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  1. From the Cold War to the War on Cancer | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    From the Cold War to the War on Cancer | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation...

  2. Early steps in the Cold War

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    steps in the Cold War We think we live in a rapidly changing world today and we do. However, that didn't just begin. Major shifts in technology that affected the entire world also occurred in the 1940's and 1950's. The atomic bomb was used to end a war, the nuclear era ushered in vast new technological advances. Change was everywhere and happening rapidly in a number of places across the globe. On August 29, 1949 the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb. This came as a shock to the United

  3. The Cold War is over. What now?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecker, S.S.

    1995-05-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  4. The Cold War is Over. What Now?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hecker, S. S.

    1995-04-01

    As you might imagine, the end of the Cold War has elicited an intense reexamination of the roles and missions of institutions such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the past few years, the entire defense establishment has undergone substantial consolidation, with a concomitant decrease in support for research and development, including in areas such as materials. The defense industry is down-sizing at a rapid pace. Even universities have experienced significant funding cutbacks from the defense community. I view this as a profound time in history, bringing changes encompassing much more than just the defense world. In fact, support for science and technology is being reexamined across the board more completely than at any other time since the end of World War II.

  5. Laboratory's role in Cold War nuclear weapons testing program...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    70th anniversary lecture Laboratory's role in Cold War nuclear weapons testing program focus of next 70th anniversary lecture Lab's role in the development of nuclear weapons ...

  6. Y-12, the Cold War, and nuclear weapons dismantlement „ Or:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Cold War, and nuclear weapons dismantlement - Or: The Cold War and nuclear weapons dismantlement (title used in The Oak Ridger) The Cold War heated up over the years with such ...

  7. US foreign policy and the CIA: A cold war retrospective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The document consists of three previously announced reports: The CIA under Truman: CIA Cold War Records (PB94-928005); The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (PB92-927906); and Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union (PB93-928112).

  8. Manhattan Project: The Cold War, 1945-1990

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    West Berliner talks to the East, Berlin Wall, November 1962 THE COLD WAR (1945-1990) Events > Postscript -- The Nuclear Age, 1945-Present Informing the Public, August 1945 The Manhattan Engineer District, 1945-1946 First Steps toward International Control, 1944-1945 Search for a Policy on International Control, 1945 Negotiating International Control, 1945-1946 Civilian Control of Atomic Energy, 1945-1946 Operation Crossroads, July 1946 The VENONA Intercepts, 1946-1980 The Cold War, 1945-1990

  9. Lab begins demolition of Cold War-era buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demolition begins of cold War-Era buildings Lab begins demolition of Cold War-era buildings More than 165,000 square feet of former research, production, and office buildings will be demolished. December 1, 2009 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National

  10. Recovery Act funds advance cleanup efforts at Cold War site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cleanup efforts at Cold War site Recovery Act funds advance cleanup efforts at Cold War site A local small business, ARSEC Environmental, LLC, of White Rock, NM, won a $2 million task order in April to perform this work. June 29, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials.

  11. Cold War | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    War | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home /

  12. On the Front Lines of the Cold War Los Alamos 1970-1992 (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: On the Front Lines of the Cold War Los Alamos 1970-1992 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the Front Lines of the Cold War Los Alamos 1970-1992 ...

  13. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part

  14. Major Cold War Cleanup Milestone Reached at the Savannah River Site |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Major Cold War Cleanup Milestone Reached at the Savannah River Site Major Cold War Cleanup Milestone Reached at the Savannah River Site March 29, 2012 - 10:37am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Energy Department announced it has reached a major milestone in the Department's efforts to clean up the Cold War legacy at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, laying the groundwork for closing two underground storage tanks that previously held radioactive liquid

  15. DOE ACHIEVES MAJOR COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE CLEANUP MILESTONE: Waste Isolation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Pilot Plant Receives 10,000th Shipment | Department of Energy ACHIEVES MAJOR COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE CLEANUP MILESTONE: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Receives 10,000th Shipment DOE ACHIEVES MAJOR COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE CLEANUP MILESTONE: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Receives 10,000th Shipment October 3, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis DOE ACHIEVES MAJOR COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE CLEANUP MILESTONE: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Receives 10,000th Shipment DOE ACHIEVES MAJOR COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE CLEANUP MILESTONE:

  16. Idaho Site Completes Demolition of Cold War-era Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Facility | Department of Energy Completes Demolition of Cold War-era Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facility Idaho Site Completes Demolition of Cold War-era Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facility December 22, 2011 - 11:12am Addthis Media Contact Erik Simpson (208) 360-0426 A gravel mound, larger than half a city block and several feet thick, is the only visible feature that remains at the site of a Cold War-era spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho site.

  17. EM’s December Newsletter Recaps Cold War Cleanup Accomplishments in 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Dec. 19, EM completed demolition of the 4.8 million-square-foot Building K-25 at Oak Ridge, a milestone that capped a busy and successful 2013 for the Cold War cleanup program.

  18. Cold War Films Yield New Effects-Data for U.S. Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Latest Issue:July 2015 past issues All Issues submit Cold War Films Yield New Effects-Data for U.S. Nuclear Weapons The rush is on to save deteriorating atmospheric ...

  19. Laboratory's role in Cold War nuclear weapons testing program focus of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next 70th anniversary lecture 70th anniversary lecture Laboratory's role in Cold War nuclear weapons testing program focus of next 70th anniversary lecture Lab's role in the development of nuclear weapons during the Cold War period will be discussed by Byron Ristvet of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. September 5, 2013 This photograph captures the expanding fireball of the world's first full-scale hydrogen bomb test, Ivy-Mike, which was conducted Oct. 31, 1952. This photograph captures

  20. The Department of Energy Announces Major Cold War Legacy Waste Cleanup

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Milestone | Department of Energy The Department of Energy Announces Major Cold War Legacy Waste Cleanup Milestone The Department of Energy Announces Major Cold War Legacy Waste Cleanup Milestone September 28, 2011 - 8:54am Addthis CARLSBAD, NM - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) received its 10,000th shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste over the weekend. This marks an important milestone in DOE's mission to clean up the country's Cold

  1. LANL Reaches Waste Shipment Milestone: Waste from Cold War-era weapons

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    production being shipped to WIPP | Department of Energy LANL Reaches Waste Shipment Milestone: Waste from Cold War-era weapons production being shipped to WIPP LANL Reaches Waste Shipment Milestone: Waste from Cold War-era weapons production being shipped to WIPP May 31, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Fred deSousa 505-665-3430 fdesousa@lanl.gov LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico - Los Alamos National Laboratory has reached an important milestone in its campaign to ship transuranic (TRU) waste from

  2. Idaho Cold War Waste Removal Advancing as Work on Eighth Area Begins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Danielle Miller, (208) 569-7806 Erik Simpson, (208) 390-9464 For Immediate Release: January 13, 2014 Idaho Cold War Waste Removal Advancing as Work on Eighth Area Begins IDAHO FALLS, ID - The U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho site cleanup contractor CH2M-WG Idaho (CWI) have begun removing Cold War weapons waste at the eighth area of the 97-acre Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The Idaho Site contains a total of nine targeted waste areas within the SDA. To date, six retrieval areas have been

  3. Idaho site completes demolition of Cold War-era nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    facility doe logo CH2M-WG logo Joint News Release For Immediate Release Date: December 22, 2011 Media Contact: Erik Simpson, (208) 360-0426 Idaho site completes demolition of Cold War-era nuclear fuel reprocessing facility A gravel mound, larger than half a city block and several feet thick, is the only visible feature that remains at the site of a Cold War-era spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility at the U.S. Department of Energy�s Idaho site. About $44 million in American Recovery

  4. The Department of Energy Announces Major Cold War Legacy Waste Cleanup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Milestone Media Contact: (208) 586-4940 For Immediate Release: September 28, 2011 The Department of Energy Announces Major Cold War Legacy Waste Cleanup Milestone Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Receives 10,000th Shipment CARLSBAD, NM - The U.S. Department of Energy today announced that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) received its 10,000th shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste over the weekend. This marks an important milestone in DOE�s mission to clean up the country�s Cold War

  5. Idaho Site’s Cold War Cleanup Takes Center Stage in Publication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – An association with more than 29,000 members featured an in-depth article on EM’s extensive Cold War legacy cleanup at the Idaho site in the current issue of its publication, The Military Engineer.

  6. TRASH TO TREASURE: CONVERTING COLD WAR LEGACY WASTE INTO WEAPONS AGAINST CANCER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas, R.G.; Lacy, N.H.; Butz, T.R.; Brandon, N.E.

    2004-10-06

    As part of its commitment to clean up Cold War legacy sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an exciting and unique project to dispose of its inventory of uranium-233 (233U) stored at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and extract isotopes that show great promise in the treatment of deadly cancers. In addition to increasing the supply of potentially useful medical isotopes, the project will rid DOE of a nuclear concern and cut surveillance and security costs. For more than 30 years, DOE's ORNL has stored over 1,200 containers of fissile 233U, originally produced for several defense-related projects, including a pilot study that looked at using 233U as a commercial reactor fuel. This uranium, designated as special nuclear material, requires expensive security, safety, and environmental controls. It has been stored at an ORNL facility, Building 3019A, that dates back to the Manhattan Project. Down-blending the material to a safer form, rather than continuing to store it, will eliminate a $15 million a year financial liability for the DOE and increase the supply of medical isotopes by 5,700 percent. During the down-blending process, thorium-229 (229Th) will be extracted. The thorium will then be used to extract actinium-225 (225Ac), which will ultimately supply its progeny, bismuth-213 (213Bi), for on-going cancer research. The research includes Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia at Sloan-Kettering Memorial Cancer Center in New York, as well as other serious cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys using a technique known as alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy. Alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy is based on the emission of alpha particles by radionuclides. 213Bi is attached to a monoclonal antibody that targets specific cells. The bismuth then delivers a high-powered but short-range radiation dose, effectively killing the cancerous cells but sparing the surrounding tissue. Production of the actinium and bismuth would be a private venture at no cost to the government. Isotek Systems, LLC, was commissioned by the DOE to execute the project, known as the 233U Disposition, Medical Isotope Production, and Building 3019 Complex Shutdown Project. Isotek is a partnership between Duratek Federal Services, Burns and Roe Enterprises, and Nuclear Fuel Services. By pooling their pioneering experiences in nuclear engineering and design, nuclear recycling, and waste management, the partnership has developed a novel process to meet this clean-up milestone. The project is not only important for its cancer treatment potential, but also for setting the stage for reducing global threats through the down-blending of materials.

  7. Bridging the Cold War and the 21st century: chronicling the history of Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mora, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    A historical perspective is given for Sandia National Laboratories from its beginnings as a small engineering group at an offshoot of Los Alamos Laboratory to a facility of 7000 people at its main facility in Albuquerque, another 1000 people in Livermore, California and test ranges in Tonopah, Nevada and Kauai, Hawaii. The Sandia army base became the Z division of Los Alamos and $25 million construction program began the structures that would carry out a test program for nuclear weapons during the cold war. Bell System/AT&T stewardship of the site continued from 1949 to 1993, when Martin Marietta (now Lockheed Martin) was chosen as the new contractor. Management decisions, personnel, and political aspects of the Laboratory are presented up to 1997 and forecasts are given for future policy and programs of Sandia.

  8. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  9. Energy security in the post-Cold War era: Identifying future courses for crises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, M.T.; Wise, J.A.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Shaw, B.R.; Seely, H.E.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    This paper addresses US energy security in the post-Cold War era for a conference on energy security jointly sponsored by the Department of Energy and the National Defense University. It examines the evolving nature of energy security based on analysis of past crisis-inducing events and-discusses potentially important geopolitical, environmental, regulatory, and economic developments during the next twenty-five years. The paper steps beyond the traditional economic focus of energy security issues to examine the interplay between fundamental economic and technical drivers on the one hand, and political, environmental, and perceptual phenomena, on the other hand, that can combine to create crises where none were expected. The paper expands on the premise that the recent demise of the Soviet Union and other changing world conditions have created a new set of energy dynamics, and that it is imperative that the United States revise its energy security perspective accordingly. It proceeds by reviewing key factors that comprise the concepts of ``energy security`` and ``energy crisis`` and how they may fit into the new world energy security equation. The study also presents a series of crisis scenarios that could develop during the next twenty-five years, paying particular attention to mechanisms and linked crisis causes and responses. It concludes with a discussion of factors that may serve to warn analysts and decision makers of impending future crises conditions. The crisis scenarios contained in this report should be viewed only as a representative sample of the types of situations that could occur. They serve to illustrate the variety of factors that can coalesce to produce a ``crisis.``

  10. Reducing cold-start emissions by catalytic converter thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A; Brady, M J; Michaels, K F

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m{sup 2}K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146{degrees}C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27{degrees}C. Compared to the same converter at ambient conditions, overall emissions of CO and HC were reduced by 52 % and 29 %, to 0.27 and 0.037 g/mile, respectively. The maximum converter temperature during the FTP cycle was 720{degrees}C. This limited testing was performed with a nearly-fresh palladium-only catalyst, but demonstrates the potential of this vacuum insulation approach for emissions reduction and thermal control. Further testing is ongoing. An initial assessment of several production issues is made, including high-volume fabrication challenges, durability, and cost.

  11. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Report to Congress was prepared pursuant to section 3130 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2008, and summarized the EM program and initiatives to accelerate the reduction of environmental risks and challenges posed by the legacy of the Cold War.

  12. The Cold War approaches and Y-12s workload grows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    approaches and Y-12's workload grows Many changes took place after the end of World War II in August, 1945. Y-12's population went from 22,000 workers in August, 1945 to a mere 1,500 in 1950. The transition from the Manhattan Project to the Atomic Energy Commission occurred in January, 1947. Y-12's uranium separation mission went away in December 1946. Yet, one thing remained constant - Y-12 still remained a central figure in the production of nuclear weapons. As early as October, 1945, Y-12 was

  13. Status of Environmental Management Initiatives to Accelerate the Reduction of Environmental Risks and Challenges Posed by the Legacy of the Cold War

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years of nuclear weapons production and energy research in the United States during the Cold War generated large amounts of radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), excess plutonium and uranium, thousands of contaminated facilities, and contaminated soil and groundwater. During most of that half century, the Nation did not have the environmental regulatory structure or nuclear waste cleanup technologies that exist today. The result was a legacy of nuclear waste that was stored and disposed of in ways now considered unacceptable. Cleaning up and ultimately disposing of these wastes is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In 1989, DOE established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to solve the large scale and technically challenging risks posed by the world's largest nuclear cleanup. This required EM to build a new nuclear cleanup infrastructure, assemble and train a technically specialized workforce, and develop the technologies and tools required to safely decontaminate, disassemble, stabilize, disposition, and remediate unique radiation hazards. The sites where nuclear activities produced legacy waste and contamination include the original Manhattan Project sites--Los Alamos, New Mexico; Hanford, Washington; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee--as well as major Cold War sites, such as Savannah River Site, South Carolina; the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho; Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado; and Fernald, Ohio. Today EM has responsibility for nuclear cleanup activities at 21 sites covering more than two million acres in 13 states, and employs more than 30,000 Federal and contractor employees, including scientists, engineers and hazardous waste technicians. This cleanup poses unique, technically complex problems, which must be solved under the most hazardous of conditions, and which will require billions of dollars a year for several more decades. The EM program focus during its first 10 years was on managing the most urgent risks and maintaining safety at each site while negotiating state and Federal environmental compliance agreements. The program also concentrated on characterizing waste and nuclear materials and assessing the magnitude and extent of environmental contamination. By the late 1990s, EM had made significant progress in identifying and characterizing the extent of contamination and cleanup required and began transitioning from primarily a characterization and stabilization program to an active cleanup and closure program. During that time, EM formulated multi-year cleanup and closure plans, which contributed to cleanup progress; however, reducing the overall environmental risk associated with the cleanup program remained a challenge. In response, the Secretary of Energy directed a review of the EM program be undertaken. The resulting 'Top-to Bottom Review' re-directed the program focus from managing risks to accelerating the reduction of these risks.

  14. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  15. From Cold War to cold vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melrath, C.

    1996-09-01

    This article describes a former Soviet weapons plant which is converted to produce cryogenic vessels and other peaceful cylinders. In 1995, Byelocorp Scientific Inc. (BSI), a New York-based firm that specializes in transferring technologies developed in the former Soviet Union, began converting a huge military defense plant in Kazakhstan into civilian-industrial use. The nearly 750,000-square-foot factory in Almaty, the capital of the former Soviet republic, was previously used to manufacture torpedo shells and ballistic rocket casings. The old defense plant, which was known as Gidromash, will now manufacture cylinders of a kinder, gentler variety--cryogenic vessels. The Kazakhstan operation is being managed jointly with Supco Srl., an Italian manufacturing, engineering, and construction company. With financing from the US Department of Defense, BSI, Supco, and the Kazakhstan government, a new joint venture called Byelkamit (a combination of Byelocorp, Kazakhstan, America, and Italy) was established.

  16. Recovery Act Workers Remediate and Restore Former Waste Sites, Help Reduce

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cold War Footprint | Department of Energy Remediate and Restore Former Waste Sites, Help Reduce Cold War Footprint Recovery Act Workers Remediate and Restore Former Waste Sites, Help Reduce Cold War Footprint The Hanford Site is looking greener these days after American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers revegetated 166 acres across 12 waste sites, planting over 1,100 pounds of seeds and about 280,000 pounds of mulch. The largest of the sites, known as the BC Control Area, is an

  17. Thermostat Wars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The other day, I was visiting a friend's office and noticed something you may have noticed yourself: his building had a variety of micro-climates, ranging from the furnace hot to the freezing cold.

  18. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  19. The Cold War comes to Y-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on August 6, 1945 when the first atomic bomb used in warfare was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. The material in that bomb came from Y-12. Oak Ridger's learned for the first time...

  20. War Ends | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    War Ends War Ends Local newspapers declare "War Ends"

  1. PR_NA-03-13_FromColdWartoWaronCancer-PETRussia_10-03_.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Bryan Wilkes October 28, 2003 202-586-7371 From the Cold War to the War on Cancer NNSA-sponsored program to employ Russian scientists in cancer treatment facility WASHINGTON, D.C....

  2. World War II

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    loved ones, viewing photographs and documents with Truman Library historians and listening to WWII veteran Max DeWeese reminisce about his experience in the war.

  3. End of War | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    End of War End of War Crowd celebrates end of war

  4. Civil War Unplugged | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Civil War Unplugged Featured In Jefferson Lab Spring Science Series Lecture NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Feb.12, 2008 - Discover how sounds affected the outcome of battles during the Civil War when the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab presents a public lecture dubbed "The Civil War Unplugged" in late March. The Civil War Unplugged: The Impact of Battlefield Acoustics An often-overlooked component of a battlefield - sound - will be discussed by Dr. Chuck Ross, Longwood University, Va., on

  5. cold standby

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cold Standby Program at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE/IG-0634 December 2003 Program Results and Cost Details of Finding ...................................................................... 1 Recommendations and Comments ........................................... 5 Appendices Prior Reports .............................................................................. 7 Objective, Scope, and Methodology .......................................... 8 Management Comments

  6. ATOMS PEACE WAR Eisenhower

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ATOMS PEACE WAR Eisenhower and the Atomic Energy Commission Richard G. Hewlett and lack M. Roll With a Foreword by Richard S. Kirkendall and an Essay on Sources by Roger M. Anders University of California Press Berkeley Los Angeles London Published 1989 by the University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England Prepared by the Atomic Energy Commission; work made for hire. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

  7. Type IV COPV Cold Gas Operation Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Type IV COPV Cold Gas Operation Challenges DAVID W. GOTTHOLD November 30, 2015 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Cold Gas Motivation and Challenges November 30, 2015 2 200 K H 2 Lower pressure Higher density H 2 CGO ~25% CF savings Cost Savings from reduced CF use Cold gas operation allows for reduced pressures for the same volume for significant CF and cost reductions. Materials properties change significantly at cold gas temperatures and must be studied. Example: HDPE DBT ~ 200 K Higher

  8. Y-12s takes on the Cold War

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    era of constant low-grade fear and worry punctuated by unforgettable moments of sheer terror." Salman describes the powerful position the Soviet Union seemed to hold when Nikita...

  9. The Department of Energy Announces Major Cold War Legacy Waste...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tires, was needed to transport the concrete hot cell structure to the landfill and a D9 Cat was used to tow the truck and trailer up a slight incline at the final end of the...

  10. Lab begins demolition of Cold War-era buildings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    something this morning that has not happened since the late 1940s," said Isaac "Ike" Richardson, the Lab's deputy director. "The Los Alamos skyline is starting to change." More...

  11. The Power of Choice ? Cold War Patriots Day of Remembrance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and went to the messy hole in the floor and with his bare hands and that small amount of water, he cleaned the feces from the floor and the hole. The rest of the prisoners grew...

  12. Summer Fellow Explores EM’s Cold War Cleanup

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jared Woods graduates from the Maine Maritime Academy (MMA) next month with the experience of an adventurous summer as a fellow in the DOE Scholars Program, an opportunity to explore the agency’s careers and learn about its mission and operations.

  13. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE COLD WAR HISTORIC PROPERTY DOCUMENTATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NRHP eligible buildings in A Area. The resulting narrative is based on field analysis, oral history, primary documentation and research. New South Associates prepared the...

  14. Recovery Act funds advance cleanup efforts at Cold War site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    historic Technical Area 21. "These buildings served their purpose during a difficult time in American history," said LANL Recovery Act cleanup director Bruce Schappell. "It's...

  15. The Power of Choice ? Cold War Patriots Day of Remembrance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Y-12 New Hope Center on October 28, 2011. This facility is provided by the Y-12 National Security Complex to 501 (C) 3 organizations (a damage deposit of 500 is required) to use...

  16. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE COLD WAR HISTORIC PROPERTY DOCUMENTATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...42 DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY AND NAVAL FUELS PROGRAM ...44 REACTOR SHUTDOWNS AND DU PONT'S DEPARTURE...

  17. Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This report described each step in the cycle of nuclear weapons production and defined for the first time a planned disposition path for all waste streams generated prior to 1992 ...

  18. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  19. Carbon War Room | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    War Room Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon War Room Place: Washington, DC Number of Employees: 1-10 Website: www.carbonwarroom.com Coordinates: 38.8951118, -77.0363658...

  20. World War II | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    at NNSA Blog Home World War II World War II Keeping the "Spirit of '45 Alive" in Kansas City National Security Campus employees commemorated the 70th anniversary of the end...

  1. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  2. Cold air systems: Sleeping giant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, C.D. )

    1994-04-01

    This article describes how cold air systems help owners increase the profits from their buildings by reducing electric costs and improving indoor air quality through lower relative humidity levels. Cold air distribution involves energy savings, cost savings, space savings, greater comfort, cleaner air, thermal storage, tighter ducting, coil redesign, lower relative humidities, retrofitting, and improved indoor air quality (IAQ). It opens a door for architects, engineers, owners, builders, environmentalists, retrofitters, designers, occupants, and manufacturers. Three things have held up cold air's usage: multiple fan-powered boxes that ate up the energy savings of primary fans. Cold air room diffusers that provided inadequate comfort. Condensation from ducts, boxes, and diffusers. Such problems have been largely eliminated through research and development by utilities and manufacturers. New cold air diffusers no longer need fan powered boxes. It has also been found that condensation is not a concern so long as the ducts are located in air conditioned space, such as drop ceilings or central risers, where relative humidity falls quickly during morning startup.

  3. WAR DEPARTaMMeNT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    i ..I WAR DEPARTaMMeNT Imentory~at ~etnl Bydridaa aa of 2i Js+ua?y is 20 toxss Bozml. .' imsntary Of 10 t0z.w allc7fs 10 tom as BX0683. p 5 Production of heels at Ravsre Coppsr & Brass Com_saay: ~ ExLrwion ia axpested to continua at 30 tons par waskand, whioh _ ..-,:~ is squix&mt to 130 tons per average nonth.Bcri;lg Febrmryx ht is estiziited ~.;'i thxt extrusionail be 6% on old specification bilf&a snd 30;; on nsv billets. It is estixstad or:ly nsa apasifioatim billets will be

  4. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  5. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  6. The strategic offense initiative? The Soviets and Star Wars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwick, Peter J.

