradation was examined.

  16. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phifer, Mark A. (N. Augusta, SC); Sappington, Frank C. (Dahlonega, GA); Millings, Margaret R. (N. Augusta, SC); Turick, Charles E. (Aiken, SC); McKinsey, Pamela C. (Aiken, SC)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  17. Passive treatment of wastewater and contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phifer, Mark A.; Sappington, Frank C.; Millings, Margaret R.; Turick, Charles E.; McKinsey, Pamela C.

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A bioremediation system using inorganic oxide-reducing microbial consortia for the treatment of, inter alia coal mine and coal yard runoff uses a containment vessel for contaminated water and a second, floating phase for nutrients. Biodegradable oils are preferred nutrients.

  18. A new tool for contamination analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meltzer, M.; Gregg, H.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) is a sensing system that facilitates a new approach to industrial cleaning. Through use of portable mass spectrometry and various desorption techniques, the CAU provides in-process, near-real-time measurement of surface cleanliness levels. It can be of help in significantly reducing hazardous waste generation and toxic air emissions from manufacturing operations.

  19. Degradation of organic and inorganic contaminants by zero valent iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malla, Deepak Babu

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and in combination. All three target contaminants were effectively reduced by both iron (Feo) and palladized iron (Pd/Fe'). However, the rate of reduction by Pd/Fe' was found to be much faster than that by Feo. The reduction of all the contaminants in mixed waste...

  20. Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shehabi, Arman

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Studyoccupants. To investigate contamination levels, particlemethod of collecting contamination readings. The system,

  1. Subsurface contaminants focus area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

  2. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  3. Modeling for Airborne Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

    2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift walls. The gamma-ray scattering properties of concrete are sufficiently similar to those of the host rock and proposed insert material; use of concrete will have no significant impact on the conclusions. The information in this report is presented primarily for use in performing pre-closure radiological safety evaluations of radiological contaminants, but it may also be used to develop strategies for contaminant leak detection and monitoring in the MGR. Included in this report are the methods for determining the source terms and release fractions, and mathematical models and model parameters for contaminant transport and distribution within the repository. Various particle behavior mechanisms that affect the transport of contaminant are included. These particle behavior mechanisms include diffusion, settling, resuspension, agglomeration and other deposition mechanisms.

  4. Organic contaminant separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Mar, P.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is presented of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube. The solvent is capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus is presented for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium. The apparatus includes a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester. The composite tube has an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and has sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube. 2 figures.

  5. Antimicrobial Interventions to Reduce Listeria spp. Contamination on Shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Tsui-Yin

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of selected antimicrobials, applied singularly or in combination, and frozen or refrigerated storage conditions on the survival of Listeria spp. on inoculated shrimp was evaluated in this study. A combination of 0.5% CPC (Cetylpyridinium...

  6. Original article Salmonella typhimurium contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Salmonella typhimurium contamination from farm to meat in adult cattle 3 June 1997) Summary ― The aim of this work was to study the increase in hair contamination this contamination and the contamination of carcasses and of the ground beef made from these animals. l3ctween April

  7. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment - various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field preliminary results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

  8. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

  9. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  10. Basic radiological studies contamination control experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duce, S.W.; Winberg, M.R.; Freeman, A.L.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of experiments relating to contamination control performed in support of the Environmental Restoration Programs Retrieval Project. During the years 1950 to 1970 waste contaminated with plutonium and other transuranic radionuclides was disposed of in shallow land-filled pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Due to potential for migration of radionuclides to an existing aquifer the feasibility of retrieving and repackaging the waste for placement in a final repository is being examined as part of a retrieval project. Contamination control experiments were conducted to determine expected respirable and nonrespirable plutonium contaminated dust fractions and the effectiveness of various dust suppression techniques. Three soil types were tested to determine respirable fractions: Rocky Flats Plant generic soil, Radioactive Waste Management Complex generic soil, and a 1:1 blend of the two soil types. Overall, the average respirable fraction of airborne dust was 5.4% by weight. Three contamination control techniques were studied: soil fixative sprays, misting agents, and dust suppression agents. All of the tested agents proved to be effective in reducing dust in the air. Details of product performance and recommended usage are discussed.

  11. Managing contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asante-Duah, D.K.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This book summarizes the generic principles of contaminated site management. The book walks the reader through contaminated site identification, risk assessment and the evaluation of remediation alternatives. The book is divided into two major sections, problem diagnosis and development of site restoration. In problem diagnosis, the general principles of site investigation are discussed, including the objectives and differences between tier 1,2, and 3 investigations. The principles of data collection and analysis are presented. A small quantitative discussion of statistical analysis is presented but in keeping with the objectives of the text is not sufficient comprehensive or detailed to provide much of a guide for the practitioner. Chapters on contaminant fate and transport processes and risk assessment help the reader understand the role of these issues in site investigation and remedial planning. A chapter is also included on elements of a site characterization activity, which summarizes some of the key considerations in conducting a site investigation.

  12. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuhrmann, Mark (Silver Spring, MD); Heiser, John (Bayport, NY); Kalb, Paul (Wading River, NY)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  13. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Demmer

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  14. Subsurface Contamination Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Yuan

    2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

  15. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics,"and A. Izumi. "Carbon contamination of EL'V mask: filmEffect of Carbon Contamination on the Printing Performance

  16. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of environmental parameters on bioremediation is important in designing a bioremediation system to reduce petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in impacted soils.

  17. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rieman, C.R.; Spector, H.L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District, Buffalo, NY (United States); Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Div., IL (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the pre-remedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in pre-design data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in pre-design characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland 1, Ashland 2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate pre-design contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District. (authors)

  18. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  19. Management of Transuranic Contaminated Material

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish guidelines for the generation, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) contaminated material.

  20. Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    » & Risø-R-462 Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory after Core-melt Accidents 1982 Risø National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark #12;RISØ-R-462 RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION contamination of Danish territory in the event of a core-melt accident at the Barseback nuclear power plant

  1. Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-462 Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory after Core-melt Accidents at the Barsebäck;#12;RIS0-R-462 RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF DANISH TERRITORY AFTER CORE-MELT ACCIDENTS AT THE BARSEBACK. An assessment is made of the radioactive contamination of Danish territory in the event of a core-melt accident

  2. Innovative technology for contamination control in plasma processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The causes and contributing factors to wafer contamination during plasma processing are discussed in the context of future technologies for controlling particle contamination by tool and process design and by the development of wafer dry cleaning technology. The importance of these developments is linked with the history of technological innovation and with the continuing evolution of the cleanroom from a highly developed facility for reducing ambient particle levels to an integrated, synergistic approach involving facilities and tooling for impeding the formation and transport of particles while also actively removing particles from sensitive surfaces. The methods, strategy and requirements for innovation in contamination control for plasma processing is discussed from a diachronic viewpoint.

  3. Measurement of Neutral Particle Contamination in the MICE Muon Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rob Roy Fletcher; Linda Coney; Gail Hanson

    2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is being built at the ISIS proton synchrotron at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) to measure ionization cooling of a muon beam. During recent data-taking, it was determined that there is a significant background contamination of neutral particles populating the MICE muon beam. This contamination creates unwanted triggers in MICE, thus reducing the percentage of useful data taken during running. This paper describes the analysis done with time-of-flight detectors, used to measure and identify the source of the contamination in both positive and negative muon beams.

  4. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As required by the terms of the above referenced grant, the following summary serves as the Final Report for that grant. The grant relates to work performed at two separate sites, the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site south of Gillette, Wyoming, and the Rock Springs In-Situ Oil Shale Retort Site near Rock Springs, Wyoming. The primary concern to the State of Wyoming at each site is ground water contamination (the primary contaminants of concern are benzene and related compounds), and the purpose of the grant has been to provide tiding for a Geohydrologist at the appropriate State agency, specifically the Land Quality Division (LQD) of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. The LQD Geohydrologist has been responsible for providing technical and regulatory support to DOE for ground water remediation and subsequent surface reclamation. Substantial progress has been made toward remediation of the sites, and continuation of LQD involvement in the remediation and reclamation efforts is addressed.

  5. Indexing contamination surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility`s radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons.

  6. Purifying contaminated water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  7. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the contaminant/substrate with the particular decontamination technology is also very important. Results of decontamination testing from hundreds of contaminated coupons have lead to certain conclusions about the contamination and the type of decontamination methods being deployed. A recent addition to the DARPA initiated methodology simulates the deposition of nuclear fallout. This contamination differs from previous tests in that it has been developed and validated purely to simulate a 'loose' type of contamination. This may represent the first time that a radiologically contaminated 'fallout' stimulant has been developed to reproducibly test decontamination methods. While no contaminant/methodology may serve as a complete example of all aspects that could be seen in the field, the study of this family of simulation methods provides insight into the nature of radiological contamination.

  8. Active airborne contamination control using electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veatch, B.D.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of our best efforts, radioactive airborne contamination continues to be a formidable problem at many of the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex sites. For workers that must enter areas with high levels of airborne contamination, personnel protective equipment (PPE) can become highly restrictive, greatly diminishing productivity. Rather than require even more restrictive PPE for personnel in some situations, the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is actively researching and developing methods to aggressively combat airborne contamination hazards using electrophoretic technology. With appropriate equipment, airborne particulates can be effectively removed and collected for disposal in one simple process. The equipment needed to implement electrophoresis is relatively inexpensive, highly reliable, and very compact. Once airborne contamination levels are reduced, less PPE is required and a significant cost savings may be realized through decreased waste and maximized productivity. Preliminary ``cold,`` or non-radioactive, testing results at the RFP have shown the technology to be effective on a reasonable scale, with several potential benefits and an abundance of applications.

  9. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  10. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  11. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments. Abstract: A...

  12. @ GW Regulatory Studies Center | www.RegulatoryStudies.gwu.edu | Follow us @RegStudies DOE's Proposed Commercial Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitt, William R.

    's Proposed Commercial Refrigeration Rule Claims to Save Retailers Money by Reducing their Choices Sofie E a proposed rule setting energy efficiency standards for 49 different types of commercial refrigeration equipment, establishing maximum allowable energy usage standards as a function of either refrigerated volume

  13. @ GW Regulatory Studies Center | www.RegulatoryStudies.gwu.edu | Follow us @RegStudies 1 Seeking Comment on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitt, William R.

    Comment on the Social Cost of Carbon Susan E. Dudley, Director November 26, 2013 The Obama Administration aimed at reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, is that the social cost of burning carbon is greater. In 2010, an Interagency Working Group on the Social Cost of Carbon issued a "technical support document

  14. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium-contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  15. Apparatus for monitoring tritium in tritium contaminating environments using a modified Kanne chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conventional Kanne tritium monitor has been redesigned to reduce its sensitivity to such contaminants as tritiated water vapor and tritiated oil. The high voltage electrode has been replaced by a wire cylinder and the collector electrode has been reduced in diameter. The area sensitive to contamination has thereby been reduced by about a factor of forty while the overall apparatus sensitivity and operation has not been affected. The design allows for in situ decontamination of the chambers, if necessary.

  16. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Freshley, Mark D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminants in vadose zone environments pose a long-term source and threat to groundwater resources, human health, and the environment. Several technical, regulatory, and policy challenges and opportunities are associated with contamination in vadose zone environments, particularly in remediation. In this special issue, ten papers present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate, and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments.

  17. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  18. Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

  19. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  20. Composition and process for organic and metal contaminant fixation in soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwitzgebel, Klaus (7507 Chimney Corners, Austin, TX 78731)

    1994-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and compositions using a first ferrous iron containing solution with the iron concentration in excess of theoretical requirements to treat a contaminated site to reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium and coprecipitate trivalent chromium with other heavy metals and using a second solution of silicate containing a destabilizing salt to form a relatively impermeable gel in the contaminated site thereby fixing metals and organics to the extent that there should be no detectable ground water contamination.

  1. Contamination and solid state welds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  2. Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination A Bioprophylactic Concept Karin/Repro, Uppsala 2013 #12;Bioaugmentation for Reduction of Diffuse Pesticide Contamination. A Bioprophylactic Concept. Abstract Pesticides and their residues frequently contaminate surface waters and groundwater so

  3. Contamination of shallow wells in Nigeria from surface contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ademoroti, C.M.A. (Univ. of Benin (Nigeria))

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated wells, located in six south/western and western states of Nigeria, were sampled and analyzed for pollution characteristics. Results of analysis indicated migration of contaminants into the wells from places where there was a potential source. There was a significant microbiological population in the wells placed near domestic waste sites. Also, there were excessive levels of trace heavy metals in those placed near metal dumping sites. On the other hand, the contaminants were minimal in wells that were not close to polluting sources. The studies revealed that groundwater contamination occurred primarily by dumping of wastes, wrong placement of waste disposal facilities, and improper construction of wells. The groundwater sources (wells, etc.) are used when pipe-borne water facilities are inadequate.

  4. Proceedings from the Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. T. Brown; G. Matthern; A. Glenn (INEEL); J. Kauffman (EnviroIssues); S. Rock (USEPA); M. Kuperberg (Florida State U); C. Ainsworth (PNNL); J. Waugh (Roy F. Weston Assoc.)

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Metals and Radionuclides Product Line of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is responsible for the development of technologies and systems that reduce the risk and cost of remediation of radionuclide and hazardous metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The rapid and efficient remediation of these sites and the areas surrounding them represents a technological challenge. Phytoremediation, the use of living plants to cleanup contaminated soils, sediments, surface water and groundwater, is an emerging technology that may be applicable to the problem. The use of phytoremediation to cleanup organic contamination is widely accepted and is being implemented at numerous sites. This workshop was held to initiate a discussion in the scientific community about whether phytoremediation is applicable to inorganic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides, across the DOE complex. The Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants was held at Argonne National Laboratory from November 30 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the workshop was to provide SCFA and the DOE Environmental Restoration Program with an understanding of the status of phytoremediation as a potential remediation technology for DOE sites. The workshop was expected to identify data gaps, technologies ready for demonstration and deployment, and to provide a set of recommendations for the further development of these technologies.

  5. Groundwater Contamination Potential from Stormwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Groundwater Contamination Potential from Stormwater Infiltration Robert Pitt, University (CSOs). Introduction (cont.) · Scattered information is available addressing groundwater impacts cities · EPA 1983 NURP work on groundwater beneath Fresno and Long Island infiltration basins · NRC 1994

  6. SOIL DESICCATION TECHNIQUES STRATEGIES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF DEEP VADOSE CONTAMINANTS AT THE HANFORD CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENECKE MW; CHRONISTER GB; TRUEX MJ

    2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site where processes and technologies are being developed and tested for use in the on-going effort to remediate mobile contamination in the deep vadose zone, the area deep beneath the surface. Historically, contaminants were discharged to the soil along with significant amounts of water, which continues to drive contaminants deeper in the vadose zone toward groundwater. Soil desiccation is a potential in situ remedial technology well suited for the arid conditions and the thick vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Desiccation techniques could reduce the advance of contaminants by removing the pore water to slow the rate of contaminants movement toward groundwater. Desiccation technologies have the potential to halt or slow the advance of contaminants in unsaturated systems, as well as aid in reduction of contaminants from these same areas. Besides reducing the water flux, desiccation also establishes capillary breaks that would require extensive rewetting to resume pore water transport. More importantly, these techniques have widespread application, whether the need is to isolate radio nuclides or address chemical contaminant issues. Three different desiccation techniques are currently being studied at Hanford.

  7. Method of treating contaminated HEPA filter media in pulp process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jian S.; Argyle, Mark D.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Mondok, Emilio P.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing contamination of HEPA filters with radioactive and/or hazardous materials is described. The method includes pre-processing of the filter for removing loose particles. Next, the filter medium is removed from the housing, and the housing is decontaminated. Finally, the filter medium is processed as pulp for removing contaminated particles by physical and/or chemical methods, including gravity, flotation, and dissolution of the particles. The decontaminated filter medium is then disposed of as non-RCRA waste; the particles are collected, stabilized, and disposed of according to well known methods of handling such materials; and the liquid medium in which the pulp was processed is recycled.

  8. Asymptotic distribution theory for contamination Francisco Vera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jim

    Asymptotic distribution theory for contamination models Francisco Vera , David Dickey and James and the second to the other sources (the contamination component). Here the goal is two-fold: (i) detect the overall presence of Contamination and (ii) identify observations that may be contaminated. A locally most

  9. Clean Assembly Practices to Prevent Contamination and Damage to Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryatel, J; Gourdin, W H

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A key lesson learned from the earliest optics installed in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was that the traditional approach for maintaining cleanliness, such as the use of cleanrooms and associated garments and protocols, is inadequate. Assembly activities often negate the benefits provided by cleanrooms, and in fact generate contamination with high damage potential. As a result, NIF introduced ''clean assembly protocols'' and related practices to supplement the traditional clean room protocols. These new protocols included ''clean-as-you-go'' activities and regular bright light inspections. Introduction of these new protocols has greatly reduced the particle contamination found on more recently installed optics. In this paper we will describe the contamination mechanisms we have observed and the details of the clean assembly protocols we have successfully introduced to mitigate them.

  10. BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    1998-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  11. Reduces electric energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BENEFITS · Reduces electric energy consumption · Reduces peak electric demand · Reduces natural gas consumption · Reduces nonhazardous solid waste and wastewater generation · Potential annual savings products for the automotive industry, electrical equipment, and miscellaneous other uses nationwide. ALCOA

  12. Surface Contamination Surface contamination from radioactive isotopes is a source of background in the Borex-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 5 Surface Contamination Surface contamination from radioactive isotopes is a source of background in the Borex- ino detector. Surface contaminants can be in the form of macroscopic dust particles contamination is primarily a problem because the radioactive contaminants can be trans- ferred from the surfaces

  13. OPEN AIR DEMOLITION OF FACILITIES HIGHLY CONTAMINATED WITH PLUTONIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The demolition of highly contaminated plutonium buildings usually is a long and expensive process that involves decontaminating the building to near free- release standards and then using conventional methods to remove the structure. It doesn't, however, have to be that way. Fluor has torn down buildings highly contaminated with plutonium without excessive decontamination. By removing the select source term and fixing the remaining contamination on the walls, ceilings, floors, and equipment surfaces; open-air demolition is not only feasible, but it can be done cheaper, better (safer), and faster. Open-air demolition techniques were used to demolish two highly contaminated buildings to slab-on-grade. These facilities on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site were located in, or very near, compounds of operating nuclear facilities that housed hundreds of people working on a daily basis. To keep the facilities operating and the personnel safe, the projects had to be creative in demolishing the structures. Several key techniques were used to control contamination and keep it within the confines of the demolition area: spraying fixatives before demolition; applying fixative and misting with a fine spray of water as the buildings were being taken down; and demolishing the buildings in a controlled and methodical manner. In addition, detailed air-dispersion modeling was done to establish necessary building and meteorological conditions and to confirm the adequacy of the proposed methods. Both demolition projects were accomplished without any spread of contamination outside the modest buffer areas established for contamination control. Furthermore, personnel exposure to radiological and physical hazards was significantly reduced by using heavy equipment rather than ''hands on'' techniques.

  14. Contamination surveys for release of material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, J.S.; Johnson, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes, and presents the technical basis for, a methodology for performing instrument surveys to release material from radiological control, including release to controlled areas and release from radiological control. The methodology is based on a fast scan survey, a large-area wipe survey, and a series of statistical, fixed measurements. The methodology meets the requirements of the US Department of Energy Radiological Control Manual (RadCon Manual) (DOE 1994) and DOE Order 5400.5 (DOE 1990) for release of material in less time than is required by a conventional scan survey. Implementation of the proposed methodology with a confidence interval of 67% will meet the material release requirements. The material evaluation process will allow material that has not been exposed to contamination to be released from radiological control without a survey. For potential radioactive contaminants that are not reserved in DOE Order 5400.5, the methodology will allow material to be released from radiological control. For other radionuclides, with the exception of some difficult-to-detect radionuclides, material may be released for controlled use. Compared with current techniques, the proposed methodology will reduce the amount of time required to perform surveys.

  15. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  16. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  17. GW Energi | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A S JumpWindfarmFundicioncurriculum JumpGTGW

  18. Contamination Cross-contamination occurs when bacteria, or "germs," are moved from one food to another.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combat Cross Contamination Cross-contamination occurs when bacteria, or "germs," are moved from one food to another. To combat cross-contamination, keep foods SEPARATE!! At the grocery store, keep raw

  19. Method for remote detection of trace contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simonson, Robert J.; Hance, Bradley G.

    2003-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for remote detection of trace contaminants in a target area comprises applying sensor particles that preconcentrate the trace contaminant to the target area and detecting the contaminant-sensitive fluorescence from the sensor particles. The sensor particles can have contaminant-sensitive and contaminant-insensitive fluorescent compounds to enable the determination of the amount of trace contaminant present in the target are by relative comparison of the emission of the fluorescent compounds by a local or remote fluorescence detector. The method can be used to remotely detect buried minefields.

  20. Plating under reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.; Beat, T.G.; Cowden, W.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Ryan, L.E.; Hewitt, W.B. (TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA (United States))

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plating under reduced pressure was evaluated for both electroless nickel and electrodeposited copper systems. The objective was to reduce pitting of these coatings thereby further enhancing their usage for diamond turning applications. Cursory experiments with electroless nickel showed reduced porosity when deposition was done at around 500 torr. Detailed experiments with electrodeposited copper at around 100 torr provided similar results. Scanning tunneling microscopy was effectively used to show the improvement in the copper deposits plated under reduced pressure. Benefits included reduced surface roughness and finer and denser grain structure.

  1. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  2. Indigenous Resource Management and Environmental Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holder, Stanley Richard

    2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy metals are potential contaminants which can produce negative impacts on human health which vary from metal to metal, and are also dependent upon concentration and duration of exposure to the contaminant. This study ...

  3. Control of Viral Contamination of Food and Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cliver, Dean O.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. , & Sattar, S. A. (2000a). Contamination of foods by food2004). Norovirus cross-contamination during food handlingcoli in mussels after contamination and depu- ration.

  4. Cultivation, Capital, and Contamination: Urban Agriculture in Oakland, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClintock, Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    urban gardens. Land Contamination & Reclamation 12 Schiff,Potentially toxic metal contamination of urban soils andAlloway, B. J. 2004. Contamination of soils in domestic

  5. Maternal Contributions to the Development of Contamination Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beebe, Heidi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of contamination sensitivity to "disgusting"of conservation and contamination: Invisible particles as areference to disgust and contamination sensitivity. Child

  6. Preventing Food Contamination: A Need for Innovation in Food Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    174 Preventing Food Contamination A Need for Innovation infurther prevent microbial contamination. Due largely becausequick migration of the contamination in the example given

  7. Distribution of Chromium Contamination and Microbial Activity in Soil Aggregates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distribution of Chromium Contamination and Microbialand predict the fate of Cr contamination. Typical methods ofOur previous work on Cr contamination was done using such

  8. Proceedings from the Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Jay Thatcher; Matthern, Gretchen Elise; Glenn, Anne Williams; Kauffman, J.; Rock, S.; Kuperberg, M.; Ainsworkth, C.; Waugh, J.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Metals and Radionuclides Product Line of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is responsible for the development of technologies and systems that reduce the risk and cost of remediation of radionuclide and hazardous metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The rapid and efficient remediation of these sites and the areas surrounding them represents a technological challenge. Phytoremediation, the use of living plants to cleanup contaminated soils, sediments, surface water and groundwater, is an emerging technology that may be applicable to the problem. The use of phytoremediation to cleanup organic contamination is widely accepted and is being implemented at numerous sites. This workshop was held to initiate a discussion in the scientific community about whether phytoremediation is applicable to inorganic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides, across the DOE complex. The Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants was held at Argonne National Laboratory from November 30 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the workshop was to provide SCFA and the DOE Environmental Restoration Program with an understanding of the status of phytoremediation as a potential remediation technology for DOE sites. The workshop was expected to identify data gaps, technologies ready for demonstration and deployment, and to provide a set of recommendations for the further development of these technologies. More specifically, the objectives of the workshop were to: · Determine the status of the existing baseline, including technological maturation, · Identify areas for future potential research, · Identify the key issues and recommendations for issue resolution, · Recommend a strategy for maturing key aspects of phytoremediation, · Improve communication and collaboration among organizations currently involved in phytoremediation research, and · Identify technical barriers to making phytoremediation commercially successful in more areas.

  9. Webinar: NREL's Fuel Cell Contaminant Database

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled "NREL's Fuel Cell Contaminant Database," originally presented on May 27, 2014.