    2014-05-09

    Historians of the Cold War have paid too little attention to Soviet fears of 'space-strike weapons' - that is, possible offensive uses of President Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative. In fifteen years or so, soldiers will no longer shoot rifles but will use some kind of lightning, some sort of a machine emitting a holocaustal electrical beam. Tell me, what can we invent in this line so as to surprise our neighbors?... Alas, we are only capable of imitating and purchasing weapons from others, and we do well if we manage to repair them ourselves. --Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer's Diary, 1873. [Khlinov, a physicist]: 'I know that he has made an important discovery concerning the transmission of infra-red rays over a distance.... Heat waves at a temperature of a thousand degrees centigrade transmitted parallel to each other constitute a monstrous weapon of destruction and defense in time of war. The whole secret lies in the transmission of a ray that does not disperse. So far nobody has been able to do this. Judging by your story, Garin has constructed a machine that will do it. If so it is an extremely important discovery.' 'I've been thinking for a long time that this invention smells of higher politics,' said Shelga. --Aleksei Tolstoy, The Garin Death Ray, 1927 (translated by George Hanna)

  7. Intersecting Cold Pools: Convective Cloud Organization by Cold...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intersecting Cold Pools: Convective Cloud Organization by Cold Pools over Tropical Ocean For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.gov...

  8. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  9. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  10. Cold Weather Hazards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Cold Weather Hazards June 2010 NSA_cwh_Rev10.doc 1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility/ North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (ACRF/NSA/AAO) Cold Weather Hazards Winter Conditions at the North Slope of Alaska The North Slope of Alaska is north of the Arctic Circle at latitudes ranging from 69 to 72 degrees. Barrow, the largest town on the North Slope (pop. 4500), is the site of a National Weather Service Station, which has been active for several decades, so the

  11. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  12. Cold spray nozzle design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  13. Cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alex; Volotskova, Olga; Ann Stepp, Mary; Srinivasan, Priya; Sandler, Anthony; Trink, Barry

    2013-05-15

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. This paper outlines recent progress in understanding of cold plasma physics as well as application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer therapy. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were developed recently in a quest to understand physics of CAP. It was established that the streamer head charge is about 10{sup 8} electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 10{sup 7} V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of CAP action on cancer were performed. It was shown that the cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in-vitro without damaging normal cells and significantly reduces tumor size in-vivo. Studies indicate that the mechanism of action of cold plasma on cancer cells is related to generation of reactive oxygen species with possible induction of the apoptosis pathway. It is also shown that the cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of CAP because a greater percentage of cells are in the S phase of the cell cycle.

  14. The Energy of Star Wars: A Google+ Hangout | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Energy of Star Wars: A Google+ Hangout The Energy of Star Wars: A Google+ Hangout Addthis

  15. Radial cold trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grundy, Brian R. (Greensburg, PA)

    1981-01-01

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume.

  16. Radial cold trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grundy, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume. 2 figs.

  17. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  18. Post World War II missions emerge for Y-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Post World War II missions emerge for Y-12 During the period immediately after World War II, Y-12 underwent tremendous change. A location built for one purpose alone - that being to separate uranium 235 for the world's first atomic bomb actually used in war - had done that mission and done it well. The war was over! But little time was actually taken for celebration of Y-12's achievement, rather the focus was on the winning of the war, not precisely how it was done. Oh, there was the

  19. Architectural Framework for Addressing Legacy Waste from the Cold War - 13611

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Gregory A.; Glazner, Christopher G.; Steckley, Sam

    2013-07-01

    We present an architectural framework for the use of a hybrid simulation model of enterprise-wide operations used to develop system-level insight into the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) environmental cleanup of legacy nuclear waste at the Savannah River Site. We use this framework for quickly exploring policy and architectural options, analyzing plans, addressing management challenges and developing mitigation strategies for DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM). The socio-technical complexity of EM's mission compels the use of a qualitative approach to complement a more a quantitative discrete event modeling effort. We use this model-based analysis to pinpoint pressure and leverage points and develop a shared conceptual understanding of the problem space and platform for communication among stakeholders across the enterprise in a timely manner. This approach affords the opportunity to discuss problems using a unified conceptual perspective and is also general enough that it applies to a broad range of capital investment/production operations problems. (authors)

  20. The Cold War ends ... now what? | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production stopped. Some builds were stopped before completion," said Tom Fisher, director of Stockpile Programs. Y-12's massive 24-hour-a-day, five-day-a-week...

  1. Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production Processes to Their Environmental Consequences

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report described each step in the cycle of nuclear weapons production and defined for the first time a planned disposition path for all waste streams generated prior to 1992 as a result of weapons production.

  2. A Cold War Battlefield: Frenchman Flat Historic District, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, William Gray; Holz, Barbara A; Jones, Robert

    2000-08-01

    This report provides the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office with the documentation necessary to establish the Frenchman Flat Historic District on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It includes a list of historic properties that contribute to the eligibility of the district for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and provides contextual information establishing its significance. The list focuses on buildings, structures and features associated with the period of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS between 1951 and 1962. A total of 157 locations of buildings and structures were recorded of which 115 are considered to be eligible for the NRHP. Of these, 28 have one or more associated features which include instrumentation supports, foundations, etc. The large majority of contributing structures are buildings built to study the blast effects of nuclear weaponry. This has resulted in a peculiar accumulation of deteriorated structures that, unlike most historic districts, is best represented by those that are the most damaged. Limitations by radiological control areas, surface exposure and a focus on the concentration of accessible properties on the dry lake bed indicate additional properties exist which could be added to the district on a case-by-case basis.

  3. Peregrinations on cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, L.

    1989-01-01

    Attention is focused on the possibility of resonance-enhanced deuteron Coulomb barrier penetration. Because of the many-body nature of the interactions of room-temperature deuterons diffusing through a lattice possessing deuterons in many of the interstitial positions, the diffusing deuterons can resonate on the atomic scale in the potential wells bounded by the ascending walls of adjacent Coulomb barriers and thereby penetrate the Coulomb barriers in a fashion vastly underestimated by two-body calculations in which wells for possible resonance are absent. Indeed, perhaps the lack of robust reproducibility in cold fusion originates from the narrowness of such transmission resonances. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Solid Cold - A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Celebrating Einstein "Solid Cold" By the early 20th century, the way in which temperatures of solid objects changed as they absorbed heat was considered strong evidence that matter was not made of atoms. Einstein used some recent discoveries about light to turn this assessment around. A B C D E F A. A puzzle, and a surprising solution Take equal masses of lead and aluminum. Heat them until their temperatures are both 10 degrees higher. Will it take the same amount of heat for each?

  5. Cold isopressing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Stawisuck, Valerie M. (North Tonawanda, NY); Prasad, Ravi (East Amherst, NY)

    2003-01-01

    A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

  6. Civil War Icon Becomes National Clean Energy Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly a century and a half after the first shots of the Civil War, Fort Sumter National Monument is poised to become a national model for clean energy.

  7. LPG dealers, manufacturers report diverse effects of recession and war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1991-01-01

    The author presents a survey of LPG marketers. The effects of the Persian Gulf War and U.S. recession on the LPG industry are discussed.

  8. War curbs oil exports by Iran and Iraq

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-29

    A discussion of the effects of the war between Iran and Iraq on oil exports from the area covers damage (extent unknown) to the Abadan, Iran, and Basra, Iraq, oil refineries, to the Iraqi petrochemical complex under construction at Basra, to oil export terminals at Kharg Island and Mina-al-Bakr, and to other oil facilities; war-caused reductions in oil production, refining, shipping, and export, estimated at 2.05-3.35 million bbl/day; the possible effects of the war on OPEC's decisions concerning oil production and pricing; the significance of the Strait of Hormuz for the export of oil by several countries in addition to the belligerents; the U.S. and non-Communist oil stocks which might enable the world to avoid an oil shortage if the war is ended in the near future; and the long-term effects of the war on Iran's and Iraq's oil industries.

  9. The Gulf War and the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Baz, F. (ed.) (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Center for Remote Sensing); Makharita, R.M. (ed.) (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The Gulf War inflicted dramatic environmental damage upon the fragile desert and shore environments of Kuwait and northeastern Saudi Arabia. Coastal and marine environments experienced oil spills of more than 8 million barrels, which killed wildlife and damaged the fishing industry. In inland Kuwait, hundreds of oil lakes are scattered across the desert surface: these lakes emit noxious gases, drown insects and birds, and may seep to pollute groundwater. Exploding and burning oil wells released soot particles, oil droplets, and noxious chemicals into the atmosphere, spreading air pollution, acid rain, and respiratory problems. Military diggings, constructions, and vehicles have destroyed much of the desert pavement, resulting in increased dust storms and large, moving dunes.

  10. Pressure field study of the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebaner, A.L.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2003-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/sec of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/sec. Operating speeds are between 40 and 95 krpm, with a speed of 80 krpm at the design point. Different heat loads and magnet quench performance of each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators dictates different process pressure and flow rates of the cold compressors. Reducing the process flow rate can cause the centrifugal cold compressor to stop pumping and subsequently surge. Tests have been conducted at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab to map the pressure field and appropriate efficiency of the IHI hydrodynamic cold compressor. The information allows tuning of each of the twenty-four Tevatron satellite refrigerators to avoid cold compressor operation near the surge and choke lines. A new impeller has also been tested. The Tevatron cold compressor pressure field and efficiency data with the new impeller are presented in this paper.

  11. Guides and Case Studies for Cold and Very Cold Climates | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Cold and Very Cold Climates Guides and Case Studies for Cold and Very Cold Climates Map of the Cold & Very Cold Zones of the United States. The far tips of North Dakota, Maine, and southern Alaska are shown as Very Cold. The northern half of the United States is shown as Cold. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America program has developed a best practice guide and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in homes found in cold and very

  12. Our Role in the War on Cancer | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Our Role in the War on Cancer Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on...

  13. Cold Test Facility - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects & Facilities Cold Test Facility About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact Us 100 Area 118-K-1 Burial Ground 200 Area 222-S Laboratory 242-A Evaporator 300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area Canyon Facilities Cold Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment Facility Environmental

  14. Capping blowouts from Iran's eight-year war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayers, B. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on capping blowouts from Iran's eight year war. Fires in three Iranian wells (two oil, one gas), started during 1987 by Iraqi sabotage, finally were extinguished during the last several months of 1990. Burning during the final months of the countries' eight-year war, plus another subsequent peaceful two years, the fires consumed millions of barrels of oil and billions of cubic feet of gas before they were capped. Ironically, bringing the wells under control took relatively little time.

  15. Semiautomatic cold wire feeder systems increase GTA productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, M. )

    1995-01-01

    Often, the focus of attempts to increase GTA welding productivity is on studies to determine if justification exists for additional workstations, or for the investment in new fully automated dedicated welding fixtures. Often less costly and simpler solutions can bring about the necessary means to increase production rates and reduce operating costs. For short-run production applications, it is almost impossible to justify the substantial investment in a dedicated automatic fixture. Now, low cost GTA cold wire feeder systems are within the reach of even small shops. The paper views how cold wire equipment has been applied in several GTAW applications to improve results.

  16. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denny, Edward C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  17. World War II role of Oak Ridge National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    War II role of Oak Ridge National Lab featured in second 70th anniversary lecture February 4, 2013 Shared national security mission with Los Alamos highlighted LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO, February 4, 2013-Los Alamos National Laboratory continues its 70th anniversary lecture series at the Bradbury Science Museum at 5:30 p.m., Feb. 13 with a talk by Y-12 National Security Complex historian Ray Smith about that laboratory's role during World War II and the shared national security mission with Los

  18. Manhattan Project: The Manhattan Project and the Second World War,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1939-1945 Oak Ridgers celebrate V-J Day THE MANHATTAN PROJECT AND THE SECOND WORLD WAR (1939-1945) Events > Dawn of the Atomic Era, 1945 The War Enters Its Final Phase, 1945 Debate Over How to Use the Bomb, Late Spring 1945 The Trinity Test, July 16, 1945 Safety and the Trinity Test, July 1945 Evaluations of Trinity, July 1945 Potsdam and the Final Decision to Bomb, July 1945 The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima, August 6, 1945 The Atomic Bombing of Nagasaki, August 9, 1945 Japan Surrenders,

  19. Manhattan Project: The War Enters Its Final Phase, 1945

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    American troops approaching the beach, D-Day, June 6, 1944. THE WAR ENTERS ITS FINAL PHASE (1945) Events > Dawn of the Atomic Era, 1945 The War Enters Its Final Phase, 1945 Debate Over How to Use the Bomb, Late Spring 1945 The Trinity Test, July 16, 1945 Safety and the Trinity Test, July 1945 Evaluations of Trinity, July 1945 Potsdam and the Final Decision to Bomb, July 1945 The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima, August 6, 1945 The Atomic Bombing of Nagasaki, August 9, 1945 Japan Surrenders, August

  20. In Climatic Tug of War, Carbon From Thawing Permafrost Wins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Climatic Tug of War, Carbon From Thawing Permafrost Wins In Climatic Tug of War, Carbon From Thawing Permafrost Wins Earth System Model Simulations Run at NERSC Show Lopsided Results March 18, 2015 Contact: Dan Krotz, dakrotz@lbl.gov, 510-486-4019 Permafrost Zonal-mean C fluxes for transient, fully-forced, coupled C-N run with decomposable deep C. Net high latitude fluxes associated with permafrost thaw persist long after the thaw has occurred and are on same order as tropical C uptake due to

  1. Current Status of the WArP Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szelc, A. M.

    2009-04-17

    The WArP Collaboration is getting ready to run the WArP 100 liter detector in the Underground laboratory in Gran Sasso, Italy. The new detector, scheduled to run in 2008, should improve the current sensitivity limits by a factor of 10. Meanwhile, an active R and D program is being conducted. The highlights of this program, namely the runs with Argon depleted in the radioactive isotope {sup 39}Ar currently in preparation and the measurements of the effects of contamination with Nitrogen and Oxygen on the Liquid Argon effective light yield will be presented as well as the current status of the 100 liter detector.

  2. PROGRESS IN REDUCING THE NUCLEAR THREAT: UNITED STATES PLUTONIUM CONSOLIDATION AND DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allender, J.; Koenig, R.; Davies, S.

    2009-06-01

    Following the end of the Cold War, the United States identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium and larger quantities of enriched uranium that are permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs. The Department of Energy (DOE) also began shutting down, stabilizing, and removing inventories from production facilities that were no longer needed to support weapons programs and non-weapons activities. The storage of 'Category I' nuclear materials at Rocky Flats, Sandia National Laboratories, and several smaller sites has been terminated to reduce costs and safeguards risks. De-inventory continues at the Hanford site and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Consolidation of inventories works in concert with the permanent disposition of excess inventories, including several tonnes of plutonium that have already been disposed to waste repositories and the preparation for transfers to the planned Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (for the bulk of the excess plutonium) and alternative disposition methods for material that cannot be used readily in the MOX fuel cycle. This report describes status of plutonium consolidation and disposition activities and their impacts on continuing operations, particularly at the Savannah River Site.

  3. Quantum Theory for Cold Avalanche Ionization in Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, H. X.; Zu, X. T.; Xiang, X.; Sun, K.

    2010-09-10

    A theory of photon-assisted impact ionization in solids is presented. Our theory makes a quantum description of the new impact ionization--cold avalanche ionization recently reported by P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083001 (2009)]. The present theory agrees with the experiments and can be reduced to the traditional impact ionization expression in the absence of a laser.

  4. Los Alamos turns its nuclear weapons power to war on cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos turns its nuclear weapons power to war on cancer Los Alamos turns its nuclear weapons power to war on cancer Los Alamos Physicist Eva Birnbaum shows how the laboratory ...

  5. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash anealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  6. Method of manufacturing metallic products such as sheet by cold working and flash annealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A metallic alloy composition is manufactured into products such as press formed or stamped products or rolled products such as sheet, strip, rod, wire or band by one or more cold working steps with intermediate or final flash annealing. The method can include cold rolling an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide alloy and annealing the cold worked product in a furnace by infrared heating. The flash annealing is preferably carried out by rapidly heating the cold worked product to an elevated temperature for less than one minute. The flash annealing is effective to reduce surface hardness of the cold worked product sufficiently to allow further cold working. The product to be cold worked can be prepared by casting the alloy or by a powder metallurgical technique such as tape casting a mixture of metal powder and a binder, roll compacting a mixture of the powder and a binder or plasma spraying the powder onto a substrate. In the case of tape casting or roll compaction, the initial powder product can be heated to a temperature sufficient to remove volatile components. The method can be used to form a cold rolled sheet which is formed into an electrical resistance heating element capable of heating to 900.degree. C. in less than 1 second when a voltage up to 10 volts and up to 6 amps is passed through the heating element.

  7. International workshop on cold neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, G.J.; West, C.D. )

    1991-08-01

    The first meeting devoted to cold neutron sources was held at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on March 5--8, 1990. Cosponsored by Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories, the meeting was organized as an International Workshop on Cold Neutron Sources and brought together experts in the field of cold-neutron-source design for reactors and spallation sources. Eighty-four people from seven countries attended. Because the meeting was the first of its kind in over forty years, much time was spent acquainting participants with past and planned activities at reactor and spallation facilities worldwide. As a result, the meeting had more of a conference flavor than one of a workshop. The general topics covered at the workshop included: Criteria for cold source design; neutronic predictions and performance; energy deposition and removal; engineering design, fabrication, and operation; material properties; radiation damage; instrumentation; safety; existing cold sources; and future cold sources.

  8. Cleaning up the Legacy of the Cold War: Plutonium Oxides and the Role of Synchrotron Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-21

    The deceptively simple binary formula of AnO2 belies an incredibly complex structural nature, and propensity to form mixed-valent, nonstoichiometric phases of composition AnO2x. For plutonium, the very formation of PuO2+x has challenged a long-established dogma, and raised fundamental questions for long-term storage and environmental migration. This presentation covers two aspects of Los Alamos synchrotron radiation studies of plutonium oxides: (1) the structural chemistry of laboratory-prepared AnO2+x systems (An = U, Pu; 0 ? x ? 0.25) determined through a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and x-ray scattering of laboratory prepared samples; and (2) the application of synchrotron radiation towards the decontamination and decommissioning of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Making the case for particle transport mechanisms as the basis of plutonium and americium mobility, rather than aqueous sorption-desorption processes, established a successful scientific basis for the dominance of physical transport processes by wind and water. The scientific basis was successful because it was in agreement with general theory on insolubility of PuO2 in oxidation state IV, results of ultrafiltration analyses of field water/sediment samples, XAFS analyses of soil, sediment, and concrete samples, and was also in general agreement with on-site monitoring data. This understanding allowed Site contractors to rapidly move to application of soil erosion and sediment transport models as the means of predicting plutonium and americium transport, which led to design and application of site-wide soil erosion control technology to help control downstream concentrations of plutonium and americium in streamflow.

  9. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, P.

    1991-10-15

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

  10. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

  11. Hewlett and Holl - Atoms for Peace and War | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Holl - Atoms for Peace and War Hewlett and Holl - Atoms for Peace and War Richard G. Hewlett and Jack M. Holl. Atoms for Peace and War: The Eisenhower Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission, Volume III. Text in each PDF is fully searchable. PDF icon HewlettandHollAtomsforPeaceandWarComplete.pdf PDF icon HewlettandHollAtomsforPeaceandWarPicturesOnly.pdf More Documents & Publications A History of the Atomic Energy Commission Hewlett and

  12. R-Cold: Order (2013-CE-5354)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered R-Cold, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding R-Cold had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler or freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  13. Gauss Sum Factorization with Cold Atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilowski, M.; Wendrich, T.; Mueller, T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M. [Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Jentsch, Ch. [Astrium GmbH-Satellites, 88039 Friedrichshafen (Germany); Schleich, W. P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2008-01-25

    We report the first implementation of a Gauss sum factorization algorithm by an internal state Ramsey interferometer using cold atoms. A sequence of appropriately designed light pulses interacts with an ensemble of cold rubidium atoms. The final population in the involved atomic levels determines a Gauss sum. With this technique we factor the number N=263193.

  14. Afghan Sees Opportunity in Nation's Recovery from War - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Afghan Sees Opportunity in Nation's Recovery from War Reconstruction Can Allow Country to Develop Sustainable Practices, Deputy Minister Will Tell World Renewable Energy Congress June 28, 2004 Golden, Colo. - The rebuilding of Afghanistan should be an opportunity to develop sustainable standards and practices in construction and energy production and use, Dr. Pir Mohammed Azizi, deputy minister of Irrigation, Water Resources and Environment, is expected to tell participants in the

  15. New analogies between extreme QCD and cold atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke

    2012-08-15

    We discuss two new analogies between extreme QCD and cold atoms. One is the analogue of 'hard probes' in cold atoms. The other is the analogue of 'quark-hadron continuity' in cold atoms.

  16. Cold Bay Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cold Bay Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Cold Bay Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and...

  17. Baby It's Cold Outside: Best Practices for Chilly Climes (101...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Baby It's Cold Outside: Best Practices for Chilly Climes (101) Baby It's Cold Outside: Best Practices for Chilly Climes (101) November 5...

  18. Baby It's Cold Outside: Best Practices for Chilly Climes (101...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Baby It's Cold Outside: Best Practices for Chilly Climes (101) Baby It's Cold Outside: Best Practices for Chilly Climes (101) Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange...

  19. Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling and Strategy Development Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal ... More Documents & Publications Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal ...

  20. Cold Facts staff tour JLab's cryogenic, SRF facilities (Cryogenic Society

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of America, Cold Facts) | Jefferson Lab cryogenicsociety.org/csa_highlights/cold_facts_tours_jlab_cryogenics_facilities/ Submitted: Saturday, May 5

  1. Nuclear proliferation and testing: A tale of two treaties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corden, Pierce S.; Hafemeister, David

    2014-04-01

    Despite progress in reducing stockpiles after the end of the Cold War, the disturbing actions of some nations could spread nuclear weapon capabilities and enlarge existing arsenals.

  2. Cold quark matter in compact stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzon, B.; Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2013-03-25

    We used an equation of state for the cold quark matter to the study of properties of quark stars. We also discuss the absolute stability of quark matter and compute the mass-radius relation for self-bound stars.

  3. The Cold Dark Matter Search test stand warm electronics card

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, Bruce; Hansen, Sten; Huber, Martin; Kiper, Terry; Rau, Wolfgang; Saab, Tarek; Seitz, Dennis; Sundqvist, Kyle; Mandic, Vuk; /Minnesota U.

    2010-11-01

    A card which does the signal processing for four SQUID amplifiers and two charge sensitive channels is described. The card performs the same functions as is presently done with two custom 9U x 280mm Eurocard modules, a commercial multi-channel VME digitizer, a PCI to GPIB interface, a PCI to VME interface and a custom built linear power supply. By integrating these functions onto a single card and using the power over Ethernet standard, the infrastructure requirements for instrumenting a Cold Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detector test stand are significantly reduced.

  4. Los Alamos turns its nuclear weapons power to war on cancer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos turns its nuclear weapons power to war on cancer Los Alamos turns its nuclear weapons power to war on cancer Los Alamos Physicist Eva Birnbaum shows how the laboratory is manufacturing a radioactive treatment that targets tumors, without killing the surrounding healthy tissue. December 20, 2015 LANL physicist Eva Birnbaum LANL physicist Eva Birnbaum Los Alamos turns its nuclear weapons power to war on cancer NBC News got exclusive access to Los Alamos National Laboratory where

  5. ADR Lunchtime Program: TAKING THE WAR OUT OF WORDS: LEARNING TO COMMUNICATE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WITH NON-DEFENSIVE LANGUAGE | Department of Energy TAKING THE WAR OUT OF WORDS: LEARNING TO COMMUNICATE WITH NON-DEFENSIVE LANGUAGE ADR Lunchtime Program: TAKING THE WAR OUT OF WORDS: LEARNING TO COMMUNICATE WITH NON-DEFENSIVE LANGUAGE Even when using best practices in ADR, clients and other professionals habitually employ reactive and defensive behaviors. Participants will learn significant ways that current ADR prototypes are still systemically rooted in a "war model" for

  6. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review Cold Smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    Cold Smoke is a dense white smoke produced by the reaction of titanium tetrachloride and aqueous ammonia aerosols. Early studies on the toxicity of this nonpyrotechnically generated smoke indicated that the smoke itself is essentially non-toxic (i.e. exhibits to systemic toxicity or organ damage due to exposure) under normal deployment conditions. The purpose of this evaluation was to review and summarize the recent literature data available on the toxicity of Cold Smoke, its chemical constituents, and its starting materials.

  7. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP) 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Craig Messmer, craig@unicosystem.com Unico, Inc. The Unico Story * FAMILY OWNED U.S. MANUFACTURING BUSINESS in St. Louis, Missouri. * Largest SDHV manufacturer in the world with over 200,000 SQUARE FEET OF MANUFACTURING space. * Partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy to develop the next generation of HIGHLY EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE HVAC systems. 2 The Unico Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP) * In

  8. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Craig Messmer, craig@unicosystem.com Unico, Inc. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP) 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 The Unico Story * FAMILY OWNED U.S. MANUFACTURING BUSINESS in St. Louis, Missouri. * Largest SDHV manufacturer in the world with over 200,000 SQUARE FEET OF MANUFACTURING space. * Partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy to develop the next generation of HIGHLY EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE HVAC systems. 3 The Unico Cold Climate Heat Pump (CCHP) * In

  9. The Energy of Star Wars: A Google+ Hangout | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Energy of Star Wars: A Google+ Hangout The Energy of Star Wars: A Google+ Hangout June 8, 2015 - 12:30pm Addthis Pat Adams Pat Adams Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How can I participate? Join us for "The Energy of Star Wars: A Google+ Hangout" on Friday June 12th at 2 p.m. ET. Ask questions now and during the Hangout on social media using #StarWarsEnergy. Follow the conversation all week long on Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and Instagram using #SpaceWeek. It's

  10. Worry grows as Iran/Iraq war lingers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-03

    Despite the Iran/Iraq war and the prospect of greater disruption of Persian Gulf oil deliveries, the international crude market has adjusted to the loss of supplies and remains stable, partly because some nonwarring members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries have boosted production to make up losses and partly because the industrialized nations have maintained high levels of crude and product stocks. These stocks would be draw-depleted in nine months if used at the rate of 1.8 million bbl/day; this and a 2 million bbl/day increase in OPEC production would make up for the entire war-caused shortfall. If the Strait of Hormuz were closed, the shortfall would be 17 million bbl/day, which would deplete stocks in less than one month. Patterns of supply and demand in non-Communist western countries in 1978-79 and 1979-80; the International Energy Agency oil-sharing plan which would go into effect in the case of a major oil shortage; and the prospects for a surge in prices in the international oil markets, are discussed.

  11. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-12-31

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989`s feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun.

  12. Why the Gulf War still matters: Foreign perspectives on the war and the future of international security. Report No. 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrity, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) project that examined how a number of nations other than the United States have reacted to the course and outcome of the Persian Gulf War of 1991. The project was built around studies of key countries on which the Gulf War might reasonably be expected to have had a significant impact: Argentina, the ASEAN states, Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Libya, North Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, and the states of the former Yugoslavia. These country studies were written by well-recognized independent experts following a common set of guidelines provided by CNSS. When the country studies were completed, they were reviewed and supplemented through a series of peer assessments and workshops. The report represents a synthesis of material generated through this process, and is intended to stimulate thought and further analysis on the critical topics discussed herein.

  13. High Efficiency Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Efficiency Cold Climate Heat Pump 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Bo Shen, shenb@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Efficiency Cold Climate Heat Pump -(CCHP) CRADA Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 01-Oct-2010 Planned end date: 30-Sep-2015 Key Milestones (single-stage) 1. Equipment modeling and EnergyPlus simulation report - March/2013 2. Lab prototype fabricated and installed - Dec/2013 3. Meet 77% capacity at-13°F vs. 47°F; COP=4.1 at 47°F - March/2014

  14. Cold Climates Heat Pump Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Heat pumps provide an efficient heating method; however they suffer from sever capacity and performance degradation at low ambient conditions. This has deterred market penetration in cold climates. There is a continuing effort to find an efficient air source cold climate heat pump that maintains acceptable capacity and performance at low ambient conditions. Systematic optimization techniques provide a reliable approach for the design of such systems. This paper presents a step-by-step approach for the design optimization of cold climate heat pumps. We first start by describing the optimization problem: objective function, constraints, and design space. Then we illustrate how to perform this design optimization using an open source publically available optimization toolbox. The response of the heat pump design was evaluated using a validated component based vapor compression model. This model was treated as a black box model within the optimization framework. Optimum designs for different system configurations are presented. These optimum results were further analyzed to understand the performance tradeoff and selection criteria. The paper ends with a discussion on the use of systematic optimization for the cold climate heat pump design.

  15. Strip edge cracking simulation in cold rolling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubert, C.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Dubois, A.

    2011-01-17

    This research work focuses on a specific defect which occurs during cold rolling of steel strips: edge-serration. Investigations on the industrial processes have led to the conclusion that this defect is the result of the edge-trimming and cold rolling sequences. The aim of this research work is to analyze the effect of the cutting process and the cold rolling on cracks occurrence, especially on strip edges.This study is performed using an experimental testing stand called Upsetting Rolling Test (URT). It allows to reproduce cold rolling contact parameters such as forward slip, reduction ratio and friction coefficients. Specimens sampled near trimmed industrial strip edges are deformed using the URT stand. Two sets of specimens with different stress states, obtained by annealing, are submitted to two reduction passes with extreme forward slips.Scanning electron microscopy observations added to 3D optical surface profiler topographies show that on one hand, forward slip has a major effect on cracks opening. On the other hand, cracks opening decreases according to high roll strip speed gradient. Concerning the heat-treated specimens, no crack appeared after all reduction passes, showing a large influence of the cutting process and consequently of the local stress state in the vicinity of the burnish and fracture regions.

  16. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

    2012-12-15

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  17. NUCLEAR WASTE VITRIFICATION EFFICIENCY COLD CAP REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R

    2011-07-29

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions. The model demonstrates that batch foaming has a decisive influence on the rate of melting. Understanding the dynamics of the foam layer at the bottom of the cold cap and the heat transfer through it appears crucial for a reliable prediction of the rate of melting as a function of the melter-feed makeup and melter operation parameters. Although the study is focused on a batch for waste vitrification, the authors expect that the outcome will also be relevant for commercial glass melting.

  18. DOE Announces Strategic Engineering and Technology Roadmap for Cleanup of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cold War Era Nuclear Waste | Department of Energy Strategic Engineering and Technology Roadmap for Cleanup of Cold War Era Nuclear Waste DOE Announces Strategic Engineering and Technology Roadmap for Cleanup of Cold War Era Nuclear Waste March 18, 2008 - 10:52am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today released an Engineering and Technology Roadmap (Roadmap), which details initiatives aimed at reducing the technical risks and uncertainties associated with cleaning

  19. Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold February 25, 2014 - 9:49am Addthis Make sure your car is ready for spring snowstorms. | Photo...

  20. Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold Improving Fuel Economy When the Weather's Cold February 25, 2014 - 9:49am Addthis Make sure your car is ready for spring snowstorms....

  1. Baby It's Cold Outside: Best Practices for Chilly Climes (101)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Baby It's Cold Outside: Best Practices for Chilly Climes (101)

  2. PHEV Engine Cold Start Emissions Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cold Start Emissions Management PHEV Engine Cold Start Emissions Management Coordination of engine and powertrain supervisory control strategies to minimize cold start emissions PDF icon p-05_chambon.pdf More Documents & Publications PHEV Engine Control and Energy Management Strategy PHEV Engine Control and Energy Management Strategy PHEV Engine Control and Energy Management Strategy

  3. Demonstration of anomalous heat from the cold fusion effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storms, E.

    1995-12-01

    Heat production by an unexpected process is the most challenging aspect of the {open_quotes}cold fusion{close_quotes} phenomenon to accept. Many studies have been done in ways that invite criticism and easy rejection. A few recent studies have attempted to eliminate obvious errors and, thereby, reduce the ease of rejection. In addition, several of these studies have revealed important variables related to improving reproducibility. This paper will describe heat measurements done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory using a closed, pressurized, stirred calorimeter having two independent methods of calibration. Results using several batches of palladium are discussed in terms of those characteristics that lead to reproducibility using the electrolytic loading technique.

  4. Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Cold and Very Cold Climate Volume 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2011-02-01

    This document describes measures builders can use to construct homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% in the cold and very cold climate region of the United States.

  5. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  6. Palladium metallurgy and cold fusion; Some remarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murr, L.E. )

    1990-04-01

    In this paper the recent confusion surrounding claims for the observation of cold fusion involving palladium electrodes in electrochemical cells containing deuterium might be clarified to some extent if the palladium metallurgy, particularly in the context of fundamental microstructures, are accurately defined. Both the palladium/hydrogen and palladium/deuterium systems have been extensively investigated, and it is asserted more than two decades ago that the palladium/hydrogen system was perhaps the most extensively, experimentally investigated metal/gas system. Ordinary hydrogen absorbed in palladium fused to form helium, while in the 1940's Wilner actually observed the fusion reaction at the center of the current cold fusion controversy: d + d {yields} {sup 3}He + n (where d = {sup 2}H represents a deuteron, and n is a neutron). In the experiment by Wilner, a deuterium-saturated palladium sheet was bombarded with accelerated deuterons. The product neutrons (n) were slowed by paraffin wax and detected by the activation of silver.

  7. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  8. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

  9. Mechanisms of Convective Cloud Organization by Cold Pools over Tropical Warm Ocean during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Rowe, Angela; Burleyson, Casey D.; Martini, Matus; de Szoeke, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms of convective cloud organization by precipitation-driven cold pools over the warm tropical Indian Ocean during the 2011 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment / Dynamics of the MJO (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign. A high-resolution regional model simulation is performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model during the transition from suppressed to active phases of the November 2011 MJO. The simulated cold pool lifetimes, spatial extent and thermodynamic properties agree well with the radar and ship-borne observations from the field campaign. The thermodynamic and dynamic structures of the outflow boundaries of isolated and intersecting cold pools in the simulation and the associated secondary cloud populations are examined. Intersecting cold pools last more than twice as long, are twice as large, 41% more intense (measured by buoyancy), and 62% deeper than isolated cold pools. Consequently, intersecting cold pools trigger 73% more convective clouds than isolated ones. This is possibly due to stronger outflows that enhance secondary updraft velocities by up to 45%. However, cold pool-triggered convective clouds grow into deep convection not because of the stronger secondary updrafts at cloud base, but rather due to closer spacing (aggregation) between clouds and larger cloud clusters that formed along the cold pool boundaries when they intersect. The close spacing of large clouds moistens the local environment and reduces entrainment drying, allowing the clouds to further develop into deep convection. Implications to the design of future convective parameterization with cold pool-modulated entrainment rates are discussed.

  10. The Dark Side of Cold Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dark Side of Cold Clouds For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight In research led by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), scientists sought to understand the atmospheric implications of tiny, highly irregular and chemically complex soot particles. The laboratory investigation, called the Soot Aerosol Aging Study (SAAS), examined the interactions of soot and a mix of other atmospheric particles using a

  11. Cold worked ferritic alloys and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K. (Wexford, PA)

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid metal fast breeder reactor and steam generator precipitation hardening fully ferritic alloy components which have a microstructure substantially free of the primary precipitation hardening phase while having cells or arrays of dislocations of varying population densities. It also relates to the process by which these components are produced, which entails solution treating the alloy followed by a final cold working step. In this condition, the first significant precipitation hardening of the component occurs during high temperature use.

  12. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  13. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  14. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krahn, D.E.

    1998-02-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  15. Supercharger for Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercharger for Heat Pumps in Cold Climates Thomas J. Walter Mechanical Solutions, Inc. tjw@mechsol.com 518-320-8552 April 3, 2013 DOE SBIR Grant No. SC0006162 Concept is similar to superchargers for piston engine aircraft 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Electrically driven heat pumps are an effective method of extracting heat from ambient air. As air temperature falls, however, heat pump performance falls off, essentially limiting

  16. Cold moderator test facilities working group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Guenter S.; Lucas, A. T.

    1997-09-01

    The working group meeting was chaired by Bauer and Lucas.Testing is a vital part of any cold source development project. This applies to specific physics concept verification, benchmarking in conjunction with computer modeling and engineering testing to confirm the functional viability of a proposed system. Irradiation testing of materials will always be needed to continuously extend a comprehensive and reliable information database. An ever increasing worldwide effort to enhance the performance of reactor and accelerator based neutron sources, coupled with the complexity and rising cost of building new generation facilities, gives a new dimension to cold source development and testing programs. A stronger focus is now being placed on the fine-tuning of cold source design to maximize its effectiveness in fully exploiting the facility. In this context, pulsed spallation neutron sources pose an extra challenge due to requirements regarding pulse width and shape which result from a large variety of different instrument concepts. The working group reviewed these requirements in terms of their consequences on the needs for testing equipment and compiled a list of existing and proposed facilities suitable to carry out the necessary development work.

  17. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nations nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idahos desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  18. Operations other than war: Requirements for analysis tools research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the research effort to determine the requirements for new or improved analysis tools to support decisions at the strategic and operational levels for military Operations Other than War (OOTW). The work was performed for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC). The data collection was based on workshops attended by experts in OOTWs: analysis personnel from each of the Combatant Commands, the Services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Joint Staff, and other knowledgeable personnel. Further data were gathered from other workshops and conferences and from the literature. The results of this research begin with the creation of a taxonomy of OOTWs: categories of operations, attributes of operations, and tasks requiring analytical support. The tasks are connected to the Joint Staff`s Universal Joint Task List (UJTL). Historical OOTWs are analyzed to produce frequency distributions by category and responsible CINC. The analysis products are synthesized into a list of requirements for analytical tools and definitions of the requirements. The report concludes with a timeline or roadmap for satisfying the requirements.

  19. Atomic Bombs, Winning the War and Women in Pants: Voices of the Manhattan

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Project Speak of the Nation's History | Department of Energy Atomic Bombs, Winning the War and Women in Pants: Voices of the Manhattan Project Speak of the Nation's History Atomic Bombs, Winning the War and Women in Pants: Voices of the Manhattan Project Speak of the Nation's History November 28, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Manhattan Project veteran Ralph Gates (far right) celebrates Christmas in 1945. Gates contributed to the Voices of the Manhattan Project, a storytelling project launched by

  20. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Stork, Kevin C. (Chicago, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  1. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-02-01

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3? by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}?

  2. Hadronization measurements in cold nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupre, Raphael

    2015-05-01

    Hadronization is the non-perturbative process of QCD by which partons become hadrons. It has been studied at high energies through various processes, we focus here on the experiments of lepto-production of hadrons in cold nuclear matter. By studying the dependence of observables to the atomic number of the target, these experimentscan give information on the dynamic of the hadronization at the femtometer scale. In particular, we will present preliminary results from JLab Hall B (CLAS collaboration), which give unprecedented statistical precision. Then, we will present results of a phenomenological study showing how HERMES data can be described with pure energyloss models.

  3. T-661: ColdFusion Security Hotfix | APSB11-14, ColdFusion Important Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vulnerabilities have been identified in ColdFusion 9.0.1 and earlier versions for Windows, Macintosh and UNIX. These vulnerabilities could lead to a cross-site request forgery (CSRF) or a remote denial-of-service (DoS). Adobe recommends users update their product installation using the instructions provided below.

  4. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has consistently recognized that cold regions pose unique environmental problems. This report sets forth the conceptual framework and research plans for several high priority research areas. It provides the fundamental basis for implementation of the EPA Cold-Climate Environmental Research Program. This three- to five-year program encompasses both short- and long-term research of high relevance to the EPA and to the cold regions that it serves.

  5. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Found Fuel Multi-Canister Overpack Operations This report provides the results of an independent oversight review of operations...

  6. Probing novel scalar and tensor interactions from (ultra)cold...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Probing novel scalar and tensor interactions from (ultra)cold neutrons to the LHC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing novel scalar and tensor ...

  7. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The temperature ...

  8. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  9. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Journal Article: Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, Usa Abstract A major campaign to quantify the...

  10. Building America Case Study: Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal Research Facility Cloquet, Minnesota PROJECT ... DOEGO-102014-4441 * September 2014 BUILDING AMERICA CASE STUDY: TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR ...

  11. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for ...

  12. Brrrrr. It's Cold In There! | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Brrrrr. It's Cold In There! Brrrrr. It's Cold In There! March 2, 2010 - 11:27am Addthis Eric Barendsen Energy Technology Program Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy This winter has seemed like an especially long one to me. I'm ready to wear shorts and enjoy nice, long summer days. Alas, the reality is that it will probably be cold for at least another month here in Washington, D.C. All that cold air robs not only our jacketed bodies of warmth, but it also carries heat

  13. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitricformicglycolic and nitricformicsugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitricformicglycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitricglycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitricglycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitricformic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models ? Phase II - A nitricglycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating element near the pour tube. After charging the CEF with cullet from a previous Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) run, the melter was slurry-fed with SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 6 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation variables and off-gas chemistry. In order to satisfy the objective of Phase I testing, vapor space steady testing in the range of ~300C-700C was conducted without argon bubbling to baseline the melter data to the existing DWPF melter flammability model. Adjustments to heater outputs, air flows and feed rate were necessary in order to achieve the vapor space temperatures in this range. The results of the Phase I testing demonstrated that the CEF is capable of operating under the low vapor space temperatures A melter pressure of -5 inches of water was not sustained throughout the run, but the melter did remain slightly negative even with the maximum air flows required for the lowest temperature conditions were used. The auxiliary pour tube heater improved the pouring behavior at all test conditions, including reduced feed rates required for the low vapor space testing. Argon bubbling can be used to promote mixing and increase feed rate at multiple conditions. Improvements due to bubbling have been determined previously; however, the addition of the cameras to the CEF allows for visual observation during a range of bubbling configurations. The off-gas analysis system proved to be robust and capable of operating for long durations. The total operational hours on the melter vessel are approximately 385 hours. Dimensional measurements taken prior to Phase I testing and support block temperatures recorded during Phase I testing are available if an extension of service life beyond 1250 hours is desired in the future.

  14. Method for cold stable biojet fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seames, Wayne S.; Aulich, Ted

    2015-12-08

    Plant or animal oils are processed to produce a fuel that operates at very cold temperatures and is suitable as an aviation turbine fuel, a diesel fuel, a fuel blendstock, or any fuel having a low cloud point, pour point or freeze point. The process is based on the cracking of plant or animal oils or their associated esters, known as biodiesel, to generate lighter chemical compounds that have substantially lower cloud, pour, and/or freeze points than the original oil or biodiesel. Cracked oil is processed using separation steps together with analysis to collect fractions with desired low temperature properties by removing undesirable compounds that do not possess the desired temperature properties.

  15. COLD-PLASMA ASSISTED GRAFTING OF PAPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaiolas, C.; Costa, A. P.; Nunes, M.; Silva, M. J. Santos; Belgacem, M. N.

    2008-08-28

    The treatment of cellulose with cold-plasma in the presence of two silanes (vinyltrimethoxysilane and {gamma}-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane) was found to be efficient in grafting of cellulose macromolecules. The occurrence of the grafting was proved by contact angle measurement, ESCA and SEM. Thus, after solvent extraction of the modified substrates, in order to remove unbounded grafts, the polar component of the surface energy of treated samples decreased from 23 mJ/m{sup 2} to practically zero. The ESCA spectra showed the appearance of two new peaks at 102 and 150 eV, relative to the presence of Si atoms and a substantial increase in C1 signal, attributed to the enrichment of the surface by C-H moieties borne by the silanes.

  16. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moujaes, S.F.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

  17. World War II Fuel Shortages Spur Veteran into Action | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    World War II Fuel Shortages Spur Veteran into Action World War II Fuel Shortages Spur Veteran into Action December 16, 2011 - 3:19pm Addthis Dr. Green (top row, third from the right) with his B-29 crew members in Xian, China. | Image courtesy of Dr. Alex Green. Dr. Green (top row, third from the right) with his B-29 crew members in Xian, China. | Image courtesy of Dr. Alex Green. Howard S. Marks Program Analyst On March 12, 1945, the newly-minted U.S. Army Air Corps Operations Analyst Alex E. S.

  18. The War of the Currents: AC vs. DC Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The War of the Currents: AC vs. DC Power The War of the Currents: AC vs. DC Power November 18, 2014 - 11:55am Addthis Electrical transmission lines cross a snow-covered field in Dallas Dam, Oregon. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department Electrical transmission lines cross a snow-covered field in Dallas Dam, Oregon. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How can I participate? Check out our Infographic on

  19. Mathematical modeling of cold cap: Effect of bubbling on melting rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-12-31

    The rate of melting is a primary concern in the vitrification of radioactive wastes because it directly influences the life cycle of nuclear waste cleanup efforts. To increase glass melting performance, experimental and industrial all-electric waste glass melters employ various melt-rate enhancement techniques, the most prominent being the application of bubblers submerged into molten glass. This study investigates various ways in which bubbling affects melting rate in a waste glass melter. Using the recently developed cold cap model, we suggest that forced convection of molten glass, which increases the cold cap bottom temperature, is the main factor. Other effects, such as stirring the feed into molten glass or reducing the insulating effect of foaming, also play a role.

  20. Supercharger for Heat Pumps in Cold Climates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercharger for Heat Pumps in Cold Climates Supercharger for Heat Pumps in Cold Climates Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech15_walter_040313.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics: The New Green Automotive Technology Next Generation Rooftop Unit - 2013 Peer Review Vehicular Thermoelectrics: The New Green Technology

  1. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge you an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system's distribu- tion capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system's capacity. REDUCING POWER FACTOR COST To understand power factor, visualize a

  2. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adler, R.J.; Bjorken, J.D.; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  3. Performance House -- A Cold Climate Challenge Home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.; Grab, J.; Williamson, J.

    2013-08-01

    Working with builder partners on a test homes allows for vetting of whole-house building strategies to eliminate any potential unintended consequences prior to implementing these solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, CARB partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, CT. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 'Performance House' was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adapt with the homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the 'Performance House' were not cutting-edge, but simply 'best practices practiced'. The focus was on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. When seeking a 30% source energy savings targets over a comparable 2009 IECC code-built home in the cold climate zone, nearly all components of a home must be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. To help builders and architects seeking to match the performance of this home, a step-by-step guide through the building shell components of DOE's Challenge Home are provided in a pictorial story book. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a HERS Index Score of 20 (43 without PV, the minimum target was 55 for compliance). This home was also awarded the 2012 HOBI for Best Green Energy Efficient Home from the Home Builders & Remodelers Association of Connecticut.

  4. Letter report: Cold crucible melter assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, M.L.

    1996-03-01

    One of the activities of the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project is to assist the Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) Program in determining which melter systems should be performance tested for potential implementation in the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant. The Richland Operations Office (RL) has recommended that the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) be evaluated as a candidate ``next generation`` melter. As a result, the CCM System Evaluation cost account was established under the PVTD Project so that the CCM could be initially assessed on a high-priority basis. This letter report summarizes a brief initial review and assessment of the CCM. Using the recommendations made in this document, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and RL will make a decision regarding the urgency of performance testing the CCM. If the decision is favorable, a subcontract will be negotiated for performance testing of a CCM using Hanford HLW simulants in a pilot-scale facility. Because of the aggressive nature of the schedule, the CCM evaluation was not rigorous. The evaluation consisted of a literature review and interviews with proponents of the technology during a recent trip to France. This letter report summarizes the evaluation and makes recommendations regarding further work in this area.

  5. Premixed cold reaction cw laser nozzle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hook, D.L.; Broadwell, J.E.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a combustor for a premixed cold reaction CW chemical laser. The combustor consists of: a combustion chamber, the combustion chamber containing reaction products forming heated primary gas having therein atomic species of an oxidizer, the combustion chamber directing the reaction products to an output plenum; wedges positioned downstream of the output plenum to form a plurality of primary nozzles, each of the primary nozzles having an input section, a throat section, and an output section, the sections forming a supersonic nozzle to output the reaction products as a supersonic gas; secondary injectors having supersonic jets therefrom, the secondary injectors being located on exit walls substantially parallel to the streamlines of the primary nozzles and located downstream of the throat section of the primary nozzles, the secondary injectors being arranged in substantially parallel rows in a streamwise direction, each of the rows having the secondary injectors therein, the secondary injectors in a row comprising groups of secondary injectors, a first group being proximal to the throat section and injecting a diluent, a second group of secondary injectors downstream of the first group and inputting a fuel therein. The secondary injectors are at an acute angle to the exit walls, the acuteness being in the downstream direction.