  10. Revolutionary ultrasonic nozzle can reduce water and energy used for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    Revolutionary ultrasonic nozzle can reduce water and energy used for cleaning by ten times by N O R into the air to then settle and contaminate other surfaces). As it is able to use cold water, energy is saved ultrasonic cleaning baths can easily be scaled up and neither can be used To search, type and hit enter " F i

  11. Spin Contamination in Inorganic Chemistry Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    R EVISED PAG E PR O O FS ia617 Spin Contamination in Inorganic Chemistry Calculations Jason L . In such cases, 0 is said to be spin contaminated owing to incorporation of higher spin state character of Iron­Sulfur ia618 Clusters). It is important to note that while spin-contaminated and broken

  12. Etiology and Management of Aflatoxin Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotty, Peter J.

    25 Etiology and Management of Aflatoxin Contamination Peter J. Cotty*, Claudia Probst and Ramon Jaime-Garcia Abstract Aflatoxins are potent poisons that contaminate crops in warm regions worldwide and re- duce health and economic welfare in several portions of Africa. Crops are contaminated in two

  13. Scatterometer Contamination Mitigation Michael Paul Owen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Scatterometer Contamination Mitigation Michael Paul Owen A dissertation submitted to the faculty Michael Paul Owen All Rights Reserved #12;#12;ABSTRACT Scatterometer Contamination Mitigation Michael Paul are contaminated by land proximity or rain events produce wind estimates which have increased bias and variability

  14. CTF Surface Contamination and External Backgrounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 9 CTF Surface Contamination and External Backgrounds The preceding chapter included Contamination and External Backgrounds 424 it can do so), leading to a low-energy tail of events in the energy Runs 2300­2563 unless stated otherwise. #12;Chapter 9. CTF Surface Contamination and External

  15. Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-2424E Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study A. Shehabi, W. Tschudi, A Emerging Technologies Program Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study Lawrence Berkeley to specifying as little outside air as permissible for human occupants. To investigate contamination levels

  16. Mathematical formulations for contaminant partitioning in rivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, K.M.; Whelan, G.; Onishi, Y.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This mathematical model for contaminant transport in rivers provides a preliminary assessment of the contaminant mass and concentration using environmental partitioning. First, the model uses the advection-dispersion equation to model the river flow and contaminant transport in the water. Second, the model uses compartment modeling to partition the contaminant mass into water, sediment, bed sediment, air, fish, vegetation and free product environmental compartments. Finally, the model calculates contaminant concentration in each environmental compartment. As long as this approach is applied with an understanding of its assumptions and limitations, it can be very useful as a preliminary assessment model for contaminant transport in rivers. The purpose of developing this approach was to provide a simple mathematical model that accounts for the time-varying partitioning of contaminant concentration at a given location along the river. This approach is intended to be used as part of the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Currently MEPAS, and other multimedia contaminant environmental transport and exposure risk assessment methodologies, assumes that once the contaminant enters the water, it is instantaneously and completely dissolved. This assumption, that the contaminant is only present in the dissolved phase tends to over predict water contaminant levels. This approach is intended to address the partitioning of contaminants into environmental compartments in addition to the water column.

  17. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012Energy ReliabilityNews FlashesRedbirdPetroleum,Reducing

  18. Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

  19. Closure End States for Facilities, Waste Sites, and Subsurface Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerdes, Kurt D.; Chamberlain, Grover S.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Deeb, Rula A.; Hawley, Elizabeth L.; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Marble, Justin

    2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil cleanup effort in the world. DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) has made significant progress in its restoration efforts at sites such as Fernald and Rocky Flats. However, remaining sites, such as Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, Hanford Site, Los Alamos, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and West Valley Demonstration Project possess the most complex challenges ever encountered by the technical community and represent a challenge that will face DOE for the next decade. Closure of the remaining 18 sites in the DOE EM Program requires remediation of 75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, deactivation & decommissioning (D&D) of over 3000 contaminated facilities and thousands of miles of contaminated piping, removal and disposition of millions of cubic yards of legacy materials, treatment of millions of gallons of high level tank waste and disposition of hundreds of contaminated tanks. The financial obligation required to remediate this volume of contaminated environment is estimated to cost more than 7% of the to-go life-cycle cost. Critical in meeting this goal within the current life-cycle cost projections is defining technically achievable end states that formally acknowledge that remedial goals will not be achieved for a long time and that residual contamination will be managed in the interim in ways that are protective of human health and environment. Formally acknowledging the long timeframe needed for remediation can be a basis for establishing common expectations for remedy performance, thereby minimizing the risk of re-evaluating the selected remedy at a later time. Once the expectations for long-term management are in place, remedial efforts can be directed towards near-term objectives (e.g., reducing the risk of exposure to residual contamination) instead of focusing on long-term cleanup requirements. An acknowledgement of the long timeframe for complete restoration and the need for long-term management can also help a site transition from the process of pilot testing different remedial strategies to selecting a final remedy and establishing a long-term management and monitoring approach. This approach has led to cost savings and the more efficient use of resources across the Department of Defense complex and at numerous industrial sites across the U.S. Defensible end states provide numerous benefits for the DOE environmental remediation programs including cost-effective, sustainable long-term monitoring strategies, remediation and site transition decision support, and long-term management of closure sites.

  20. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  1. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

  2. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012Energy ReliabilityNews FlashesRedbirdPetroleum, One

  3. Reducing home lighting expenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimone, M.A.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ways to reduce lighting expenses are summarized. These include: turning off lights when not in use; keeping fixtures and lamps clean; replacing lamps with more efficient types; using three-way bulbs; use of daylighting; buying fewer lamps and reducing lamp wattage; consider repainting rooms; replacing recessed fixtures with tracklighting; and using efficient lamps for outdoor use. (MCW)

  4. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  5. Overview of Contaminant Removal From Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne, A.W.; Alvin, M.A.; Granite, E.; Pennline, H.W.; Siriwardane, R.V.; Keairns, D.; Newby, R.A.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification is an important strategy for increasing the utilization of abundant domestic coal reserves. DOE envisions increased use of gasification in the United States during the next 20 years. As such, the DOE Gasification Technologies Program, including the FutureGen initiative, will strive to approach a near-zero emissions goal, with respect to multiple pollutants, such as sulfur, mercury, and nitrogen oxides. Since nearly one-third of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are produced by coal-powered generation facilities, conventional coal-burning power plants, and advanced power generation plants, such as IGCC, present opportunities in which carbon can be removed and then permanently stored.
    Gas cleaning systems for IGCC power generation facilities have been effectively demonstrated and used in commercial operations for many years. These systems can reduce sulfur, mercury, and other contaminants in synthesis gas produced by gasifiers to the lowest level achievable in coal-based energy systems. Currently, DOE Fossil Energy's goals set for 2010 direct completion of R&D for advanced gasification combined cycle technology to produce electricity from coal at 45–50% plant efficiency. By 2012, completion of R&D to integrate this technology with carbon dioxide separation, capture, and sequestration into a zero-emissions configuration is targeted with a goal to provide electricity with less than a 10% increase in cost of electricity. By 2020, goals are set to develop zero-emissions plants that are fuel-flexible and capable of multi-product output and thermal efficiencies of over 60% with coal. These objectives dictate that it is essential to not only reduce contaminant emissions into the generated synthesis gas, but also to increase the process or system operating temperature to that of humid gas cleaning criteria conditions (150 to 370 °C), thus reducing the energy penalties that currently exist as a result of lowering process temperatures (?40 to 38 °C) with subsequent reheat to the required higher temperatures.
    From a historical perspective, the evolution of advanced syngas cleaning systems applied in IGCC and chemical and fuel synthesis plants has followed a path of configuring a series of individual cleaning steps, one for each syngas contaminant, each step controlled to its individual temperature and sorbent and catalyst needs. As the number of syngas contaminants of interest has increased (particulates, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, halides such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, alkali metals, metal carbonyls, mercury, arsenic, selenium, and cadmium) and the degree of syngas cleaning has become more severe, the potential feasibility of advanced humid gas cleaning has diminished. A focus on multi-contaminant syngas cleaning is needed to enhance the potential cost savings, and performance of humid gas cleaning will focus on multi-contaminant syngas cleaning. Groups of several syngas contaminants to be removed simultaneously need to be considered, resulting in significant gas cleaning system intensification. Intensified, multi-contaminant cleaning processes need to be devised and their potential performance characteristics understood through small-scale testing, conceptual design evaluation, and scale-up assessment with integration into the power generation system. Results of a 1-year study undertaken by DOE/NETL are presented to define improved power plant configurations and technology for advanced multi-contaminant cleanup options.

  6. Immobilization of uranium in contaminated soil by natural apatite addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Stojanovic, Mirjana; Milosevic, Sinisa; Iles, Deana; Zildzovic, Snezana [Institute for Technology of Nuclear and other Mineral Raw Materials, Franche d' Epere 86, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Serbian natural mineral apatite as soil additive for reducing the migration of uranium from contaminated sediments. In laboratory study we investigated the sorption properties of domestic apatite upon different experimental conditions, such as pH, adsorbent mass, reaction period, concentration of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in apatite, solid/liquid ratio. In second part of study, we did the quantification of uranium in soil samples, taken from uranium mine site 'Kalna', by sequential extraction method. The same procedure was, also, used for uranium determination in contaminated soil samples after apatite addition, in order to determine the changes in U distribution in soil fraction. The obtained results showed the significant level of immobilization (96.7%) upon certain conditions. Increase of %P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in apatite and process of mechano-chemical activation led to increase of immobilization capacity from 17.50% till 91.64%. The best results for uranium binding were obtained at pH 5.5 and reaction period 60 days (98.04%) The sequential extraction showed the presence of uranium (48.2%) in potentially available soil fractions, but with the apatite addition uranium content in these fractions decreased (30.64%), what is considering environmental aspect significant fact. In situ immobilization of radionuclide using inexpensive sequestering agents, such as apatite, is very adequate for big contaminated areas of soil with low level of contamination. This investigation study on natural apatite from deposit 'Lisina' Serbia was the first one of this type in our country. Key words: apatite, uranium, immobilization, soil, contamination. (authors)

  7. Probe for contamination detection in recyclable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi

    2003-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron detection system for detection of contaminants contained within a bulk material during recycling includes at least one neutron generator for neutron bombardment of the bulk material, and at least one gamma ray detector for detection of gamma rays emitted by contaminants within the bulk material. A structure for analyzing gamma ray data is communicably connected to the gamma ray detector, the structure for analyzing gamma ray data adapted. The identity and concentration of contaminants in a bulk material can also be determined. By scanning the neutron beam, discrete locations within the bulk material having contaminants can be identified. A method for recycling bulk material having unknown levels of contaminants includes the steps of providing at least one neutron generator, at least one gamma ray detector, and structure for analyzing gamma ray data, irradiating the bulk material with neutrons, and then determining the presence of at least one contaminant in the bulk material from gamma rays emitted from the bulk material.

  8. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L. [National Management Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Data requirements for advancing techniques to predict dredge-induced sediment and contaminant releases -- A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averett, D.E. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States). Waterways Experiment Station

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In many areas of the world, contaminated sediments are being considered a major factor in the redistribution of toxic chemicals in the environment. While removal of contaminated sediments from the aquatic environment is often the preferred alternative for reducing the potential impacts of contaminated sediment, regulatory agencies and the public often express concern about contaminant releases during dredging operations. The US Army Corps of Engineers continues to develop techniques for making a priori estimates of the sediment resuspension rates and contaminant releases during hydraulic and mechanical dredging activities. However, appropriate field data to verify and refine these techniques for a wide range of conditions are currently limited. Data needs include physical and operational characteristics of the dredge, waterway characteristics, sediment characteristics, sediment contaminant data, and water quality data collected during the dredging activity. This paper discusses key parameters required to improve the current predictive techniques and outlines the type of monitoring program needed to improve the comparability of the techniques to measured releases. The recommended monitoring program is derived from experiences with previous monitoring efforts. Planners of future dredging demonstrations are encouraged to collect similar data in order to advance the state of the art for predicting sediment and contaminant releases associated with dredging.

  10. Migrating Contaminant Sticks To Minerals | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Migrating Contaminant Sticks To Minerals Aluminum oxide in common soil minerals captures uranium Using computational chemistry models, scientists at Pacific Northwest National...

  11. Modeling the Capacity and Emissions Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand. Part 1. Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the required total installed capacity (GW). Additionalemissions and installed capacity per unit of generationb) The change in installed capacity by fuel/technology type,

  12. Response of PCB contamination in stream fish to abatement actions at an industrial site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, G.R.; Peterson, M.J.; McCarthy, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Milne, G. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, used large quantities of PCBs in equipment associated with the great electric power requirements of isotopic enrichment of uranium. Historic losses of PCBs in the 1950s and 1960s have left a legacy of contamination at the site. A biological monitoring program implemented in 1987 found PCBs in PGDP effluents and in fish downstream from facility discharges. As a consequence, a fish consumption advisory was posted on Little Bayou Creek by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1987, and regulatory discharge limits for PCBs at PGDP were reduced. Monitoring at multiple locations in receiving streams indicated that PGDP discharges were more important than in stream sediment contamination as sources of PCBs to fish. Environmental management and compliance staff at PGDP led an effort to reduce PCB discharges and monitor the effects of those actions. The active discharge of uncontaminated process water to historically PCB-contaminated drainage systems was found to mobilize PCBs into KPDES (Clean Water Act) regulated effluents. Efforts to locate PCB sources within the plant, coupled with improvements in management practices and remedial actions, appear to have been successful in reducing PCB discharges from these sources. Actions included emplacing passive monitors in the plant drainage system to identify this as a chronic source, and consolidating and re-routing effluents to minimize flow through PCB-contaminated channels. As a consequence, PCB contamination in fish in small streams receiving plant discharges decreased 75% over from 1992--1995.

  13. Mulching as a countermeasure for crop contamination within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yera, T.S.; Vallejo, R.; Tent, J.; Rauret, G. [Univ. de Barcelona (Spain); Omelyanenko, N.; Ivanov, Y. [Ukrainian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of mulch soil cover on crop contamination by {sup 137}Cs was studied within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Experiments were performed with oats (Avena sativa) over a three year period. In 1992 soil surface was covered by a plastic net. In 1993 two straw mulch treatments were applied at a dose rate of 200 g m{sup {minus}2} using {sup 137}Cs contaminated and clean straw, respectively. A similar mulch treatment was applied in 1994, and two mulch doses of clean straw were tested. Protection of the soil with a plastic net significantly increased crop yield and reduced crop contamination. When clean straw was used as a mulch layer, a significant decrease of about 30--40% in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was observed. Mulching with {sup 137}Cs contaminated straw did not reduce crop contamination, probably due to an increase in soil available {sup 137}Cs released from the contaminated mulch. Mulching has been shown to be an effective treatment both for reducing {sup 137}Cs plant contamination and improving crop yield. Therefore, it can be considered as a potential countermeasure in a post-accident situation.

  14. Method and apparatus for controlling cross contamination of microfluid channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F. (Walnut Creek, CA); Rehm, Jason E. (Alameda, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling fluid flow at junctions in microchannel systems. Control of fluid flow is accomplished generally by providing increased resistance to electric-field and pressure-driven flow in the form of regions of reduced effective cross-sectional area within the microchannels and proximate a channel junction. By controlling these flows in the region of a microchannel junction it is possible to eliminate sample dispersion and cross contamination and inject well-defined volumes of fluid from one channel to another.

  15. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poa, Davis S. (Naperville, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Mulcahey, Thomas P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Gerald K. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  16. Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co-contaminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with MTBE: interaction of common environmental co November 2005 Key words: aerobic, biodegradation, BTEX, co-contaminant, MTBE, TBA Abstract Contamination of groundwater with the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is often accompanied by many aromatic

  17. Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

  18. Method of remediation of contaminants in porous media through minimization of bouyancy effects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael (Rigby, ID); Pope, Gary A. (Austin, TX)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling vertical migration of contaminants in an aquifer includes introduction of a solubilizing solution having a surfactant and an alcohol or other light co-solvent. The surfactant is selected to solubilize the contaminant. The alcohol or other solvent is selected to provide the microemulsion with a substantially neutral buoyancy with respect to groundwater. The neutral buoyancy of the microemulsion prevents the normal downward movement which is typical of the solubilized dense non-aqueous phase liquid in surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation. Thus, the risk that any significant amount of the solubilized dense non-aqueous contaminants will migrate vertically can be controlled. The relative tendency for vertical migration may also be reduced by increasing the injection rate or injected fluid viscosity (by adding polymer), or by reducing the well spacing.

  19. Investigation of the Contamination of the Gould (2003) Halo Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Gould

    2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent astroph posting argued that the Gould (2003a) halo sample is substantially contaminated with thick-disk stars, which would then ``wash out'' any signature of granularity in the halo velocity distribution due to streams. If correct, this would imply that the limits placed by Gould (2003b) on streams are not valid. Here I investigate such contamination using six different indicators: (1) morphology of the underlying reduced proper motion diagram used to select halo stars; (2) comparison of kinematic and parallax-based distance scales; (3) comparison of derived halo parameters for the Gould (2003a) sample with other determinations; (4) a precision color-color diagram for a random subsample; (5) the 3-dimensional velocity distribution of a random subsample; (6) metallicity distribution versus kinematic cuts on a random subsample. I estimate that the contamination is of order 2%. Thus, the upper limits on the density of nearby streams derived by Gould (2003b) remain valid. In particular, at 95% confidence, no more than 5% of local halo stars (within about 300 pc) are in any one coherent stream. Determining whether or not this local measurement is consistent with CDM remains an outstanding question.

  20. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  1. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  2. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  3. In situ bioremediation of petrol contaminated groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    21/11/08 1 In situ bioremediation of petrol contaminated groundwater Guido Miguel Delgadillo EVS and facts · Likelihood of contamination · Benefits of in situ bioremediation So... Ask not what groundwater · Intrinsic BR vs. Engineered BR Anaerobic Bioremediation (1) Background · Anaerobic conditions most likely

  4. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  5. Reduced Crude Conversion-2: demetallization unit broadens RCC feed slate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, L.E.; Hettinger, W.P.; Krock, R.P.

    1984-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reduced Crude Conversion (RCC) process has been shown as capable of handling feedstocks with high levels of heavy metals contamination. This article extends the applicability of the RCC process further to handle feedstock derived in part from extremely high metal crude oils, in discussing a commercial unit installed by Ashland which is capable of metals removal using the ART technology. Nickel and vanadium removal from certain highly contaminated RCC feedstocks shown that the RCC unit with ART technology benefits from substantial catalyst savings while extending RCC technology to more challenging feedstocks. The demetallized product is mixed with virgin reduced crude oil and with lower metal content asphalts to provide feedstock for the RCC unit.

  6. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Howard L. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  7. Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination Peter J. Cotty a human exposure, crop contamination with aflatoxins causes significant economic loss for producers, marketers, and processors of diverse susceptible crops. Aflatoxin contamination occurs when specific fungi

  8. Particle Contamination on a Thermal Flying-Height Control Slider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Nan; Bogy, David B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the investigation of particle contamination on a TFC slider.on particle ?ows and contamination of air bearing sliders.and Conclusion The particle contamination on a TFC slider is

  9. Complexity of Groundwater Contaminants at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Jordan, P.

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the remediation and long-term stewardship of one of the world's largest groundwater contamination portfolios, with a significant number of plumes containing various contaminants, and considerable total mass and activity. As of 1999, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management was responsible for remediation, waste management, or nuclear materials and facility stabilization at 144 sites in 31 states and one U.S. territory, out of which 109 sites were expected to require long-term stewardship. Currently, 19 DOE sites are on the National Priority List. The total number of contaminated plumes on DOE lands is estimated to be 10,000. However, a significant number of DOE sites have not yet been fully characterized. The most prevalent contaminated media are groundwater and soil, although contaminated sediment, sludge, and surface water also are present. Groundwater, soil, and sediment contamination are present at 72% of all DOE sites. A proper characterization of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites is critical for accomplishing one of the primary DOE missions -- planning basic research to understand the complex physical, chemical, and biological properties of contaminated sites. Note that the definitions of the terms 'site' and 'facility' may differ from one publication to another. In this report, the terms 'site,' 'facility' or 'installation' are used to identify a contiguous land area within the borders of a property, which may contain more than one plume. The term 'plume' is used here to indicate an individual area of contamination, which can be small or large. Even though several publications and databases contain information on groundwater contamination and remediation technologies, no statistical analyses of the contaminant inventory at DOE sites has been prepared since the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The DOE Groundwater Data Base (GWD) presents data as of 2003 for 221 groundwater plumes at 60 DOE sites and facilities. Note that Riley and Zachara analyzed the data from only 18 sites/facilities including 91 plumes. In this paper, we present the results of statistical analyses of the data in the GWD as guidance for planning future basic and applied research of groundwater contaminants within the DOE complex. Our analyses include the evaluation of a frequency and ranking of specific contaminants and contaminant groups, contaminant concentrations/activities and total contaminant masses and activities. We also compared the results from analyses of the GWD with those from the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara. The difference between our results and those summarized in the 1992 report by Riley and Zachara could be caused by not only additional releases, but also by the use of modern site characterization methods, which more accurately reveal the extent of groundwater contamination. Contaminated sites within the DOE complex are located in all major geographic regions of the United States, with highly variable geologic, hydrogeologic, soil, and climatic conditions. We assume that the information from the 60 DOE sites included in the GWD are representative for the whole DOE complex. These 60 sites include the major DOE sites and facilities, such as Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Colorado; Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Savannah River Site, South Carolina; Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee; and Hanford Reservation, Washington. These five sites alone ccount for 71% of the value of the remediation work.

  10. In-Situ Survival Mechanisms of U and Tc Reducing Bacteria in Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are model subsurface organisms for studying genes involving in situ radionuclide transformation and sediment survival. Our research objective for this project has been to develop a signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) procedure and use it to identify mutants in genes of these subsurface bacteria involved in sediment survival and radionuclide reduction. The mutant genes identified in these studies allow us for the first time to describe at the genetic level microbial processes that are actually being used by environmental bacteria while growing in their natural ecosystems. Identification of these genes revealed facets of microbial physiology and ecology that are not accessible through laboratory studies. Ultimately, this information may be used to optimize bioremediation or other engineered microbial processes. Furthermore, the identification of a mutant in a gene conferring multidrug resistance in strain MR-1 shows that this widespread mechanism of antibiotic resistance, likely has its origins as a mechanism of bacterial defense against naturally occurring toxins. Studies with D. desulfuricans G20: The STM procedure first involved generating a library of 5760 G20 mutants and screening for potential non-survivors in subsurface sediment microcosms. After two rounds of screening, a total of 117 mutants were confirmed to be true non-survivors. 97 transposon insertion regions have been sequenced to date. Upon further analysis of these mutants, we classified the sediment survival genes into COG functional categories. STM mutant insertions were located in genes encoding proteins related to metabolism (33%), cellular processes (42%), and information storage and processing (17%). We also noted 8% of STM mutants identified had insertions in genes for hypothetical proteins or unknown functions. Interestingly, at least 64 of these genes encode cytoplasmic proteins, 46 encode inner membrane proteins, and only 7 encode periplasmic space and outer membrane associated proteins. Through blast search analysis, we also showed that 81 out of 94 proteins shown to be important in sediment survival have homologs in D. vulgaris, 70 have homologs in Geobacter metallireducens, and 69 have homologs in Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. Some interesting proteins include ribonucleotide reductase and chemotaxis related proteins. Ribonucleotide reductase catalyzes the reductive synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from their corresponding ribonucleotides, providing the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Two ribonucleotide reductase genes (nrdE, nrdD) were found to be essential for G20 survival in the sediment, but not essential for growth in the lactate-sulfate medium. Bacterial methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) respond to changes in the concentration of attractants and repellents in the environment.

  11. Evaluation of selected diagnostic and intervention strategies for reducing Salmonella contamination of poultry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarlin, Laura Lilinoe

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Another study evaluated the benefit of non-selective pre-enrichment for the detection of low levels of sublethally injured Salmonella enteritidis. The final study investigated the use of a combination of d-limonene and citric acid for the ability to remove...

  12. Assessing beef hide interventions as a means to reduce carcass contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Bridget Elaine

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    following a water wash. Treatments (distilled water, isopropyl alcohol, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 2% L-lactic acid, 1% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and 10% Povidone-iodine) then were applied to each section and sampled for aerobic plate counts (APCs...

  13. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Petroleum Product Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Kantor, A. S.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas AgriLife Extension Service Petroleum Products Overview Storing liquid petroleum products, such as motor fuel and heating fuel, above ground or underground presents a potential threat to pub- lic health and the environment. Nearly one out... with Varying Permeability Land Surface Figure 1. Petroleum product seepage into soils. Source: Underground Tank Corrective Action Technologies, EPA/625/6-87-015, January 1987. filled. Overfill protection is either a warning device, such as, a buzzer or a...

  14. Maternal Transfer of Contaminants and Reduced Reproductive Success of Southern Toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] terrestris) Exposed to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    ) residing in two locations: (1) an active coal combustion waste (CCW) disposal basin and adjacent 40-ha (Gastrophryne carolinensis) collected from a coal ash settling basin accumulated and transferred selenium (Se [Anaxyrus] terrestris) Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste Brian S. Metts,, * Kurt A. Buhlmann, Tracey D

  15. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Hazardous Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Kantor, A. S.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    dangerous chemical reac- tions that could release the products. H Have emergency equipment, such as adsorbents and shovels, ready to contain spills. Farm and Household Waste This category of potentially hazardous sub- stances includes the following items: H... that can be composted (such as household garbage, leaves and straw). H Recyclable materials should be taken to a recycling facility and uncontaminated trash to a licensed landfill or a municipal incinerator. Farm and household waste is excluded from...

  16. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Hazardous Waste Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Kantor, A. S.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Products such as paints, solvents, adhesives, oils, cleaners, batteries, pesticides and wood preservatives are commonly used in households and on farms, but they can be hazardous to ground water if handled improperly. This publication explains...