  6. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects at PHENIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wysocki, Matthew G; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    While the study of the quark-gluon plasma has been the primary focus of the RHIC experiments, much work has also been done to understand so-called cold nuclear matter (CNM) eects through d+Au collisions where no hot plasma is produced. Eects such as nuclear shadowing, Cronin enhancement, and initial-state parton energy loss, among others, are not only interesting in their own right, but have direct implications on QGP-related measurements in A+A collisions. Recently PHENIX has measured CNM eects at midrapidity in s_NN = 200 GeV d+Au collisions. Measurements of reconstructed jets reveal the centrality dependence of both jet suppression and broadening of the away-side jet. Meanwhile, single electrons from heavy flavor decays exhibit enhancement, increasing with centrality, over a broad p_T range. J/psi and psi' modification have also been measured and are quite dierent in magnitude, in contrast with our expectations. The above results are presented here and compared to our present understanding of CNM effects.

  7. Preliminary Market Assessment for Cold Climate Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen; Khowailed, Gannate; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-09-01

    Cold climate heat pump (HP) technology is relevant to a substantial portion of the U.S. population, especially with more than one-third of U.S. housing stock concentrated in colder regions of the country and another 31% in the mixed-humid climate region. Specifically, it is estimated that in 2010 almost 1.37 million heating equipment units were shipped to the cold/very cold climate regions and that 1.41 million were shipped to the nation s mixed-humid region. On a national level, the trend in the last decade has indicated that shipments of gas furnaces have grown at a slower rate than HPs. This indicates a potential opportunity for the cold climate HP, a technology that may be initially slow to penetrate its potential market because of the less expensive operating and first costs of gas furnaces. Anticipated implementation of regional standards could also negatively affect gas furnace shipments, especially with the higher initial cost for more efficient gas furnaces. However, as of 2011, the fact that there are more than 500 gas furnace product models that already achieve the expected efficiency standard indicates that satisfying the regional standard will be a challenge but not an obstacle. A look at the heating fuel and equipment currently being used in the housing stock provides an insight into the competing equipment that cold climate HPs hope to replace. The primary target market for the cold climate HP is the 2.6 million U.S. homes using electric furnaces and HPs in the cold/very cold region. It is estimated that 4.75% of these homeowners either replace or buy new heating equipment in a given year. Accordingly, the project team could infer that the cold climate HP primary market is composed of 123,500 replacements of electric furnaces and conventional air-to-air HPs annually. A secondary housing market for the cold climate HP comprises homes in the mixed-humid region of the country that are using electric furnaces. Homes using gas furnaces across both the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions represent another secondary market for the cold climate HP. The cold climate HP could also target as a secondary market homes across both the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions that use propane and fuel oil as their primary heating fuel. The combined total of homes in these three secondary markets is 46 million, and we can also infer that about 2.2 million of these systems are replaced annually. When comparing heating equipment stock in 2001, 2005, and 2009 in the cold/very cold region of the country, it appears that gas furnaces are slowly losing market share and that electric furnaces and HPs are making gains. The fact that electricity-dependent heating equipment is rising in preference among homeowners in the colder regions of the country shows that future penetration of the cold climate HP holds promise. Accordingly, cold climate HP technology could achieve an attractive position, given certain favorable market conditions such as reaching a competitive cost point, strong federal incentives, a consistent level of reliable performance, and a product rollout by a credible market leader. The project team relied on payback analysis to estimate the potential market penetration for the cold climate HP in each of its primary and secondary markets. In this analysis, we assumed a $250 price premium for the cold climate HP over the baseline HP. Electricity and gas prices and emissions were based on the 2010 Buildings Energy Data Book. The average heating load was calculated as 25.2 MMBTU per year in the cold/very cold and mixed-humid regions of the United States. Typical installed costs were obtained from the technical document supporting the U.S. Department of Energy rulemaking. The analysis showed that the cold climate HP will have a 2.2 year payback period when replacing an existing electric HP in the colder regions of the nation. The cold climate HP will have a 6 year payback period when replacing gas furnaces in the same climate regions. Accordingly, we estimated that the cold climate HP will have a penetration ratio ranging between 5% and 35% in its potential primary and secondary markets, resulting in a total annual estimated shipment of 298,000 units to both targeted regions of the nation. Once the cold climate HP technology meets its potential market penetration, it would contribute to annual site energy savings of 3,664,405 MMBTU and a CO2 emission reduction of 470,000 Ton.

  8. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  9. Split-System Cold Climate Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Split-System Cold Climate Heat Pump Split-System Cold Climate Heat Pump ORNL/Emerson laboratory prototype test system ORNL/Emerson laboratory prototype test system Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: -- Unico, Inc. - St. Louis, MO -- Emerson Climate Technologies - Sidney, OH DOE Funding: $2,599,000 Cost Share: Provided by CRADA partners Project Term: 3/1/2012 - 2/28/2016 Project Objective This project is developing a split-system, cold climate heat pump (CCHP)

  10. Shutting the Door on Cold Weather | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Shutting the Door on Cold Weather Shutting the Door on Cold Weather February 8, 2011 - 11:52am Addthis Andrea Spikes Former Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory A few months ago, the front door of my condominium cracked. One too many careless slams cracked the wood right at the bolt, which made it difficult to close, let in cold air, and made it easy to break in. Not a good situation, especially since winter was about to begin! Fortunately, my storm door was working just

  11. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  12. OTEC cold water pipe design for problems caused by vortex-excited oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, O. M.

    1980-03-14

    Vortex-excited oscillations of marine structures result in reduced fatigue life, large hydrodynamic forces and induced stresses, and sometimes lead to structural damage and to diestructive failures. The cold water pipe of an OTEC plant is nominally a bluff, flexible cylinder with a large aspect ratio (L/D = length/diameter), and is likely to be susceptible to resonant vortex-excited oscillations. The objective of this report is to survey recent results pertaining to the vortex-excited oscillations of structures in general and to consider the application of these findings to the design of the OTEC cold water pipe. Practical design calculations are given as examples throughout the various sections of the report. This report is limited in scope to the problems of vortex shedding from bluff, flexible structures in steady currents and the resulting vortex-excited oscillations. The effects of flow non-uniformities, surface roughness of the cylinder, and inclination to the incident flow are considered in addition to the case of a smooth cyliner in a uniform stream. Emphasis is placed upon design procedures, hydrodynamic coefficients applicable in practice, and the specification of structural response parameters relevant to the OTEC cold water pipe. There are important problems associated with in shedding of vortices from cylinders in waves and from the combined action of waves and currents, but these complex fluid/structure interactions are not considered in this report.

  13. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  14. Slower, colder, longer : prospects for a very cold neutron source.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micklich, B. J.; Carpenter, J. M.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    2007-01-01

    The motivation for our study is to establish the prospects for a neutron source providing intense pulsed beams with spectra as cold as is realistic. The scientific motivation is to serve applications in nanoscience, biology and technology.

  15. R-Cold: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5354)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that R-Cold, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  16. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Discusses results of cold- and hot-start transient tests using gasoline and 3 alcohol-gasoline blends (50% and 85% ethanol, and 83% iso-butanol) PDF icon deer11ickes.pdf More ...

  17. Cold Climate Building Enclosure Solutions (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Connect Cold Climate Building Enclosure Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cold Climate Building Enclosure Solutions This project investigates the energy performance and cost effectiveness of several state-of-the-art retrofit strategies that could be used in triple-deckers and colonial houses, common house types in New England. Several emerging building enclosure technologies were integrated, including high R-value aerogel and vacuum insulations, in forms that would be

  18. Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling and Strategy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development | Department of Energy Modeling and Strategy Development Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling and Strategy Development 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon vss050_jehlik_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling Energy Management Strategies for Fast Battery Temperature Rise and Engine Efficiency

  19. Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Modeling Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon vss088_jehlik_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling and Strategy Development Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth)

  20. Verifying TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance Verifying TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_lucht.pdf More Documents & Publications ADEC II Universal SCR Retrofit System for On-road and Off-road Diesel Engines Emissions Reduction

  1. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Purdue prototype system Purdue prototype system Unico concept prototype Unico concept prototype Purdue prototype system Unico concept prototype Lead Performer: Unico Systems - St. Louis, MO Partners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Purdue University - West Lafayette, IN -- Emerson Electric - St. Louis, MO -- Invention House - St.

  2. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Cold

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal Research Facility (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal Research Facility (Fact Sheet) Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Cold Climate Foundation Wall Hygrothermal Research Facility (Fact Sheet) This case study describes the University of Minnesota's Cloquet Residential Research Facility (CRRF) in northern Minnesota, which features more than 2,500 ft2 of below-grade space for building

  3. Reduced shear power spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  4. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodra, Evan A; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  5. Assessing world energy in the wake of the Iran/Iraq war: an oil shortage proves elusive. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randol, W.L.; Verleger, P.K. Jr.; Clayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    A reassessment of world energy supplies was made in the wake of curtailed exports during the Iran/Iraq war and the corresponding increase in world oil prices, the drop in oil consumption, the widening economic recession, and US decontrol of oil. The report concludes that present worldwide levels of oil production are adequate to satisfy projected levels of consumption through 1981. This leaves the world energy system in balance even if oil exports from Iran and Iraq remain at minimal levels for the year. Past overestimation of demand makes it more likely that this year's consumption will fall short of the projection. The way in which Saudi Arabia's output is cut will be the key to oil pricing in 1981, the authors feel, but the likely approach will be a gradual reduction in production that will allow the Saudis to regain control of OPEC. The effects of a receding demand for oil have been intensified by high US interest rates and the spreading recession. The effect of immediate decontrol of petroleum is likely to compound the trend for reduced consumption and a corresponding increase in efficiency. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and reports commissioning results.

  7. Cold cap subsidence for in situ vitrification and electrodes therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Carter, John G. (Richland, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA); FitzPatrick, Vincent F. (Richland, WA); Koehmstedt, Paul L. (Richland, WA); Morgan, William C. (Richland, WA); Oma, Kenton H. (Richland, WA); Timmerman, Craig L. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for use in in situ vitrification of soil comprises a molybdenum rod received within a conductive sleeve or collar formed of graphite. Electrodes of this type are placed on either side of a region containing buried waste material and an electric current is passed therebetween for vitrifying the soil between the electrodes. The graphite collar enhances the thermal conductivity of the electrode, bringing heat to the surface, and preventing the formation of a cold cap of material above the ground surface. The annulus between the molybdenum rod electrode and the graphite collar is filled with a conductive ceramic powder of a type that sinters upon the molybdenum rod, protecting the same from oxidation as the graphite material is consumed, or a metal powder which liquifies at operating temperatures. The molybdenum rod in the former case may be coated with an oxidation protectant, e.g. of molybdenum disilicide. As insulative blanket is suitably placed on the surface of the soil during processing to promote subsidence by allowing off-gassing and reducing surface heat loss. In other embodiments, connection to vitrification electrodes is provided below ground level to avoid loss of connection due to electrodes deterioration, or a sacrificial electrode may be employed when operation is started. Outboard electrodes can be utilized to square up the vitrified area. Further, the center of the molybdenum rod can be made hollow and filled with a powdered metal, such as copper, which liquifies at operating temperatures. In one embodiment, the molybdenum rod and the graphite collar are physically joined at the bottom.

  8. Sandia grew out of America's World War II atomic bomb development effort. Toda

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    grew out of America's World War II atomic bomb development effort. Today, keeping the U.S. nuclear stockpile safe, secure, and reliable remains a major part of Sandia's work. But Sandia's role has evolved to address other national security threats facing our country. Sandia carries out research and development in the following areas: Nuclear Weapons - Supporting U.S. deterrence policy by helping sustain, modernize, and protect the nuclear arsenal. Defense Systems & Assessments - Supplying

  9. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-08-01

    The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W. Travis; Groll, Eckhard A.; Braun, James E.

    2014-06-01

    The primary goals of the proposed project were to develop, test, and evaluate a high performance and cost-effective vapor compression air-source heat pump for use in cold climate regions. Vapor compression heat pumps are a proven technology, and have been used for many years to meet heating requirements for buildings in residential, commercial, and industrial applications. However, in climate regions that experience very low outdoor ambient temperatures both the heating capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of traditional air-source vapor compression heat pumps drops dramatically with a decrease in the outdoor air temperature. The efficiency of heat pumping equipment has improved substantially over the past 20 years; however, the efficiencies of the highest rated equipment on the market are approaching practical limits that cannot be surpassed without modifications to the basic cycle and possibly the use of additional hardware. In this report, three technologies to improve the efficiency of vapor compression systems are described. These are a) vapor injected compression, b) oil flooded compression and c) hybrid flow control of the evaporator. Compressor prototypes for both, oil flooded and vapor injected compression were developed by Emerson Climate Technologies. For the oil flooded compressor, the oil injection port location was optimized and an internal oil separator was added using several design iterations. After initial testing at Emerson Climate Technologies, further testing was done at Purdue University, and compressor models were developed. These models were then integrated into a system model to determine the achievable improvement of seasonal energy efficiency (SEER) for Minneapolis (Minnesota) climate. For the oil flooded compression, a 34% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency was found while a 21% improvement in seasonal energy efficiency ratio was found for the vapor injected compression. It was found that one benefit of both tested compression technologies is a lower discharge temperature, which allows for continued operation at lower ambient temperatures. A bin analysis of the vapor injected prototype cold climate heat pump predicts a 6% improvement in HSPF for Minneapolis. This improvement is mainly a result of the increased capacity of the system for active vapor injection. For the oil flooded system, a slightly larger performance improvement is predicted, in this case mostly caused by an increase in heating COP. Based on an economic analysis of these results, the maximum additional cost of the system changes, for the Minneapolis location, are $430 for the vapor injected system and $391 for the oil flooded system. These estimates assume that a 3-year simple payback period is accepted by the customer. For the hybrid flow control of evaporators, a new type of balancing valve was developed together with Emerson Climate technologies to reduce the cost of the control scheme. In contrast to conventional stepper motor valves, this valve requires less cables and can be driven by a cheaper output circuit on the control board. The correct valve size was determined in a dedicated test stand in several design iterations. The performance benefits of the hybrid control of the evaporator coil were determined for clean coil conditions as well as with partial blockage of the air inlet grille and under frosting conditions. For clean coil conditions, the benefits in terms of COP and capacity are negligible. However, significant benefits were noted for severely air-maldistributed operating conditions. For the H2-test, the maximum COP improvement of 17% along with a capacity improvement of nearly 40% was observed. Overall, the hybrid control scheme leads to a significant amount of performance improvement, if the air inlet conditions to the evaporator are maldistributed.

  11. COLD WATER VAPOR IN THE BARNARD 5 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirstrm, E. S.; Persson, C. M.; Charnley, S. B.; Cordiner, M. A.; Buckle, J. V.; Takakuwa, S.

    2014-06-20

    After more than 30yr of investigations, the nature of gas-grain interactions at low temperatures remains an unresolved issue in astrochemistry. Water ice is the dominant ice found in cold molecular clouds; however, there is only one region where cold (?10K) water vapor has been detectedL1544. This study aims to shed light on ice desorption mechanisms under cold cloud conditions by expanding the sample. The clumpy distribution of methanol in dark clouds testifies to transient desorption processes at worklikely to also disrupt water ice mantles. Therefore, the Herschel HIFI instrument was used to search for cold water in a small sample of prominent methanol emission peaks. We report detections of the ground-state transition of o-H{sub 2}O (J = 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01}) at 556.9360GHz toward two positions in the cold molecular cloud, Barnard 5. The relative abundances of methanol and water gas support a desorption mechanism which disrupts the outer ice mantle layers, rather than causing complete mantle removal.

  12. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, Nick; Poerschke, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  13. reduce CFRP embodied energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduce CFRP embodied energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  14. Naval electrochemical corrosion reducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Howard L. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1991-10-01

    A corrosion reducer for use with ships having a hull, a propeller mounted a propeller shaft and extending through the hull, bearings supporting the shaft, at least one thrust bearing and one seal. The improvement includes a current collector and a current reduction assembly for reducing the voltage between the hull and shaft in order to reduce corrosion due to electrolytic action. The current reduction assembly includes an electrical contact, the current collector, and the hull. The current reduction assembly further includes a device for sensing and measuring the voltage between the hull and the shaft and a device for applying a reverse voltage between the hull and the shaft so that the resulting voltage differential is from 0 to 0.05 volts. The current reduction assembly further includes a differential amplifier having a voltage differential between the hull and the shaft. The current reduction assembly further includes an amplifier and a power output circuit receiving signals from the differential amplifier and being supplied by at least one current supply. The current selector includes a brush assembly in contact with a slip ring over the shaft so that its potential may be applied to the differential amplifier.

  15. Computer analysis of sodium cold trap design and performance. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    Normal steam-side corrosion of steam-generator tubes in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) results in liberation of hydrogen, and most of this hydrogen diffuses through the tubes into the heat-transfer sodium and must be removed by the purification system. Cold traps are normally used to purify sodium, and they operate by cooling the sodium to temperatures near the melting point, where soluble impurities including hydrogen and oxygen precipitate as NaH and Na/sub 2/O, respectively. A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions.

  16. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  17. Evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banik, Nilanjan; Sikivie, Pierre

    2015-11-17

    We found that the infall of cold dark matter onto a galaxy produces cold collisionless flows and caustics in its halo. If a signal is found in the cavity detector of dark matter axions, the flows will be readily apparent as peaks in the energy spectrum of photons from axion conversion, allowing the densities, velocity vectors and velocity dispersions of the flows to be determined. We also discuss the evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows in one and two dimensions. A technique is presented for obtaining the leading behaviour of the velocity dispersion near caustics. The results are used to derive an upper limit on the energy dispersion of the Big Flow from the sharpness of its nearby caustic, and a prediction for the dispersions in its velocity components.

  18. Note: High density pulsed molecular beam for cold ion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokish, M. G.; Rajagopal, V.; Marler, J. P.; Odom, B. C.

    2014-08-15

    A recent expansion of cold and ultracold molecule applications has led to renewed focus on molecular species preparation under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Meanwhile, molecular beams have been used to study gas phase chemical reactions for decades. In this paper, we describe an apparatus that uses pulsed molecular beam technology to achieve high local gas densities, leading to faster reaction rates with cold trapped ions. We characterize the beam's spatial profile using the trapped ions themselves. This apparatus could be used for preparation of molecular species by reactions requiring excitation of trapped ion precursors to states with short lifetimes or for obtaining a high reaction rate with minimal increase of background chamber pressure.

  19. Critical speed measurements in the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGraff, B.; Bossert, R.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high energy operations. Nominal operating range for these compressors is 43,000 to 85,000 rpm. Past foil bearing failures prompted investigation to determine if critical speeds for operating compressors fall within operating range. Data acquisition hardware and software settings will be discussed for measuring liftoff, first critical and second critical speeds. Several tests provided comparisons between an optical displacement probe and accelerometer measurements. Vibration data and analysis of the 20 Tevatron ring cold compressors will be presented.

  20. Expansion of a cold non-neutral plasma slab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karimov, A. R.; Yu, M. Y.; Stenflo, L.

    2014-12-15

    Expansion of the ion and electron fronts of a cold non-neutral plasma slab with a quasi-neutral core bounded by layers containing only ions is investigated analytically and exact solutions are obtained. It is found that on average, the plasma expansion time scales linearly with the initial inverse ion plasma frequency as well as the degree of charge imbalance, and no expansion occurs if the cold plasma slab is stationary and overall neutral. However, in both cases, there can exist prominent oscillations on the electron front.

  1. Mr. Frank Archer President Niagara Cold Drawn Steel Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 FEB 2 1 1991 ' i-. 1,; ' -, f ' + \ 1 : , .J p- * c - Mr. Frank Archer President Niagara Cold Drawn Steel Corporation 110 Hopkins Street P.O. Box 399 Buffalo, NY 14240 Dear Mr. Archer: I have executed the consent forms for the performance of a radiological survey of the Niagara Cold Drawn Steel Corporation's property under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). I enclose a copy of the consent

  2. Cracking a Cold Case and Enduring Mystery | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cracking a Cold Case and Enduring Mystery Cracking a Cold Case and Enduring Mystery July 1, 2013 - 3:04pm Addthis Chris Brandon of the ROMACONS project collects a sample of ancient Roman concrete drilled from a breakwater in Pozzuoli Bay, near Naples, Italy. The breakwater dates back to roughly 37 B.C. | Photo courtesy of J.P. Oleson. Chris Brandon of the ROMACONS project collects a sample of ancient Roman concrete drilled from a breakwater in Pozzuoli Bay, near Naples, Italy. The breakwater

  3. Testimony of Secretary Ernest Moniz U.S. Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    obviously we have had and are continuing to have major challenges. We have reduced our Cold War legacy "footprint" by 74 percent. But of course, the most complex and difficult...

  4. Unconventional states and geometric effects in mesoscopic systems of ultra-cold atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolech, C. J.

    2014-10-15

    During the last decade, experiments all over the world started to test the superconducting state of matter using a newly developed mesoscopic tunable system: trapped ultra-cold atomic gases. Theorists and experimentalists hand-in-hand are now able to advance our understanding of the superconducting state by asking new questions that probe further into the physical mechanisms underlying the phenomenon and the door is open to the exploration of exotic unconventional superconducting states. In particular, a series of experiments on systems of trapped cold atomic gases were aimed at studying the effects of polarization on superconducting pairing. Two different experimental groups encountered surprising qualitative and quantitative discrepancies which seemed to be a function of the confining geometry and the cooling protocol. Our numerical studies demonstrate a tendency towards metastability and suggest an explanation for the observed discrepancy. From our calculations, the most likely solution which is consistent with the experiments supports a state strikingly similar to the so called FFLO state (after Ferrell, Fulde, Larkin and Ovchinnikov), which had been theorized long ago but eluded detection so far. Moreover, the three-dimensional scenario described above is reminiscent of predictions for one-dimensional systems of dilute polarized attractive gases and another set of ultra-cold-atom experiments incorporates optical lattices to study this reduced-dimensionality setting. The measurements are in quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations (using a wide array of numerical and analytic techniques) in which a partially polarized phase is found to be the one-dimensional analogue of the FFLO state. Moreover, exploring the dimensional-crossover regime, our latest findings indicate that the mesoscopic nature of these quasi-one-dimensional systems favors the appearance of a new type of Mott phase transition involving an emergent pair-superfluid of equal-spin fermions.

  5. Hihan Sapa Wapaha Tate Woilagyapi Owl Feather War Bonnet Wind Farm Rosebud Sioux Tribe

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Donald Hihan Sapa Wapaha Tate Woilagyapi Owl Feather War Bonnet Wind Farm Rosebud Sioux Tribe Resource Development Office/Tribal Utilities Commission Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen) Dept. of Energy Grant DOE Funding $448,551.00 DISGEN Cost share/in-kind $78,750.00 RST/TUC Cost share/in-kind $27,272.00 The Participants: Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Resource Development Phil Two Eagle, Resource Dev. Dir. Ken Haukaas, Wind Farm Coordinator Dr. Bill Akard, Sinte Gleska University, Cultural

  6. THE COLD AND DARK PROCESS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmour, J; William Austin, W; Cathy Sizemore, C

    2007-01-31

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of a facility exposes D&D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called ''Cold & Dark''. Several ''near miss'' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D&D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D&D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold & Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold & Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tagout, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold & Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards.

  7. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  8. Cold Test Operation of the German VEK Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleisch, J.; Schwaab, E.; Weishaupt, M. [WAK GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gruenewald, W.; Roth, G.; Tobie, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fur Nukleare Entsorgung, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In 2007 the German High-Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) Vitrification plant VEK (Verglasungseinrichtung Karlsruhe) has passed a three months integral cold test operation as final step before entering the hot phase. The overall performance of the vitrification process equipment with a liquid-fed ceramic glass melter as main component proved to be completely in line with the requirements of the regulatory body. The retention efficiency of main radioactive-bearing elements across melter and wet off-gas treatment system exceeded the design values distinctly. The strategy to produce a specified waste glass could be successfully demonstrated. The results of the cold test operation allow entering the next step of hot commissioning, i.e. processing of approximately 2 m{sup 3} of diluted HLLW. In summary: An important step of the VEK vitrification plant towards hot operation has been the performance of the cold test operation from April to July 2007. This first integral operation was carried out under boundary conditions and rules established for radioactive operation. Operation and process control were carried out following the procedure as documented in the licensed operational manuals. The function of the process technology and the safe operation could be demonstrated. No severe problems were encountered. Based on the positive results of the cold test, application of the license for hot operation has been initiated and is expected in the near future. (authors)

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Design Basis Accident Analysis Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    1999-10-20

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).'' All assumptions, parameters and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR.

  10. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  11. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  12. The Cold and Dark Process at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmour, John C.; Willis, Michael L.

    2008-01-15

    The deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of a facility exposes D and D workers to numerous hazards. One of the more serious hazards is coming into contact to hazardous energy sources (e.g. electrical, pressurized steam). At the Savannah River Site (SRS) a formal process for identifying and eliminating sources of hazardous energy was developed and is called 'Cold and Dark'. Several 'near miss' events involving cutting of energized conductors during D and D work in buildings thought to be isolated identified the need to have a formal process to identify and isolate these potentially hazardous systems. This process was developed using lessons learned from D and D activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) in Colorado. The Cold and Dark process defines an isolation boundary (usually a building perimeter) and then systematically identifies all of the penetrations through this boundary. All penetrations that involve hazardous energy sources are then physically air-gapped. The final product is a documented declaration of isolation performed by a team involving operations, engineering, and project management. Once the Cold and Dark declaration is made for a building work can proceed without the usual controls used in an operational facility (e.g. lockout/tag-out, arc flash PPE). It is important to note that the Cold and Dark process does not remove all hazards from a facility. Work planning and controls still need to address hazards that can be present from such things as chemicals, radiological contamination, residual liquids, etc., as well as standard industrial hazards. Savannah River Site experienced 6 electrical events prior to declaring a facility 'cold and dark' and has had zero electrical events after 'cold and dark' declaration (263 facilities to date). The formal Cold and Dark process developed at SRS has eliminated D and D worker exposures to hazardous energy sources. Since the implementation of the process there have been no incidents involving energized conductors or pressurized liquids/gases. During this time SRS has demolished over 200 facilities. The ability to perform intrusive D and D activities without the normal controls such as lock outs results in shorter schedule durations and lower overall costs for a facility D and D.

  13. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1984-08-01

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed from the MCO back to the K Basins.

  15. Assessment of damage to the desert surfaces of Kuwait due to the Gulf War

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Baz, F. . Center for Remote Sensing); Al-Ajmi, D. . Environmental and Earth Sciences Div.)

    1993-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on a joint research project by Boston University and the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research that commenced in April 1992. The project aim is to establish the extent and nature of environmental damage to the desert surface and coastal zone of Kuwait due to the Gulf War and its aftermath. Change detection image enhancement techniques were employed to enhance environmental change by comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper images obtained before the wars and after the cessation of the oil and well fires. Higher resolution SPOT images were also utilized to evaluate the nature of the environmental damage to specific areas. The most prominent changes were due to: (1) the deposition of oil and course-grained soot on the desert surface as a result of oil rain'' from the plume that emanated from the oil well fires; (2) the formation of hundreds of oil lakes, from oil seepage at the damaged oil well heads; (3) the mobilization of sand and dust and (4) the pollution of segments of the coastal zone by the deposition of oil from several oil spills. Interpretation of satellite image data are checked in the field to confirm the observations, and to assess the nature of the damage. Final results will be utilized in establishing the needs for remedial action to counteract the harmful effects of the various types of damage to the environment of Kuwait.

  16. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility...

  17. V-045: Adobe ColdFusion Lets Local Users Bypass Sandbox Restrictions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Adobe ColdFusion Lets Local Users Bypass Sandbox Restrictions V-045: Adobe ColdFusion Lets Local Users Bypass Sandbox Restrictions December 12, 2012 - 2:00am Addthis PROBLEM:...

  18. U-257: Adobe ColdFusion Unspecified Bug Lets Remote Users Deny...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7: Adobe ColdFusion Unspecified Bug Lets Remote Users Deny Service U-257: Adobe ColdFusion Unspecified Bug Lets Remote Users Deny Service September 12, 2012 - 6:00am Addthis...

  19. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility- August 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Found Fuel Multi-Canister Overpack Operations

  20. DOE Announces Strategic Engineering and Technology Roadmap for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategic Engineering and Technology Roadmap for Cleanup of Cold War Era Nuclear Waste DOE Announces Strategic Engineering and Technology Roadmap for Cleanup of Cold War Era ...

  1. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  2. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  3. Strategy Guideline: Energy Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frozyna, K.; Badger, L.

    2013-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline explains the benefits of evaluating and identifying energy efficiency retrofit measures that could be made during renovation and maintenance of multifamily buildings. It focuses on low-rise multifamily structures (three or fewer stories) in a cold climate. These benefits lie primarily in reduced energy use, lower operating and maintenance costs, improved durability of the structure, and increased occupant comfort. This guideline focuses on retrofit measures for roof repair or replacement, exterior wall repair or gut rehab, and eating system maintenance. All buildings are assumed to have a flat ceiling and a trussed roof, wood- or steel-framed exterior walls, and one or more single or staged boilers. Estimated energy savings realized from the retrofits will vary, depending on the size and condition of the building, the extent of efficiency improvements, the efficiency of the heating equipment, the cost and type of fuel, and the climate location.

  4. Long-pulse arc-discharge plasma source with cold cathode for diagnostic neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deichuli, P. P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Stupishin, N. V.

    2008-02-15

    Long-pulse cold cathode arc-discharge plasma generators have been successfully used as high-quality hydrogen ion sources for plasma diagnostic neutral beams. One of the main advantages of this type of plasma source is a high proton fraction (80%-90%). However, the lifetime of the plasma source is limited due to intensive electrode's erosion, especially at the cathode region. An optimized design of the cathode and the nearest electrodes is found which reduces the erosion and allows us to increase the pulse length. The plasma source produces the extracted ion current up to 3 A at a low angular divergence, and at the pulse duration up to 2 s.

  5. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-08-04

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

  6. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

    1998-01-01

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Hazards Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-07

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Hazard Analysis to support the CVDF Final Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports,'' and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.''

  8. U-060: Security update: Hotfix available for ColdFusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vulnerabilities have been identified in ColdFusion 9.0.1 and earlier versions for Windows, Macintosh and UNIX. These vulnerabilities could lead to a cross-site scripting attack. Adobe categorizes this as an important update and recommends that users apply the latest update for their product installation.This update resolves a cross-site scripting vulnerability in cfform tag (CVE-2011-2463). This update resolves a cross-site scripting vulnerability in RDS (CVE-2011-4368).

  9. Not Too Hot, Not Too Cold - Continuum Magazine | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip to main content In This Issue In This Issue Dan Says From Our Director Features Not Too Hot, Not Too Cold Can "Drop-In" Biofuels Solve Integration Issues? Stories Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success At $2.15 a Gallon, Cellulosic Ethanol Could Be Cost Competitive Electric Vehicle Battery Development Gains Momentum The Key to Greener Fleets Putting On the Brakes to Protect America's Natural Treasures A Closer Look Slideshow: Sustainable Transportation

  10. Viscoelastic modes in a strongly coupled, cold, magnetized dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Debabrata; Mylavarapu, Janaki Sita; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2010-11-15

    A generalized hydrodynamical model has been used to study the low frequency modes in a strongly coupled, cold, magnetized dusty plasma. Such plasmas exhibit elastic properties due to the strong correlations among dust particles and the tensile stresses imparted by the magnetic field. It has been shown that longitudinal compressional Alfven modes and elasticity modified transverse shear mode exist in such a medium. The features of these collective modes are established and discussed.

  11. Cold Sterilization of Plastic Containers - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Cold Sterilization of Plastic Containers Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Contact PPPL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The sterilization of plastic containers for beverage, food and pharmaceutical products is a significant cost to the associated industries. Currently, plastic containers are sterilized using heat, which necessitates the use of polymers that can withstand the high temperature

  12. Searching for WISPy cold dark matter with a dish antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horns, Dieter; Jaeckel, Joerg; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas; Lobanov, Andrei; Redondo, Javier E-mail: jjaeckel@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: alobanov@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: andreas.ringwald@desy.de

    2013-04-01

    The cold dark matter of the Universe may be comprised of very light and very weakly interacting particles, so-called WISPs. Two prominent examples are hidden photons and axion-like particles. In this note we propose a new technique to sensitively search for this type of dark matter with dish antennas. The technique is broadband and allows to explore a whole range of masses in a single measurement.

  13. Religious and Philosophical Justifications for War: A Synthesis of Selected Literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martzen, E

    2000-08-15

    The Critical Issues Forum (CIF) is a cooperative education program supported in part by the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The Science and Technology Education Program (STEP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory manages one component of this program. CIF engages high school students and teachers regarding issues of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, arms control, and international security. These issues are viewed in light of their scientific, economic, socio-cultural, and political/geopolitical influences and implications. This year CIF's focus is on chemical and biological weapons (CBW). CBW is becoming more of a threat today than ever before. Many countries are developing these weapons. CBW also presents certain ethical dilemmas for many individuals, especially if those individuals feel it is their religious duty to use or avoid the use of such weapons. Religion has become an important determining factor in international security because many cultures, and even governments make decisions based on religious traditions. This paper is an attempt to look at these religions and philosophical traditions with an emphasis on views of ''just war''. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to promote awareness about religion's influence on international security issues. This paper was written by Cadet Ernst ''Mitch'' Martzen, AFROTC. He is an intern with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Science and Technology Education Program, under the guidance of Dr. Stephen C. Sesko, the director of LLNL's CIF program. Every major religion and ethical system has developed a societal concept of ''just war''. Today, the world's largest religions include Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Each faith lays claim to a heritage rich with thousands of years of history, and the power of great minds to support its ethical and moral beliefs. These religions have each developed separate and distinct beliefs regarding warfare. Whether those beliefs were developed through formal theological discourse, or through the dialogue in scriptures, they are valid and necessary today because they affect contemporary political action. Even today, many religious societies base their willingness to fight on the just war ethic that they hold.

  14. Cold Vacuum Drying facility design basis accident analysis documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-08

    This document provides the detailed accident analysis to support HNF-3553, Annex B, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' All assumptions, parameters, and models used to provide the analysis of the design basis accidents are documented to support the conclusions in the FSAR. The calculations in this document address the design basis accidents (DBAs) selected for analysis in HNF-3553, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report'', Annex B, ''Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Final Safety Analysis Report.'' The objective is to determine the quantity of radioactive particulate available for release at any point during processing at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and to use that quantity to determine the amount of radioactive material released during the DBAs. The radioactive material released is used to determine dose consequences to receptors at four locations, and the dose consequences are compared with the appropriate evaluation guidelines and release limits to ascertain the need for preventive and mitigative controls.

  15. Surge recovery techniques for the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Makara, J.N.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, made by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/s of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/s and operating speeds between 40 and 95 krpm. Since initial commissioning in 1993, Tevatron transient conditions such as quench recovery have led to multiple-location machine trips as a result of the cold compressors entering the surge regime. Historically, compressors operating at lower inlet pressures and higher speeds have been especially susceptible to these machine trips and it was not uncommon to have multiple compressor trips during large multiple-house quenches. In order to cope with these events and limit accelerator down time, surge recovery techniques have been implemented in an attempt to prevent the compressors from tripping once the machine entered this surge regime. This paper discusses the different methods of surge recovery that have been employed. Data from tests performed at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab as well as actual Tevatron operational data were utilized. In order to aid in the determination of the surge region, a full mapping study was undertaken to characterize the entire pressure field of the cold compressor. These techniques were then implemented and tested at several locations in the Tevatron with some success.

  16. Reducing gas generators and methods for generating a reducing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scotto, Mark Vincent; Perna, Mark Anthony

    2015-11-03

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  17. Cyber Wars Have SQUIDs, Will Travel A Trip to Nuclear North Korea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lo s a l a m o s s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o lo g y m ag a z i n e JUly 20 09 Wired for the Future Cyber Wars Have SQUIDs, Will Travel A Trip to Nuclear North Korea 1 663 lo s a l a m o s s c i e n c e a n d t e c h n o lo g y m ag a z i n e J U ly 2 0 0 9 During the Manhattan Project, Enrico Fermi, Nobel Laureate and leader of F-Division, meets with San Ildefonso Pueblo's Maria Martinez, famous worldwide for her extraordinary black pottery. features from terry wallace PrINcIPaL aSSocIatE

  18. Poisonous gas and the american expeditionary forces in World War I: Is it still 1918. Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, D.W.

    1992-12-06

    This monograph investigates the uses and effects of chemical weapons used on units. The doctrine and technology available today are compared to those available and used by the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) during World War One. The monograph first discusses the development and use of gas during WWI. Specifically, five case studies are presented representing the offensive and defensive use of gas as seen by AEF units. Each case is then analyzed using the battlefield operating systems (BOS). Lessons learned are then extracted from the case studies. Today's doctrine is then analyzed using these lessons learned to determine if the US is any better prepared to fight in a chemical environment today than it was at the end of WWI.

  19. Cold adaptation of the mononuclear molybdoenzyme periplasmic nitrate reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; Codd, Rachel; School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 2006

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cold-adapted phenotype of NapA from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein homology model of NapA from S. gelidimarina and mesophilic homologue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six amino acid residues identified as lead candidates governing NapA cold adaptation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular-level understanding of designing cool-temperature in situ oxyanion sensors. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalysed in bacteria by periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) which describes a system of variable protein subunits encoded by the nap operon. Nitrate reduction occurs in the NapA subunit, which contains a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (Mo-MGD) cofactor and one [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. The activity of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) isolated as native protein from the cold-adapted (psychrophilic) Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina (Nap{sub Sgel}) and middle-temperature adapted (mesophilic) Shewanella putrefaciens (Nap{sub Sput}) was examined at varied temperature. Irreversible deactivation of Nap{sub Sgel} and Nap{sub Sput} occurred at 54.5 and 65 Degree-Sign C, respectively. When Nap{sub Sgel} was preincubated at 21-70 Degree-Sign C for 30 min, the room-temperature nitrate reductase activity was maximal and invariant between 21 and 54 Degree-Sign C, which suggested that Nap{sub Sgel} was poised for optimal catalysis at modest temperatures and, unlike Nap{sub Sput}, did not benefit from thermally-induced refolding. At 20 Degree-Sign C, Nap{sub Sgel} reduced selenate at 16% of the rate of nitrate reduction. Nap{sub Sput} did not reduce selenate. Sequence alignment showed 46 amino acid residue substitutions in Nap{sub Sgel} that were conserved in NapA from mesophilic Shewanella, Rhodobacter and Escherichia species and could be associated with the Nap{sub Sgel} cold-adapted phenotype. Protein homology modeling of Nap{sub Sgel} using a mesophilic template with 66% amino acid identity showed the majority of substitutions occurred at the protein surface distal to the Mo-MGD cofactor. Two mesophilic {r_reversible} psychrophilic substitutions (Asn {r_reversible} His, Val {r_reversible} Trp) occurred in a region close to the surface of the NapA substrate funnel resulting in potential interdomain {pi}-{pi} and/or cation-{pi} interactions. Three mesophilic {r_reversible} psychrophilic substitutions occurred within 4.5 A of the Mo-MGD cofactor (Phe {r_reversible} Met, Ala {r_reversible} Ser, Ser {r_reversible} Thr) resulting in local regions that varied in hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding networks. These results contribute to the understanding of thermal protein adaptation in a redox-active mononuclear molybdenum enzyme and have implications in optimizing the design of low-temperature environmental biosensors.

  20. Cold bond agglomeration of waste oxides for recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Alessio, G.; Lu, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    Recycling of waste oxides has been an on-going challenge for integrated steel plants. The majority of these waste oxides are collected from the cleaning systems of ironmaking and steelmaking processes, and are usually in the form of fine particulates and slurries. In most cases, these waste materials are contaminated by oils and heavy metals and often require treatment at a considerable expense prior to landfill disposal. This contamination also limits the re-use or recycling potential of these oxides as secondary resources of reliable quality. However, recycling of some selected wastes in blast furnaces or steelmaking vessels is possible, but first requires agglomeration of the fine particulate by such methods as cold bond briquetting. Cold bond briquetting technology provides both mechanical compacting and bonding (with appropriate binders) of the particulates. This method of recycling has the potential to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The nature of the present study is cold bond briquetting of iron ore pellet fines with a molasses-cement-H{sub 2}O binder for recycling in a blast furnace. The inclusion of molasses is for its contribution to the green strength of briquettes. During the curing stage, significant gains in strength may be credited to molasses in the presence of cement. The interactions of cement (and its substitutes), water and molasses and their effects on the properties of the agglomerates during and after various curing conditions were investigated. Tensile strengths of briquettes made in the laboratory and subjected to experimental conditions which simulated the top part of a blast furnace shaft were also examined.

  1. The Effect of Cold Work on Properties of Alloy 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    Alloy 617 is approved for non-nuclear construction in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I and Section VIII, but is not currently qualified for nuclear use in ASME Code Section III. A draft Code Case was submitted in 1992 to qualify the alloy for nuclear service but efforts were stopped before the approval process was completed.1 Renewed interest in high temperature nuclear reactors has resulted in a new effort to qualify Alloy 617 for use in nuclear pressure vessels. The mechanical and physical properties of Alloy 617 were extensively characterized for the VHTR programs in the 1980’s and incorporated into the 1992 draft Code Case. Recently, the properties of modern heats of the alloy that incorporate an additional processing step, electro-slag re-melting, have been characterized both to confirm that the properties of contemporary material are consistent with those in the historical record and to increase the available database. A number of potential issues that were identified as requiring further consideration prior to the withdrawal of the 1992 Code Case are also being re-examined in the current R&D program. Code Cases are again being developed to allow use of Alloy 617 for nuclear design within the rules of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In general the Code defines two temperature ranges for nuclear design with austenitic and nickel based alloys. Below 427°C (800°F) time dependent behavior is not considered, while above this temperature creep and creep-fatigue are considered to be the dominant life-limiting deformation modes. There is a corresponding differentiation in the treatment of the potential for effects associated with cold work. Below 427°C the principal issue is the relationship between the level of cold work and the propensity for stress corrosion cracking and above that temperature the primary concern is the impact of cold work on creep-rupture behavior.

  2. Reduced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova, Italy a P. Martin Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti, 4 35127 Padova, Italy a and Dipartimento di Fisica ...

  3. Miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer having a cold cathode ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  4. Nonlinear lower hybrid oscillations in a cold viscous plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2011-12-15

    An analytical description of nonlinear lower hybrid oscillations in a cold quasi-neutral plasma in the presence of viscosity is presented in one spatial dimension by using Lagrangian variables. By treating viscosity coefficients of the electron and ion fluids as inversely proportional to their respective densities, an exact solution is obtained. It is found that the damping rate of such oscillations is directly proportional to the effective viscosity coefficients of electron and ion fluids. A possible implication of such solutions is briefly outlined.

  5. Evaluation of the intermittent GTA cold wire feed weld system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dereskiewicz, J.P.

    1991-08-01

    An intermittent gas tungsten arc cold wire feed process was statistically evaluated to determine the feasibility of applying this process to meet the 0.030-inch weld penetration and peak temperature requirements when unfavorable joint tolerances exist on a subassembly weld. The wire feed system was determined to only slightly benefit the welding process over normal pulsed gas tungsten arc welding using traditional wire feeding capabilities. However, the complexity of this process and extensive welding operator training and qualification does not outweigh the benefits of incorporating this synchronized pulse wire feed system in production. 2 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. High-Efficiency Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Dr. Ahmad M. Mahmoud, mahmouam@utrc.utc.com United Technologies Research Center This document contains no technical data subject to the EAR or the ITAR. Project Summary Timeline: Start date: March 1, 2013 Planned end date: May 29, 2015 Key Milestones (SOPO) 1. 2/ 2013: Down-selection of key components that meet DOE capacity and COP targets (COP=2.5 at -13F ambient condition) through modeling. 2. 6/

  7. High-Efficiency Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ahmad M. Mahmoud, mahmouam@utrc.utc.com United Technologies Research Center High-Efficiency Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review This document contains no technical data subject to the EAR or the ITAR. 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: March 1, 2013 Planned end date: May 29, 2015 Key Milestones (SOPO) 1. 2/ 2013: Down-selection of key components that meet DOE capacity and COP targets (COP=2.5 at -13F ambient condition) through modeling. 2. 8/ 2014

  8. Condensate fraction of cold gases in a nonuniform external potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Krutitsky, K. V.

    2011-09-15

    Exact calculation of the condensate fraction in multidimensional inhomogeneous interacting Bose systems in a confining potential of arbitrary shape is a difficult computational problem. We have developed an iterative procedure which allows us to calculate the condensate fraction as well as the corresponding eigenfunction of the one-body density matrix. We successfully validate this procedure in diffusion Monte Carlo simulations of a Bose gas in an optical lattice at zero temperature. We also discuss the relation between different criteria used for testing coherence in cold Bose systems, such as the fraction of particles that are superfluid, condensed, or in the zero-momentum state.

  9. Cold/Cryogenic Composites for Hydrogen Storage Applications in FCEVs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) Cold/Cryogenic Composites for Hydrogen Storage Applications in FCEVs October 29, 2015 Dallas, TX Dr. Ned Stetson H 2 Storage Program Manager Fuel Cell Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 2 DOE H 2 Storage Program Contacts http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/fuel-cell-technologies-office Ned Stetson - Program Manager 202-586-9995 ned.stetson@ee.doe.gov Grace Ordaz 202-586-8350 grace.ordaz@ee.doe.gov

  10. Deuterium concentration and cold fusion; Rate distributions in palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.; Nielson, K.K. )

    1989-12-01

    Cold fusion reactions and excess heat production have been reported in the electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium metal cathode. Solution of the standard diffusion equation for deuterium without fusion indicates that the deuterium concentration distribution rapidly becomes constant in the palladium lattice. Solution of the nonlinear diffusion equation for deuterium undergoing fusion also gives constant deuterium concentrations, suggesting that any fusion occurs uniformly throughout the palladium lattice. The hypothesis that fusion reactions occur predominantly at the palladium surface is shown to be inconsistent with experimental data.

  11. Thermal, thermoelectric, and cathode poisoning effects in cold fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keesing, R.G.; Greenhow, R.C.; Cohler, M.D. ); McQuillan, A.J. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on an unsuccessful attempt to repeat the observations by Fleischmann and Pons of cold nuclear fusion in deuterium-charged palladium; no excess heat is found, nor is any gamma or neutron activity identified. Peltier heating at the palladium/platinum junction is investigated, but no effects are seen; the possibility remains, however, that a large Peltier coefficient may arise for deuterium concentrations that render the palladium-deuterium semiconducting. Finally, the effects of poisoning the palladium with cyanide were investigated.

  12. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  13. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  14. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  15. A REALISTIC EXAMINATION OF COLD FUSION CLAIMS 24 YEARS LATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K.

    2012-10-22

    On March 29, 1989, chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced they had discovered an effect whose explanation was required to lie in the realm of nuclear reactions. Their claim, and those subsequent to it of roughly similar nature, became known as cold fusion. Research continues to this day on this effect, but what has become clear is that whatever it is, it is not a conventional fusion process. Thus the cold fusion moniker is somewhat inappropriate and many current researchers in the field prefer the term Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), although other terms have been coined for it as well. the results developed out of the LENR research do in fact show something is happening to produce signals which might be interpreted as supporting nuclear reactions (which is what encourages and sustains LENR researchers), but which can also be interpreted via a set of unique and interesting conventional processes. The focus of this document is to describe and address recent objections to such processes so that subsequent LENR research can be guided to develop information that will determine whether either set of explanations has merit. It is hoped that criteria delineated herein will aid the USDOE and other agencies in determining if LENR proposals are meritorious and worthy of support or not.