  17. Civil and Environmental Engineering CSU Center for Contaminant Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Civil and Environmental Engineering CSU ­ Center for Contaminant Hydrology Coordinator The Center for Contaminant Hydrology (CCH) ( HYPERLINK "http://www.engr.colostate.edu/CCH/" www

  18. assessing contaminant attenuation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conceptual model for human exposures to contamination in a solar energy facility. Click Kemner, Ken 5 DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT 2 OF CONTAMINATED SITE PROBLEMS...

  19. Geochemical Controls on Contaminant Uranium in Vadose Hanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controls on Contaminant Uranium in Vadose Hanford Formation Sediments at the 200 Area and 300 Area, Hanford Site, Geochemical Controls on Contaminant Uranium in Vadose Hanford...

  20. Microscopic Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated Sediments at Hanford, United States. Microscopic Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated Sediments at Hanford, United...

  1. Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Transport and Impact to Groundwater. Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Transport and...

  2. Different Strategies for Biological Remediation of Perchlorate Contaminated Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yue

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perchlorate Contamination in Groundwater: Legal, Chemical,of Perchlorate-Contaminated Groundwater. Federal Facilitiesof perchlorate from groundwater by activated carbon tailored

  3. H2FIRST Hydrogen Contaminant Detector Task: Requirements Document...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    contamination detection and identifies the technical requirements for implementing a hydrogen contaminant detector (HCD) at a station. The rollout of hydrogen fueling stations,...

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  5. Perched-Water Analysis Related to Deep Vadose Zone Contaminant Transport and Impact to Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, KC; Chronister, Glen B.

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Perched-water conditions have been observed in the vadose zone above a fine-grained zone that is located just a few meters above the water table beneath the B-complex at the Hanford Site. The perched water, containing elevated concentrations of uranium and technetium-99, is important to consider in evaluating the future flux of contaminated water into the groundwater. A study was conducted to examine the perched-water conditions and quantitatively evaluate 1) factors that control perching behavior, 2) contaminant flux toward groundwater, and, 3) associated groundwater impact. Based on the current vertical transport pathways and large areal extent of the perched system, the evaluation was conducted using a one-dimensional (1-D) analysis. Steady-state scoping calculations showed that the perching-layer hydraulic conductivity is likely to be up to two orders of magnitude less than the base case value obtained from Hanford site literature. Numerical flow and transport simulations provided both steady-state and transient system estimates of water and contaminant behavior and were used to further refine the range of conditions consistent with current observations of perched water height and to provide estimates of future water and contaminant flux to groundwater. With a recharge rate of 6 cm/yr, representative of current disturbed surface conditions, contaminant flux from the perched water occurs over a time interval of tens of years. However, if the recharge rate is 0.35 cm/yr, representative of returning recharge to pre-Hanford Site levels, the contaminant flux into the groundwater is spread over hundreds of years. It was also demonstrated that removal of perched water by pumping would reduce the flux of water (and associated contaminants) to the groundwater, thereby impacting the long-term rate of contaminant movement to the groundwater.

  6. Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

  7. Method of treating fluoride contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, P.K.; Kakaria, V.K.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating spent aluminum smelting potliner material containing fluoride contaminants is described which comprises: adding silica to the material to form a mixture thereof; elevating the temperature of the mixture within the range of 1,000/sup 0/ to 1,700/sup 0/C. to form a slag; providing sufficient silica in the mixture and forming the slag in the presence of sufficient water for pyrohydrolysis conditions resulting in the volatilization of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants mostly in the form of hydrogen fluoride; and cooling the slag remaining after volatilizatiion of substantially all of the fluoride contaminants to produce an insoluble silicate glass-residue containing any remaining portion of the fluoride contaminants in an immobile state.

  8. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

  9. Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  10. DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT 2 OF CONTAMINATED SITE PROBLEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    in the environment and undergo complex interactions in more than one environmental medium. Contaminated sites should released into the environment will be controlled by a complex set of processes (such as intermedia

  11. Modelling Bioremediation of Uranium Contaminated Aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rotter, Ben E G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclide extraction, processing and storage have resulted in a legacy of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater aquifers worldwide. An emerging remediation technology for such sites is the in situ immobilisation of ...

  12. Reducing Penguin Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhubanjyoti Bhattacharya; Alakabha Datta; David London

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The most common decay used for measuring 2beta_s, the phase of Bs-Bsbar mixing, is Bs -> J/psi phi. This decay is dominated by the colour-suppressed tree diagram, but there are other contributions due to gluonic and electroweak penguin diagrams. These are often referred to as "penguin pollution" (PP) because their inclusion in the amplitude leads to a theoretical error in the extraction of 2beta_s from the data. In the standard model (SM), it is estimated that the PP is negligible, but there is some uncertainty as to its exact size. Now, phi_s^{c\\bar{c}s} (the measured value of 2beta_s) is small, in agreement with the SM, but still has significant experimental errors. When these are reduced, if one hopes to be able to see clear evidence of new physics (NP), it is crucial to have the theoretical error under control. In this paper, we show that, using a modification of the angular analysis currently used to measure phi_s^{c\\bar{c}s} in Bs -> J/psi phi, one can reduce the theoretical error due to PP. Theoretical input is still required, but it is much more modest than entirely neglecting the PP. If phi_s^{c\\bar{c}s} differs from the SM prediction, this points to NP in the mixing. There is also enough information to test for NP in the decay. This method can be applied to all Bs/Bsbar -> V1 V2 decays.

  13. Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens.

  14. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  15. A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

  16. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  17. Owls as Biomonitors of Environmental Contamination Steven R. Sheffield1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owls as Biomonitors of Environmental Contamination Steven R. Sheffield1 Abstract.--Much like of environmental contamination. These species provide an "early warning system" for toxic contaminants (Pandion haliaetus) have been widely used as biomonitors of aquatic contamination. However, few higher

  18. INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    INVESTIGATION OF IONIC CONTAMINATION REMOVAL FROM SILICON DIOXIDE SURFACES H. Lin, A. A. Busnaina, and I. I. Suni T he removal of ionic contaminants from silicon surfaces surface contamination level canM Communications L td. INTRODUCTION with increasing frequency and power, and decreases Contamination removal is one

  19. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  20. agricultural soil contaminated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimal Agricultural Countermeasure Strategies for a Hypothetical Contamination Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Optimal Agricultural...

  1. ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY - NEW APPROACHES FOR IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Roberts, J.

    2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluated pilot-scale active caps composed of apatite, organoclay, biopolymers, and sand for the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments. The active caps were constructed in Steel Creek, at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Monitoring was conducted for 12 months. Effectiveness of the caps was based on an evaluation of contaminant bioavailability, resistance to erosion, and impacts on benthic organisms. Active caps lowered metal bioavailability in the sediment during the one-year test period. Biopolymers reduced sediment suspension during cap construction, increased the pool of carbon, and lowered the release of metals. This field validation showed that active caps can effectively treat contaminants by changing their speciation, and that caps can be constructed to include more than one type of amendment to achieve multiple goals.

  2. Foreground contamination of the WMAP CMB maps from the perspective of the matched circle test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Then

    2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    WMAP has provided CMB maps of the full sky. The raw data is subject to foreground contamination, in particular near to the Galactic plane. Foreground cleaned maps have been derived, e.g., the internal linear combination (ILC) map of Bennett et al. and the reduced foreground TOH map of Tegmark et al. Using S statistics we examine whether residual foreground contamination is left over in the foreground cleaned maps. In particular, we specify which parts of the foreground cleaned maps are sufficiently accurate for the circle-in-the-sky signature. We generalise the S statistic, called D statistic, such that the circle test can deal with CMB maps in which the contaminated regions of the sky are excluded with masks.

  3. Bioremediation of ground water contaminants at a uranium mill tailings site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, L.L.; Nuttall, H.E.; Thomson, B.M.; Lutze, W. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground water contaminated with uranium from milling operations must be remediated to reduce the migration of soluble toxic compounds. At the mill tailings site near Tuba City, Arizona (USA) the approach is to employ bioremediation for in situ immobilization of uranium by bacterial reduction of uranyl, U(VI), compounds to uraninite, U(IV). In this initial phase of remediation, details are provided to indicate the magnitude of the contamination problem and to present preliminary evidence supporting the proposition that bacterial immobilization of uranium is possible. Additionally, consideration is given to contaminating cations and anions that may be at toxic levels in ground water at this uranium mill tailing site and detoxification strategies using bacteria are addressed. A model concept is employed so that results obtained at the Tuba City site could contribute to bioremediation of ground water at other uranium mill tailings sites.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the UMTRA Project site near Lakeview, Oregon, was completed in 1989. The mill operated from February 1958 to November 1960. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  6. Effects of organic carbon supply rates on mobility of previously bioreduced uranium in a contaminated sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T.K.; Kim, Y.; Brodie, E.; Daly, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bioreduction-based strategies for remediating uranium (U)-contaminated sediments face the challenge of maintaining the reduced status of U for long times. Because groundwater influxes continuously bring in oxidizing terminal electron acceptors (O{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}), it is necessary to continue supplying organic carbon (OC) to maintain the reducing environment after U bioreduction is achieved. We tested the influence of OC supply rates on mobility of previously microbial reduced uranium U(IV) in contaminated sediments. We found that high degrees of U mobilization occurred when OC supply rates were high, and when the sediment still contained abundant Fe(III). Although 900 days with low levels of OC supply minimized U mobilization, the sediment redox potential increased with time as did extractable U(VI) fractions. Molecular analyses of total microbial activity demonstrated a positive correlation with OC supply and analyses of Geobacteraceae activity (RT-qPCR of 16S rRNA) indicated continued activity even when the effluent Fe(II) became undetectable. These data support our earlier hypothesis on the mechanism responsible for re-oxidation of microbial reduced U(IV) under reducing conditions; that microbial respiration caused increased (bi)carbonate concentrations and formation of stable uranyl carbonate complexes, thereby shifted U(IV)/U(VI) equilibrium to more reducing potentials. The data also suggested that low OC concentrations could not sustain the reducing condition of the sediment for much longer time.

  7. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara St., Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States)] [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara St., Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States); Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)] [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil volume estimate and the associated contingency costs. (authors)

  8. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in-place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Currently, no points of exposure (e.g. a drinking water well); and no receptors of contaminated ground water have been identified at the Maybell site. Therefore, there are no current human health and ecological risks associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Furthermore, if current site conditions and land- and water-use patterns do not change, it is unlikely that contaminated ground water would reach people or the ecological communities in the future.

  9. GLOVEBOX DISMANTLEMENT AND EQUIPMENT PROTECTION IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitamura, Akihiro; Stallings, Ellen; Wilburn, Dianne W.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been revealed from the experiences of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities that even a small improvement in performance can result in significant risk reduction and cost savings. For example, Race Scan Ear Mic System, which was originally developed for communications between racecar drivers and crews in loud environments, has been successfully applied to D&D work and proved to enhance worker safety and communications. Glovebox dismantlement is an important and costly process in D&D activities of nuclear facilities. Adequate decontamination and size reduction of the gloveboxes are especially important in this activity because they have the potential to reduce risks and costs significantly. This paper presents some simple approaches to support D&D tasks and discusses their potential advantages. Examples discussed include: Repeated shear wiping of large pipes and ducts; Application of thin layers on radiological counters for uninterrupted use; and Partial use of robotics for glovebox dismantling. The paper also discusses schematics for protecting equipment interiors and/or glovebox inner surfaces from contamination, which may result in significant savings and waste minimization upon future dismantlement. Examples discussed include: Smart coating for contamination prevention; and Protecting equipment by geometrically simple cover.

  10. Elevated sulfate reduction in metal-contaminated freshwater lake sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, H.L.; Dahl, A.L.; Tribou, E.; Noble, P.A.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Stahl, D.A. (UWASH); (NWU)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Although sulfate-reducing prokaryotes have long been studied as agents of metals bioremediation, impacts of long-term metals exposure on biologically mediated sulfur cycling in natural systems remains poorly understood. The effects of long-term exposure to metal stress on the freshwater sulfur cycle were studied, with a focus on biologic sulfate reduction using a combination of microbial and chemical methods. To examine the effects after decades of adaptation time, a field-based experiment was conducted using multiple study sites in a natural system historically impacted by a nearby zinc smelter (Lake DePue, Illinois). Rates were highest at the most metals-contaminated sites (-35 {mu}mol/cm{sup 3}/day) and decreased with decreased pore water zinc and arsenic contamination levels, while other environmental characteristics (i.e., pH, nutrient concentrations and physical properties) showed little between-site variation. Correlations were established using an artificial neural network to evaluate potentially non-linear relationships between sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and measured environmental variables. SRR in Lake DePue were up to 50 times higher than rates previously reported for lake sediments and the chemical speciation of Zn was dominated by the presence of ZnS as shown by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). These results suggest that long-term metal stress of natural systems might alter the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur by contributing to higher rates of sulfate reduction.

  11. Interfacial Reduction-Oxidation Mechanisms Governing Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Principal Investigator: Baolin Deng, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; Co-Principal Investigator: Silvia Sabine Jurisson, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO; Co-Principal Investigator: Edward C. Thornton, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA; Co-Principal Investigator: Jeff Terry, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL

    2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many soil contamination sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) installations that contain radionuclides and toxic metals such as uranium (U), technetium (Tc), and chromium (Cr). Since these contaminants are the main 'risk drivers' at the Hanford site (WA) and some of them also pose significant risk at other DOE facilities (e.g., Oak Ridge Reservation - TN; Rocky Flats - CO), development of technologies for cost effective site remediation is needed. Current assessment indicates that complete removal of these contaminants for ex-situ disposal is infeasible, thus in-situ stabilization through reduction to insoluble species is considered one of the most important approaches for site remediation. In Situ Gaseous Reduction (ISGR) is a technology developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for vadose zone soil remediation. The ISGR approach uses hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) for reductive immobilization of contaminants that show substantially lower mobility in their reduced forms (e.g., Tc, U, and Cr). The technology can be applied in two ways: (i) to immobilize or stabilize pre-existing contaminants in the vadose zone soils by direct H{sub 2}S treatment, or (ii) to create a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) that prevents the migration of contaminants. Direct treatment involves reduction of the contaminants by H{sub 2}S to less mobile species. Formation of a PRB is accomplished through reduction of ferric iron species in the vadose zone soils by H{sub 2}S to iron sulfides (e.g., FeS), which provides a means for capturing the contaminants entering the treated zone. Potential future releases may occur during tank closure activities. Thus, the placement of a permeable reactive barrier by ISGR treatment can be part of the leak mitigation program. Deployment of these ISGR approaches, however, requires a better understanding of the immobilization kinetics and mechanisms, and a better assessment of the long-term effectiveness of treatment. The primary objective of this project was to understand the complex interactions among the contaminants (i.e., Cr, Tc, and U), H{sub 2}S, and various soil constituents. The reaction with iron sulfide is also the focus of the research, which could be formed from iron oxide reduction by hydrogen sulfide. Factors controlling the reductive immobilization of these contaminants were identified and quantified. The results and fundamental knowledge obtained from this project shall help better evaluate the potential of in situ gaseous treatment to immobilize toxic and radioactive metals examined.

  12. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes and other potential remediation opportunities; a discussion of how the implementation of the HRC technology eased permitting issues and other challenges of remediating groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and organics; an overview of the remedial design and installation of the design including the inputs required to design the remediation system; a summary of results achieved to date and a forecast of future results; and a discussion of future needs and lessons learned.

  13. Contaminant effects on growth, age-structure, and reproduction, of Mytilus edulis from Puget Sound, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casillas, E.; Kardong, K.; Kagley, A.; Snider, R.G.; Stein, J.E. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States). Environmental Conservation Division

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Age-length relationships, age structure, and reproductive status (fecundity, egg size) of Mytilus edulis from six sites in central Puget Sound and one site in the relatively pristine area of northern Puget Sound were measured. Mussels from urban-associated sites (areas with elevated sediment concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, and toxic and essential metals) exhibited high tissue burdens of these contaminants. Age length relationships, fitted to the von Bertalanffy equation, showed that the growth of mussels from urban-associated areas was similar, but was lower than in mussels from minimally-contaminated environments. Comparison of mussel population age-structure showed that at urban sites, mussels of comparable size were consistently older than mussels from minimally contaminated areas and the mean age of urban populations was higher than that of rural populations. In mussels from urban sites, gonad mass was lower while number of oocytes/g gonad was similar compared to mussels from minimally-contaminated areas of Puget Sound. Thus, in mussels from urban sites fecundity was reduced compared to mussels of comparable age from reference sites. The findings support the hypothesis that mussels from the urban areas exhibit impaired growth, altered population age-structure, and reproductive impairment as a result of accumulation of chemical contaminants.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  15. Evaluation of the effects of coal fly ash amendments on the toxicity of a contaminated marine sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, R.M.; Perron, M.M.; Friedman, C.L.; Suuberg, E.M.; Pennell, K.G.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.; Ho, K.T.; Serbst, J.R.; Ryba, S.A. [US EPA, Narragansett, RI (USA). Office for Research and Development

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches for cleaning up contaminated sediments range from dredging to in situ treatment. In this study, we discuss the effects of amending reference and contaminated sediments with coal fly ash to reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of a field sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Six fly ashes and a coconut charcoal were evaluated in 7-d whole sediment toxicity tests with a marine amphipod (Ampelisca abdita) and mysid (Americamysis bahia). Fly ashes with high carbon content and the coconut charcoal showed proficiency at reducing toxicity. Some of the fly ashes demonstrated toxicity in the reference treatments. It is suspected that some of this toxicity is related to the presence of ammonia associated with fly ashes as a result of postoxidation treatment to reduce nitrous oxide emissions. Relatively simple methods exist to remove ammonia from fly ash before use, and fly ashes with low ammonia content are available. Fly ashes were also shown to effectively reduce overlying water concentrations of several PAHs. No evidence was seen of the release of the metals cadmium, copper, nickel, or lead from the fly ashes. A preliminary 28-d polychaete bioaccumulation study with one of the high-carbon fly ashes and a reference sediment was also performed. Although preliminary, no evidence was seen of adverse effects to worm growth or lipid content or of accumulation of PAHs or mercury from exposure to the fly ash. These data show fly ashes with high carbon content could represent viable remedial materials for reducing the bioavailability of organic contaminants in sediments.

  16. Regulatory strategies for remediation of contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zar, H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of federal and state laws may be used to obtain remediation of contaminated sediments in the US. Until recently, the most prominent approaches at the federal level were the use of Superfund authorities for sites on the National priority List and navigational dredging activity by the Corps of Engineers. However, with the increasing concern about contaminated sediments, regional offices of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies have begun to use a greater variety of regulatory approaches, both individually and in combination. These efforts have been particularly evident in the Great Lakes and are now being extended nationwide, as embodied in the EPA`s Contaminated Sediment Management Strategy. This paper will describe some of the regulatory approaches being applied, case examples in the Great Lakes area, and the expected directions of these efforts, as embodied in the national strategy.

  17. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, James L. (Knoxville, TN); Pace, Marshall O. (Knoxville, TN); Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A contaminant trap for a gas-insulated electrical conductor is provided. A resinous dielectric body such as Kel-F wax, grease or other sticky polymeric or oligomeric compound is disposed on the inside wall of the outer housing for the conductor. The resinous body is sufficiently sticky at ambient temperatures to immobilize contaminant particles in the insulating gas on the exposed surfaces thereof. An electric resistance heating element is disposed in the resinous body to selectively raise the temperature of the resinous body to a molten state so that the contaminant particles collected on the surface of the body sink into the body so that the surface of the resinous body is renewed to a particle-less condition and, when cooled, returns to a sticky collecting surface.

  18. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodmansee, Donald E. (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  19. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs.

  20. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  1. Hydrogen Contamination Detector Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe SolarContamination Detector Workshop Hydrogen Contamination

  2. Effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Acciarri; M. Antonello; B. Baibussinov; M. Baldo-Ceolin; P. Benetti; F. Calaprice; E. Calligarich; M. Cambiaghi; N. Canci; F. Carbonara; F. Cavanna; S. Centro; A. G. Cocco; F. Di Pompeo; G. Fiorillo; C. Galbiati; V. Gallo; L. Grandi; G. Meng; I. Modena; C. Montanari; O. Palamara; L. Pandola; F. Pietropaolo; G. L. Raselli; M. Roncadelli; M. Rossella; C. Rubbia; E. Segreto; A. M. Szelc; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli

    2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A dedicated test of the effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. A detector has been designed and assembled for this specific task and connected to a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Nitrogen into the liquid Argon. Purpose of the test is to detect the reduction of the Ar scintillation light emission as a function of the amount of the Nitrogen contaminant injected in the Argon volume. A wide concentration range, spanning from about 10^-1 ppm up to about 10^3 ppm, has been explored. Measurements have been done with electrons in the energy range of minimum ionizing particles (gamma-conversion from radioactive sources). Source spectra at different Nitrogen contaminations are analyzed, showing sensitive reduction of the scintillation yield at increasing concentrations. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Nitrogen in liquid Ar has been found to be k(N2)=0.11 micros^-1 ppm^-1. Direct PMT signals acquisition at high time resolution by fast Waveform recording allowed to extract with high precision the main characteristics of the scintillation light emission in pure and contaminated LAr. In particular, the decreasing behavior in lifetime and relative amplitude of the slow component is found to be appreciable from O(1 ppm) of Nitrogen concentrations.

  3. Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, shielded metal arc, self-shielded metal arc, and submerged arc welding are reviewed. Calcu- lations upon heating is also discussed. Introduction Oxygen and nitrogen ~ontamination of weld metal

  4. Contaminant Transport in Municipal Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Chapter 1 Contaminant Transport in Municipal Water Systems Presented at the 3rd PIMS Industrial the inverse problem. We begin in the following sections with an overview of the physics of ow in water forcing to raise the hydraulic head of the water in the network. The nodes are either junctions, tanks

  5. The Health Risks: Seafood Contamination, Harmful Algal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    health products from the sea. What is the central issue? Why should I care? How will OHH researchThe Health Risks: Seafood Contamination, Harmful Algal Blooms and Polluted Beaches Seafood associated public health costs. Announcing a New Interagency Report on Oceans and Human Health Research

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Assessment of metal contaminations leaching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles syntheses, partic- ularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. Methodology In this study, leaching

  7. Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012Energy ReliabilityNews FlashesRedbird Red HabitatReduce

  8. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  9. Reduced-dimension transistors: Reduced-dimension transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    1 Reduced-dimension transistors: the HEMT LECTURE 20 · Reduced-dimension transistors · HEMT · 2-D;8 For a finite well · Wavefunction not completely confined · Use undoped spacer #12;9 Employment of a spacer scattering (µ ). · Electrons and donors separated no I I scattering, i.e., µ · Undoped spacer also helps

  10. contaminated The U.S.Army Corps of EngineersCenterfor ContaminatedSediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    and OceanWaters 53 Bioassays 53 ContaminantPathway Test '%Dredging Operationsand Enviro '% USACE Risk Assessment Guidance for Con- Research (DOER) Program : &ina6d gebents %Environmental Impact EvaIua USACE

  11. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, Sivaraman (Deep River, CA); Wong, Chi F. (Pembroke, CA); Buckley, Leo P. (Deep River, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  12. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  13. NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES FOR GASEOUS CONTAMINANTS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.S. Turk; T. Merkel; A. Lopez-Ortiz; R.P. Gupta; J.W. Portzer; G.N. Krishnan; B.D. Freeman; G.K. Fleming

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop technologies for cleaning/conditioning the syngas from an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system to meet the tolerance limits for contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, COS, NH{sub 3}, HCN, HCl, and alkali for fuel cell and chemical production applications. RTI's approach is to develop a modular system that (1) removes reduced sulfur species to sub-ppm levels using a hybrid process consisting of a polymer membrane and a regenerable ZnO-coated monolith or a mixed metal oxide sorbent; (2) removes hydrogen chloride vapors to sub-ppm levels using an inexpensive, high-surface area material; and (3) removes NH{sub 3} with acidic adsorbents. RTI is working with MEDAL, Inc., and North Carolina State University (NCSU) to develop polymer membrane technology for bulk removal of H{sub 2}S from syngas. These membranes are being engineered to remove the acid gas components (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O) from syngas by focusing on the ''solubility selectivity'' of the novel polymer compositions. The desirable components of the syngas (H{sub 2} and CO) are maintained at high-pressure conditions as a non-permeate stream while the impurities are transported across the membrane to the low pressure side. RTI tested commercially available and novel materials from MEDAL using a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) permeation apparatus. H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} selectivities >30 were achieved, although there was a strong negative dependence with temperature. MEDAL believes that all the polymer compositions tested so far can be prepared as hollow fiber membrane modules using the existing manufacturing technology. For fuel cell and chemical applications, additional sulfur removal (beyond that achievable with the membranes) is required. To overcome limitations of conventional ZnO pellets, RTI is testing a monolith with a thin coating of high surface area zinc-oxide based materials. Alternatively, a regenerable sorbent developed by DOE/NETL (RVS-1) is being evaluated for this application. A multi-cycle test of 2-in. (5-cm) diameter monolith samples demonstrated that <0.5 ppm sulfur can be achieved. Removal of HCl vapors is being accomplished by low-cost materials that combine the known effectiveness of sodium carbonate as an active matrix used with enhanced surface area supports for greater reactivity and capacity at the required operating temperatures. RTI is working with SRI International on this task. Sorbents prepared using diatomaceous earth and sepiolite, impregnated with sodium carbonate achieved steady-state HCl level <100 ppb (target is 10 ppb). Research is continuing to optimize the impregnation and calcination procedures to provide an optimum pore size distribution and other properties. RTI and SRI International have established the feasibility of a process to selectively chemisorb NH3 from syngas on high surface area molecular sieve adsorbents at high temperatures by conducting a series of temperature-programmed reactions at 225 C (437 F). Significant levels of NH{sub 3} were adsorbed on highly acidic adsorbents; the adsorbed NH{sub 3} was subsequently recovered by heating the adsorbent and the regenerated adsorbent was reused. A comprehensive technical and economic evaluation of this modular gas cleaning process was conducted by Nexant to compare capital and operating cost with existing amine based processes. Nexant estimated a total installed cost of $42 million for the RTI process for a 500 MWe IGCC plant based on its current state of development. By comparison, Nexant estimated the installed cost for an equivalent sized plant based on the Rectisol process (which would achieve the same sulfur removal specification) to be $75 million. Thus the RTI process is economically competitive with a state-of-the-art process for syngas cleanup.