  16. Materials Selection for the HFIR Cold Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, K.

    2001-08-24

    In year 2002 the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) will be fitted with a source of cold neutrons to upgrade and expand its existing neutron scattering facilities. The in-reactor components of the new source consist of a moderator vessel containing supercritical hydrogen gas moderator at a temperature of 20K and pressure of 15 bar, and a surrounding vacuum vessel. They will be installed in an enlarged beam tube located at the site of the present horizontal beam tube, HB-4; which terminates within the reactor's beryllium reflector. These components must withstand exceptional service conditions. This report describes the reasons and factors underlying the choice of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy for construction of the in-reactor components. The overwhelming considerations are the need to minimize generation of nuclear heat and to remove that heat through the flowing moderator, and to achieve a minimum service life of about 8 years coincident with the replacement schedule for the beryllium reflector. 6061-T6 aluminum alloy offers the best combination of low nuclear heating, high thermal conductivity, good fabricability, compatibility with hydrogen, superior cryogenic properties, and a well-established history of satisfactory performance in nuclear environments. These features are documented herein. An assessment is given of the expected performance of each component of the cold source.

  17. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OPPSDIV) | Department of Energy OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation (OPPSDIV) OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation (OPPSDIV) OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation (OPPSDIV) Office presentation icon 37_otec_lmco_ascari.ppt More Documents & Publications CX-004741: Categorical Exclusion Determination OTEC resource assessment Water Power Program Peer Review Meeting Agenda

  18. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bottles coated with deuterated polystryene (Conference) | SciTech Connect The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) from the LANSCE super-thermal deuterium source were used to fill an acrylic bottle coated with deuterated polystyrene.

  19. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Home: Fort Devens: Cold

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Climate Market-Rate Townhomes | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Home: Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Home: Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Twelve townhomes constructed at a decommissioned army base incorporated efficiency upgrades to achieve a HERS Index score of 41 before adding renewables. PDF icon Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Targeting HERS Index of 40 -

  20. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Affordable Cold

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Climate Infill Housing with Hybrid Insulation Approach | Department of Energy Affordable Cold Climate Infill Housing with Hybrid Insulation Approach Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Affordable Cold Climate Infill Housing with Hybrid Insulation Approach The City of Wyandotte started a construction program to engage local builders in constructing energy-efficient homes in existing neighborhoods for less than $100/ft2. PDF icon Affordable Cold Climate Infill Housing with

  1. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Request for information on reducing regulatory burden PDF icon Reducing Regulatory Burden More Documents & Publications Reducing Regulatory Burden Reducing Regulatory Burden

  2. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    feeds for nuclear waste vitrification Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste ...

  3. V-197: Adobe ColdFusion 10 WebSockets Security Bypass Vulnerability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The vulnerability is caused due to an unspecified error and can be exploited to invoke public methods on ColdFusion Components (CFC) using WebSockets

  4. An analysis of uranium dispersal and health effects using a Gulf War case study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Albert Christian

    2005-07-01

    The study described in this report used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to depleted uranium (DU) during the 1991 Gulf War for both U.S. troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. Only a few veterans in vehicles accidentally struck by U.S. DU munitions are predicted to have inhaled sufficient quantities of DU particulate to incur any significant health risk (i.e., the possibility of temporary kidney damage from the chemical toxicity of uranium and about a 1% chance of fatal lung cancer). The health risk to all downwind civilians is predicted to be extremely small. Recommendations for monitoring are made for certain exposed groups. Although the study found fairly large calculational uncertainties, the models developed and used are generally valid. The analysis was also used to assess potential uranium health hazards for workers in the weapons complex. No illnesses are projected for uranium workers following standard guidelines; nonetheless, some research suggests that more conservative guidelines should be considered.

  5. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitricformicglycolic and nitricformicsugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitricformicglycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitricglycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitricglycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): ? Phase I - A nitricformic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; ? Phase II - A nitricglycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste loading and was operated continuously for 25 days. Process data was collected throughout testing and included melter operation parameters and off-gas chemistry. In order to generate off-gas data in support of the flammability model development for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet, vapor space steady state testing in the range of ~300-750C was conducted under the following conditions, (i) 100% (nominal and excess antifoam levels) and 125% stoichiometry feed and (ii) with and without argon bubbling. Adjustments to feed rate, heater outputs and purge air flow were necessary in order to achieve vapor space temperatures in this range. Surge testing was also completed under nominal conditions for four days with argon bubbling and one day without argon bubbling.

  6. Cold stress on Russian territory during last global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinogradov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    A great part of Russian territory is characterized by climate discomfort of life. In winter cold stress covers nearly all territory. The purpose of this work is to learn how the climatic discomfort of life is affected by climate change. The effect of global warming for the period 1981--1990 on geographical distribution of bioclimatic indexes by seasons (compared with average figures) is analyzed. Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, wind chill, wet cooling, effective temperature, physiological deficit index for monthly average figures were calculated and the data bank for the period 1981--1990 was made up. The indexes of enthalpy, wet cooling, and dry cooling according to Bodman were chosen as the most informative and independent. Maps of the climatic indexes taking into account temperature, humidity and wind speed were made up on the basis of the calculated figures.

  7. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-01-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  8. SHEAR STRENGTH MEASURING EQUIPMENT EVALUATION AT THE COLD TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-09-09

    Retrievals under current criteria require that approximately 2,000,000 gallons of double-shell tank (DST) waste storage space not be used to prevent creating new tanks that might be susceptible to buoyant displacement gas release events (BDGRE). New criteria are being evaluated, based on actual sludge properties, to potentially show that sludge wastes do not exhibit the same BDGRE risk. Implementation of the new criteria requires measurement of in situ waste shear strength. Cone penetrometers were judged the best equipment for measuring in situ shear strength and an A.P. van den berg Hyson 100 kN Light Weight Cone Penetrometer (CPT) was selected for evaluation. The CPT was procured and then evaluated at the Hanford Site Cold Test Facility. Evaluation demonstrated that the equipment with minor modification was suitable for use in Tank Farms.

  9. A strained silicon cold electron bolometer using Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brien, T. L. R. Ade, P. A. R.; Barry, P. S.; Dunscombe, C.; Morozov, D. V.; Sudiwala, R. V.; Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Parker, E. H. C.; Prest, M. J.; Whall, T. E.; Prunnila, M.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    2014-07-28

    We describe optical characterisation of a strained silicon cold electron bolometer (CEB), operating on a 350 mK stage, designed for absorption of millimetre-wave radiation. The silicon cold electron bolometer utilises Schottky contacts between a superconductor and an n{sup ++} doped silicon island to detect changes in the temperature of the charge carriers in the silicon, due to variations in absorbed radiation. By using strained silicon as the absorber, we decrease the electron-phonon coupling in the device and increase the responsivity to incoming power. The strained silicon absorber is coupled to a planar aluminium twin-slot antenna designed to couple to 160?GHz and that serves as the superconducting contacts. From the measured optical responsivity and spectral response, we calculate a maximum optical efficiency of 50% for radiation coupled into the device by the planar antenna and an overall noise equivalent power, referred to absorbed optical power, of 1.110{sup ?16}?W?Hz{sup ?1/2} when the detector is observing a 300?K source through a 4?K throughput limiting aperture. Even though this optical system is not optimized, we measure a system noise equivalent temperature difference of 6?mK?Hz{sup ?1/2}. We measure the noise of the device using a cross-correlation of time stream data, measured simultaneously with two junction field-effect transistor amplifiers, with a base correlated noise level of 300?pV?Hz{sup ?1/2} and find that the total noise is consistent with a combination of photon noise, current shot noise, and electron-phonon thermal noise.

  10. High-Current Cold Cathode Employing Diamond and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2014-10-22

    The essence of this project was for diamond films to be deposited on cold cathodes to improve their emission properties. Films with varying morphology, composition, and size of the crystals were deposited and the emission properties of the cathodes that utilize such films were studied. The prototype cathodes fabricated by the methods developed during Phase I were tested and evaluated in an actual high-power RF device during Phase II. These high-power tests used the novel active RF pulse compression system and the X-band magnicon test facility at US Naval Research Laboratory. In earlier tests, plasma switches were employed, while tests under this project utilized electron-beam switching. The intense electron beams required in the switches were supplied from cold cathodes embodying diamond films with varying morphology, including uncoated molybdenum cathodes in the preliminary tests. Tests with uncoated molybdenum cathodes produced compressed X-band RF pulses with a peak power of 91 MW, and a maximum power gain of 16.5:1. Tests were also carried out with switches employing diamond coated cathodes. The pulse compressor was based on use of switches employing electron beam triggering to effect mode conversion. In experimental tests, the compressor produced 165 MW in a ~ 20 ns pulse at ~18× power gain and ~ 140 MW at ~ 16× power gain in a 16 ns pulse with a ~ 7 ns flat-top. In these tests, molybdenum blade cathodes with thin diamond coatings demonstrated good reproducible emission uniformity with a 100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The new compressor does not have the limitations of earlier types of active pulse compressors and can operate at significantly higher electric fields without breakdown.

  11. Regulatory Networks Controlling Plant Cold Acclimation or Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomashow, Mike

    2011-03-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Mike Thomashow of Michigan State University gives a presentation on on "Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011.

  12. Regulatory Networks Controlling Plant Cold Acclimation or Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis (2011 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thomashow, Mike

    2011-06-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Mike Thomashow of Michigan State University gives a presentation on on "Low Temperature Regulatory Networks Controlling Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011. «

  13. 2014 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  14. 2013 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  15. Effect of Feeding Rate on the Cold Cap Configuration in a Laboratory-Scale Melter - 13362

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel; Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang

    2013-07-01

    High-level-waste melter feed is converted into glass in a joule-heated melter, where it forms a floating layer of reacting feed, called the cold cap. After the glass-forming phase becomes connected, evolving gases produce bubbles that form a foam layer under the feed. The bubbles coalesce into cavities, from which most of the gases are released around the edges of the cold cap while gases also escape through small shafts in the reacting feed. The foam layer insulates the cold cap from the heat transferred from the molten glass below. The cold cap behavior was investigated in a laboratory-scale assembly with a fused silica crucible. A high-alumina waste simulant was fed into the crucible and the feed charging rate was varied from 3 to 7 mL min{sup -1}. After a fixed amount of time (35 min), feed charging was stopped and the crucible was removed from the furnace and quenched on a copper block to preserve the structure of the cold cap during cooling. During the rapid quenching, thermal cracking of the glass and cold cap allowed it to be broken up into sections for analysis. The effect of the charging rate on the height, area and volume of the cold cap was determined. The size of the bubbles collected in the foam layer under the feed increased as the cold cap expanded and the relationship between these bubbles and temperature will be determined for input into a mathematical model. (authors)

  16. 2011 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  17. 2010 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advance Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  18. 2012 Radiological Monitoring Results Associated with the Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed of the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste wastewater prior to discharge into the Cold Waste Pond and of specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000161-01, Modification B). All radiological monitoring is performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  19. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  20. Reduce air, reduce compliance cost new patented spray booth technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, F.

    1997-12-31

    A New Paint Spray Booth System that dramatically reduces air volumes normally required for capturing and controlling paint overspray that contains either Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), or both. In turn, a substantial reduction in capital equipment expenditures for air abatement systems and air make-up heaters as well as related annual operating expenses is realized.

  1. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  2. Creep-Rupture Behavior and Recrystallization in Cold-Bent Boiler Tubing for USC Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shingledecker, John P

    2008-01-01

    Creep-rupture experiments were conducted on candidate Ultrasupercritical (USC) alloy tubes to evaluate the effects of cold-work and recrystallization during high-temperature service. These creep tests were performed by internally pressurizing cold-bent boiler tubes at 775 C for times up to 8000 hours. The bends were fabricated with cold-work levels beyond the current ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (ASME B&PV) Code Section I limits for austenitic stainless steels. Destructive metallographic evaluation of the crept tube bends was used to determine the effects of cold-work and the degree of recrystallization. The metallographic analysis combined with an evaluation of the creep and rupture data suggest that solid-solution strengthened nickel-based alloys can be fabricated for high-temperature service at USC conditions utilizing levels of cold-work higher than the current allowed levels for austenitic stainless steels.

  3. Microbial methods of reducing technetium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wildung, Raymond E. [Richland, WA; Garland, Thomas R. [Greybull, WY; Gorby, Yuri A. [Richland, WA; Hess, Nancy J. [Benton City, WA; Li, Shu-Mei W. [Richland, WA; Plymale, Andrew E. [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a method for microbial reduction of a technetium compound to form other compounds of value in medical imaging. The technetium compound is combined in a mixture with non-growing microbial cells which contain a technetium-reducing enzyme system, a stabilizing agent and an electron donor in a saline solution under anaerobic conditions. The mixture is substantially free of an inorganic technetium reducing agent and its reduction products. The resulting product is Tc of lower oxidation states, the form of which can be partially controlled by the stabilizing agent. It has been discovered that the microorganisms Shewanella alga, strain Bry and Shewanelia putrifacians, strain CN-32 contain the necessary enzyme systems for technetium reduction and can form both mono nuclear and polynuclear reduced Tc species depending on the stabilizing agent.

  4. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Hydrocarbon and NOx Adsorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jae-Soon; Daw, C Stuart; Parks, II, James E; Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    We presents a study of the potential for using low-cost sorbent materials (i.e. Ag-Beta-zeolite and Fe-Mn-Zr transition metal oxides) to temporally trap hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions during cold-start periods in HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles. The adsorption behavior of the candidate sorbent materials was characterized in our laboratory flow reactor experiments. The parameters were then used to develop a one-dimensional, transient device model which has been implemented in the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to simulate a passive HC and NOx absorber device. The results show that such an absorber can substantially reduce HC and NOx emissions by storing them when the 3-way catalyst is too cool to function and re-releasing them when the exhaust temperature rises. These improved emission controls do not involve any penalty in fuel consumption or require any change in engine operation. The cost of these sorbent materials is also much less than conventional 3-way catalysts.

  5. Fission Product Separation from Pyrochemical Electrolyte by Cold Finger Melt Crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshua R. Versey

    2013-08-01

    This work contributes to the development of pyroprocessing technology as an economically viable means of separating used nuclear fuel from fission products and cladding materials. Electrolytic oxide reduction is used as a head-end step before electrorefining to reduce oxide fuel to metallic form. The electrolytic medium used in this technique is molten LiCl-Li2O. Groups I and II fission products, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), have been shown to partition from the fuel into the molten LiCl-Li2O. Various approaches of separating these fission products from the salt have been investigated by different research groups. One promising approach is based on a layer crystallization method studied at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Despite successful demonstration of this basic approach, there are questions that remain, especially concerning the development of economical and scalable operating parameters based on a comprehensive understanding of heat and mass transfer. This research explores these parameters through a series of experiments in which LiCl is purified, by concentrating CsCl in a liquid phase as purified LiCl is crystallized and removed via an argon-cooled cold finger.

  6. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  7. OTEC Advanced Composite Cold Water Pipe: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Alan Miller; Matthew Ascari

    2011-09-12

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion can exploit natural temperature gradients in the oceans to generate usable forms of energy (for example, cost-competitive baseload electricity in tropical regions such as Hawaii) free from fossil fuel consumption and global warming emissions.The No.1 acknowledged challenge of constructing an OTEC plant is the Cold Water Pipe (CWP), which draws cold water from 1000m depths up to the surface, to serve as the coolant for the OTEC Rankine cycle. For a commercial-scale plant, the CWP is on the order of 10m in diameter.This report describes work done by LMSSC developing the CWP for LM MS2 New Ventures emerging OTEC business. The work started in early 2008 deciding on the minimum-cost CWP architecture, materials, and fabrication process. In order to eliminate what in previous OTEC work had been a very large assembly/deployment risk, we took the innovative approach of building an integral CWP directly from theOTEC platform and down into the water. During the latter half of 2008, we proceeded to a successful small-scale Proof-of-Principles validation of the new fabrication process, at the Engineering Development Lab in Sunnyvale. During 2009-10, under the Cooperative Agreement with the US Dept. of Energy, we have now successfully validated key elements of the process and apparatus at a 4m diameter scale suitable for a future OTEC Pilot Plant. The validations include: (1) Assembly of sandwich core rings from pre-pultruded hollow 'planks,' holding final dimensions accurately; (2) Machine-based dispensing of overlapping strips of thick fiberglass fabric to form the lengthwise-continuous face sheets, holding accurate overlap dimensions; (3) Initial testing of the fabric architecture, showing that the overlap splices develop adequate mechanical strength (work done under a parallel US Naval Facilities Command program); and (4) Successful resin infusion/cure of 4m diameter workpieces, obtaining full wet-out and a non-discernable knitline between successive stepwise infusions.

  8. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  9. Abstracts of papers presented at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on quantitative Biology: DNA and chromosomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the LVIII Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitles DNA & Chromosomes. The meeting was held June 2--June 9, 1993 at Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

  10. Warm and cold fermionic dark matter via freeze-in

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E. E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uni-muenster.de

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-in mechanism of dark matter production provides a simple and intriguing alternative to the WIMP paradigm. In this paper, we analyze whether freeze-in can be used to account for the dark matter in the so-called singlet fermionic model. In it, the SM is extended with only two additional fields, a singlet scalar that mixes with the Higgs boson, and the dark matter particle, a fermion assumed to be odd under a Z{sub 2} symmetry. After numerically studying the generation of dark matter, we analyze the dependence of the relic density with respect to all the free parameters of the model. These results are then used to obtain the regions of the parameter space that are compatible with the dark matter constraint. We demonstrate that the observed dark matter abundance can be explained via freeze-in over a wide range of masses extending down to the keV range. As a result, warm and cold dark matter can be obtained in this model. It is also possible to have dark matter masses well above the unitarity bound for WIMPs.

  11. The Performance House - A Cold Climate Challenge Home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.; Grab, J.; Williamson, J.

    2013-08-01

    Working with builder partners on test homes allows for vetting of whole-house building strategies to eliminate any potential unintended consequences prior to implementing these solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, CARB partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, CT. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 "Performance House" was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adapt with the homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the "Performance House" were not cutting-edge, but simply "best practices practiced". The focus was on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. When seeking a 30% source energy savings targets over a comparable 2009 IECC code-built home in the cold climate zone, nearly all components of a home must be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. To help builders and architects seeking to match the performance of this home, a step-by-step guide through the building shell components of DOE's Challenge Home are provided in a pictorial story book. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a HERS Index Score of 20 (43 without PV, the minimum target was 55 for compliance). This home was also awarded the 2012 HOBI for Best Green Energy Efficient Home from the Home Builders & Remodelers Association of Connecticut.

  12. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher; Sarobol, Pylin; Argibay, Nicolas; Clark, Blythe; Diantonio, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. We demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.

  13. HERSCHEL REVEALS MASSIVE COLD CLUMPS IN NGC 7538

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fallscheer, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Sadavoy, S.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, P. G.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Hill, T.; Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.; Men'shchikov, A.; Andre, Ph.; Konyves, V.; Sauvage, M.; Griffin, M.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Benedettini, M.; Schneider, N.; Anderson, L. D. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS and others

    2013-08-20

    We present the first overview of the Herschel observations of the nearby high-mass star-forming region NGC 7538, taken as part of the Herschel imaging study of OB young stellar objects (HOBYS) Key Programme. These PACS and SPIRE maps cover an approximate area of one square degree at five submillimeter and far-infrared wavebands. We have identified 780 dense sources and classified 224 of those. With the intention of investigating the existence of cold massive starless or class 0-like clumps that would have the potential to form intermediate- to high-mass stars, we further isolate 13 clumps as the most likely candidates for follow-up studies. These 13 clumps have masses in excess of 40 M{sub Sun} and temperatures below 15 K. They range in size from 0.4 pc to 2.5 pc and have densities between 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. Spectral energy distributions are then used to characterize their energetics and evolutionary state through a luminosity-mass diagram. NGC 7538 has a highly filamentary structure, previously unseen in the dust continuum of existing submillimeter surveys. We report the most complete imaging to date of a large, evacuated ring of material in NGC 7538 which is bordered by many cool sources.

  14. Introduction Yucca Lady, a World War II Boeing-17G Flying Fortress Army Air Force serial number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yucca Lady, a World War II Boeing-17G Flying Fortress Army Air Force serial number 44-83575, was flown to the Nevada Test Site (now known as the Nevada National Security Site - NNSS) in 1952, where she was instrumented and subjected to three atmospheric nuclear tests as part of the Operation Tumbler-Snapper -- Vulnerability of Parked Aircraft to Atomic Bombs series, conducted in April and May 1952. The project would determine the effects of a nuclear device detonated above an airfield,

  15. Air Source Heat Pumps for Cold Climate Applications: Recent U. S. R&D Results from IEA HPP Annex 41

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D; Groll, Dr. Eckhard A.; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Air source heat pumps are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low efficiency and heating capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. This article describes selected R&D activities aimed at improving their cold weather performance.

  16. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Dimos, Duane B. (6105 Innsbrook Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Pike, Gordon E. (1609 Cedar Ridge, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  17. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  18. MapReduce SVM Game

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, Craig M.; Verzi, Stephen J.; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2015-08-10

    Despite technological advances making computing devices faster, smaller, and more prevalent in today's age, data generation and collection has outpaced data processing capabilities. Simply having more compute platforms does not provide a means of addressing challenging problems in the big data era. Rather, alternative processing approaches are needed and the application of machine learning to big data is hugely important. The MapReduce programming paradigm is an alternative to conventional supercomputing approaches, and requires less stringent data passing constrained problem decompositions. Rather, MapReduce relies upon defining a means of partitioning the desired problem so that subsets may be computed independently and recom- bined to yield the net desired result. However, not all machine learning algorithms are amenable to such an approach. Game-theoretic algorithms are often innately distributed, consisting of local interactions between players without requiring a central authority and are iterative by nature rather than requiring extensive retraining. Effectively, a game-theoretic approach to machine learning is well suited for the MapReduce paradigm and provides a novel, alternative new perspective to addressing the big data problem. In this paper we present a variant of our Support Vector Machine (SVM) Game classifier which may be used in a distributed manner, and show an illustrative example of applying this algorithm.

  19. MapReduce SVM Game

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vineyard, Craig M.; Verzi, Stephen J.; James, Conrad D.; Aimone, James B.; Heileman, Gregory L.

    2015-08-10

    Despite technological advances making computing devices faster, smaller, and more prevalent in today's age, data generation and collection has outpaced data processing capabilities. Simply having more compute platforms does not provide a means of addressing challenging problems in the big data era. Rather, alternative processing approaches are needed and the application of machine learning to big data is hugely important. The MapReduce programming paradigm is an alternative to conventional supercomputing approaches, and requires less stringent data passing constrained problem decompositions. Rather, MapReduce relies upon defining a means of partitioning the desired problem so that subsets may be computed independently andmore » recom- bined to yield the net desired result. However, not all machine learning algorithms are amenable to such an approach. Game-theoretic algorithms are often innately distributed, consisting of local interactions between players without requiring a central authority and are iterative by nature rather than requiring extensive retraining. Effectively, a game-theoretic approach to machine learning is well suited for the MapReduce paradigm and provides a novel, alternative new perspective to addressing the big data problem. In this paper we present a variant of our Support Vector Machine (SVM) Game classifier which may be used in a distributed manner, and show an illustrative example of applying this algorithm.« less

  20. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Burden Reducing Regulatory Burden Request for information on reducing regulatory burden PDF icon Reducing Regulatory Burden More Documents & Publications Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 Reducing Regulatory Burden Department of Energy Request for Information: Reducing Regulatory Burden (Reply Comments)

  1. BEAM TRANSPORT AND STORAGE WITH COLD NEUTRAL ATOMS AND MOLECULES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walstrom, Peter L.

    2012-05-15

    A large class of cold neutral atoms and molecules is subject to magnetic field-gradient forces. In the presence of a field, hyperfine atomic states are split into several Zeeman levels. The slopes of these curves vs. field are the effective magnetic moments. By means of optical pumping in a field, Zeeman states of neutral lithium atoms and CaH molecules with effective magnetic moments of nearly {+-} one Bohr magneton can be selected. Particles in Zeeman states for which the energy increases with field are repelled by increasing fields; particles in states for which the energy decreases with field are attracted to increasing fields. For stable magnetic confinement, field-repelled states are required. Neutral-particle velocities in the present study are on the order of tens to hundreds of m/s and the magnetic fields needed for transport and injection are on the order of in the range of 0.01-1T. Many of the general concepts of charged-particle beam transport carry over into neutral particle spin-force optics, but with important differences. In general, the role of bending dipoles in charged particle optics is played by quadrupoles in neutral particle optics; the role of quadrupoles is played by sextupoles. The neutralparticle analog of charge-exchange injection into storage rings is the use of lasers to flip the state of particles from field-seeking to field-repelled. Preliminary tracking results for two neutral atom/molecule storage ring configurations are presented. It was found that orbit instabilities limit the confinment time in a racetrack-shaped ring with discrete magnetic elements with drift spaces between them; stable behavior was observed in a toroidal ring with a continuous sextupole field. An alternative concept using a linear sextupole or octupole channel with solenoids on the ends is presently being considered.

  2. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 3; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in Cold and Very Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guide book is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the cold and very cold climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team-from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  3. Cold collisions of highly rotationally excited CO{sub 2} with He: The prospects for cold chemistry with super-rotors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Qady, W. H.; Forrey, R. C.; Yang, B. H.; Stancil, P. C.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2011-11-15

    Building on recent advances in ultrafast lasers and methods to slow molecules, an experiment is proposed to produce translationally cold CO{sub 2} super-rotors (j{approx}200) by combining an optical centrifuge with helium-buffer-gas cooling. Quantum mechanical calculations of the complex scattering length for He-CO{sub 2} collisions demonstrate that the efficiency of rotational quenching decreases rapidly with increasing rotational excitation j in the ultracold regime. Extrapolating to helium cryogenic temperatures, rotational quenching is predicted to remain inefficient up to {approx}1 K, allowing for the possible creation of a beam of translationally cold, rotationally hot molecules.

  4. Cooled electronic system with thermal spreaders coupling electronics cards to cold rails

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2013-07-23

    Liquid-cooled electronic systems are provided which include an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket or removal of the card from the socket. A liquid-cooled cold rail is disposed at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader couples the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The thermally conductive extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  5. T-549: Adobe ColdFusion 9.0.1 CHF1 and earlier

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability in Adobe ColdFusion before 9.0.1 CHF1 allows remote attackers to inject arbitrary web script or HTML via vectors involving a "tag script.

  6. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  7. Assessment of cold-climate environmental research priorities. Appendixes A, B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    States, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    These appendices present research plans in the areas of air pollution, water contamination/consumption, habitat modification and waste management that are relevant to the EPA's cold regions program. (ACR)

  8. Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ape039narumanchi2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate Advanced Liquid Cooling R&D...

  9. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment; Industrial Technologie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    factors: * The temperature of the internal furnace surfaces facing the opening. * The effective area of the opening ... radiation into furnace insulation or incoming cold work. ...

  10. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for nuclear waste vitrification (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple gas-evolving reactions in

  11. Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for nuclear waste vitrification (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of evolved gas analysis to cold-cap reactions of melter feeds for nuclear waste vitrification In the vitrification of nuclear wastes, the melter feed (a mixture of nuclear waste and glass-forming and modifying additives) experiences multiple

  12. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Technology: Results of Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gombert, Dirk; Richardson, John Grant

    2001-09-01

    This report provides a review of cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) technology and presents summaries of alternatives and design issues associated with major system components. The objective in this report is to provide background systems level information relating to development and application of cold crucible induction-heated melter technology for radiological waste processing. Included is a detailed description of the bench-top melter system at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute currently being used for characterization testing

  13. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx | Department of Energy Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx Reports results from study of potential for using chemisorbing materials to temporally trap HC and NOx emissions during cold-start of HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles PDF icon p-13_gao.pdf More Documents & Publications

  14. The 2007 Eastern US Spring Freeze: Increased Cold Damage in a Warming World

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The 2007 Eastern US Spring Freeze: Increased Cold Damage in a Warming World Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The 2007 Eastern US Spring Freeze: Increased Cold Damage in a Warming World Plant ecologists have long been concerned with a seemingly paradoxical scenario in the relationship between plant growth and climate change: warming may actually increase the risk of plant frost damage. The underlying hypothesis is that mild winters and warm, early

  15. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bottles coated with deuterated polystryene (Conference) | SciTech Connect The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  16. High-Performance Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump High-Performance Commercial Cold Climate Heat Pump Credit: United Technologies Research Center Credit: United Technologies Research Center Lead Performer: United Technologies Research Center - East Hartford, CT Partners: Carrier Corporation - Farmington, CT DOE Funding: $1,500,000 Cost Share: $373,000 Project Term: 3/1/2013 - 5/29/2015 Funding Opportunity: Energy Savings Through Improved Mechanical Systems and Building Envelope Technologies 2012 (DE-FOA-0000621)

  17. Mitofusin-2 protects against cold stress-induced cell injury in HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Chen, Yaomin; Yang, Qun; Che, Honglei; Chen, Xiangjun; Yao, Ting; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Mingchao; Ke, Tao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment (4.0 {+-} 0.1 {sup o}C) for 2, 4, 8, or 12 h. Western blot analyses showed that these cells expressed decreased fission-related protein Drp1 and increased fusion-related protein Mfn2 at 4 h; meanwhile, electron microscopy analysis revealed large and long mitochondrial morphology within these cells, indicating increased mitochondrial fusion. With silencing of Mfn2 but not of Mfn1 by siRNA promoted cold-stress-induced cell death with decreased ATP production in HEK293 cells. Our results show that increased expression of Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are important for mitochondrial function as well as cell survival during cold stress. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion and fission in cold-stress-induced cell injury.

  18. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, Charles J. (Rexford, NY); Rhudy, Ralph G. (Scotia, NY); Bushman, Ralph E. (Lathem, NY)

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  19. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  20. Reducing Your Electricity Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appliances & Electronics » Reducing Your Electricity Use Reducing Your Electricity Use An energy audit can help you find the most effective ways to save money and reduce energy use in your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. An energy audit can help you find the most effective ways to save money and reduce energy use in your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Reducing energy use in your home saves you money, increases our energy security, and reduces the

  1. PROJECT PROFILE: Scientific Approach to Reducing Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROJECT PROFILE: Scientific Approach to Reducing Photovoltaic Module Material Costs While Increasing Durability PROJECT PROFILE: Scientific Approach to Reducing Photovoltaic Module ...

  2. Reducing Photovoltaic Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photovoltaics Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Reducing Photovoltaic Costs Photo of gloved hands pouring liquid from a glass bottle to glass beaker. The development of more ...

  3. Legacy Management Sites | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to managing its responsibilities associated with the environmental legacy of World War II and the Cold War. This legacy includes radioactive and chemical waste, environmental...

  4. EM News Flashes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of workers who produced plutonium for the Manhattan Project, World War II, and Cold War. September 4, 2014 EM Acquisition and Project Management Deputy Assistant Secretary...

  5. Design and first cold test of BNL superconducting 112 MHz QWR for electron gun applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Boulware, C.H.; Chang, X.; Grimm, T.L.; Siegel, B.; Than, R.; Winowski, M.

    2011-03-28

    Brookhaven National Laboratory and Niowave, Inc. have designed, fabricated, and performed the first cold test of a superconducting 112 MHz quarter-wave resonator (QWR) for electron gun experiments. The first cold test of the QWR cryomodule has been completed at Niowave. The paper discusses the cryomodule design, presents the cold test results, and outline plans to upgrade the cryomodule for future experiments. A quarter-wave resonator concept of superconducting RF (SRF) electron gun was proposed at BNL for electron cooling ion/proton beams at RHIC. QWRs can be made sufficiently compact even at low RF frequencies (long wavelengths). The long wavelength allows to produce long electron bunches, thus minimizing space charge effects and enabling high bunch charge. Also, such guns should be suitable for experiments requiring high average current electron beams. A 112 MHz QWR gun was designed, fabricated, and cold-tested in collaboration between BNL and Niowave. This is the lowest frequency SRF gun ever tested successfully. In this paper we describe the gun design and fabrication, present the cold test results, and outline plans for the cryomodule upgrade for future experiments.

  6. Reducing Power Factor Cost | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Power Factor Cost Reducing Power Factor Cost Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system's distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system's capacity. PDF icon Reducing

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  8. SANS study of understanding mechanism of cold gelation of globular proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinchalikar, A. J., E-mail: akshayc@barc.gov.in; Kumar, Sugam, E-mail: akshayc@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: akshayc@barc.gov.in; Wagh, A. G. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory of Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH - 5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2014-04-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to probe the evolution of interaction and the resultant structures in the cold gelation of globular proteins. The cold gelation involves two steps consisting of irreversible protein deformation by heating followed by some means (e.g. increasing ionic strength) to bring them together at room temperature. We have examined the role of different salts in cold gelation of preheated aqueous Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein solutions. The interactions have been modeled by two Yukawa potential combining short-range attraction and long-range repulsion. We show that in step 1 (preheated temperature effect) the deformation of protein increases the magnitude of attractive interaction but not sufficient to induce gel. The attractive interaction is further enhanced in step 2 (salt effect) to result in gel formation. The salt effect is found to be strongly depending on the valency of the counterions. The gel structure has been characterized by the mass fractals.

  9. Cold Climate and Retrofit Applications for Air-to-Air Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Air source heat pumps (ASHP) including air-to-air ASHPs are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere for new construction as well as retrofits or renovations. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low heating efficiency and capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. Retrofitting air-to-air ASHPs to existing buildings is relatively easy if the building already has an air distribution system. For buildings without such systems alternative approaches are necessary. Examples are ductless, minisplit heat pumps or central heat pumps coupled to small diameter, high velocity (SDHV) air distribution systems. This article presents two subjects: 1) a summary of R&D investigations aimed at improving the cold weather performance of ASHPs, and 2) a brief discussion of building retrofit options using air-to-air ASHP systems.

  10. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

  11. Waste Tank Size Determination for the Hanford River Protection Project Cold Test, Training, and Mockup Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Kuhn, William L.

    2001-03-30

    The objective of the study was to determine the minimum tank size for the Cold Test Facility process testing of Hanford tank waste. This facility would support retrieval of waste in 75-ft-diameter DSTs with mixer pumps and SSTs with fluidic mixers. The cold test model will use full-scale mixer pumps, transfer pumps, and equipment with simulated waste. The study evaluated the acceptability of data for a range of tank diameters and depths and included identifying how the test data would be extrapolated to predict results for a full-size tank.

  12. Singlet particles as cold dark matter in a noncommutative space-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettefaghi, M. M.

    2009-03-15

    We extend the noncommutative (NC) standard model to incorporate singlet particles as cold dark matter. In the NC space-time, the singlet particles can be coupled to the U(1) gauge field in the adjoint representation. We study the relic density of the singlet particles due to the NC induced interaction. Demanding either the singlet fermion or the singlet scalar to serve as cold dark matter and the NC induced interactions to be relevant to the dark matter production, we obtain the corresponding relations between the NC scale and the dark matter masses, which are consistent with some existing bounds.

  13. Stationary self-focusing of intense laser beam in cold quantum plasma using ramp density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibi, M.; Ghamari, F.

    2012-10-15

    By using a transient density profile, we have demonstrated stationary self-focusing of an electromagnetic Gaussian beam in cold quantum plasma. The paper is devoted to the prospects of using upward increasing ramp density profile of an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium with quantum effects in self-focusing mechanism of high intense laser beam. We have found that the upward ramp density profile in addition to quantum effects causes much higher oscillation and better focusing of laser beam in cold quantum plasma in comparison to that in the classical relativistic case. Our computational results reveal the importance and influence of formation of electron density profiles in enhancing laser self-focusing.

  14. Probing novel scalar and tensor interactions from (ultra)cold neutrons to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the LHC (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Probing novel scalar and tensor interactions from (ultra)cold neutrons to the LHC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing novel scalar and tensor interactions from (ultra)cold neutrons to the LHC Authors: Bhattacharya, Tanmoy ; Cirigliano, Vincenzo ; Cohen, Saul D. ; Filipuzzi, Alberto ; González-Alonso, Martín ; Graesser, Michael L. ; Gupta, Rajan ; Lin, Huey-Wen Publication Date: 2012-03-30 OSTI Identifier: 1098630

  15. Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heating oil and propane households bills to be lower this winter despite recent cold spell Despite the recent cold weather, households that use heating oil or propane as their main space heating fuel are still expected to have lower heating bills compared with last winter. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the average household that uses heating oil will spend $1,780 this winter that's about $570 less than last winter. Those savings reflect lower crude

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF COLD CLIMATE HEAT PUMP USING TWO-STAGE COMPRESSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Rice, C Keith; Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a well-regarded, hardware based heat pump system model to investigate a two-stage economizing cycle for cold climate heat pump applications. The two-stage compression cycle has two variable-speed compressors. The high stage compressor was modelled using a compressor map, and the low stage compressor was experimentally studied using calorimeter testing. A single-stage heat pump system was modelled as the baseline. The system performance predictions are compared between the two-stage and single-stage systems. Special considerations for designing a cold climate heat pump are addressed at both the system and component levels.

  17. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth | Department of Energy Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth Discusses results of cold- and hot-start transient tests using gasoline and 3 alcohol-gasoline blends (50% and 85% ethanol, and 83% iso-butanol) PDF icon deer11_ickes.pdf More Documents

  18. Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Feasibility | Department of Energy Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility This Sandia National Laboratories study examines the feasibility of a hydrogen-fueled PEM fuel cell barge to provide electrical power to vessels at anchorage or at berth. The study includes both a determination of the technical feasibility of the idea as well as an analysis of

  19. Possibility of phase transitions inducing cold fusion in palladium/deuterium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W.X. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a tentative theory is presented in which {beta}-phase PdD{sub x} containing supersaturated deuterium transits into {beta}-phase PdD{sub x} containing less deuterium and {alpha}-phase PdD{sub x}. High-pressure ({approx}10 GPa) deuterium bubbles form at the same time. As the bubbles release energy, cracks are created in the PdD{sub x} crystal, and charge separation of deuterium occurs. Thus would cold fusion be induced. This proposal supports the fracture mechanism for cold fusion.

  20. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Trowbridge, Frank R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-10

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  1. Design and Analyisi of a Self-centered Cold Mass Support for the MICE Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li; Pan, Heng; Wu, Hong; Li, S. Y.; Guo, Xing Long; Zheng, Shi Xian; Green, Michael A.

    2011-05-04

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) consists of eighteen superconducting solenoid coils in seven modules, which are magnetically hooked together since there is no iron to shield the coils and the return flux. The RF coupling coil (RFCC) module consists of a superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around four conventional conducting 201.25 MHz closed RF cavities. The coupling coil will produce up to a 2.2 T magnetic field on the centerline to keep the beam within the RF cavities. The peak magnetic force on the coupling magnet from other magnets in MICE is up to 500 kN in longitudinal direction, which will be transferred to the base of the RF coupling coil (RFCC) module through a cold mass support system. A self-centered double-band cold mass support system with intermediate thermal interruption is applied to the coupling magnet, and the design is introduced in detail in this paper. The thermal and structural analysis on the cold mass support assembly has been carried out using ANSYS. The present design of the cold mass support can satisfy with the stringent requirements for the magnet center and axis azimuthal angle at 4.2 K and fully charged.

  2. Cold-Air-Pool Structure and Evolution in a Mountain Basin: Peter Sinks, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, Craig B.; Whiteman, Charles D.; Horel, John D.

    2003-06-01

    The evolution of potential temperature and wind structure during the buildup of nocturnal cold-air pools was investigated during clear, dry, September nights in Utah's Peter Sinks basin, a 1-km-diameter limestone sinkhole that holds the Utah minimum temperature record of -56 C. The evolution of cold-pool characteristics depended on the strength of prevailing flows above the basin. On an undisturbed day, a 30 C diurnal temperature range and a strong nocturnal potential temperature inversion (22 K in 100 m) were observed in the basin. Initially, downslope flows formed on the basin sidewalls. As a very strong potential temperature jump (17 K) developed at the top of the cold pool, however, the winds died within the basin and over the sidewalls. A persistent turbulent sublayer formed below the jump. Turbulent sensible heat flux on the basin floor became negligible shortly after sunset while the basin atmosphere continued to cool. Temperatures over the slopes, except for a 1 to 2-m-deep layer, became warmer than over the basin center at the same altitude. Cooling rates for the entire basin near sunset were comparable to the 90 W m-2 rate of loss of net longwave radiation at the basin floor, but these rates decreased to only a few watts per square meter by sunrise. This paper compares the observed cold-pool buildup in basins with inversion buildup in valleys.

  3. Advanced Composite Materials for Cold and Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Applications in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda and presentations from the Advanced Composite Materials for Cold and Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Applications in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Workshop hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Dallas, Texas, on October 29, 2015.

  4. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, John

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  5. Numerical Studies of Collective Phenomena in Two-Dimensional Electron and Cold Atom Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezayi, Edward

    2013-07-25

    Numerical calculations were carried out to investigate a number of outstanding questions in both two-dimensional electron and cold atom systems. These projects aimed to increase our understanding of the properties of and prospects for non-Abelian states in quantum Hall matter.

  6. Performance evaluation approach for the supercritical helium cold circulators of ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaghela, H.; Sarkar, B.; Bhattacharya, R.; Kapoor, H. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Chalifour, M.; Chang, H.-S.; Serio, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon - 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-01-29

    The ITER project design foresees Supercritical Helium (SHe) forced flow cooling for the main cryogenic components, namely, the superconducting (SC) magnets and cryopumps (CP). Therefore, cold circulators have been selected to provide the required SHe mass flow rate to cope with specific operating conditions and technical requirements. Considering the availability impacts of such machines, it has been decided to perform evaluation tests of the cold circulators at operating conditions prior to the series production in order to minimize the project technical risks. A proposal has been conceptualized, evaluated and simulated to perform representative tests of the full scale SHe cold circulators. The objectives of the performance tests include the validation of normal operating condition, transient and off-design operating modes as well as the efficiency measurement. A suitable process and instrumentation diagram of the test valve box (TVB) has been developed to implement the tests at the required thermodynamic conditions. The conceptual engineering design of the TVB has been developed along with the required thermal analysis for the normal operating conditions to support the performance evaluation of the SHe cold circulator.

  7. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, James; Aldrich, Robb

    2015-08-19

    Traditionally, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) have been used more often in warmer climates; however, some new ASHPs are gaining ground in colder areas. These systems operate at subzero (Fahrenheit) temperatures and many do not include backup electric resistance elements. There are still uncertainties, however, about capacity and efficiency in cold weather. Also, questions such as how cold is too cold? do not have clear answers. These uncertainties could lead to skepticism among homeowners; poor energy savings estimates; suboptimal system selection by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning contractors; and inconsistent energy modeling. In an effort to better understand and characterize the heating performance of these units in cold climates, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), monitored seven inverter-driven, ductless ASHPs across the Northeast. Operating data were collected for three Mitsubishi FE18 units, three Mitsubishi FE12 units, and one Fujitsu 15RLS2 unit. The intent of this research was to assess heat output, electricity consumption, and coefficients of performance (COPs) at various temperatures and load conditions. This assessment was accomplished with long- and short-term tests that measured power consumption; supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures; and airflow through the indoor fan coil.

  8. Accelerator-based neutron source using a cold deuterium target with degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, R. E.; Ordonez, C. A. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    A neutron generator is considered in which a beam of tritons is incident on a hypothetical cold deuterium target with degenerate electrons. The energy efficiency of neutron generation is found to increase substantially with electron density. Recent reports of potential targets are discussed.

  9. Compact cold stage for micro-computerized tomography imaging of chilled or frozen samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hullar, Ted; Anastasio, Cort; Paige, David F.; Rowland, Douglas J.

    2014-04-15

    High resolution X-ray microCT (computerized tomography) can be used to image a variety of objects, including temperature-sensitive materials. In cases where the sample must be chilled or frozen to maintain sample integrity, either the microCT machine itself must be placed in a refrigerated chamber, or a relatively expensive commercial cold stage must be purchased. We describe here the design and construction of a low-cost custom cold stage suitable for use in a microCT imaging system. Our device uses a boron nitride sample holder, two-stage Peltier cooler, fan-cooled heat sink, and electronic controller to maintain sample temperatures as low as ?25?C 0.2?C for the duration of a tomography acquisition. The design does not require modification to the microCT machine, and is easily installed and removed. Our custom cold stage represents a cost-effective solution for refrigerating CT samples for imaging, and is especially useful for shared equipment or machines unsuitable for cold room use.

  10. Cold starting capabilities of petroleum and syntehetic lubricants in heavy-duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margeson, M.A.; Belmesch, B.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the work described in this paper was to compare the cold weather starting ability of diesel engines lubricated with SAE 15W-40 petroleum and SAE 5W-30 synthetic motor oil. Laboratory bench tests were used to compare rhelogical features such as borderline pumping temperature and cold cranking simulator profiles. A cold box provided a well controlled environment in which cranking and starting studies were carried out on the two oils in a turbocharged diesel engine. The SAE 5W-30 synthetic exhibited higher cranking speeds, lower starter amperage draw and immediate oil pressure readings when compared to the SAE l5W-40 petroleum. The SAE 5W-30 synthetic oil was safely started at {minus} l0 {sup 0}F oil temperature without auxiliary heaters. The comparative cylinder turbocharged diesel engines representing conditions commonly found in the commercial and off-highway sectors, These studies indicate that combining high capacity cold cranking amperage batteries, high pressure ether aid injection, and SAE 5W-30 synthetic oil resulted in a system that safely starts diesel engines down to actual oil temperatures of at least {minus} 10 {sup 0}F.

  11. Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ape039_narumanchi_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Liquid Cooling R&D Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate

  12. Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ape039_narumanchi_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact, Light-Weight, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate Advanced Liquid Cooling R&D

  13. How a Small Business is Transforming the Cold Climate Heating Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Working with Mechanical Solutions, Inc., a small business in New Jersey, the Energy Department’s Building Technologies Office has found a potential solution for cold climate heating: a Supercharger that allows heat pumps to efficiently operate in the coldest U.S. climates, with zero backup heat.

  14. Building America Case Study: Advanced Extended Plate and Beam Wall System in a Cold-Climate House, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the design and evaluation of a innovative wall system. This highly insulated (high-R) light-frame wall system for use above grade in residential buildings is referred to as Extended Plate & Beam (EP&B). The EP&B design is the first of its kind to be featured in a new construction test house (NCTH) for the DOE Building America program. The EP&B wall design integrates standard building methods and common building products to construct a high-R wall that minimizes transition risks and costs to builders. The EP&B design combines optimized framing with integrated rigid foam sheathing to increase the wall system's R-value and reduce thermal bridging. The foam sheathing is installed between the wall studs and structural wood sheathing. The exterior wood sheathing is attached directly to a framing extension formed by extended top and bottom plates. The exterior wood sheathing can dry to the exterior and provides bracing, a clear drainage plane and flashing surface for window and door openings, and a nailing surface for siding attachment. With support of the DOE Building America program, Home Innovation Research Labs partnered with Lancaster County Career and Technology Center (LCCTC) to build a NCTH in Lancaster, PA to demonstrate the EP&B wall design in a cold climate (IECC climate zone 5A). The results of the study confirmed the benefits of the systems and the viability of its integration into the house construction process.

  15. Technology Development Plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valent, P.J.; Riggins, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides an overview of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high-quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep-penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor-resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35/degree/ and in water depths to 1300 m. 74 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint We're dedicated to cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent across the Lab, from facilities to transportation. January 30, 2014 Healthy habits: reducing our carbon footprint From monitoring storm water run-off in Los Alamos Canyon to riding their bikes to work, employees in the field all over the Lab's 36 square miles see the landscape around them as an inspiration and reminder to go green at work

  17. Combustion with reduced carbon in the ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2005-12-27

    Combustion of coal in which oxygen is injected into the coal as it emerges from burner produces ash having reduced amounts of carbon.

  18. Reducing Your Electricity Use | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An energy audit can help you find the most effective ways to save money and reduce energy use in your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. An energy audit can help you find the most effective ways to save money and reduce energy use in your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Reducing energy use in your home saves you money, increases our energy security, and reduces the pollution that is emitted from non-renewable sources of energy. If you are planning to install a

  19. Innovative Computational Tools for Reducing Exploration Risk...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Water-Rock Interactions and Magnetotelluric Surveys Innovative Computational Tools for Reducing Exploration Risk Through Integration of Water-Rock Interactions and ...

  20. Reduced AC losses in HTS coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2004-10-05

    Methods for reducing hysteresis losses in superconductor coated ribbons where a flux distribution is set into the superconductor coated ribbon prior to the application of alternating current.

  1. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water ...

  2. Industrial Assessment Centers Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOEEE-1278 Industrial Assessment Centers Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US...

  3. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces.