  14. Evaluation of technologies for volume reduction of plutonium-contaminated soils from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papelis, C.; Jacobson, R.L.; Miller, F.L.; Shaulis, L.K.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear testing at and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) resulted in plutonium (Pu) contamination of the soil over an area of several thousands of acres. The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential of five different processes to reduce the volume of Pu-contaminated soil from three different areas, namely Areas 11, 13, and 52. Volume reduction was to be accomplished by concentrating the Pu into a small but highly contaminated soil fraction, thereby greatly reducing the volume of soil requiring disposal. The processes tested were proposed by Paramag Corp. (PARAMAG), Advanced Processing Technologies Inc. (APT), Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies (LESAT), Nuclear Remediation Technologies (NRT), and Scientific Ecology Group (SEG). Because of time and budgetary restraints, the NRT and SEG processes were tested with soil from Area 11 only. These processes typically included a preliminary soil conditioning step (e.g., attrition scrubbing, wet sieving), followed by a more advanced process designed to separate Pu from the soil, based on physiochemical properties of Pu compounds (e.g., magnetic susceptibility, specific gravity). Analysis of the soil indicates that a substantial fraction of the total Pu contamination is typically confined in a relatively narrow and small particle size range. Processes which were able to separate this highly contaminated soil fraction (using physical methods, e.g., attrition scrubbing, wet sieving), from the rest of the soil achieved volume (mass) reductions on the order of 70%. The advanced, more complex processes tested did not enhance volume reduction. The primary reason why processes that rely on the dependence of settling velocity on density differences failed was the very fine grain size of the Pu-rich particles.

  15. Method to remove uranium/vanadium contamination from groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzler, Donald R. (DeBeque, CO); Morrison, Stanley (Grand Junction, CO)

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  16. Method to Remove Uranium/Vanadium Contamination from Groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzler, Donald R.; Morrison Stanley

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing uranium/vanadium-based contaminants from groundwater using a primary in-ground treatment media and a pretreatment media that chemically adjusts the groundwater contaminant to provide for optimum treatment by the primary treatment media.

  17. Analytical modeling of contaminant transport and horizontal well hydraulics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Eungyu

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is composed of three parts of major contributions. In Chapter II, we discuss analytical study of contaminant transport from a finite source in a finite-thickness aquifer. This chapter provides analytical solutions of contaminant...

  18. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION OF HOSPITAL AIR. FINAL REPORT.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: CHH1ICAL CONTAMINATION OFSTANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION OFSTANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION OF

  19. CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS LEACHED FROM IN-SITU SPENT SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of California. LBL-10526 CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BYABSTRACT for contamination ter shale was studied in a seriesassessment of the ial contamination of ground~ water by c

  20. Narratives of Contamination: Representations of Race, Gender, and Disease in Nineteenth Century Cuban Fiction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zander, Jessica Selene

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Narratives of Contamination: Representations of Race,Fall 2012 Narratives of Contamination: Representations ofAbstract Narratives of Contamination: Representations of

  1. Carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask and its effect on imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Yu-Jen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics."potential LWR due to the contamination topography may be anet aI. , "Accelerated contamination testing of EUV masks."

  2. New Challenges in Contamination Control: The Leadership Role of IEST in Shaping Future Research and Practices.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang; Eudy, Jane; Berndt, Charles

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New Challenges in Contamination Control: The Leadership RoleS&P) portion of the Contamination Control (CC) program,engineers, and contamination control professionals from all

  3. Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, M.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, AbraOF SUBSURFACE GASOLINE CONTAMINATION Marc L. Fischer, Abrareporting indoor air contamination (6,7). Estimation of

  4. Analysis of Optics and Mask Contamination in SEMATECH EUV Micro-Exposure Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wuest, Andrea

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Optics and Mask Contamination in SEMATECH EUV MioroTools IEUVI Optics Contamination/Lifetime TWG Sapporo,of spot inside visible contamination. sputter time (min) c

  5. Removal of contaminated sediments: Equipment and recent field studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbich, J.B. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); [Consulting and Research Services, Inc., College Station, TX (United States); [Consulting and Research Services, Inc., Wailuku, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of contaminated marine sediments has emerged as an environmental issue of national importance. Harbor areas in particular have been found to contain high levels of contaminants in bottom sediments due to wastes from municipal, industrial, and riverine sources. This paper briefly examines the extent and significance of marine sediment contamination in the US, and reviews the state of the art of contaminated sediment cleanup and recent field studies or demonstrations.

  6. Recommendation 195: Mitigation of Contamination in Bear Creek Burial Grounds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB requests DOE provide possible remedial actions to mitigate releases of contamination from Bear Creek Burial Grounds.

  7. CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume tracking methodology helped the USACE Buffalo District track soil quantity changes from projected excavation work over time and across space, providing the basis for an explanation of some of the project cost and schedule variances.

  8. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  9. Annual Hanford Site GW Monitoring Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta3 Table 3.EnergyAug 15,781

  10. Microsoft Word - S05935_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site MayGroundwater09 July

  11. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, Disposal SiteRadiological Assessment of Stained Soils at

  12. Microsoft Word - S07883_GW_2011

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, Disposal SiteRadiologicalInspection Site-Wide10 Through0

  13. Microsoft Word - S07896_GW_MR

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, Disposal SiteRadiologicalInspection Site-Wide1011

  14. Microsoft Word - S10184_GW.docx

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourth Five-Year ReviewDepartment22Sitewide

  15. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainages ThisUniversity of10

  16. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainages ThisUniversity of1010

  17. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainages ThisUniversity

  18. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainages

  19. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainagesGroundwater Levels a

  20. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainagesGroundwater Levels

  1. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainagesGroundwater Levels

  2. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainagesGroundwater Levels

  3. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainagesGroundwater Levels10

  4. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainagesGroundwater Levels10OU

  5. Microsoft Word - S06596_GW.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona,Site Operations Guide JulyDrainagesGroundwater

  6. Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis M. Catalfanoa, USA; b SEMATECH Inc., Albany, NY 12203, USA ABSTRACT We investigated Ru mirror contamination film at different angles. During the contamination process, the EUV reflectivity of the Ru film

  7. Low energy electron bombardment induced surface contamination of Ru mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Low energy electron bombardment induced surface contamination of Ru mirrors A. Al-Ajlonya , A., Albany, NY 12203, USA ABSTRACT The impact of secondary electrons induced contamination of the Ru surface, carbon contamination, Ruthenium capping 1. INTRODUCTION Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation induced

  8. Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas Environmental Health Buford Highway NE (F-60) Atlanta, GA 30341 March 2011 #12;2 Guidance on Microbial Contamination in Previously Flooded Outdoor Areas Problem Statement Microbial contamination--both bacterial and viral

  9. Ris-R-1462(EN) Airborne contamination in the indoor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1462(EN) Airborne contamination in the indoor environment and its implications for dose K. Byskov, X.L. Hou, H. Prip, S.K. Olsen, T. Roed Title: Airborne contamination in the indoor environment of contaminant aerosol were examined, and since the previous measurements had indicated that elemental iodine

  10. INFLUENCE OF CONTAMINATION OF ENVIRONMENT AND BREEDING CONDITIONS ON DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INFLUENCE OF CONTAMINATION OF ENVIRONMENT AND BREEDING CONDITIONS ON DEVELOPMENT OF COCCIDIOSIS, 17700 Surgères, France Résumé INFLUENCE DE LA CONTAMINATION DU MILIEU ET DES CONDITIONS D'ÉLEVAGE SUR LE extent contamination of animals and modifying the susceptibility of those subjected to breeding stress

  11. Kefir grain tolerance to Escherichia coli contamination--industrial advantages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NOTE Kefir grain tolerance to Escherichia coli contamination--industrial advantages Piotr the possibility of the re-use of kefir grains grown at 18 °C for 24 h in pasteurized Escherichia coli contaminated milk up to 6.1×102 cfu.mL-1 . The contamination rate was adapted to a realistic situation which may

  12. In-Situ Thermal Remediation of Contaminated Soil1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lapin, Sergey

    Chapter 1 In-Situ Thermal Remediation of Contaminated Soil1 Written by Huaxiong Huang,2 Serguei Lapin and Rex Westbrook 1.1 Background Recently, a method for removing contaminants from soil (several as follows. Over a period of several weeks, electrical energy is introduced to the contaminated soil using

  13. Toxic Contaminants and Their Effects on Resident Fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science-Policy Exchange September 10, 2009 #12;Take-away themes Toxic contaminants are present are source areas for toxic contaminants for multiple fish stocks A better understanding of the effects and restore fish and ecosystem health #12;Take-away themes Toxic contaminants are present in the Columbia

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

  15. Soil contamination standards for protection of personnel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1998-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to recommend soil contamination levels that will ensure that radionuclide intakes by unprotected workers are likely to give internal doses below selected dose limits during the working year. The three internal dose limits are 1, 100, and 500 mrem per year. In addition, photon, beta, and alpha instrument readings are estimated for these soil concentration limits. Two exposure pathways are considered: the first is inhalation of resuspended dust and the second is ingestion of trace amounts of soil. In addition, radioactive decay and ingrowth of progeny during the year of exposure is included. External dose from the soil contamination is not included because monitoring and control of external exposures is carried out independently from internal exposures, which are the focus of this report. The methods used are similar to those used by Carbaugh and Bihl (1993) to set bioassay criteria for such workers.

  16. Gaseous and particulate contamination in space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaofang

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    understancling of the Space Station environment. Experinrents were performed on Apollo missions 15, 16, and li to learn as nmch as possible about the induced environment. Apollo 17 carriecl an ultraviolet pectrophotorneter that vcas capable of detecting a... number column density (NCD) ol. ' 10 molecules, 'cm of atomic hyclrogen. The NCD is the concentration integrated over a line-of-sight distance. Additional contamination data. were obtained with a mass spectrometer on the Apollo 15 and 16...

  17. Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, C.G.

    1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  18. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  19. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

  20. Decontamination and size reduction of plutonium contaminated process exhaust ductwork and glove boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFrate, P.; Elliott, J.; Valasquez, M.

    1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Program has decontaminated and demolished two filter plenum buildings at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). During the project a former hot cell was retrofitted to perform decontamination and size reduction of highly Pu contaminated process exhaust (1,100 ft) and gloveboxes. Pu-238/239 concentrations were as high a 1 Ci per linear foot and averaged approximately 1 mCi/ft. The Project decontamination objective was to reduce the plutonium contamination on surfaces below transuranic levels. If possible, metal surfaces were decontaminated further to meet Science and Ecology Group (SEG) waste classification guidelines to enable the metal to be recycled at their facility in oak Ridge, Tennessee. Project surface contamination acceptance criteria for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), transuranic waste, and SEG waste acceptance criteria will be presented. Ninety percent of all radioactive waste for the project was characterized as LLRW. Twenty percent of this material was shipped to SEG. Process exhaust and glove boxes were brought to the project decontamination area, an old hot cell in Building 4 North. This paper focuses on process exhaust and glovebox decontamination methodology, size reduction techniques, waste characterization, airborne contamination monitoring, engineering controls, worker protection, lessons learned, and waste minimization. Decontamination objectives are discussed in detail.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site began in 1995 and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results presented in this document and other evaluations will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  2. Closure End States for Facilities, Waste Sites, and Subsurface Contamination - 12543

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerdes, Kurt; Chamberlain, Grover; Whitehurst, Latrincy; Marble, Justin [Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Wellman, Dawn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Deeb, Rula; Hawley, Elisabeth [ARCADIS U.S., Inc., Emeryville, CA 94608 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil cleanup effort in the world. DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has made significant progress in its restoration efforts at sites such as Fernald and Rocky Flats. However, remaining sites, such as Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge Site, Hanford Site, Los Alamos, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and West Valley Demonstration Project possess the most complex challenges ever encountered by the technical community and represent a challenge that will face DOE for the next decade. Closure of the remaining 18 sites in the DOE EM Program requires remediation of 75 million cubic yards of contaminated soil and 1.7 trillion gallons of contaminated groundwater, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of over 3000 contaminated facilities and thousands of miles of contaminated piping, removal and disposition of millions of cubic yards of legacy materials, treatment of millions of gallons of high level tank waste and disposition of hundreds of contaminated tanks. The financial obligation required to remediate this volume of contaminated environment is estimated to cost more than 7% of the to-go life-cycle cost. Critical in meeting this goal within the current life-cycle cost projections is defining technically achievable end states that formally acknowledge that remedial goals will not be achieved for a long time and that residual contamination will be managed in the interim in ways that are protective of human health and environment. Formally acknowledging the long timeframe needed for remediation can be a basis for establishing common expectations for remedy performance, thereby minimizing the risk of re-evaluating the selected remedy at a later time. Once the expectations for long-term management are in place, remedial efforts can be directed towards near-term objectives (e.g., reducing the risk of exposure to residual contamination) instead of focusing on long-term cleanup requirements. An acknowledgement of the long timeframe for complete restoration and the need for long-term management can also help a site transition from the process of pilot testing different remedial strategies to selecting a final remedy and establishing a long-term management and monitoring approach. This approach has led to cost savings and the more efficient use of resources across the Department of Defense complex and at numerous industrial sites across the U.S. Defensible end states provide numerous benefits for the DOE environmental remediation programs including cost-effective, sustainable long-term monitoring strategies, remediation and site transition decision support, and long-term management of closure sites. (authors)

  3. Chemical contaminants on DOE lands and selection of contaminant mixtures for subsurface science research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, R.G.; Zachara, J.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies individual contaminants and contaminant mixtures that have been measured in the ground at 91 waste sites at 18 US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities within the weapons complex. The inventory of chemicals and mixtures was used to identify generic chemical mixtures to be used by DOE's Subsurface Science Program in basic research on the subsurface geochemical and microbiological behavior of mixed contaminants (DOE 1990a and b). The generic mixtures contain specific radionuclides, metals, organic ligands, organic solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in various binary and ternary combinations. The mixtures are representative of in-ground contaminant associations at DOE facilities that are likely to exhibit complex geochemical behavior as a result of intercontaminant reactions and/or microbiologic activity stimulated by organic substances. Use of the generic mixtures will focus research on important mixed contaminants that are likely to be long-term problems at DOE sites and that will require cleanup or remediation. The report provides information on the frequency of associations among different chemicals and compound classes at DOE waste sites that require remediation.

  4. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  5. Reduced shedding regenerator and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qiu, Songgang (Richland, WA); Augenblick, John E. (Richland, WA); Erbeznik, Raymond M. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduced shedding regenerator and method are disclosed with regenerator surfaces to minimize shedding of particles from the regenerator thereby alleviating a source of potential damage and malfunction of a thermal regenerative machine using the regenerator.

  6. The combinatorics of reduced decompositions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenner, Bridget Eileen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines several aspects of reduced decompositions in finite Coxeter groups. Effort is primarily concentrated on the symmetric group, although some discussions are subsequently expanded to finite Coxeter groups ...

  7. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  8. Biological remediation of contaminated soils at Los Angeles Air Force Base: Facility design and engineering cost estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montemagno, C.D.; Irvine, R.L.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a system design for using bioremediation to treat contaminated soil at Fort MacArthur near Los Angeles, California. The soil was contaminated by petroleum products that leaked from two underground storage tanks. Laboratory studies indicated that, with the addition of water and nutrients, soil bacteria can reduce the petroleum content of the soils to levels that meet regulatory standards. The system design includes soil excavation, screening, and mixing; treatment in five soil-slurry/sequencing-batch reactors; and dewatering by a rapid-infiltration basin. System specifications and cost estimates are provided. 5 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Analysis of Optics and Mask Contamination in SEMATECH EUV Micro-Exposure Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wuest, Andrea

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of Optics and Mask Contamination in SEMATECHMioro^Exposure Tools IEUVI Optics Contamination/Lifetime TWG

  10. Field-based detection and monitoring of uranium in contaminated groundwater using two immunosensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melton, S.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. R. , Sustained removal of uranium from contaminated9. 18. Brina, R. , Uranium removal from contaminated water

  11. The effects of a stannous chloride-based remediation system in a mercury contaminated stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Smith, John G [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Remediation of mercury (Hg)-contaminated watersheds is often challenging because of the complex nature of Hg biogeochemistry. Stream ecosystems have been shown to be particularly susceptible to Hg contamination and bioaccumulation in fish. Decreasing total Hg loading to stream systems, however, has shown variable performance in decreasing Hg concentrations in fish tissues. In this study, we assess the impacts of an innovative treatment system in reducing releases of Hg to a small stream system in the southeastern United States. The treatment system, installed in 2007, removes Hg from water using tin (Sn) (II) chloride followed by air stripping. Mercury concentrations in the receiving stream, Tims Branch, decreased from > 100 to ~10 ng/L in the four years following treatment, and Hg body burdens in redfin pickerel (Esox americanus) decreased by 70 % at the most contaminated site. Tin concentrations in water and fish increased significantly in the tributary leading to Tims Branch, but concentrations remain below levels of concern for human health or ecological risks. While other studies have shown that Sn may be environmentally methylated and methyltin can transfer its methyl group to Hg, results from our field studies and sediment incubation experiments suggest that the added Sn to the Tims Branch watershed is not contributing to MeHg production and bioaccumulation. The stannous chloride treatment system installed at Tims Branch was effective at removing Hg inputs and reducing Hg bioaccumulation in the stream with minimal impacts on the environment due to the increased Sn in the system.

  12. Summary - Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and surface water Hg remediation strategy for adequacy in reducing Hg levels in the fish and to indentify opportunities to achieve cost and technical improvements andor to...

  13. Hospital ventilation standards and energy conservation: chemical contamination of hospital air. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer, D.; Michaelsen, G.S.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an era of increasing energy conservation consciousness, a critical reassessment of the validity of hospital ventilation and thermal standards is made. If current standards are found to be excessively conservative, major energy conservation measures could be undertaken by rebalancing and/or modification of current HVAC systems. To establish whether or not reducing ventilation rates would increase airborne chemical contamination to unacceptable levels, a field survey was conducted to develop an inventory and dosage estimates of hospital generated airborne chemical contaminants to which patients, staff, and visitors are exposed. The results of the study are presented. Emphasis is on patient exposure, but an examination of occupational exposure was also made. An in-depth assessment of the laboratory air environment is documented. Housekeeping products used in survey hospitals, hazardous properties of housekeeping chemicals and probable product composition are discussed in the appendices.

  14. Method and apparatus for in-cell vacuuming of radiologically contaminated materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spadaro, Peter R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Smith, Jay E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Speer, Elmer L. (Ruffsdale, PA); Cecconi, Arnold L. (Clairton, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum air flow operated cyclone separator arrangement for collecting, handling and packaging loose contaminated material in accordance with acceptable radiological and criticality control requirements. The vacuum air flow system includes a specially designed fail-safe prefilter installed upstream of the vacuum air flow power supply. The fail-safe prefilter provides in-cell vacuum system flow visualization and automatically reduces or shuts off the vacuum air flow in the event of an upstream prefilter failure. The system is effective for collecting and handling highly contaminated radiological waste in the form of dust, dirt, fuel element fines, metal chips and similar loose material in accordance with radiological and criticality control requirements for disposal by means of shipment and burial.

  15. Three dimensional electrode for the electrolytic removal of contaminants from aqueous waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spiegel, Ella F. (Louisville, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient and cost-effective electrochemical devices and processes for the remediation of aqueous waste streams. The invention provides electrolytic cells having a high surface area spouted electrode for removal of heavy metals and oxidation of organics from aqueous environments. Heavy metal ions are reduced, deposited on cathode particles of a spouted bed cathode and removed from solution. Organics are efficiently oxidized at anode particles of a spouted bed anode and removed from solution. The method of this inventions employs an electrochemical cell having an anolyte compartment and a catholyte compartment, separated by a microporous membrane, in and through which compartments anolyte and catholyte, respectively, are circulated. A spouted-bed electrode is employed as the cathode for metal deposition from contaminated aqueous media introduced as catholyte and as the anode for oxidation of organics from contaminated aqueous media introduced as anolyte.

  16. Dredging, remediation, and containment of contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demars, K.R.; Richardson, G.N.; Yong, R.N.; Chaney, R.C. [eds.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference was held June 23--24, 1994 in Montreal, Canada. One purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on identifying tests, methods, procedures, and materials, used in support of dredging, treatment, and containment of contaminated sediments that are in need of standardization. Another objective was to provide a forum for discussion of past dredging practices and future directions, including the effects of sediment properties and behavior, equipment requirements, and the impact of regulations. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  17. Excited state contamination in nucleon structure calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeremy Green; Stefan Krieg; John Negele; Andrew Pochinsky; Sergey Syritsyn

    2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the sources of systematic error in nucleon structure calculations is contamination from unwanted excited states. In order to measure this systematic error, we vary the operator insertion time and source-sink separation independently. We compute observables for three source-sink separations between 0.93 fm and 1.39 fm using clover-improved Wilson fermions and pion masses as low as 150 MeV. We explore the use of a two-state model fit to subtract off the contribution from excited states.

  18. Portable spotter for fluorescent contaminants on surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuresko, Daniel D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable fluorescence-based spotter for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on personnel and work area surfaces under ambient lighting conditions is provided. This instrument employs beam modulation and phase sensitive detection for discriminating between fluorescence from organic materials from reflected background light and inorganic fluorescent material. The device uses excitation and emission filters to provide differentiation between classes of aromatic organic compounds. Certain inorganic fluorescent materials, including heavy metal compounds, may also be distinguished from the organic compounds, despite both having similar optical properties.

  19. Microbial methods of reducing technetium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wildung, Raymond E. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Garland, Thomas R. (Greybull, WY) [Greybull, WY; Gorby, Yuri A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Hess, Nancy J. (Benton City, WA) [Benton City, WA; Li, Shu-Mei W. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Plymale, Andrew E. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed toward a method for microbial reduction of a technetium compound to form other compounds of value in medical imaging. The technetium compound is combined in a mixture with non-growing microbial cells which contain a technetium-reducing enzyme system, a stabilizing agent and an electron donor in a saline solution under anaerobic conditions. The mixture is substantially free of an inorganic technetium reducing agent and its reduction products. The resulting product is Tc of lower oxidation states, the form of which can be partially controlled by the stabilizing agent. It has been discovered that the microorganisms Shewanella alga, strain Bry and Shewanelia putrifacians, strain CN-32 contain the necessary enzyme systems for technetium reduction and can form both mono nuclear and polynuclear reduced Tc species depending on the stabilizing agent.

  20. Minimizing sulfur contamination and rinse water volume required following a sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide clean by performing a chemically basic rinse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clews, P.J.; Nelson, G.C.; Resnick, P.J.; Matlock, C.A.; Adkins, C.L.J.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixtures (SPM) are commonly used in the semiconductor industry to remove organic contaminants from wafer surfaces. This viscous solution is very difficult to rinse off wafer surfaces. Various rinsing conditions were tested and the resulting residual contamination on the wafer surface was measured. The addition of small amounts of a chemical base such as ammonium hydroxide to the rinse water has been found to be effective in reducing the surface concentration of sulfur and also mitigates the particle growth that occurs on SPM cleaned wafers. The volume of room temperature water required to rinse these wafers is also significantly reduced.

  1. Initial characterization of a highly contaminated high explosives outfall in preparation for in situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betty A. Strietelmeier; Patrick J. Coyne; Patricia A. Leonard; W. Lamar Miller; Jerry R. Brian

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ bioremediation is a viable, cost-effective treatment for environmental contamination of many kinds. The feasibility of using biological techniques to remediate soils contaminated with high explosives (HE) requires laboratory evaluation before proceeding to a larger scale field operation. Laboratory investigations have been conducted at pilot scale which indicate that an anaerobic process could be successful at reducing levels of HE, primarily HMX, RDX and TNT, in contaminated soils. A field demonstration project has been designed to create an anaerobic environment for the degradation of HE materials. The first step in this project, initial characterization of the test area, was conducted and is the subject of this report. The levels of HE compounds found in the samples from the test area were higher than the EPA Method 8330 was able to extract without subsequent re-precipitation; therefore, a new method was developed using a superior extractant system. The test area sampling design was relatively simple as one might expect in an initial characterization. A total of 60 samples were each removed to a depth of 4 inches using a 1 inch diameter corer. The samples were spaced at relatively even intervals across a 20 foot cross-section through the middle of four 7-foot-long adjacent plots which are designed to be a part of an in situ bioremediation experiment. Duplicate cores were taken from each location for HE extraction and analysis in order to demonstrate and measure the heterogeneity of the contamination. Each soil sample was air dried and ball-milled to provide a homogeneous solid for extraction and analysis. Several samples had large consolidated pieces of what appeared to be solid HE. These were not ball-milled due to safety concerns, but were dissolved and the solutions were analyzed. The new extraction method was superior in that results obtained for several of the contaminants were up to 20 times those obtained with the EPA extraction method. The results obtained from this study showed that the test area contamination is extremely heterogeneous, and that it contains extremely high levels of the three major contaminants, HMX, RDX and TNT. The potential for success of a bioremediation strategy is discussed.

  2. SUMMARY REPORT FOR ZINC 65 CONTAMINATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive zinc, {sup 65}Zn, was detected after extraction of 215 TPBARs in from TVA reactor fuel cycle 6. A team consisting of Tritium Engineering, Tritium Operations, Tritium Radiation Control, and Savannah River National Laboratory personnel evaluated the risk and response and developed short, medium and long term goals for contamination control. One of the goals was incorporated into site Performance Based Incentive CO 3.4, to optimize the filter geometry and operating conditions for the Tritium Extraction Facility. This goal included a scoping study to determine if the contamination could be contained within the high radiation environment of the furnace module as well. In order to optimize the filters studies were conducted to independently evaluate the effect of pore size on pumping efficiency and zinc trapping efficiency (1). A study was also conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature on the trapping efficiency and adhesion (2). In addition, the potential for chemically trapping zinc in the lithium trap was evaluated using a thermodynamic study (3) followed by preliminary experimental testing (4). Based on the work that was completed it is determined that a 20 {mu}m filter heated to between 120 and 200 C will act as an effective physical trap for zinc vapors. It may be possible to chemically react zinc with copper or cobalt to form zinc intermetallic compounds or alloys but additional work under more prototypic conditions are required.

  3. Mechanisms of contaminant migration from grouted waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magnuson, S.O. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Yu, A.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from the In-Tank Precipitation process. The solution is mixed with cement, slag, and fly ash, to form a grout, termed ``Saltstone``, that will be disposed in concrete vaults at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) [1]. Of the contaminants in the Saltstone, the greatest concern to SRS is the potential release of nitrate to the groundwater because of the high initial nitrate concentration (0.25 g/cm{sup 3}) in the Saltstone and the low Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 44 mg/L. The SDF is designed to allow a slow, controlled release over thousands of years. This paper addresses a modeling study of nitrate migration from intact non-degraded concrete vaults in the unsaturated zone for the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) of the SRS Saltstone Disposal Facility [3]. The PA addresses the performance requirements mandated by DOE Order 5820.2A [4].

  4. In-situ remediation system and method for contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.; Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.

    1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for removing volatile contaminants from a subsurface plume of contamination comprising two sets of wells, a well for injecting a fluid into a saturated zone on one side of the plume and an extracting well for collecting the fluid together with volatilized contaminants from the plume on the other side of the plume. The fluid enables the volatile contaminants to be volatilized and carried therewith through the ground to the extracting well. Injecting and extracting wells are preferably horizontal wells positioned below the plume in the saturated zone and above the plume in the vadose zone, respectively. The fluid may be air or other gas or a gas and liquid mixture depending on the type of contaminant to be removed and may be preheated to facilitate volatilization. Treatment of the volatilized contamination may be by filtration, incineration, atmospheric dispersion or the like. 3 figs.

  5. In-situ remediation system and method for contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John C. (Aiken, SC); Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Kaback, Dawn S. (Aiken, SC)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for removing volatile contaminants from a subsurface plume of contamination comprising two sets of wells, a well for injecting a fluid into a saturated zone on one side of the plume and an extracting well for collecting the fluid together with volatilized contaminants from the plume on the other side of the plume. The fluid enables the volatile contaminants to be volatilized and carried therewith through the ground to the extracting well. Injecting and extracting wells are preferably horizontal wells positioned below the plume in the saturated zone and above the plume in the vadose zone, respectively. The fluid may be air or other gas or a gas and liquid mixture depending on the type of contaminant to be removed and may be preheated to facilitate volatilization. Treatment of the volatilized contamination may be by filtration, incineration, atmospheric dispersion or the like.

  6. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels.

  7. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  8. Reduced Harmonic Representation of Partitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalis Psimopoulos

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present article the reduced integral representation of partitions in terms of harmonic products has been derived first by using hypergeometry and the new concept of fractional sum and secondly by studying the Fourier series of the kernel function appearing in the integral representation. Using the method of induction, a generalization of the theory has also been obtained.

  9. Conservation Stand! Reducing My Commute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    . + Diverts plastic waste for food production. + Placed beside window, replaces light input with solarConservation Stand! Reducing My Commute 72.6 mi to 5.1 mi #12;#12;Conserving Water and Energy or contribution to sedimentation. + Food produced on site without transportation costs. - Depends on energy input

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  11. Unconventional Groundwater System Proves Effective in Reducing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    more of the groundwater plume than we could have ever achieved with our pump-and-treat system." The goal is for the wall to treat the contamination, which originated from a...

  12. Tactical approach to maneuvering within the chemical contamination labyrinth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, T.W. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the need and accepts the responsibility for understanding the reality and mitigating the consequence of the complex chemical contamination legacy it inherited as well as controlling, reducing, and eliminating extant emissions and effluents. The key to maneuvering through this complicated and multifaceted labyrinth of concerns, from which a meaningful, high quality, and cost-effective restoration/mitigation machine is then set in motions, is the ability to perform accurate, factual, and explicit health and environmental/ecological risk assessments. Likewise, the common denominator for carrying out this essential task is to have access to comprehensive and reliable data of known quality with which to perform those analyses. DOE is committed to identifying the data universe; to technically scrutinize and ensure the quality of that data; to develop efficient and cost-effective means to maximize the handling, utilization, and sharing of that universe; and to undertake those assessments. DOE views this as an effort that can only be accomplished through a merging of the technical excellence that exists within federal and state agencies, academia, and industry. The task at hand is so large that only by integrating that intelligence base can we hope to accomplish the goals of establishing meaningful standards, developing functional and effective solutions, and providing quality guidance at a national scale.

  13. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Santosh R.; Kollah, Bharati; Hedrick, David B.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Roden, Eric E.

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted with uranium contaminated subsurface sediment to assess the geochemical and microbial community response to ethanol amendment. A classical sequence of TEAPs was observed in ethanol-amended slurries, with NO3- reduction, Fe(III) reduction, SO4 2- reduction, and CH4 production proceeding in sequence until all of the added 13C-ethanol (9 mM) was consumed. Approximately 60% of the U(VI) content of the sediment was reduced during the period of Fe(III) reduction. No additional U(VI) reduction took place during the sulfate-reducing and methanogenic phases of the experiment. Only gradual reduction of NO3 -, and no reduction of U(VI), took place in ethanol-free slurries. Stimulation of additional Fe(III) or SO4 2- reduction in the ethanol-amended slurries failed to promote further U(VI) reduction. Reverse transcribed 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed major increases in the abundance of organisms related to Dechloromonas, Geobacter, and Oxalobacter in the ethanolamended slurries. PLFAs indicative of Geobacter showed a distinct increase in the amended slurries, and analysis of PLFA 13C/12C ratios confirmed the incorporation of ethanol into these PLFAs. A increase in the abundance of 13C-labeled PLFAs indicative of Desulfobacter, Desulfotomaculum, and Desulfovibrio took place during the brief period of sulfate reduction which followed the Fe(III) reduction phase. Our results show that major redox processes in ethanol-amended sediments can be reliably interpreted in terms of standard conceptual models of TEAPs in sediments. However, the redox speciation of uranium is complex and cannot be explained based on simplified thermodynamic considerations.

  14. Microbial Reduction of Intragrain U(VI) in Contaminated Sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Zhong, Lirong; Heald, Steve M.; Wang, Zheming; Jeon, Byong Hun; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accessibility of precipitated, intragrain U(VI) in a contaminated sediment to microbial reduction was investigated to ascertain geochemical and microscopic transport phenomena controlling U(VI) bioavailability. The sediment was collected from the US DOE Hanford site, and contained uranyl precipitates in a form of Na-boltwoodite within the mm-sized granitic lithic fragments in the sediment. Microbial reduction was investigated in a culture of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium (DMRB), Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, in bicarbonate solutions at pH 6.8 buffered by PIPES. Measurements of uranium concentration, speciation, and valence in aqueous and solid phases indicated that microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) proceeded by two mechanisms: 1) sequentially coupled dissolution of intragrain uranyl precipitates, diffusion of dissolved U(VI) out of intragrain regions, and microbial reduction of dissolved U(VI); and 2) U(VI) reduction in the intragrain regions by soluble, diffusible biogenic reductants. The bioreduction rate in the first pathway was over 3 orders of magnitude slower than that in comparable aqueous solutions containing aqueous U(VI) only. The slower bioreduction rate was attributed to: 1) the release of calcium from the desorption/dissolution of calcium-containing minerals in the sediment, which subsequently altered U(VI) aqueous speciation and slowed U(VI) bioreduction and 2) alternative electron transfer pathways that reduced U(VI) in the intragrain regions and changed its dissolution and solubility behavior. The results implied that the overall rate of microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) will be influenced by the reactive mass transfer of U(VI) and biogenic reductants within intragrain regions, and geochemical reactions controlling major ion concentrations that affect U(VI) aqueous speciation and microbial activity.

  15. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, Jerry R. (Iona, ID); Downs, Wayne C. (Sugar City, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Ammon, ID); Hall, H. James (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

  16. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  17. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

    1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

  18. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for specific contaminants are...

  19. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Terrence L. (Lenior City, TN); Wilson, James H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing.

  20. Method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants in aqueous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, T.L.; Wilson, J.H.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for destroying organic contaminants, such as trichloroethylene, in aqueous liquids, such as groundwater, utilizing steam stripping integrated with biodegradation. The contaminated aqueous liquid is fed into a steam stripper causing the volatilization of essentially all of the organic contaminants and a portion of the aqueous liquid. The majority of the aqueous liquid is discharged from the steam stripper. The volatilized vapors are then condensed to the liquid phase and introduced into a bioreactor. The bioreactor contains methanotrophic microorganisms which convert the organic contaminants into mainly carbon dioxide. The effluent from the bioreactor is then recycled back to the steam stripper for further processing. 2 figures.

  1. adriatic seafood contamination: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of steel faying unknown authors 2007-01-01 95 Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water University of California eScholarship Repository Summary:...

  2. Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination. The initiative at Oak Ridge is a collaborative effort that leverages DOE...

  3. 01-07-1999 - Contamination Spread Outside of Radiation Control...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 - Contamination Spread Outside of Radiation Control Areas by Fruit Flies Document Number: NA Effective Date: 011999 File (public): 01-07-1999red...

  4. Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717) Authors: E. Peltier* - Univ controlling precipitate formation is still needed. In this study, we have combined experimental data on nickel

  5. RESRAD Computer Code- Evaluation of Radioactively Contaminated Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The evaluation of sites with radioactive contamination was a problem until the RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) Computer Code was first released in 1989.

  6. assessing aquifer contamination: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... In Situ Oil; Rock Springs 54 ASSESSING THE HUMAN HEALTH RISKS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CCA-CONTAMINATED MULCH. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??To...

  7. actinide contaminants potential: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Asit 150 There are many locations throughout the world where sub-surface contamination impacts the natural environment, with Geosciences Websites Summary: There are many locations...

  8. Controls on arsenic mobility in contaminated wetland and riverbed streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keon, Nicole E. (Nicole Elise), 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arsenic mobility and transport in the environment are strongly influenced by associations with solid phases. This dissertation investigates the mechanisms affecting arsenic retention in contaminated wetland and riverbed ...

  9. Comments on cathode contaminants and the LBNL test stand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieniosek, F.; Baca, D.; Greenway, W.; Leitner, M.; Kwan, J.W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-61978 Comments oncathode contaminants and the LBNL test stand F. Bieniosek,the process of operating the LBNL DARHT cathode test stand.

  10. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Richard Paul (Allentown, PA); Makitka, III, Alexander (Hatfield, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

  11. area contamination site: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Radium-226 are the predominant radioactive contaminents on Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Plan (FUSRAP) sites. ** The half-life of a radioactive element is the time...

  12. alpha contaminated wastes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    identify the primary mode (inhalationingestion or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at...

  13. The Simulation of Nuclear Contaminant Transport in Fractally ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The presentation will begin with a derivation of a model of nuclear contaminant transport in naturally-fractured porous media. Then, a Locally-Conservative ...

  14. Maternal Contributions to the Development of Contamination Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beebe, Heidi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of contamination and decontamination. Mothers made very fewcrawling C on sandwich Decontamination Water still and cleanThe story involving decontamination (boiling water during a

  15. aureus contaminated meat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spurred the implementation of numerous bans (more) Mahmood, Maryam 2012-01-01 367 Controls on arsenic mobility in contaminated wetland and riverbed streams MIT - DSpace...

  16. Investigation of the November 8, 2011, Plutonium Contamination...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    November 8, 2011, Plutonium Contamination in the Zero Power Physics Reactor Facility, at the Idaho National Laboratory Investigation of the November 8, 2011, Plutonium...

  17. Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouse, Robin M; Fuller, Christopher C; Luoma, Sam; Hornberger, Michelle I; Jaffe, Bruce E; Smith, Richard E

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco BayAbstract The hydraulic gold-mining process used during thecreated by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada,

  18. alluvial groundwater contamination: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aquifer of Israel, such as marine-derived saline groundwater Kasher, Roni 11 Contaminant Transport in Groundwater for Environmental Performance Assessment University of California...

  19. alpha contaminated soils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silverman; Angela M. Porretta 1988-01-01 6 BIOCYCLE JUNE 2002 41 ETAL contaminated soils Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: pro- ject in Jasper County,...

  20. arsenic contaminated aquifer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    areas. A number of studies have looked at the variation in nitrate Toran, Laura 13 Assessing Plants for Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soils Environmental Management...

  1. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF LEGACY MANAGEMENT RIVERTON PROCESSING SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.; Denham, M.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated). A few of the key findings include: ? Physical removal of the tailings and associated materials reduced contaminant discharges to groundwater and reduced contaminant concentrations in the near-field plume. ? In the mid-field and far-field areas, residual contaminants are present in the vadose zone as a result of a variety of factors (e.g., evaporation/evapotranspiration from the capillary fringe and water table, higher water levels during tailings disposal, and geochemical processes). ? Vadose zone contaminants are widely distributed above the plume and are expected to be present as solid phase minerals that can serve as “secondary sources” to the underlying groundwater. The mineral sample collected at the site is consistent with thermodynamic predictions. ? Water table fluctuations, irrigation, infiltration and flooding will episodically solubilize some of the vadose zone secondary source materials and release contaminants to the groundwater for continued down gradient migration – extending the overall timeframe for flushing. ? Vertical contaminant stratification in the vadose zone and surficial aquifer will vary from location to location. Soil and water sampling strategies and monitoring well construction details will influence characterization and monitoring data. ? Water flows from the Wind River, beneath the Riverton Processing Site and through the plume toward the Little Wind River. This base flow pattern is influenced by seasonal irrigation and other anthropogenic activities, and by natural perturbations (e.g., flooding). ? Erosion and reworking of the sediments adjacent to the Little Wind River results in high heterogeneity and complex flow and geochemistry. Water flowing into oxbow lakes (or through areas where oxbow lakes were present in the past) will be exposed to localized geochemical conditions that favor chemical reduction (i.e., “naturally reduced zones”) and other attenuation processes. This attenuation is not sufficient to fully stabilize the plume or to reduce contaminant concentrations in the groundwater to target levels. Consistent with these observations, the team recommended increased emphasis on collecting data in the zones where secondary source minerals are projected to accumulate (e.g., just above the water table) using low cost methods such as x-ray fluorescence. The team also suggested several low cost nontraditional sources of data that have the potential to provide supplemental data (e.g., multispectral satellite imagery) to inform and improve legacy management decisions. There are a range of strategies for management of the legacy contamination in the groundwater and vadose zone near the Riverton Processing Site. These range from the current strategy, natural flushing, to intrusive remedies such as plume scale excavation of the vadose zone and pump & treat. Each option relates to the site specific conditions, issues and opportunities in a unique way. Further, each option has advantages and disadvantages that need to be weighed. Scoping evaluation was performed for three major classes

  2. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  3. Molecular Assessment of Inoculated and Indigenous Bacteria in Biofilms from a Pilot-Scale Perchlorate-Reducing Bioreactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Scale Perchlorate-Reducing Bioreactor H. Zhang1 , B.E. Logan1 , J.M. Regan1 , L.A. Achenbach2 and M.A. Bruns3 (1-bed bioreactor containing plastic support medium was used to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater at a site was not detected in bioreactor effluent. Perchlorate remained undetected by ion chromatography (detection limit 4

  4. Better couplings reduce pump maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program conducted at the Tenneco Chalmette Refinery to find ways to improve pump reliability has provided evidence that curtailing pump vibration results in a significant reduction of pump repairs. It was further shown that vibration could be reduced by improving pump/motor alignment, regular lubrication practices and replacement of gear couplings with newer, advanced-design couplings. Extended field trials of two different types of couplings on operating motor/pump units in various parts of the refinery proved that both test couplings are capable of reducing vibration and cutting down on costly pump repairs, as compared with gear-type couplings used in the refinery. One coupling type reduced pump repairs by 70 percent, while the second type resulted in a 58-percent reduction. In a one-year long test program, urethane elastomer couplings increased pump life on ten test units by 406 percent when considering pump repairs directly related to coupling performance. Repairs not connected with coupling performance, such as electrical failure, acid attack on seals, lack of lubrication, etc., were not included in the calculations. Disc-type couplings under test on eight motor/pump units increased pump life by 142 percent, based on data related only to coupling performance.

  5. Method of removing arsenic and other anionic contaminants from contaminated water using enhanced coagulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.; Khandaker, Nadim R.

    2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved water decontamination process comprising contacting water containing anionic contaminants with an enhanced coagulant to form an enhanced floc, which more efficiently binds anionic species (e.g., arsenate, arsenite, chromate, fluoride, selenate, and borate, and combinations thereof) predominantly through the formation of surface complexes. The enhanced coagulant comprises a trivalent metal cation coagulant (e.g., ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate) mixed with a divalent metal cation modifier (e.g., copper sulfate or zinc sulfate).

  6. Characterization and Potential Remediation Approaches for Vadose Zone Contamination at Hanford 241-SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Sydnor, Harold A.; Parker, Danny L.; Glaser, Danney R.

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Unplanned releases of radioactive and hazardous wastes have occurred at the 241-SX Tank Farm on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Interim and long-term mitigation efforts are currently under evaluation for 241-SX Tank Farm. Two contiguous interim surface barriers have been designed for deployment at 241-SX Tank Farm to reduce future moisture infiltration; however, construction of the surface barriers has been deferred to allow testing of alternative technologies for soil moisture reduction and possibly contaminant source term reduction. Previous tests performed by other organizations at the Hanford Site have demonstrated that: vadose zone desiccation using large diameter (greater than 4 inch) boreholes is feasible; under certain circumstances, mobile contaminants may be removed in addition to water vapor; and small diameter (approximately 2 inch) boreholes (such as those placed by the direct push hydraulic hammer) can be used to perform vapor extractions. Evaluation of the previous work combined with laboratory test results have led to the design of a field proof-of-principle test to remove water and possibly mobile contaminants at greater depths, using small boreholes placed with the direct push unit.

  7. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

  8. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peters, R.W.; Frank, J.R.; Feng, X.

    1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ method is described for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal. 8 figs.

  9. The fate of toxic pollutants in contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, R.N. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Sediments function as sinks for various kinds of contaminants (pollutants and nonpollutants) discharged into the receiving waters. Toxic pollutants in the sediments constitute a significant concern inasmuch as they can infect the waters above the sediment if they are released from the sediments. Hence the persistence and fate of these toxic pollutants need to be determined. At least tow sets of interests can be identified in the contamination of sediments as a whole: (1) assessment of the storage capacity (for contaminants) of the sediments, and the potential for mobilization or release of contaminants into the aqueous environment, particularly into the overlying water, and (2) development of a strategy for removal of the contaminants from the sediments that would be most appropriate (i.e., compatible with the manner in which the contaminants are retained in the sediment) and cost-effective. Both sets of interests require a knowledge of the distribution of the contaminants, i.e., characterization of the contaminants contained in the sediment, and the manner in which these are held within the sediment, i.e., bonded to the various sediment solid fractions (constituents). 56 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. SIMULATION OF REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES FOR A 137Cs CONTAMINATED SOIL.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    SIMULATION OF REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES FOR A 137Cs CONTAMINATED SOIL. THE NUMERICAL MODELING analyze remediation alternatives for a soil contaminated with 137Cs, which sorbs strongly onto the clayey. The mobile portion of the soil (macropores) retains little water and cesium. The natural attenuation option

  11. Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasher, Roni

    Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater. Abstract: Boron isotope composition and concentration of sewage effluent and pristine and contaminated groundwater from sodium perborate as a bleaching agent in detergents, leads to an enrichment of boron in wastewaters

  12. Modeling Contaminant Exposure in a Single-Family House

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    occupational exposure to household contaminants in a single-family house under different ventilation, heating the performance of two heating systems, two cooling systems and three ventilation systems in summer and winter, Contaminant exposure, Stratification, Ventilation system performance Abstract This study simulated

  13. Microbial Janitors: Enabling natural microbes to clean up uranium contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy's Environmental Remediation Sciences Program. Q: How can uranium be removed or neutralized so in the contaminated subsurface and engineering the subsurface environment to stimulate nitrate removal and uraniumMicrobial Janitors: Enabling natural microbes to clean up uranium contamination Oak Ridge

  14. Contaminant Concentrations in Fish SacramentoSan Joaquin Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Fish and Game) arranged for age determination of largemouth bass. Henry Lee (U.S. EPA) reviewed a draftContaminant Concentrations in Fish from the Sacramento­San Joaquin Delta and Lower San Joaquin ......................................................................................... 45 Contaminant Concentrations in Fish from the Sacramento­San Joaquin Delta and Lower San Joaquin

  15. SURVEY OF CONTAMINANTS IN FRASER RIVER SUSPENDED SEDIMENT AND WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    weight PAHs, chlorophenols, chloroguaiacols, and pesticides were primarily found in the water phase. #12SURVEY OF CONTAMINANTS IN FRASER RIVER SUSPENDED SEDIMENT AND WATER UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM and inorganic contaminants were measured in time-integrated samples of suspended sediment and water

  16. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peters, Robert W. (Naperville, IL); Frank, James R. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Feng, Xiandong (West Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ method for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal.

  17. Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickramanayake, Godage B. (Cranbury, NJ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Bioremediation of oily sludge-contaminated soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    ORIGINAL PAPER Bioremediation of oily sludge-contaminated soil by stimulating indigenous microbes contaminants. On the other hand, biological treatment (bioremediation) appears to be among the most promising in the complete destruction of hazardous compounds into innocuous products (Bal- ba et al. 1998). For this reason

  19. Decontamination of Mutually Contaminated Models Gilles Blanchard Clayton Scott

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    Decontamination of Mutually Contaminated Models Gilles Blanchard Clayton Scott Universit¨at Potsdam distributions are nonseparable and po- tentially quite complex. We develop a pro- cedure for decontamination technique for "decontamination" of the contaminated models. In particular, we show that under the sufficient

  20. Capture zone design for a contaminated shallow unconfined aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cann, Eric Roy

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the early 1950's to 1987. The extent of the ground water contamination has impacted City of Austin properties, private residential areas, and is migrating towards the Colorado River to the South. A capture zone is proposed to stop the contaminants...

  1. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  2. In vitro gastrointestinal mimetic protocol for measuring bioavailable contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to measurements of contaminants in the soil and other organic or environmental materials, using a biologically relevant chemical analysis that will measure the amount of contaminants in a given sample that may be expected to be absorbed by a human being ingesting the contaminated soil. According to the present invention, environmental samples to be tested are added to a pre-prepared physiological composition of bile salts and lipids. They are thoroughly mixed and then the resulting mixture is separated e.g. by centrifugation. The supernatant is then analyzed for the presence of contaminants and these concentrations are compared to the level of contaminants in the untreated samples. It is important that the bile salts and lipids be thoroughly pre-mixed to form micelles.

  3. Method for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, K.J.; Barrie, S.L.; Buttner, W.J.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies. A sampling unit is employed which includes a housing having at least one opening therein and a tubular member positioned within the housing having a central passageway surrounded by a side wall. The side wall is made of a composition designed to absorb the contaminants. In use, the sampling unit is immersed in a water supply. The water supply contacts the tubular member through the opening in the housing, with any contaminants being absorbed into the side wall of the tubular member. A carrier gas is then passed through the central passageway of the tubular member. The contaminants will diffuse out of the side wall and into the central passageway where they will subsequently combine with the carrier gas, thereby yielding a gaseous product. The gaseous product is then analyzed to determine the amount and type of contaminants therein. 5 figs.

  4. Method for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, Kirk J. (Shelley, ID); Barrie, Scott L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Buttner, William J. (White Bear Lake, MN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies. A sampling unit is employed which includes a housing having at least one opening therein and a tubular member positioned within the housing having a central passageway surrounded by a side wall. The side wall is made of a composition designed to absorb the contaminants. In use, the sampling unit is immersed in a water supply. The water supply contacts the tubular member through the opening in the housing, with any contaminants being absorbed into the side wall of the tubular member. A carrier gas is then passed through the central passageway of the tubular member. The contaminants will diffuse out of the side wall and into the central passageway where they will subsequently combine with the carrier gas, thereby yielding a gaseous product. The gaseous product is then analyzed to determine the amount and type of contaminants therein.

  5. Methods for removing contaminant matter from a porous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep (Bozeman, MT) [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  6. Use of Advanced Oxidation and Aerobic Degradation for Remediation of Various Hydrocarbon Contaminates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., Tetra Tech, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory and field studies to test different approaches to enhance degradation of hydrocarbons and associated contaminants. WRI in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., conducted a laboratory and field study for using ozone to treat a site contaminated with MTBE and other hydrocarbons. Results from this study demonstrate that a TOD test can be used to resolve the O{sub 3} dosage problem by establishing a site-specific benchmark dosage for field ozone applications. The follow-up testing of the laboratory samples provided indications that intrinsic biodegradation could be stimulated by adding oxygen. Laboratory studies also suggests that O3 dosage in the full-scale field implementation could be dialed lower than stoichiometrically designed to eliminate the formation of Cr(VI). WRI conducted a study involving a series of different ISCO oxidant applications to diesel-contaminated soil and determined the effects on enhancing biodegradation to degrade the residual hydrocarbons. Soils treated with permanganate followed by nutrients and with persulfate followed by nutrients resulted in the largest decrease in TPH. The possible intermediates and conditions formed from NOM and TPH oxidation by permanganate and activated persulfate favors microbial TPH degrading activity. A 'passive-oxidation' method using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology was conducted by WRI in conjunction with Tetra Tech, Inc., to degrade MTBE in groundwater. These experiments have demonstrated that a working MFC (i.e., one generating power) could be established in the laboratory using contaminated site water or buffered media inoculated with site water and spiked with MTBE, benzene, or toluene. Electrochemical methods were studied by WRI with goal of utilizing low voltage and amperage electrical sources for 'geo-oxidation' of organic contaminants. The results from a study with TCE contaminated-clay indicate that electrochemically inducing reductive dechlorination of TCE in a saturated matrix may offer an effective and viable alternative to remediation TCE and other contaminants with potential of being reduced. Another study focused on steel wool oxidation to electrochemically increase population of hydrocarbon-degrading denitrifying bacteria. Significantly larger denitrifying activity was observed in the cathode chamber of a treatment unit setup like an MFC with steel wool as the anode. This enhanced nitrate reduction could be due to direct electron utilization by denitrifying bacteria on the cathode, thereby stimulating microbial denitrification or a combination of electron transfer directly to NO{sub 3}{sup -} and electron transfer to nitrate reducing bacteria, which may serve as a type of bio-catalyst on the cathode for nitrate reduction. Overall, the studies conducted under Task 72 demonstrated different innovative methods to enhance petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and associated contaminants.

  7. Torchestra : reducing interactive trac delays over Tor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopal, Deepika

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Torchestra : Reducing interactive traffic delays over Tor ATorchestra : Reducing interactive traffic delays over Tor byon the internet including interactive traffic as well as for

  8. New York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption New York: Weatherizing Westbeth Reduces Energy Consumption August 21, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The New York State Homes and...

  9. Physical verification of contaminated sediment remediation: Capping, confined aquatic disposal, and enhanced natural recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Bothell, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dredging and disposal in a confined aquatic disposal (CAD) site, capping with clean sediment, and natural recovery are commonly used, cost-effective remedial practices for contaminated sediments. Recent projects in Puget Sound, Washington and Southern California involved dredging and use of the material for capping and CAD fill. Both of these projects required physical monitoring to document sediment placement. Dredged sediments placed at these sites were optically identified using sediment vertical profile system (SVPS) photography. Optical criteria to distinguish cap/construction materials include grain-size, reflectance, and texture. Environmental parameters such as the extent and thickness of the CAD material or sediment cap deposits are evaluated against design and performance goals, typically the isolation of contaminants from the biologically active portion of the sediment column. Using SVPS, coring and other technologies, the stratigraphic contact between the capping/CAD sediment and the native sediment can be discerned. These measurements observations can ground-truth and be coupled with remote sensing to provide a more complete characterization of the entire remedial area. Physical isolation of the benthic community can be discerned by examining SVPS images for depth of bioturbation and sediment stratigraphy. On the periphery of cap/CAD deposits, thin layers of clean sediment ranging upwards from 1 mm thick can be identified. Dependent on the pre-remediation benthic community at the site, these thin layers of CAP/CAD sediment can be bioturbated by resident benthic infauna immediately after placement. The deposition and subsequent assimilation of the clean cap material into the contaminated sediments effectively reduces the concentration of contaminants in the biologically active zone thereby enhancing natural recovery in areas where regulatory criteria are focused on the biologically active zone.

  10. Enhanced bioremediation process: A case study of effectiveness on PAH contamination in soils at a former wood-treating site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, W.F. [Miltech Environmental, Inc., Tucker, GA (United States); Matens, B.L. [Dames and Moore, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Buchalter, D.S. [EMCON, Norcross, GA (United States); Montgomery, D.N. [Georgia Dept. of Transportation, Forest Park, GA (United States). Office of Materials and Research

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Enhanced Bioremediation Process (EBP) technology is an exsitu biodegradation process that utilizes bacterial and fungal inoculants to effectively oxidize and bioremediate persistent hard to degrade organics in contaminated soils. The EBP fungal inoculants produce highly reactive extracellular peroxidase enzymes that can oxidize and degrade lignin, a complex, natural polymer composed of phenylpropane units that is resistant to decay. The lignin peroxidase enzymes are highly nonspecific because of their ability to oxidize the heterogenic lignin molecule, and are capable of degrading a wide variety of complex organic compounds. Because the chemical sub-structure of lignin (1,2-aryl diethers, alkyl sidechains and connected aryl systems) resembles that of many persistent organic compounds, the EBP inoculants are very effective in biodegrading similar hazardous organic pollutants in contaminated soils. As an inadvertent by-product of these biochemical processes, the EBP organisms reduce the organic constituents to a soluble form. In a soluble form, the indigenous organisms can further degrade the contaminants. The technology is applied in such a manner as to maximize the activity of the indigenous organisms by establishing optimum growth conditions. The efficacy of the EBP technology in degrading persistent environmental pollutants has been documented at both the bench scale and pilot demonstration levels. A recently completed field pilot demonstration was conducted at a creosote contaminated site. The demonstration entailed the treatment of approximately 700 tons of soil contaminated with PAH constituents. Laboratory analyses of pre and post-treated soils indicate that total average PAH concentrations in many samples were reduced by greater than 91 percent over a two month treatment period.

  11. Monitoring and Modeling Non-Point Source Contributions of Host-Specific Fecal Contamination in San Pablo Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wuertz, Stefan; Bombardelli, Fabian A; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Wang, Dan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Host-Specific Fecal Contamination in San Pablo Bay Principlelivestock sources of fecal contamination in Kenya with host-Huang. Abstract Fecal contamination from non-point sources

  12. ELIPGRID-PC and INRADS{copyright}: Tools for reducing costs and optimizing data collection on sites contaminated with NORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egidi, P.V.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Environmental Technology Section (ETS), located in Grand Junction, Colorado has more than ten years experience in radiological surveying and more than twenty years as part of the ongoing Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project surveys conducted by ORNL Health Sciences Research Division. As part of our mission, ETS researchers develops and applies innovative technologies to share with private industry. The ELIPGRID-PC software and INRADS multidetector radiologic survey instrument are works in progress are discussed. ELIPGRID-PC is a tool that aids in survey design, and the INRADS system automates and increases the amount of data collected.

  13. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    -tight design, stalled according to according to accepted medium-textured soils coarse-textured above ground) accepted engineering engineering standards (silt loam, loam). soils (sands, sandy standards and specifi- and specifications. Not Water table deeper... loam). Water table cations. Properly maintained. than 20 feet. or fractured bed- maintained. rock shallower than 20 feet. Concrete (liquid- Designed and in- Designed and installed Concrete cracked, Concrete cracked, tight design) stalled according...

  14. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Milking Center Wastewater Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    be affected by manure, milk solids, ammonia, phosphorus, and detergents. Wastewater from the dairy milking center is made up of waste from the milking parlor (manure, feed solids, hoof dirt, bulk tank rinse water and detergent used in cleaning), and should... topics: 1. Combining wastes 2. Application methods 3. Slow surface infiltration Combining Wastes When milking center wastes are combined with manure a common disposal system can be used for both types of waste. A liquid manure storage facility, properly...

  15. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Pesticide Storage and Handling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    metsulfuron-methyl ?- Amiben chloramben ?- Amitrol T amitrole Med Antor diethatyl-ethyl Low Arsenal imazapyr acid High Arsenal imazapyr amine High Assert imazethabenz High Assure quizalofop ethyl Low* Atrazine atrazine High Avenge difenzoquat Low Balan benefin... High Basagran bentazon High Beacon primsulfuron ?- Betamix phenmedipham & Low desmedipham Low Betanex desmedipham Low Bicep metolachlor & Med atrazine High Bladex cyanazine Med Blazer acifluorfen Med Bolero thiobencarb ?- Bronate bromoxynil & Low MCPA...

  16. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Well-Head Management and Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    the risk it poses to your ground water. For example, a cracked well casing may allow fertilizer, nitrates, oil or pesticides to enter the well if these materials are spilled near the well. Feedlots, animal yards, septic systems and waste storage areas also... can release large amounts of bacteria, nitrates and other contam- inants that could pollute well water. The Texas Water Well Drillers Act (1985), the Water Well Pump Installer Act (1991) and vari- ous other legislative actions have guided devel- opment...

  17. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    , accumulating manure in a con- centrated area can be risky to the environment and to human and animal health unless done properly. Federal and state drinking water standards state that nitrate levels in drinking water should not exceed 10 milligrams per liter... (equivalent to parts per million for water mea- sure). Nitrate nitrogen levels higher than this can pose health problems for infants under 6 months of age, including the condition known as methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). Nitrate also can affect adults...

  18. Motivation Atmospheric Contamination Rejuvenation of a Cesium-Based Dispenser Photocathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Motivation Atmospheric Contamination Results Rejuvenation of a Cesium-Based Dispenser Photocathode in Response to Atmospheric Contamination Alexandra Day, Dr. Eric Montgomery, Dr. Kevin Jensen, Blake Riddick, Saara Khan, Scott Eustice Quantum Efficiency Key Conclusions Cs + contaminants higher work function

  19. Contamination of heavy metals in mangroves: A comparison between Cao Martn Pea and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Contamination of heavy metals in mangroves: A comparison between Caño that contamination of heavy metals in mangroves decrease their chlorophyll levels and how heavy metals contamination has affected them. The images utilized

  20. Contamination des mollusques bivalves par des phycotoxines : interactions entre niveaux de toxicit et rponses physiologiques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Contamination des mollusques bivalves par des phycotoxines : interactions entre niveaux de principaux types de phycotoxines peuvent contaminer les mollusques bivalves : les toxines diarrhéiques (DSP nécessite de connaître au préalable les conditions initiales de contamination des mollusques ainsi que les

  1. Xenocryst assimilation and formation of peritectic crystals during magma contamination: An experimental study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Xenocryst assimilation and formation of peritectic crystals during magma contamination Minéralogie, Switzerland c Dalhousie University, Department of Earth Sciences, Canada Abstract Contamination and peritectic crystals that form through incongruent melting or dissolution of the original contaminants

  2. A study of biological contaminants in rainwater collected from rooftops in Bryan and College Station Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasudevan, Lakshmi Narasimhan

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to identify the presence of biological contaminants and the factors responsible for these contaminants in rainwater collected from rooftops of buildings in Bryan and College Station, Texas. Two main biological contaminants...

  3. A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC /TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

  4. Assessment of hot gas contaminant control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutkowski, M.D.; Klett, M.G.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to gather data and information to assist DOE in responding to the NRC recommendation on hot gas cleanup by performing a comprehensive assessment of hot gas cleanup systems for advanced coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) including the status of development of the components of the hot gas cleanup systems, and the probable cost and performance impacts. The scope and time frame of information gathering is generally responsive to the boundaries set by the National Research council (NRC), but includes a broad range of interests and programs which cover hot gas cleanup through the year 2010. As the status of hot gas cleanup is continually changing, additional current data and information are being obtained for this effort from this 1996 METC Contractors` Review Meeting as well as from the 1996 Pittsburgh Coal Conference, and the University of Karlsruhe Symposium. The technical approach to completing this work consists of: (1) Determination of the status of hot gas cleanup technologies-- particulate collection systems, hot gas desulfurization systems, and trace contaminant removal systems; (2) Determination of hot gas cleanup systems cost and performance sensitivities. Analysis of conceptual IGCC and PFBC plant designs with hot gas cleanup have been performed. The impact of variations in hot gas cleanup technologies on cost and performance was evaluated using parametric analysis of the baseline plant designs and performance sensitivity.

  5. New barrier fluids for subsurface containment of contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Persoff, P.; Holman, H.Y.; Muller, S.J.; Pruess, K.; Radke, C.J.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In some situations, containment of contaminants in the subsurface may be preferable to removal or treatment in situ. In these cases, it maybe possible to form barriers by injecting fluids (grouts) that set in place and reduce the formation permeability. This paper reports laboratory work to develop two types of fluids for this application: colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX). Falling-head permeameter tests of grouted Hanford sand, lasting 50 days, showed hydraulic conductivities of order 10{sup -7} cm/sec for these two materials. Low initial viscosity of the grout is necessary to permit injection without causing fracturing or surface uplift. Experiments with crosslinked polysiloxanes showed that they could be diluted to achieve adequately low viscosity without losing their ability to cure. Control of the gel time is important for grout emplacement. Gel time of CS grouts increased with increasing pH (above 6.5) and with decreasing ionic strength. Salt solutions were added to the colloid-to increase the ionic strength and control gel time. When injected into Hanford sand, the CS grout gelled much more quickly than the same formula without sand. This effect results from salinity that is present in pore water and from multi-valent ions that are desorbed from clays and ion-exchanged for mono-valent ions in the grout. Ion-exchange experiments showed that most of the multi-valent ions could be removed-by flushing the sand with 15 PV of 4% NaCl and sand treated in this manner did not accelerate the gelling of the grout. When grout is injected into unsaturated soil it slumps, leaving the soil only partially saturated and achieving less permeability reduction upon gelling. Multiple injections of CS grout in 1-D sand columns demonstrated that by accumulating the residual gelled grout saturations from several injections, low permeability can be achieved.

  6. Bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States); [Colby Coll., Waterville, ME (United States); Neff, J. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States); [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms indicates that there exists a potential for transfer of these contaminants through marine food webs to commercial fisheries products consumed by humans. However, there has been relatively little effort to combine and synthesize data on chemical/biological interactions between benthic animals and seagrasses and the sediments in which they reside on the one hand, and on the chemistry of bioaccumulation on the other. This report provides a conceptual basis for an approach to bioavailability and biomagnification of sediment-bound contaminants that reviews biological and chemical approaches.

  7. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Effect of Coal Gas Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operation. Abstract: The operation of solid oxide fuel cells...

  8. Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Performance Mitigation of the Impact of Pt Contamination on Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Performance Investigates operating...

  9. Reduced models for quantum gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Thiemann

    1999-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The preceding talks given at this conference have dealt mainly with general ideas for, main problems of and techniques for the task of quantizing gravity canonically. Since one of the major motivations to arrange for this meeting was that it should serve as a beginner's introduction to canonical quantum gravity, we regard it as important to demonstrate the usefulness of the formalism by means of applying it to simplified models of quantum gravity, here formulated in terms of Ashtekar's new variables. From the various, completely solvable, models that have been discussed in the literature we choose those that we consider as most suitable for our pedagogical reasons, namely 2+1 gravity and the spherically symmetric model. The former model arises from a dimensional, the latter from a Killing reduction of full 3+1 gravity. While 2+1 gravity is usually treated in terms of closed topologies without boundary of the initial data hypersurface, the toplogy for the spherically symmetric system is chosen to be asymptotically flat. Finally, 2+1 gravity is more suitably quantized using the loop representation while spherically symmetric gravity is easier to quantize via the self-dual representation. Accordingly, both types of reductions, both types of topologies and both types of representations that are mainly employed in the literature in the context of the new variables come into practice. What makes the discussion especially clear is the fact that for both models the reduced phase space turns out to be finitely dimensional.

  10. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

  11. Nitrate contamination of domestic potable water supplies: a social problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, T.; Jensen, E.L.; Conway, J.B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrate contamination of potable water supplies is a recognized health hazard. Potentially, the contamination of private drinking water supplies could be a problem in the rural Palouse area of Idaho and Washington. Studies have shown that 12% of the rural population of Whitman County, Washington, may be drinking water containing nitrates in excess of the national standard. Yet there is no organized concern about this potential health hazard among local citizens. After reviewing the literature on nitrate contamination of ground water and discussing nitrate contamination of private potable water supplies in the Palouse, we use a social movement theory of social problems to explain why this situation has not been defined as a public health problem.

  12. Detection of contaminants using a MEMS FAIMS sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, Kristin (Kristin Malia)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detecting the presence of contaminants in water is a critical mission, but thorough testing often requires extensive time at a remote facility. A MEMS implementation of a FAIMS (High-Field Asymmetric-Waveform Ion Mobility ...

  13. Solidification/stabilization of simulated uranium and nickel contaminated sludges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramabhadran, Sanjay

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research missions in nuclear energy conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy facilities have generated large volumes of mixed wastes with hazardous and radioactive components. Uranium and nickel are the primary contaminants of concern...

  14. Transuranic contaminated waste form characterization and data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; McArthur, W.C.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains 5 appendices. Title listing are: technologies for recovery of transuranics; nondestructive assay of TRU contaminated wastes; miscellaneous waste characteristics; acceptance criteria for TRU waste; and TRU waste treatment technologies.

  15. Contaminant modeling. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, S.L.; Dortch, M.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note provides initial information on contaminant models that are potentially applicable to situations where the presence of toxic materials in sediments complicates Corps of Engineers (CE) dredging activities.

  16. Rapid and Robust Detection Methods for Poison and Microbial Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Peter J.

    Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for ...

  17. Orthogonal Analytical Approaches to Detect Potential Contaminants in Heparin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shriver, Zachary

    Heparin is a widely used anticoagulant and antithrombotic agent. Recently, a contaminant, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS), was discovered within heparin preparations. The presence of OSCS within heparin likely led ...

  18. alpha contaminated material: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In this paper a long-term systematic study about gas purifiers, gas contaminants and detector performance is discussed. The study aims at measuring the lifetime of purifiers with...

  19. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. ...

  20. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated aqueous and sediment environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Marc Allyn

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six bioremediation methods were tested in laboratory microcosms using field soil and water samples from within the fire-wall area of a petroleum storage tank. This soil had been intermittently contaminated with Bunker C fuel oil and other petroleum...

  1. USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. William D. Bostick

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater at many Federal and civilian industrial sites is often contaminated with toxic metals at levels that present a potential concern to regulatory agencies. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has some unique problems associated with radionuclides (primarily uranium), but metal contaminants most likely drive risk-based cleanup decisions, from the perspective of human health, in groundwater at DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Sites include lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Thus, the regulatory ''drivers'' for toxic metals in contaminated soils/groundwaters are very comparable for Federal and civilian industrial sites, and most sites have more than one metal above regulatory action limits. Thus improving the performance of remedial technologies for metal-contaminated groundwater will have ''dual use'' (Federal and civilian) benefit.

  2. Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattavina, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

  3. Mechanisms of metal release from contaminated coastal sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalnejais, Linda H

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fate of trace metals in contaminated coastal sediments is poorly understood, yet critical for effective coastal management. The aim of this thesis is to investigate and quantify the mechanisms leading to the release ...

  4. arsenic contaminated soils: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray fluorescence and x-contaminating metal cations (Cu, Zn, & Cr) in the solid phase speciation of arsenic. Elemental maps from SXRF of this study show that As...

  5. Application of integrated constructed wetlands for contaminant treatment and diffusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Yu

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sediment accumulation is an important characteristic in the ageing process of integrated constructed wetlands (ICW). Retained nutrient and other contaminants in wetland sediments have the potential to be remobilized ...

  6. Contaminant Boundary at the Faultless Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann; Jeff Daniels; Ahmed Hassan; Jenny Chapman

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) have reached agreement on a corrective action strategy applicable to address the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations. This strategy is described in detail in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 2000). As part of the corrective action strategy, the nuclear detonations that occurred underground were identified as geographically distinct corrective action units (CAUs). The strategic objective for each CAU is to estimate over a 1,000-yr time period, with uncertainty quantified, the three-dimensional extent of groundwater contamination that would be considered unsafe for domestic and municipal use. Two types of boundaries (contaminant and compliance) are discussed in the FFACO that will map the three-dimensional extent of radionuclide contamination. The contaminant boundary will identify the region wi th 95 percent certainty that contaminants do not exist above a threshold value. It will be prepared by the DOE and presented to NDEP. The compliance boundary will be produced as a result of negotiation between the DOE and NDEP, and can be coincident with, or differ from, the contaminant boundary. Two different thresholds are considered for the contaminant boundary. One is based on the enforceable National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for radionuclides, which were developed as a requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act. The other is a risk-based threshold considering applicable lifetime excess cancer-risk-based criteria The contaminant boundary for the Faultless underground nuclear test at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) is calculated using a newly developed groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model that incorporates aspects of both the original three-dimensional model (Pohlmann et al., 1999) and the two-dimensional model developed for the Faultless data decision analysis (DDA) (Pohll and Mihevc, 2000). This new model includes the uncertainty in the three-dimensional spatial distribution of lithology and hydraulic conductivity from the 1999 model as well as the uncertainty in the other flow and transport parameters from the 2000 DDA model. Additionally, the new model focuses on a much smaller region than was included in the earlier models, that is, the subsurface within the UC-1 land withdrawal area where the 1999 model predicted radionuclide transport will occur over the next 1,000 years. The purpose of this unclassified document is to present the modifications to the CNTA groundwater flow and transport model, to present the methodology used to calculate contaminant boundaries, and to present the Safe Drinking Water Act and risk-derived contaminant boundaries for the Faultless underground nuclear test CAU.

  7. Temporal trends of contaminants recorded in sediments of Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crecelius, E.A.; Curl, H.C. Jr.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the temporal trends of contamination that can be inferred from the chemical composition of age-dated sediment cores from central Puget Sound. The fine-grain sediment (less than 10% sand) of the deep region (>150m) of central Puget Sound, which accumulates relatively undisturbed sediment at a rate of approximately 1 cm per year, provides a useful record of the history of contamination. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  8. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menkhaus, Daniel E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Loomis, Guy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mullen, Carlan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Scott, Donald W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Feldman, Edgar M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Meyer, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  9. A unified theory on electro-kinetic extraction of contaminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datla, Subbaraju

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of contaminants from fine-grained soils. Here, the experimental and the theoretical studies conducted to date are reviewed briefly 2. 3. 1. Experimental Studies The technique of electro-kinetic extraction of salts from alkaline soils was investigated by Puri...A VNIFIED THEORY ON ELECTRO-KINETIC EXTRACTION OF CONTAMINANTS A Thesis by SUBBARAJU DATLA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  10. The recognition of toxic contaminants in sea water by bioassay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duke, Thomas Wade

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE RECOGNITION OF TOXIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEA WATER BY BIOASSAY A Thesis By THOMAS WADE DUKE Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1960 Major Subject: Biological Oceanography THE RECOGNITION OF TOXIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEA li'ATER BY BIOASSAY A Thesis THOMAS O'ADE DUKE Approved as to style and content by: ( airman o emmy ee wi, ( ea of Depar me...

  11. The recognition of toxic contaminants in sea water by bioassay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duke, Thomas Wade

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE RECOGNITION OF TOXIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEA WATER BY BIOASSAY A Thesis By THOMAS WADE DUKE Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1960 Major Subject: Biological Oceanography THE RECOGNITION OF TOXIC CONTAMINANTS IN SEA li'ATER BY BIOASSAY A Thesis THOMAS O'ADE DUKE Approved as to style and content by: ( airman o emmy ee wi, ( ea of Depar me...

  12. Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

  13. A statistical analysis of personnel contaminations in 200 Area facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M.A.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1983-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This study determined the frequency statistics of personnel contaminations in 200 Area facilities. These statistics are utilized in probability calculations for contamination risks, and are part of an effort to provide reliable information for use in safety studies. Data for this analysis were obtained from the 200 Area and the Tritium Area Fault Tree Data Banks and were analyzed with the aid of the STATPAC computer code.

  14. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release.

  15. System to control contamination during retrieval of buried TRU waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menkhaus, D.E.; Loomis, G.G.; Mullen, C.K.; Scott, D.W.; Feldman, E.M.; Meyer, L.C.

    1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described to control contamination during the retrieval of hazardous waste comprising an outer containment building, an inner containment building, within the outer containment building, an electrostatic radioactive particle recovery unit connected to and in communication with the inner and outer containment buildings, and a contaminate suppression system including a moisture control subsystem, and a rapid monitoring system having the ability to monitor conditions in the inner and outer containment buildings.

  16. State of the art: CDF contaminant pathway control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, G.N. [G.N. Richardson and Associates, Raleigh, NC (United States); Petrovski, D.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL (United States). CERCLA Div.; Chaney, R.C. [Humbolt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States); Demars, K.R. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the US, about 400 million cubic yards (520 million cubic meters) of sediments are dredged annually (COE 1987). Sediment is the material that settles to the bottom of a body of water and includes soil particles consisting of clays, silts, and sands; organic matter; shells; and residuals from industrial discharges, which can include organics and heavy metals. Contaminants from sediments contained within a confined disposal facility (CDF) can be discharged to the environment via six potential pathways. These pathways include three waterborne pathways, the direct uptake of the contaminants by plants or animals, and airborne emission of contaminants. Conventional CDF design focuses on retention of sediment particles with perimeter dikes. Depending upon the nature of the site, the contaminants of concern, method of dredging, physical properties of the dredged material, operational aspects, and many other factors, including socio-political factors, supplemental environmental design criteria may be required for the CDF. This paper reviews design alternatives to control contaminant loss from the CDF basin through the six identified contaminant pathways. These alternatives include the use of both additional design components ad operational constraints. The need for a specific pathway control measure is shown to depend on both site and sediment specific evaluation criteria.

  17. Kinetics of Cd Release from Some Contaminated Calcareous Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sajadi Tabar, S.; Jalali, M., E-mail: jalali@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of soils with heavy metals may pose long-term risk to groundwater quality leading to health implications. Bioavailability of heavy metals, like cadmium (Cd) is strongly affected by sorption and desorption processes. The release of heavy metals from contaminated soils is a major contamination risks to natural waters. The release of Cd from contaminated soils is strongly influenced by its mobility and bioavailability. In this study, the kinetics of Cd desorption from ten samples of contaminated calcareous soils, with widely varying physicochemical properties, were studied using 0.01 M EDTA extraction. The median percentage of Cd released was about 27.7% of the total extractable Cd in the soils. The release of Cd was characterized by an initial fast release rate (of labile fractions) followed by a slower release rate (of less labile fractions) and a model of two first-order reactions adequately describes the observed release of Cd from the studied soil samples. There was positive correlation between the amount of Cd released at first phase of release and Cd in exchangeable fraction, indicating that this fraction of Cd is the main fraction controlling the Cd in the kinetic experiments. There was strongly negative correlation between the amount of Cd released at first and second phases of release and residual fraction, suggesting that this fraction did not contribute in Cd release in the kinetic experiments. The results can be used to provide information for evaluation of Cd potential toxicity and ecological risk from contaminated calcareous soils.

  18. Screening-level approach for estimating contaminant export from tributaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velleux, M. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States); Gailani, J. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Endicott, D. [EPA Large Lakes Research Station, Grosse Ile, MI (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The in-place pollutant export model (IPX) is a screening-level model for estimating contaminant export from tributaries with contaminated sediments to receiving waterbodies. IPX is a modified version of the USEPA`s WASP4 modeling framework. IPX synthesizes sediment transport processes for sediment aging, decreased sediment resuspendability with increasing age, and resuspension of freshly deposited sediments as a function of water velocity, into an expanded WASP4 contaminant transport and fate chassis while retaining the computational flexibility of the original framework. These process descriptions are needed to accurately simulate contaminant transport and substantially improve the framework for application to tributary systems subject to significant deposition and resuspension events. The potential for applying IPX is broad; water quality impairments attributable to contaminated sediments are widespread due to discharges from industry, agriculture, and mining and ore processing. IPX has been successfully applied to the upper and lower Fox River in Wisconsin, and the Buffalo and Oswego Rivers in New York, all impaired by contaminated sediments.

  19. Enrichment of specific protozoan populations during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, Dawn; Giloteaux, L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Thompson, Courtney A.; Roper, Thomas J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek

    2013-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of bacteria in the anaerobic bioremediation of groundwater polluted with organic and/or metal contaminants is well-recognized and in some instances so well understood that modeling of the in situ metabolic activity of the relevant subsurface microorganisms in response to changes in subsurface geochemistry is feasible. However, a potentially significant factor influencing bacterial growth and activity in the subsurface that has not been adequately addressed is protozoan predation of the microorganisms responsible for bioremediation. In field experiments at a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, acetate amendments initially promoted the growth of metal-reducing Geobacter species followed by the growth of sulfate-reducers, as previously observed. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed a broad diversity of sequences closely related to known bacteriovorous protozoa in the groundwater prior to the addition of acetate. The bloom of Geobacter species was accompanied by a specific enrichment of sequences most closely related to the amoeboid flagellate, Breviata anathema, which at their peak accounted for over 80% of the sequences recovered. The abundance of Geobacter species declined following the rapid emergence of B. anathema. The subsequent growth of sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae was accompanied by another specific enrichment of protozoa, but with sequences most similar to diplomonadid flagellates from the family Hexamitidae, which accounted for up to 100% of the sequences recovered during this phase of the bioremediation. These results suggest a prey-predator response with specific protozoa responding to increased availability of preferred prey bacteria. Thus, quantifying the influence of protozoan predation on the growth, activity, and composition of the subsurface bacterial community is essential for predictive modeling of in situ uranium bioremediation strategies.

  20. Optimizing MapReduce for Multicore Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaashoek, Frans

    2010-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    MapReduce is a programming model for data-parallel programs originally intended for data centers. MapReduce simplifies parallel programming, hiding synchronization and task management. These properties make it a promising ...

  1. Significantly reduce maintenance time Documents&Mediabecomesthekey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullins, Dyche

    Significantly reduce maintenance time · Documents&Mediabecomesthekey contactforallmaintenanceneeds. · MajorpartsarestoredbyDocuments& MediaattheMissionCenter.Thisreduces thetimeneededtoorderpartsandresultsin&Mediaoffersthecampus communityaconvenientandeconomicsolution foritscopiers,multifunctiondevicesandprinter needs. Print Management Program advantages Reduce

  2. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the manufacturer . Replaced with energy efficient light emitting diode (LED) signs. Project reduced risk of tritium

  3. Reducing the Energy Usage of Oce Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flinn, Jason

    Reducing the Energy Usage of OÆce Applications Jason Flinn 1 , Eyal de Lara 2 , M. Satyanarayanan 1 of the energy usage of Microsoft's PowerPoint application and show that adaptive policies can reduce energy research e#11;ort, no silver bullet for reducing energy usage has yet been found. Instead, a comprehensive

  4. On terminal deltawye reducibility of planar graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sagols, Feliú

    On terminal delta­wye reducibility of planar graphs Isidoro Gitler1 Feli´u Sagols2 Departamento de´exico City, D.F. igitler@math.cinvestav.mx fsagols@math.cinvestav.mx Abstract A graph is terminal - Y -reducible if it can be reduced to a set of terminal vertices by a sequence of series-parallel reductions

  5. Cration du laboratoire mixte international Contaminants et cosystmes marins sud mditerranens (LMI COSYS-Med)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lesquelles l'introduction de contaminants organiques et inorganiques (hydrocarbures, pesticides, agents

  6. Nonlinear signal contamination effects for gaseous plume detection in hyperspectral imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theiler, James

    Nonlinear signal contamination effects for gaseous plume detection in hyperspectral imagery James-plume pixels are inadvertently included, then that background characterization will be contaminated. In broad in the scene are off- plume, so some contamination is inevitable. In general, the contaminated background

  7. INFLUENCE OF SILAGE CONTAMINATION BY SOIL UPON TRACE ELEMENTS AVAILABILITY IN SHEEP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such contaminations. The mineral content of contaminated silage is modified and the question arises to knownINFLUENCE OF SILAGE CONTAMINATION BY SOIL UPON TRACE ELEMENTS AVAILABILITY IN SHEEP M. LAMAND, 63110 Beaumont, France Résumé INFLUENCE DE LA CONTAMINATION DES ENSILAGES PAR DE LA TERRE SUR LA DIGESTI

  8. Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, H.

    2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability.

  9. Nearshore hydrodynamics as loading and forcing factors for Escherichia coli contamination at an embayed beach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of contamination during subsequent sediment resuspension events, suggesting that deposition­resuspension cycles

  10. Bioremediation techniques on crude oil contaminated soils in Ohio. First quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, D.

    1996-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop environmentally-sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient, oxygen and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide range of viscosity. Task one of the bioremediation project began on July 3, 1995 with the selection and preparation of a site in Smith township. Mahoning County. The plots were arranged and parameters were varied. Plots, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal. ) of Corning grade crude oil and plots 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil. Plots 13 through 21 were contaminated with 159 liters (42 gal.) of Pennsylvania grade crude oil and 477 liters (126 gal.) of Clinton sandstone brine with a 160,000 mg/liter concentration of chloride. Treatment and administration of variables were conducted from August 17, 1995 to October 26, 1995. During this period samples were collected twice from each plot and analyzed for the parameters specified in the contract. Results from both sampling events of total petroleum hydrocarbons suggest that crude oil spread on surface is not easily mixed into soils as tillage depth, resulting in considerably variable composite samples from plot to plot.

  11. Donor-dependent Extent of Uranium Reduction for Bioremediation of Contaminated Sediment Microcosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Ravel, Bruce [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bioremediation of uranium was investigated in microcosm experiments containing contaminated sediments from Oak Ridge, Tennessee to explore the importance of electron donor selection for uranium reduction rate and extent. In these experiments, all of the electron donors, including ethanol, glucose, methanol, and methanol with added humic acids, stimulated the reduction and immobilization of aqueous uranium by the indigenous microbial community. Uranium loss from solution began after the completion of nitrate reduction but essentially concurrent with sulfate reduction. When electron donor concentrations were normalized for their equivalent electron donor potential yield, the rates of uranium reduction were nearly equivalent for all treatments (0.55-0.95 {micro}mol L{sup -1} d{sup -1}). Uranium reduction with methanol proceeded after a 15-d longer lag time relative to that of ethanol or glucose. Significant differences were not found with the inclusion of humic acids. The extent of U reduction in sediment slurries measured by XANES at various time periods after the start of the experiment increased in the order of ethanol (5-7% reduced at 77 and 153 d), glucose (49% reduced at 53 d), and methanol (93% reduced at 90 d). The microbial diversity of ethanol- and methanol-amended microcosms in their late stage of U reduction was analyzed with 16S rRNA gene amplification. Members of the Geobacteraceae were found in all microcosms as well as other potential uranium-reducing organisms, such as Clostridium and Desulfosporosinus. The effectiveness of methanol relative to ethanol at reducing aqueous and sediment-hosted uranium suggests that bioremediation strategies that encourage fermentative poising of the subsurface to a lower redox potential may be more effective for long-term uranium immobilization as compared with selecting an electron donor that is efficiently metabolized by known uranium-reducing microorganisms.

  12. Donor-dependent Extent of Uranium Reduction for Bioremediation of Contaminated Sediment Microcosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, Andrew S.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Ravel, Bruce; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brandt, Craig C.; (ORNL); (NIST)

    2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Bioremediation of uranium was investigated in microcosm experiments containing contaminated sediments from Oak Ridge, Tennessee to explore the importance of electron donor selection for uranium reduction rate and extent. In these experiments, all of the electron donors, including ethanol, glucose, methanol, and methanol with added humic acids, stimulated the reduction and immobilization of aqueous uranium by the indigenous microbial community. Uranium loss from solution began after the completion of nitrate reduction but essentially concurrent with sulfate reduction. When electron donor concentrations were normalized for their equivalent electron donor potential yield, the rates of uranium reduction were nearly equivalent for all treatments (0.55-0.95 {micro}mol L{sup -1} d{sup -1}). Uranium reduction with methanol proceeded after a 15-d longer lag time relative to that of ethanol or glucose. Significant differences were not found with the inclusion of humic acids. The extent of U reduction in sediment slurries measured by XANES at various time periods after the start of the experiment increased in the order of ethanol (5-7% reduced at 77 and 153 d), glucose (49% reduced at 53 d), and methanol (93% reduced at 90 d). The microbial diversity of ethanol- and methanol-amended microcosms in their late stage of U reduction was analyzed with 16S rRNA gene amplification. Members of the Geobacteraceae were found in all microcosms as well as other potential uranium-reducing organisms, such as Clostridium and Desulfosporosinus. The effectiveness of methanol relative to ethanol at reducing aqueous and sediment-hosted uranium suggests that bioremediation strategies that encourage fermentative poising of the subsurface to a lower redox potential may be more effective for long-term uranium immobilization as compared with selecting an electron donor that is efficiently metabolized by known uranium-reducing microorganisms.

  13. 100-D Area In Situ Redox Treatability Test for Chromate-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2000-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A treatability test was conducted for the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology at the 100 D Area of the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The target contaminant was dissolved chromate in groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a permeable subsurface treatment zone to reduce mobile chromate in groundwater to an insoluble form. The ISRM permeable treatment zone is created by reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron within the aquifer sediments, which is accomplished by injecting aqueous sodium dithionite into the aquifer and then withdrawing the reaction products. The goal of the treatability test was to create a linear ISRM barrier by injecting sodium dithionite into five wells. Well installation and site characterization activities began in spring 1997; the first dithionite injection took place in September 1997. The results of this first injection were monitored through the spring of 1998. The remaining four dithionite injections were carried out in May through July of 1998.These five injections created a reduced zone in the Hanford unconfined aquifer approximately 150 feet in length (perpendicular to groundwater flow) and 50 feet wide. The reduced zone extended over the thickness of the unconfined zone. Analysis of post-emplacement groundwater samples showed concentrations of chromate, in the reduced zone decreased from approximately 1.0 mg/L before the tests to below analytical detection limits (<0.007 mg/L). Chromate concentrations also declined in downgradient monitoring wells to as low as 0.020 mg/L. These data, in addition to results from pre-test reducible iron characterization, indicate the barrier should be effective for 20 to 25 years. The 100-D Area ISRM barrier is being expanded to a length of up to 2,300 ft to capture a larger portion of the chromate plume.

  14. Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of aHydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Martinez, E.M.; Perez, Ernie X.; Schadt, ChristopherW.; Zhou, Jizhong; Massol-Deya, Arturo A.

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources hasbecome a major environmental and human health concern in many parts ofthe world. Our objectives were to employ both culture andculture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbialcommunity structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate adiesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normaloperating conditions, 97 to 99 percent of total hydrocarbons were removedwith only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultureswere isolated from the treatment unit (96 percent which utilized dieselconstituents as sole carbon source). Approximately 20 percent of theisolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas.Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with mostbelonging to the infinity, beta and gamma subdivision of theProteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the geneticconstitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple timepoints with a Functional Gene Array (FGA) containing over 12,000 probesfor genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemicalcycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using anisothermal phi29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, andhybridized to the arrays in 50 percent formimide overnight at 50 degreesC. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course oftreatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbialcommunity. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation(including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane,biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene); and 333 genesinvolved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases[nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB],potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase[pmoA]) were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE,nitroaromatics and chlorinated compounds werealso present, indicating abroad catabolic potential of the treatment unit. FGA's demonstrated theearly establishment of a diverse community with concurrent aerobic andanaerobic processes contributing to the bioremediationprocess.

  15. Impact Assessment of Existing Vadose Zone Contamination at the Hanford Site SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khaleel, Raziuddin; White, Mark D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wood, Marcus I.; Mann, Frederick M.; Kristofzski, John G.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr–1, is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 106 pCi L–1. The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr–1, and compared to the base case (100 mm yr–1) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary.

  16. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION AT THE HANFORD SITE SX TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KHALEEL R

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The USDOE has initiated an impact assessment of existing vadose zone contamination at the Hanford Site SX tank farm in southeastern Washington State. The assessment followed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action process to address the impacts of past tank waste releases to the vadose zone at the single-shell tank farm. Numerical models were developed that consider the extent of contamination presently within the vadose zone and predict contaminant movement through the vadose zone to groundwater. The transport of representative mobile (technetium-99) and immobile (cesium-137) constituents was evaluated in modeling. The model considered the accelerated movement of moisture around and beneath single-shell tanks that is attributed to bare, gravel surfaces resulting from the construction of the underground storage tanks. Infiltration, possibly nearing 100 mm yr{sup -1}, is further amplified in the tank farm because of the umbrella effect created by percolating moisture being diverted by the impermeable, sloping surface of the large, 24-m-diameter, buried tank domes. For both the base case (no-action alternative) simulation and a simulation that considered placement of an interim surface barrier to minimize infiltration, predicted, groundwater concentrations for technetium-99 at the SX tank farm boundary were exceedingly high, on the order of 10{sup 6} pCi L{sup -1}. The predicted concentrations are, however, somewhat conservative because of our use of two-dimensional modeling for a three-dimensional problem. A series of simulations were performed, using recharge rates of 50, 30, and 10 mm yr{sup -1}, and compared to the basecase(100 mm yr{sup -1}) results. As expected, lowering meteoric recharge delayed peak arrival times and reduced peak concentrations at the tank farm boundary.

  17. Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil Project, Resource Recovery Project, and Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November, 1989. OTD has begun to search out, develop, test and demonstrate technologies that can now or in the future be applied to the enormous remediation problem now facing the DOE and the United States public in general. Technology demonstration projects have been designed to attack a separate problem as defined by DOE. The Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil Project was conceived to test and demonstrate off-the-shelf technologies (dominantly from the mining industry) that can be brought to bear on the problem of radionuclide and heavy metal contamination in soils and sediments. The Resource Recovery Project is tasked with identifying, developing, testing, and evaluating new and innovative technologies for the remediation of metal contaminated surface and groundwater. An innovative twist on this project is the stated goal of recovering the metals, formerly disposed of as a waste, for reuse and resale, thereby transforming them into a usable resource. Finally, the Dynamic Underground Stripping Project was developed to demonstrate and remediate underground spills of hydrocarbons from formations that are (1) too deep for excavation, and/or (2) require in-situ remediation efforts of long duration. This project has already been shown effective in reducing the time for remediation by conventional methods from an estimated 200 years at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to less than one year. The savings in time and dollars from this technology alone can be immeasurable.

  18. Ecotoxicity literature review of selected Hanford Site contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available information on the toxicity, food chain transport, and bioconcentration of several Hanford Site contaminants were reviewed. The contaminants included cesium-137, cobalt-60, europium, nitrate, plutonium, strontium-90, technetium, tritium, uranium, and chromium (III and VI). Toxicity and mobility in both aquatic and terrestrial systems were considered. For aquatic systems, considerable information was available on the chemical and/or radiological toxicity of most of the contaminants in invertebrate animals and fish. Little information was available on aquatic macrophyte response to the contaminants. Terrestrial animals such as waterfowl and amphibians that have high exposure potential in aquatic systems were also largely unrepresented in the toxicity literature. The preponderance of toxicity data for terrestrial biota was for laboratory mammals. Bioconcentration factors and transfer coefficients were obtained for primary producers and consumers in representative aquatic and terrestrial systems; however, little data were available for upper trophic level transfer, particularly for terrestrial predators. Food chain transport and toxicity information for the contaminants were generally lacking for desert or sage brush-steppe organisms, particularly plants and reptiles

  19. Groundwater contamination near the Hoe Creek UCG experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F.T.; Mead, S.W.; Stuermer, D.H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been shown that underground coal gasification (UCG) may introduce a broad range of residual gasification products into the groundwater of a coal aquifer. Sorption of many contaminants by the coal itself is an important factor in restricting the migration of these contaminants in the groundwater. However, our field studies, conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Hoe Creek site, have shown that sorption of organic compounds by coal is not as effective as expected, perhaps because the coal surface area is limited. Furthermore, if severe roof collapse has taken place during gasification, non-coal aquifers located above the gasified coal seam may be interconnected with the coal aquifer, and contaminants may enter these non-coal aquifers, in which sorption is even less effective. The Hoe Creek II and III experiments have provided us with opportunities to study the contamination of a sand aquifer located above a gasified coal seam in a hydrological recharge area. Our preliminary results indicate that the water in the overlying sand aquifer is much less contaminated with organic compounds than the water in the gasified coal aquifer. In conducting these field investigations, we have also learned valuable lessons concerning groundwater monitoring. A suggested monitoring strategy will be discussed.

  20. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  1. Comparative analyses of soil contaminant levels and plant species diversity at developing and disused oil well sites in Qianjiang oilfield, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Z.T.; Hu, H.X.; Wang, Y.X. [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China)] [and others] [Wuhan Univ., Hubei (China); and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oilfield development contaminates soils and waters with crude oil, brine and heavy metals. Oil well sites are probably the most contaminated places in oilfields. During drilling and crude oil extraction from underground stores, a significant amount of oil and brine discharges into soils at oil well sites by blowouts, container spillages and pipeline ruptures. In oilfields in China, it was estimated that about 0.77 - 1.85% crude oil discharged into soils at oil well sites during oilfield development. Exposure to oil and salt contaminants could evoke toxicological effects in plants. Responses of plants to the contaminant exposure include inhibition of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, cessation of growth, reduced reproductive success and mortality. These harmful impacts on plants would be expected to result in remarkable loss of biodiversity. Qianjiang oilfield has been developed for about thirty-five years. Oil well sites in it have long been contaminated with oil and brine since, and plants at the well sites are rare. In the last three years however some wells have fallen into disuse. In result, a few plant species have intruded into the disuse well sites and formed new populations, and plant species diversity in these places has increased thereby. For benefit of restoration of the disuse well sites, it is interesting to know the relationships between contaminant levels and plant biodiversity. The present paper focuses the attention on comparative analyses of soil contaminations by crude oil, salt and some heavy metals and plant species diversity at developing and disuse oil well sites. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Survival and activity of Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in petroleum-contaminated tropical marine waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santo Domingo, J.W.; Fuentes, F.A.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico). Microbial Ecology Lab.

    1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The in situ survival and activity of Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli were studied using membrane diffusion chambers in tropical marine waters receiving oil refinery effluents. Protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, respiration or fermentation, INT reduced per cell, and ATP per cell were used to measure physiological activity. Cell densities decreased significantly over time at both sites for both S. faecalis and E. coli; however, no significant differences in survival pattern were observed between S. faecalis and E.coli. Differences in protein synthesis between the two were only observed at a study site which was not heavily oiled. Although fecal streptococci have been suggested as a better indicator of fecal contamination than fecal coliforms in marine waters, in this study both E. coli and S. faecalis survived and remained physiologically active for extended periods of time. These results suggest that the fecal streptococci group is not a better indicator of fecal contamination in tropical marine waters than the fecal coliform group, especially when that environment is high in long-chained hydrocarbons.

  3. Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludowise, J.D.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction <0.25 mm in the 100 Area soil sample appears to differ somewhat from the bulk soil composition. The soil fines are readily melted into a homogeneous glass with the simple additions of CaO and/or Na{sub 2}O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils.

  4. Reduction And Immobilization Of Hexavalent Chromium By Microbially Reduced Fe-bearing Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Glasser, Paul; Dong, Hailiang; Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is a major contaminant in the environment. As a redox-sensitive element, the fate and toxicity of chromium is controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. Previous research has shown the ability of structural Fe(II) in naturally present and chemically reduced clay minerals to reduce Cr6+ to Cr(III) as a way of immobilization and detoxification. However, it is still poorly known whether or not structural Fe(II) in biologically reduced clay minerals exhibits a similar reactivity and if so, what the kinetics and mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction are. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and possible mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction by structural Fe(II) in microbially reduced clay minerals and the nature of reduced Cr(III). Structural Fe(III) in nontronite (NAu-2), montmorillonite (SWy-2), chlorite (CCa-2), and clay-rich sediments from the Ringold Formation of the Hanford site of Washington State, USA was first bioreduced to Fe(II) by an iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) as electron shuttle in synthetic groundwater (pH 7). Biogenic Fe(II) was then used to reduce aqueous Cr6+ at three different temperatures, 10°, 20°, and 30°C, in order to determine the temperature dependence of the redox reaction between Cr6+ and clay-Fe(II). The results showed that nontronite and montmorillonite were most effective in reducing aqueous Cr6+ at all three temperatures. In contrast, most Fe(II) in chlorite was not reactive towards Cr6+ reduction at 10°C, though at 30°C there was some reduction. For all the clay minerals, the ratio of total Fe(II) oxidized to Cr6+ reduced was close to the expected stoichiometric value of 3. Characterization of the Cr-clay reaction product with scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that reduced chromium was possibly in the form of sub-nanometer Cr2O3 in association with residual clay minerals as micro-aggregates. This textural association was expected to minimize the chance of Cr(III) reoxidation upon exposure to oxidants. These results are important for our understanding of how various clay minerals may be used to reductively immobilize the heavy metal contaminant Cr in the environment.

  5. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  6. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  7. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  8. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  9. In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  10. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  11. Evaluation of Recent Trailer Contamination and Supersack Integrity Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, S.

    2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period from fiscal year (FY) 2009 to FY 2011, there were a total of 21 incidents involving radioactively contaminated shipment trailers and 9 contaminated waste packages received at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). During this time period, the EnergySolutions (ES) Clive, Utah, disposal facility had a total of 18 similar incidents involving trailer and package contamination issues. As a result of the increased occurrence of such incidents, DOE Environmental Management Headquarters (EM/HQ) Waste Management organization (EM-30) requested that the Energy Facility Contractors’ Group (EFCOG) Waste Management Working Group (WMWG) conduct a detailed review of these incidents and report back to EM-30 regarding the results of this review, including providing any recommendations formulated as a result of the evaluation of current site practices involving handling and management of radioactive material and waste shipments.

  12. Taking the liability out of contaminated property transactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, K.W.; Taylor, R.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brownfield redevelopment has been one of the hottest environmental topics for the past several years. However, brownfields are only a small segment of the contaminated property transaction market that includes the sale of real estate, signing of leases, and mergers and acquisitions that involve the transfer of property impacted by environmental contamination. Historic site pollution creates problems due to strict, joint and several, and retroactive liability imposed by environmental laws. In response to the interest in contaminated properties, the environmental insurance industry has developed a number of products that cap the remediation costs and supplement or in many instances replace indemnity agreements. These insurance products allow buyers, sellers, and remediation contractors to cap remediation costs, provide long-term warranties, manage balance sheet liabilities, and even allow PRPs to walk away from site cleanup and long-term operation and maintenance obligations.

  13. Noninvasive Contaminant Site Characterization Using Geophysical Induced Polarization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, F.D.; Sogade, J.; Lesmes, D.; Coles, D.; Vichabian, Y.; Scira-Scappuzzo, F.; Shi, W.; Vandiver, A.; Rodi, W.

    2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of aspects of a broad foundational study of time domain IP (TDIP) and spectral IP (SIP) for contaminant site characterization are presented. This ongoing study encompassed laboratory studies of coupled effects of rock/soil microgeometry and contaminant chemistry on induced polarization (IP), an investigation of electromagnetic coupling (EMC) noise and development of 3D modeling and inversion codes. SIP requires extensions to higher frequencies (above the typical 100Hz threshold) and EMC becomes the major limitation for field implementation, because conventional correction methods are inadequate at required higher frequencies. A proposed methodology is outlined, based on a model of all EMC components, that addresses the EMC problem by coupling IP and electromagnetic induction in modeling and inversion. Examples of application of IP and SIP to contaminant mapping and detection for TDIP and SIP will be presented for FS-12 plume at Massachusetts Military Reservation and a suspected DNAPL plume at Savannah River Site.

  14. Contaminated land and groundwater management at Sellafield, a large operational site with significant legacy and contaminated land challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeve, Phil; Eilbeck, Katherine [British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sellafield is a former Royal Ordnance Factory used since the 1940's for the production and reprocessing of fissile materials. Leaks and spills from these plants and their associated waste facilities has led to radioactive contaminated ground legacy of up to 20 million m{sup 3}. Consideration of land contamination at Sellafield began in 1976, following discovery of a major leak from a waste storage silo. Over the past three decades there has been a programme of environmental monitoring and several phases of characterization. The latest phase of characterization is a pounds 10 million contract to develop second generation conceptual and numeric models. The Site Licence Company that operates the site has been subject to structural changes due to reorganizations within the British nuclear industry. There has also been a change in emphasis to place an increased importance on accelerated decommissioning. To address these challenges a new contaminated land team and contaminated land and groundwater management plan have been established. Setting and measuring performance against challenging objectives is important. The management plan has to be cognizant of the long timescales (ca. 80 years) for final remediation. Data review, collation, acquisition, analysis, and storage is critical for success. It is equally important to seize opportunities for early environmental gains. It is possible to accelerate the development and delivery of a contaminated land and groundwater management plan by using international experts. (authors)

  15. Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-Scale, Net Zero Office Building Case Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012Energy ReliabilityNews FlashesRedbird Red HabitatReduce9ersed

  16. Reducing Regulatory Burden RFI, 77 Fed. Reg. 28518 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012Energy ReliabilityNews FlashesRedbirdPetroleum, OneReducing

  17. Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Morris, M.I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D&D). In response to these goals, technical task plan (TTP) OR152002, entitled Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods, was submitted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report describes the results from the initial project tasks, which focused on the nature and extent of contaminated concrete, emerging candidate technologies, and matching of emerging technologies to concrete problems. Existing information was used to describe the nature and extent of contamination (technology logic diagrams, data bases, and the open literature). To supplement this information, personnel at various DOE sites were interviewed, providing a broad perspective of concrete contamination. Because characterization is in the initial stage at many sites, complete information is not available. Assimilation of available information into one location is helpful in identifying potential areas of concern in the future. The most frequently occurring radiological contaminants within the DOE complex are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and it daughters), and {sup 60}Co, followed closely by {sup 90}Sr and tritium, which account for {minus}30% of the total occurrence. Twenty-four percent of the contaminants were listed as unknown, indicating a lack of characterization information, and 24% were listed as other contaminants (over 100 isotopes) with less than 1% occurrence per isotope.

  18. Mechanisms for the reduction of radionuclides and other metal contaminants in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, Jon R.; Renshaw, Joanna C.; Law, Nick; May, Iain; Livens, Francis R.

    2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Many dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms can reduce the key radioactive contaminants, U and Tc from soluble high oxidation state forms to insoluble, low oxidation states forms (1). Little is known about the enzymatic mechanisms for these bioreductions. An understanding of these mechanisms is needed if these microorganisms are to be exploited in bioremediation technologies effectively and modeled accurately. G. sulfurreducens has been chosen for study because: It is an important component of subsurface biota (2); It's entire genome sequence is available (2); and A genetic system for this organism is available (3). The aims and objectives are: (1) To characterize the mechanisms of U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction in G. sulfurreducens. (2) To confirm the identity of the genes encoding the relevant reductases in this organism. (3) To determine the range of other radionuclides (Np, Pu) and key metal pollutants (Cr, Hg, Co) reduced by G. sulfurreducens. (4) To identify the roles of the U(VI) and Tc(VII) reductases in the reduction of these other key pollutants.

  19. Real-time x-ray absorption spectroscopy of uranium, iron, and manganese in contaminated sediments during bioreduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu; Tokunaga, T.K.; Wan, J.; Kim, Y.; Sutton, S.R.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.; Rao, W.

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation status of uranium in sediments is important because the solubility of this toxic and radioactive element is much greater for U(VI) than for U(IV) species. Thus, redox manipulation to promote precipitation of UO{sub 2} is receiving interest as a method to remediate U-contaminated sediments. Presence of Fe and Mn oxides in sediments at much higher concentrations than U requires understanding of their redox status as well. This study was conducted to determine changes in oxidation states of U, Fe, and Mn in U-contaminated sediments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oxidation states of these elements were measured in real-time and nondestructively using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, on sediment columns supplied with synthetic groundwater containing organic carbon (OC, 0, 3, 10, 30 and 100 mM OC as lactate) for over 400 days. In sediments supplied with OC {ge} 30 mM, 80% of the U was reduced to U(IV), with transient reoxidation at about 150 days. Mn(III,IV) oxides were completely reduced to Mn(II) in sediments infused with OC {ge} 3 mM. However, Fe remained largely unreduced in all sediment columns, showing that Fe(III) can persist as an electron acceptor in reducing sediments over long times. This result in combination with the complete reduction of all other potential electron acceptors supports the hypothesis that the reactive Fe(III) fraction was responsible for reoxidizing U(IV).

  20. Contaminated sediment removal from a spent fuel storage canal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geber, K R

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A leaking underground spent fuel transfer canal between a decommissioned reactor and a radiochemical separations building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was found to contain RCRA-hazardous and radioactive sediment. Closure of the Part B RCRA permitted facility required the use of an underwater robotic vacuum and a filtration-containment system to separate and stabilize the contaminated sediment. This paper discusses the radiological controls established to maintain contamination and exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) during the sediment removal.

  1. Method for removal of beryllium contamination from an article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Hollenbeck, Scott M.

    2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removal of beryllium contamination from an article is disclosed. The method typically involves dissolving polyisobutylene in a solvent such as hexane to form a tackifier solution, soaking the substrate in the tackifier to produce a preform, and then drying the preform to produce the cleaning medium. The cleaning media are typically used dry, without any liquid cleaning agent to rub the surface of the article and remove the beryllium contamination below a non-detect level. In some embodiments no detectible residue is transferred from the cleaning wipe to the article as a result of the cleaning process.

  2. Enhanced bioremediation of subsurface contamination: Enzyme recruitment and redesign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockman, F.J.; Ornstein, R.L.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface systems containing radionuclide, heavy metal, and organic wastes must be carefully attended to avoid further impacts to the environment or exposures to human populations. It is appropriate, therefore, to invest in basic research to develop the requisite tools and methods for addressing complex cleanup problems. The rational modification of subsurface microoganisms by enzyme recruitment and enzyme design, in concert with engineered systems for delivery of microorganisms and nutrients to the contaminated zone, are potentially useful tools in the spectrum of approaches that will be required for successful remediation of deep subsurface contamination.

  3. Apparatus for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickramanayake, Godage B. (Columbus, OH)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil in a manner adapted to decompose the organic compounds; one embodiment of the apparatus comprises a means to supply ozone as a gas-ozone mixture, a stability means to treat ozone obtained from the supply and distribution means to apply the stabilized gas-ozone to soil. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

  4. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  5. An optimizing reduced order FDS for the tropical Pacific Ocean reduced gravity model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluffi, Paolo

    An optimizing reduced order FDS for the tropical Pacific Ocean reduced gravity model Zhendong Luoa) for the tropical Pacific Ocean reduced gravity model. Ensembles of data are compiled from transient solutions computed from the discrete equation system derived by FDS for the tropical Pacific Ocean reduced gravity

  6. Running head: STEREOTYPE THREAT REDUCES MEMORY ERRORS Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Mara

    Running head: STEREOTYPE THREAT REDUCES MEMORY ERRORS Stereotype threat can reduce older adults, 90089-0191. Phone: 213-740-6772. Email: barbersa@usc.edu #12;STEREOTYPE THREAT REDUCES MEMORY ERRORS 2 Abstract (144 words) Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information

  7. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  8. Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for a Sectoral Approach AgencyCompany Organization: GTZ...

  9. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  10. Urban Design to Reduce Automobile Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Peter; Kenworthy, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transport energy and area of the city, but in terms oftransport energy (reduce the area for the city, i.e. ,

  11. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces.

  12. Reducing Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About Light-Duty Diesel Reducing Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About Light-Duty Diesel 2002 DEER Conference...

  13. Electrodic voltages accompanying stimulated bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.H.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Druhan, J.; Long, P.E.; Hubbard, S.S.; Lovley, D.R.; Banfield, J.F.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The inability to track the products of subsurface microbial activity during stimulated bioremediation has limited its implementation. We used spatiotemporal changes in electrodic potentials (EP) to track the onset and persistence of stimulated sulfate-reducing bacteria in a uranium-contaminated aquifer undergoing acetate amendment. Following acetate injection, anomalous voltages approaching -900 mV were measured between copper electrodes within the aquifer sediments and a single reference electrode at the ground surface. Onset of EP anomalies correlated in time with both the accumulation of dissolved sulfide and the removal of uranium from groundwater. The anomalies persisted for 45 days after halting acetate injection. Current-voltage and current-power relationships between measurement and reference electrodes exhibited a galvanic response, with a maximum power density of 10 mW/m{sup 2} during sulfate reduction. We infer that the EP anomalies resulted from electrochemical differences between geochemically reduced regions and areas having higher oxidation potential. Following the period of sulfate reduction, EP values ranged from -500 to -600 mV and were associated with elevated concentrations of ferrous iron. Within 10 days of the voltage decrease, uranium concentrations rebounded from 0.2 to 0.8 {mu}M, a level still below the background value of 1.5 {mu}M. These findings demonstrate that EP measurements provide an inexpensive and minimally invasive means for monitoring the products of stimulated microbial activity within aquifer sediments and are capable of verifying maintenance of redox conditions favorable for the stability of bioreduced contaminants, such as uranium.

  14. Molecular analysis of the metabolic rates of discrete subsurface populations of sulfate reducers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations, and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to environmental perturbations.

  15. Method for in situ or ex situ bioremediation of hexavalent chromium contaminated soils and/or groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.; Apel, W.W.

    1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reducing the concentration of Cr(VI) in a liquid aqueous residue comprises the steps of providing anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria, mixing the liquid aqueous residue with a nutrient medium to form a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria such that Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III). The anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria appear to be ubiquitous in soil and can be selected by collecting a soil sample, diluting the soil sample with a sterile diluent to form a diluted sample, mixing the diluted sample with an effective amount of a nutrient medium and an effective amount of Cr(VI) to form a mixture, and incubating the mixture in the substantial absence of oxygen such that growth of Cr(VI) sensitive microorganisms is inhibited and growth of the anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria is stimulated. A method of in situ bioremediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil and/or groundwater is also disclosed. 10 figs.

  16. Method for in situ or ex situ bioremediation of hexavalent chromium contaminated soils and/or groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Apel, William W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reducing the concentration of Cr(VI) in a liquid aqueous residue comprises the steps of providing anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria, mixing the liquid aqueous residue with a nutrient medium to form a mixture, and contacting the mixture with the anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria such that Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III). The anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria appear to be ubiquitous in soil and can be selected by collecting a soil sample, diluting the soil sample with a sterile diluent to form a diluted sample, mixing the diluted sample with an effective amount of a nutrient medium and an effective amount of Cr(VI) to form a mixture, and incubating the mixture in the substantial absence of oxygen such that growth of Cr(VI) sensitive microorganisms is inhibited and growth of the anaerobic Cr(VI) reducing bacteria is stimulated. A method of in situ bioremediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil and/or groundwater is also disclosed.

  17. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface flows can occur as a result of severe cattle grazing along riparian areas and deltas. Groundwater and springs also feed the lake, and are likely critical for oxygen supply during winter stratification. During the winter of 1991, Henrys Lake experienced low dissolved oxygen levels resulting in large fish kills. It is thought that thick ice cover combined with an increase in nutrient loads created conditions resulting in poor water quality. The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, DEQ is currently conducting a study to determine the water quality of Henrys Lake, the sources contributing to its deterioration, and potential remedial actions to correct problem areas.

  18. Reducing Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012Energy ReliabilityNews FlashesRedbird

  19. Identify the Problem: Reduce Waste By

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    aims to reduce waste by banning plastic bags in light of the California state law AB 2449 which Primary energy Plastic uses 23% less Paper uses 80% less Solid waste Plastic contributes 76% less AbioticIdentify the Problem: Reduce Waste By Banning Plastic Bag Use Define Goal: Is the ban the most

  20. Algorithm and simulation development in support of response strategies for contamination events in air and water systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waanders, Bart Van Bloemen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR) contamination events pose a considerable threat to our nation's infrastructure, especially in large internal facilities, external flows, and water distribution systems. Because physical security can only be enforced to a limited degree, deployment of early warning systems is being considered. However to achieve reliable and efficient functionality, several complex questions must be answered: (1) where should sensors be placed, (2) how can sparse sensor information be efficiently used to determine the location of the original intrusion, (3) what are the model and data uncertainties, (4) how should these uncertainties be handled, and (5) how can our algorithms and forward simulations be sufficiently improved to achieve real time performance? This report presents the results of a three year algorithmic and application development to support the identification, mitigation, and risk assessment of CBR contamination events. The main thrust of this investigation was to develop (1) computationally efficient algorithms for strategically placing sensors, (2) identification process of contamination events by using sparse observations, (3) characterization of uncertainty through developing accurate demands forecasts and through investigating uncertain simulation model parameters, (4) risk assessment capabilities, and (5) reduced order modeling methods. The development effort was focused on water distribution systems, large internal facilities, and outdoor areas.

  1. LIBRARY PARTITIONING FOR TARGET DETECTION IN JOINT CONTAMINATED SURFACE DETECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adali, Tulay

    that is present from the given library. For a hypothesis testing problem, there are two types of statistical error in the given library present in the mixtures; Type II error, also known as a false negative, is the errorLIBRARY PARTITIONING FOR TARGET DETECTION IN JOINT CONTAMINATED SURFACE DETECTOR Wei Wang and T

  2. Hydrogeologic investigation of petrochemical contamination at a bulk storage facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fryar, Dennis Gene

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this study was to model groundwater flow in the shallow aquifer in order to determine if the site was affected by multiple contaminant plumes, and if so, the possible source of each plume. Groundwater flow within the shallow aquifer was simulated using a two...

  3. Method for in-situ cleaning of carbon contaminated surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Grunow, Philip; Graham Jr., Samuel

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Activated gaseous species generated adjacent a carbon contaminated surface affords in-situ cleaning. A device for removing carbon contamination from a surface of the substrate includes (a) a housing defining a vacuum chamber in which the substrate is located; (b) a source of gaseous species; and (c) a source of electrons that are emitted to activate the gaseous species into activated gaseous species. The source of electrons preferably includes (i) a filament made of a material that generates thermionic electron emissions; (ii) a source of energy that is connected to the filament; and (iii) an electrode to which the emitted electrons are attracted. The device is particularly suited for photolithography systems with optic surfaces, e.g., mirrors, that are otherwise inaccessible unless the system is dismantled. A method of removing carbon contaminants from a substrate surface that is housed within a vacuum chamber is also disclosed. The method employs activated gaseous species that react with the carbon contaminants to form carbon containing gaseous byproducts.

  4. Treatability studies of groundwater contaminated with bis(2-chloroethyl) ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, F.Y.C. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mineral and Environmental Engineering] [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Mineral and Environmental Engineering; Li, K.Y.; Liu, C.C. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The groundwater aquifer underneath a chemical manufacturing plant in Southeast Texas has been contaminated with the leachate from its landfill. There are 17 major chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants found in the groundwater with concentrations ranging from 1 ppm to 1,200 ppm. An air-stripping unit followed by a thermal catalytic oxidation unit is currently operating on-site to remove all of the chlorinated compounds from the contaminated groundwater. One of the contaminants, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (DCEE), has a fairly low Henry`s Law constant; therefore, a high air flow rate is employed in the stripping unit to improve the overall stripping efficiency. Nevertheless, the treated groundwater still contains a fair amount of DCEE. An UV-peroxidation reactor is set up to study its feasibility for oxidizing DCEE. The treatability data indicate that DCEE at a concentration of 200 ppm can be oxidized effectively in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the effective UV wavelengths lie between 200 and 280 nm. No noticeable reduction of the oxidation rate is observed at low temperature ({approximately} 11 C). Apparent oxidation rate equations of DCEE are determined and several process design parameters are discussed.

  5. Submitted to Risk Management of Contaminated Sediments -International Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Submitted to Risk Management of Contaminated Sediments - International Workshop October 18, 2000/Dredged Material Management for the Port of New York and New Jersey as a Component to Port Development of an overall dredged material management plan, must be environmentally balanced and economically feasible

  6. Contaminated identities: Mercury and marginalization in Ghana's artisanal mining sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singha, Kamini

    mining; Political ecology; Ecohealth; Environmental justice; Ghana 1. Introduction Artisanal and smallContaminated identities: Mercury and marginalization in Ghana's artisanal mining sector Petra and multifaceted policy problem that underlies the current conflictual aspects in the small-scale mining sector

  7. Correcting second-order contamination in low-resolution spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Stanishev

    2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An empirical method for correcting low-resolution astronomical spectra for second-order contamination is presented. The method was developed for correcting spectra obtained with grism #4 of the ALFOSC spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope and the performance is demonstrated on spectra of two nearby bright Type Ia supernovae.

  8. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

  9. Identification of 300 Area Contaminants of Potential Concern for Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.W. Ovink

    2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the process used to identify source area contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) in support of the 300 Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan. This report also establishes the exclusion criteria applicable for 300 Area use and the analytical methods needed to analyze the COPCs.

  10. Biogeochemical Redox Processes and their Impact on Contaminant Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    reactions via the oxidation of labile organic carbon or inorganic compounds (electron donors often controls the release or sequestration of inorganic contaminants. Redox processes control Thebiogeochemicalcyclesofmanymajorandtraceelements are driven by redox processes. Examples include the cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S

  11. Activated Peroxygens for Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Environmental Engineering Section, Biotechnology and Environmental Engineering Section of Chemical Engineering CIChem Research Group Aalborg May 2011 #12;ii Activated Peroxygens for Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater Ph.D. thesis

  12. Evaluation of Automated Extraction of Organochlorine Contaminants from Freshwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    by solvent rinses of containers. Breakthrough, assessed by liquid-liquid extraction of water of SPE sample. The extraction of trace organic contaminants from environ- mental water samples has long been accomplished with appropriate solvents in separatory funnels or capped bottles. The need to extract much larger volumes of water

  13. Resource book: Decommissioning of contaminated facilities at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1942 Hanford was commissioned as a site for the production of weapons-grade plutonium. The years since have seen the construction and operation of several generations of plutonium-producing reactors, plants for the chemical processing of irradiated fuel elements, plutonium and uranium processing and fabrication plants, and other facilities. There has also been a diversification of the Hanford site with the building of new laboratories, a fission product encapsulation plant, improved high-level waste management facilities, the Fast Flux test facility, commercial power reactors and commercial solid waste disposal facilities. Obsolescence and changing requirements will result in the deactivation or retirement of buildings, waste storage tanks, waste burial grounds and liquid waste disposal sites which have become contaminated with varying levels of radionuclides. This manual was established as a written repository of information pertinent to decommissioning planning and operations at Hanford. The Resource Book contains, in several volumes, descriptive information of the Hanford Site and general discussions of several classes of contaminated facilities found at Hanford. Supplementing these discussions are appendices containing data sheets on individual contaminated facilities and sites at Hanford. Twelve appendices are provided, corresponding to the twelve classes into which the contaminated facilities at Hanford have been organized. Within each appendix are individual data sheets containing administrative, geographical, physical, radiological, functional and decommissioning information on each facility within the class. 68 refs., 54 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    Removal of Estrogenic Pollutants from Contaminated Water Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Z I H that this material may be appropriate for treating a complex mixture of estrogenic pollutants. The feasibility of removing estrogenic compounds from environmental water by the MIP was demonstrated using lake water spiked

  15. Digital MDA for enumeration of total nucleic acid contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Digital MDA for enumeration of total nucleic acid contamination Paul C. Blainey and Stephen R; Accepted October 14, 2010 ABSTRACT Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is an iso- thermal, sequence). Here we report digital MDA (dMDA), an ultrasensitive method for quantifying nucleic acid fragments

  16. Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Belli; R. Bernabei; F. Cappella; R. Cerulli; F. A. Danevich; A. M. Dubovik; S. d'Angelo; E. N. Galashov; B. V. Grinyov; A. Incicchitti; V. V. Kobychev; M. Laubenstein; L. L. Nagornaya; F. Nozzoli; D. V. Poda; R. B. Podviyanuk; O. G. Polischuk; D. Prosperi; V. N. Shlegel; V. I. Tretyak; I. A. Tupitsyna; Ya. V. Vasiliev; Yu. Ya. Vostretsov

    2010-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 -- 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopurity level of the ZnWO4 crystal scintillators is briefly addressed.

  17. Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belli, P; Cappella, F; Cerulli, R; Danevich, F A; Dubovik, A M; d'Angelo, S; Galashov, E N; Grinyov, B V; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Laubenstein, M; Nagornaya, L L; Nozzoli, F; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Polischuk, O G; Prosperi, D; Shlegel, V N; Tretyak, V I; Tupitsyna, I A; Vasiliev, Ya V; Vostretsov, Yu Ya

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 â?? 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopur...

  18. Impacts of Contaminant Storage on Indoor Air Quality: Model Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Impacts of contaminant storage on indoor air quality: Model development. Atmospheric Environment. LBNL the buffering of airborne chemical species by building materials and furnishings in the indoor environment to the time scale of depletion of the compound from the storage medium, however, the total exposure

  19. Nitrogen Contamination in Elastic Neutron Scattering Songxue Chi,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynn, Jeffrey W.

    Nitrogen Contamination in Elastic Neutron Scattering Songxue Chi,ab Jeffrey W. Lynn,a* Ying Chen a neutron scattering measurement is a contribution to the background, especially in inelastic measurements of having N2 in the sample environment system during elastic neutron scattering measurements on a single

  20. Zinc Speciation in a Smelter-Contaminated Soil Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Zinc Speciation in a Smelter-Contaminated Soil Profile Using Bulk and Microspectroscopic Techniques minerals may have been aerially deposited from the smelter operation. Microspec- troscopy detected also in increased trace metal concentrations and acidic pH values in topsoils in the vicinity of smelter facilities