  4. Reducing Regulatory Burden | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    As part of its implementation of Executive Order 13563, ''Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,'' PDF icon RRB_EO_13563.pdf More Documents & Publications Reducing Regulatory Burden; Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563 Reducing Regulatory Burden EO 13563 Third RFI

  5. The new Cold Neutron Chopper Spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source -- Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlers, Georg; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Iverson, Erik B.; Sokol, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The design and performance of the new cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS) at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge are described. CNCS is a direct-geometry inelastic time-of-flight spectrometer, designed essentially to cover the same energy and momentum transfer ranges as IN5 at ILL, LET at ISIS, DCS at NIST, TOFTOF at FRM-II, AMATERAS at J-PARC, PHAROS at LANSCE, and NEAT at HZB, at similar energy resolution. Measured values of key figures such as neutron flux at sample position and energy resolution are compared between measurements and ray tracing Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement (better than 20% of absolute numbers) has been achieved. The instrument performs very well in the cold and thermal neutron energy ranges, and promises to become a workhorse for the neutron scattering community for quasielastic and inelastic scattering experiments.

  6. The new cold neutron chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source: Design and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlers, G.; Podlesnyak, A. A.; Niedziela, J. L.; Iverson, E. B.; Sokol, P. E.

    2011-08-15

    The design and performance of the new cold neutron chopper spectrometer (CNCS) at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge are described. CNCS is a direct-geometry inelastic time-of-flight spectrometer, designed essentially to cover the same energy and momentum transfer ranges as IN5 at ILL, LET at ISIS, DCS at NIST, TOFTOF at FRM-II, AMATERAS at J-PARC, PHAROS at LANSCE, and NEAT at HZB, at similar energy resolution. Measured values of key figures such as neutron flux at sample position and energy resolution are compared between measurements and ray tracing Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement (better than 20% of absolute numbers) has been achieved. The instrument performs very well in the cold and thermal neutron energy ranges, and promises to become a workhorse for the neutron scattering community for quasielastic and inelastic scattering experiments.

  7. Electromagnetic field of a charge intersecting a cold plasma boundary in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekhina, Tatiana Yu.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V.

    2011-06-15

    We analyze the electromagnetic field of a charge crossing a boundary between a vacuum and cold plasma in a waveguide. We obtain exact expressions for the field components and the spectral density of the transition radiation. With the steepest descent technique, we investigate the field components. We show that the electromagnetic field has a different structure in a vacuum than in cold plasma. We also develop an algorithm for the computation of the field based on a certain transformation of the integration path. The behavior of the field depending on distance and time and the spectral density depending on frequency are explored for different charge velocities. Some important physical effects are noted. A considerable increase and concentration of the field near the wave front in the plasma is observed for the case of ultrarelativistic particles. In the plasma, the mode envelopes and spectral density show zero points when the charge velocity is within certain limits.

  8. Nonlinear oscillations and waves in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Prabal Singh

    2011-12-15

    It is well known that nonlinear standing oscillations in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma always phase mix away. However, there exist nonlinear electron-ion traveling wave solutions, which do not exhibit phase mixing because they have zero ponderomotive force. The existence of these waves has been demonstrated using a perturbation method. Moreover, it is shown that cold plasma BGK waves [Albritton et al., Nucl. Fusion 15, 1199 (1975)] phase mix away if ions are allowed to move and the scaling of phase mixing is found to be different from earlier work [Sengupta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1867 (1999)]. Phase mixing of these waves has been further verified in 1-D particle in cell simulation.

  9. Mathematical Model of Cold CapPreliminary One-Dimensional Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2011-03-25

    The ultimate goal of batch-melting studies, laboratory-scale, large-scale, or mathematical modeling is to increase the rate of glass processing in an energy-efficient manner. Mathematical models are not merely an intermediate step between laboratory-scale and large-scale studies, but are also an important tool for assessing the responses of melters to vast combinations of process parameters. In the simplest melting situation considered in this study, a cold cap of uniform thickness rests on a pool of molten glass from which it receives a steady uniform heat flux. Thus, as the feed-to-glass conversion proceeds, the temperature, velocity, and extent of feed reactions are functions of the position along the vertical coordinate, and these functions do not vary with time. This model is used for the sensitivity analyses on the effects of key parameters on the cold-cap behavior.

  10. Cold Crucible Induction Melting Technology for Vitrification of High Level Waste: Development and Status in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugilal, G.; Sengar, P.B.S. [Nuclear Recycle Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2008-07-01

    Cold crucible induction melting is globally emerging as an alternative technology for the vitrification of high level radioactive waste. The new technology offers several advantages such as high temperature availability with long melter life, high waste loading, high specific capacity etc. Based on the laboratory and bench scale studies, an engineering scale cold crucible induction melter was locally developed in India. The melter was operated continuously to assess its performance. The electrical and thermal efficiencies were found to be in the range of 70-80 % and 10-20 % respectively. Glass melting capacities up to 200 kg m{sup -2} hr{sup -1} were accomplished using the ESCCIM. Industrially adaptable melter operating procedures for start-up, melting and pouring operations were established (author)

  11. The Helium Cooling System and Cold Mass Support System for theMICE Coupling Solenoid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L.; Wu, H.; Li, L.K.; Green, M.A.; Liu, C.S.; Li, L.Y.; Jia, L.X.; Virostek, S.P.

    2007-08-27

    The MICE cooling channel consists of alternating threeabsorber focus coil module (AFC) and two RF coupling coil module (RFCC)where the process of muon cooling and reacceleration occurs. The RFCCmodule comprises a superconducting coupling solenoid mounted around fourconventional conducting 201.25 MHz closed RF cavities and producing up to2.2T magnetic field on the centerline. The coupling coil magnetic fieldis to produce a low muon beam beta function in order to keep the beamwithin the RF cavities. The magnet is to be built using commercialniobium titanium MRI conductors and cooled by pulse tube coolers thatproduce 1.5 W of cooling capacity at 4.2 K each. A self-centering supportsystem is applied for the coupling magnet cold mass support, which isdesigned to carry a longitudinal force up to 500 kN. This report willdescribe the updated design for the MICE coupling magnet. The cold masssupport system and helium cooling system are discussed indetail.

  12. Using a cold radiometer to measure heat loads and survey heat leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Hait, T.; Shirron, P.

    2014-01-29

    We have developed an inexpensive cold radiometer for use in thermal/vacuum chambers to measure heat loads, characterize emissivity and specularity of surfaces and to survey areas to evaluate stray heat loads. We report here the results of two such tests for the James Webb Space Telescope to measure heat loads and effective emissivities of 2 major pieces of optical ground support equipment that will be used in upcoming thermal vacuum testing of the Telescope.

  13. Synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions using radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2010-06-15

    Chances of synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions (one-neutron-out reactions) using radioactive beams are evaluated. Because in most of the cases intensities of radioactive beams are significantly less than those of the stable beams, reactions with the greatest radioactive-beam intensities for the particular elements are considered. The results are compared with the recent ones obtained by Loveland [Phys. Rev. C 76, 014612 (2007)], who investigated the same nuclei.

  14. THE LOCAL LEO COLD CLOUD AND NEW LIMITS ON A LOCAL HOT BUBBLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peek, J. E. G.; Heiles, Carl; Peek, Kathryn M. G.; Meyer, David M.; Lauroesch, J. T.

    2011-07-10

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the local Leo cold cloud (LLCC), a very nearby, very cold cloud in the interstellar medium (ISM). Through stellar absorption studies we find that the LLCC is between 11.3 pc and 24.3 pc away, making it the closest known cold neutral medium cloud and well within the boundaries of the local cavity. Observations of the cloud in the 21 cm H I line reveal that the LLCC is very cold, with temperatures ranging from 15 K to 30 K, and is best fit with a model composed of two colliding components. The cloud has associated 100 {mu}m thermal dust emission, pointing to a somewhat low dust-to-gas ratio of 48 x10{sup -22} MJy sr{sup -1} cm{sup 2}. We find that the LLCC is too far away to be generated by the collision among the nearby complex of local interstellar clouds but that the small relative velocities indicate that the LLCC is somehow related to these clouds. We use the LLCC to conduct a shadowing experiment in 1/4 keV X-rays, allowing us to differentiate between different possible origins for the observed soft X-ray background (SXRB). We find that a local hot bubble model alone cannot account for the low-latitude SXRB, but that isotropic emission from solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) does reproduce our data. In a combined local hot bubble and SWCX scenario, we rule out emission from a local hot bubble with an 1/4 keV emissivity greater than 1.1 Snowdens pc{sup -1} at 3{sigma}, four times lower than previous estimates. This result dramatically changes our perspective on our local ISM.

  15. A mean field theory for the cold quark gluon plasma applied to stellar structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogaca, D. A.; Navarra, F. S.; Franzon, B.; Horvath, J. E.

    2013-03-25

    An equation of state based on a mean-field approximation of QCD is used to describe the cold quark gluon plasma and also to study the structure of compact stars. We obtain stellar masses compatible with the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 that was determined to have a mass of (1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }), and the corresponding radius around 10-11 km.

  16. Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency | U.S. DOE

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Office of Science (SC) Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 10.01.12 Space Chamber Reaches

  17. Process Simulation of Cold Pressing and Sintering of Armstrong CP-Ti Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorti, Sarma B; Sabau, Adrian S; Peter, William H; Nunn, Stephen D; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Chen, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A computational methodology is presented for the process simulation of cold pressing and sintering of Armstrong CP-Ti powders. Since the powder consolidation is governed by specific pressure-dependent constitutive equations, solution algorithms were developed for the ABAQUS user material subroutine, UMAT, for computing the plastic strain increments based on an implicit integration of the nonlinear yield function, flow rule, and hardening equations. Sintering was simulated using a model based on diffusional creep using the user subroutine CREEP. The initial mesh, stress, and density for the simulation of sintering were obtained from the results of the cold pressing simulation, minimizing the errors from decoupling the cold pressing and sintering simulations. Numerical simulation results are presented for the cold compaction followed by a sintering step of the Ti powders. The numerical simulation results for the relative density were compared to those measured from experiments before and after sintering, showing that the relative density can be accurately predicted. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was sponsored by the U.S. DOE, and carried out at ORNL, under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC. This research was sponsored by the U.S. DOE, EERE Industrial Technology Program Office under CPS Agreement # 17881.

  18. Persistent Cold Air Outbreaks over North America in a Warming Climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lu, Jian; Masato, Giacomo

    2015-03-30

    This study examines future changes of cold air outbreaks (CAO) using a multi-model ensemble of global climate simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 as well as regional high resolution climate simulations. In the future, while robust decrease of CAO duration dominates in most regions, the magnitude of decrease over northwestern U.S. is much smaller than the surrounding regions. We identified statistically significant increases in sea level pressure during CAO events centering over Yukon, Alaska, and Gulf of Alaska that advects continental cold air to northwestern U.S., leading to blocking and CAO events. Changes in large scale circulationmorecontribute to about 50% of the enhanced sea level pressure anomaly conducive to CAO in northwestern U.S. in the future. High resolution regional simulations revealed potential contributions of increased existing snowpack to increased CAO in the near future over the Rocky Mountain, southwestern U.S., and Great Lakes areas through surface albedo effects, despite winter mean snow water equivalent decreases in the future. Overall, the multi-model projections emphasize that cold extremes do not completely disappear in a warming climate. Concomitant with the relatively smaller reduction in CAO events in northwestern U.S., the top 5 most extreme CAO events may still occur in the future, and wind chill warning will continue to have societal impacts in that region.less

  19. The pinch of cold ions from recycling in the tokamak edge pedestal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan Weigang; Parker, Scott E.; Chen Yang; Park, Gun-Young; Chang, Choong-Seock; Stotler, Daren

    2011-05-15

    We apply the ''natural fueling mechanism'' [W. Wan, S. E. Parker, Y. Chen, and F. W. Perkins, Phys. Plasmas 17, 040701 (2010)] to the edge pedestal. The natural fueling mechanism is where cold ions naturally pinch radially inward for a heat-flux dominated plasma. It is shown from neoclassical-neutral transport coupled simulations that the recycling neutrals and the associated source ions are colder than the main ions in the edge pedestal. These recycling source ions will pinch radially inward due to microturbulence. Gyrokinetic turbulence simulations indicate that near the top of the pedestal, the pinch velocity of the recycling source ions is much higher than the main ion outgoing flow velocity. The turbulent pinch of the recycling source ions may play a role in the edge pedestal transport and dynamics. The cold ion temperature significantly enhances the pinch velocity of the recycling source ions near to the pedestal top. Neoclassical calculations show a cold ion pinch in the pedestal as well.

  20. Persistent Cold Air Outbreaks over North America in a Warming Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lu, Jian; Masato, Giacomo

    2015-03-30

    This study examines future changes of cold air outbreaks (CAO) using a multi-model ensemble of global climate simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 as well as regional high resolution climate simulations. In the future, while robust decrease of CAO duration dominates in most regions, the magnitude of decrease over northwestern U.S. is much smaller than the surrounding regions. We identified statistically significant increases in sea level pressure during CAO events centering over Yukon, Alaska, and Gulf of Alaska that advects continental cold air to northwestern U.S., leading to blocking and CAO events. Changes in large scale circulation contribute to about 50% of the enhanced sea level pressure anomaly conducive to CAO in northwestern U.S. in the future. High resolution regional simulations revealed potential contributions of increased existing snowpack to increased CAO in the near future over the Rocky Mountain, southwestern U.S., and Great Lakes areas through surface albedo effects, despite winter mean snow water equivalent decreases in the future. Overall, the multi-model projections emphasize that cold extremes do not completely disappear in a warming climate. Concomitant with the relatively smaller reduction in CAO events in northwestern U.S., the top 5 most extreme CAO events may still occur in the future, and wind chill warning will continue to have societal impacts in that region.

  1. Vitrification of HLW Produced by Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel Reprocessing in COGEMA's Cold Crucible Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do Quang, R.; Petitjean, V.; Hollebecque, F.; Pinet, O.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2003-02-25

    The performance of the vitrification process currently used in the La Hague commercial reprocessing plants has been continuously improved during more than ten years of operation. In parallel COGEMA (industrial Operator), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and SGN (respectively COGEMA's R&D provider and Engineering) have developed the cold crucible melter vitrification technology to obtain greater operating flexibility, increased plant availability and further reduction of secondary waste generated during operations. The cold crucible is a compact water-cooled melter in which the radioactive waste and the glass additives are melted by direct high frequency induction. The cooling of the melter produces a solidified glass layer that protects the melter's inner wall from corrosion. Because the heat is transferred directly to the melt, high operating temperatures can be achieved with no impact on the melter itself. COGEMA plans to implement the cold crucible technology to vitrify high level liquid waste from reprocessed spent U-Mo-Sn-Al fuel (used in gas cooled reactor). The cold crucible was selected for the vitrification of this particularly hard-to-process waste stream because it could not be reasonably processed in the standard hot induction melters currently used at the La Hague vitrification facilities : the waste has a high molybdenum content which makes it very corrosive and also requires a special high temperature glass formulation to obtain sufficiently high waste loading factors (12 % in molybdenum). A special glass formulation has been developed by the CEA and has been qualified through lab and pilot testing to meet standard waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the U-Mo waste. The process and the associated technologies have been also being qualified on a full-scale prototype at the CEA pilot facility in Marcoule. Engineering study has been integrated in parallel in order to take into account that the Cold Crucible should be installed remotely in one of the R7 vitrification cell. This paper will present the results obtained in the framework of these qualification programs.

  2. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product.

  3. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, A.J.

    1993-11-30

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product. 3 figures.

  4. Reducing Your Electricity Use | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    If you are planning to install a small renewable energy system to make your own electricity, such as a solar electric system or small wind turbine, reducing your electricity...

  5. Parametric time series analysis of cold and hot spells in daily temperature: An application in Southern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macchiato, M. ); Serio, C. ); Lapenna, V. ); Rotonda, L.La. )

    1993-07-01

    The statistical analysis of cold air temperatures (cold spells) and hot air temperatures (hot spells) is discussed. Air temperature time series observed at 50 stations in southern Italy are investigated. The deterministic and stochastic components of the time series are identified and described by a dynamic-stochastic model that is periodic in the deterministic part (the annual cycle) and Markovian (first-order autoregressive) in the stochastic part. The annual cycle is described by only a few Fourier coefficients. Based on the model fitted to the data, the theoretical probability of cold (hot) spells is computed and compared to that estimated from the observed data. Spatial patterns of identified that make it possible to extrapolate the probability of cold (hot) spells at locations where no direct observations are available. 19 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Home: Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fort Devens: Cold Climate Market-Rate Townhomes Targeting HERS Index of 40, Harvard, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Efficient Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

  7. National Renewable Energy Laboratory To Reduce Staff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To Reduce Staff Last updated: November 14, 1995 For information contact: Robert Noun, (303) 275-3062 Kerry Masson (303) 275-4083 Golden, Colo., November 3, 1995 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) announced today a schedule for restructuring and reducing its work force in response to impending reductions in federal research budgets. Work force reductions may ultimately eliminate more than 10 percent of the present work force of about 900 full-time

  8. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  9. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction.

  10. Building America Case Study: Sealed Crawlspace with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate, Ithaca, New York

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate Ithaca, New York PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Holly Creek Townhouses Location: Ithaca, NY Partners: Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, ithacanhs.org Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, carb-swa.com Building Component: Ventilation, sealed crawl space Application: New and/or retrofit; single- and multifamily Year Tested: 2014-2015 Climate Zones: Cold (5-6) PERFORMANCE DATA Sealed crawl spaces can: *

  11. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 12: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Cold and Very Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Cole, Pamala C.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-02-01

    This best practices guide is the twelfth in a series of guides for builders produced by PNNL for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the cold and very cold climates can build homes that have whole-house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark with no added overall costs for consumers. The best practices described in this document are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. Building America brings together the nation’s leading building scientists with over 300 production builders to develop, test, and apply innovative, energy-efficient construction practices. Building America builders have found they can build homes that meet these aggressive energy-efficiency goals at no net increased costs to the homeowners. Currently, Building America homes achieve energy savings of 40% greater than the Building America benchmark home (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code). The recommendations in this document meet or exceed the requirements of the 2009 IECC and 2009 IRC and thos erequirements are highlighted in the text. This document will be distributed via the DOE Building America website: www.buildingamerica.gov.

  12. War against water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitz-Hugh, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is stressed that waterproofing should be the most important concern in an earth-sheltered home, starting with the design and continuing throughout the construction. Damage which may be caused by water leakage is discussed. Proper site selection is most important and the need for outside professionals and consultants is emphasized. The ideal waterproofing system is discussed and illustrated. Waterproofing agents are discussed in detail. They are: (1) sodium bentonite; (2) elastomers, such as isobutylene isoprene (butyl rubber), EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), and liquid elastomers (polyurethanes); and (3) rubberized asphalt. Availability, sheet sizes and application of these waterproofing agents are discussed. (MJJ)

  13. Infrared photoemitting diode having reduced work function

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01

    In electro-optical detectors which include as elements a photoemitting photocathode and anode, a photoemitting diode is fabricated which lowers the diode's work function, thus reducing the cooling requirement typically needed for this type of device. The work function is reduced by sandwiching between the photocathode and anode a liquid medium of the formula NR.sub.3 and having an electron affinity for the electrons of the photocathode, which liquid medium permits free electrons leaving the photocathode to remain as stable solvated species in the liquid medium. Thus, highly light-absorbent, and therefore thin, metallic layers can be used for detection, thereby reducing dark current at a given temperature, with a consequent reduction in cooling requirements at constant detector performance.

  14. Infrared photoemitting diode having reduced work function

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1982-05-06

    In electro-optical detectors which include as elements a photoemitting photocathode and anode, a photoemitting diode is fabricated which lowers the diode's work function, thus reducing the cooling requirement typically needed for this type of device. The work function is reduced by sandwiching between the photocathode and anode a liquid meidum of the formula NR/sub 3/ and having an electron affinity for the electrons of the photocathode, which liquid medium permits free electrons leaving the photocathode to remain as stable solvated species in the liquid medium. Thus, highly light-absorbent, and therefore thin, metallic layers can be used for detection, thereby reducing dark current at a given temperature, with a consequent reduction in cooling requirements at constant detector performance.

  15. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Gifford G. (Cincinnatti, OH); Kato, Takeo R. (Cincinnatti, OH); Schonegg, Edward (Cleves, OH)

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  16. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  17. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  18. Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.

    2011-05-15

    We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sigma}{sub cap}(l), the fusion probability P{sub fus}(l), and the survival probability P{sub surv}(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of P{sub fus}(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of P{sub fus}(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

  19. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA); Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  20. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semicoductor processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, Michael C. (San Leandro, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a "cold plasma" which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place.

  1. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) CWP (Cold Water Pipe) Laboratory Test Program. Materials Project Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Fiberglass sandwich wall structures emerged as leading candidates for the OTEC cold water pipe because of their high strength to weight ratio, their flexibility in selecting directional properties, their resistance to electrochemical interaction, their ease of deployment and their relative low cost. A review of the literature established reasonable confidence that FRP laminates could meet the OTEC requirements; however, little information was available on the performance of core materials suitable for OTEC applications. Syntactic foam cores of various composition and density were developed and tested for mechanical properties and seawater absorption.

  2. Quantum chaos of a mixed open system of kicked cold atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krivolapov, Yevgeny; Fishman, Shmuel; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M. [Physics Department, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The quantum and classical dynamics of particles kicked by a Gaussian attractive potential are studied. Classically, it is an open mixed system (the motion in some parts of the phase space is chaotic, and in some parts it is regular). The fidelity (Loschmidt echo) is found to exhibit oscillations that can be determined from classical considerations but are sensitive to phase space structures that are smaller than Planck's constant. Families of quasienergies are determined from classical phase space structures. Substantial differences between the classical and quantum dynamics are found for time-dependent scattering. It is argued that the system can be experimentally realized by cold atoms kicked by a Gaussian light beam.

  3. Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.; Khaykovich, B. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hussey, D.; Jacobson, D.; Arif, M. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States)] [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States); Gubarev, M. V.; Ramsey, B. D. [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)] [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Moncton, D. E. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States) [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-06

    An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, field of view, and depth of focus are measured and found consistent with ray-tracing simulations. Methods of increasing the resolution and magnification are discussed, as well as the scientific case for the neutron microscope. In contrast to traditional pinhole-camera neutron imaging, the resolution of the microscope is determined by the mirrors rather than by the collimation of the beam, leading to possible dramatic improvements in the signal rate and resolution.

  4. Method for analyzing the mass of a sample using a cold cathode ionization source mass filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, Thomas E.

    2003-10-14

    An improved quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The improvement lies in the substitution of the conventional hot filament electron source with a cold cathode field emitter array which in turn allows operating a small QMS at much high internal pressures then are currently achievable. By eliminating of the hot filament such problems as thermally "cracking" delicate analyte molecules, outgassing a "hot" filament, high power requirements, filament contamination by outgas species, and spurious em fields are avoid all together. In addition, the ability of produce FEAs using well-known and well developed photolithographic techniques, permits building a QMS having multiple redundancies of the ionization source at very low additional cost.

  5. The Herschel cold debris disks: Confusion with the extragalactic background at 160 ?m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gspr, Andrs; Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The Herschel 'DUst around NEarby Stars' (DUNES) survey has found a number of debris disk candidates that are apparently very cold, with temperatures near 22 K. It has proven difficult to fit their spectral energy distributions with conventional models for debris disks. Given this issue, we carefully examine the alternative explanation that the detections arise from confusion with infrared cirrus and/or background galaxies that are not physically associated with the foreground stars. We find that such an explanation is consistent with all of these detections.

  6. Phase-mixing of electrostatic modes in a cold magnetized electron-positron plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-08-15

    In a fluid description, we study space-time evolution of electrostatic oscillations in a cold magnetized electron-positron plasma. Nonlinear results up to third order, obtained by employing a simple perturbation technique, indicate phase-mixing and thus breaking of excited oscillations, and provide an expression for the phase-mixing time. It is shown that an increase in the strength of ambient magnetic field results in an increase in the phase-mixing time. The results of our investigation will be of relevance to astrophysical environments as well as laboratory experiments.

  7. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semiconductor processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vella, M.C.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a ``cold plasma`` which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place. 15 figs.

  8. Cold- and Beam Test of the First Prototypes of the Superstructure for the TESLA Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baboi, Nicoleta

    2003-08-08

    After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two superconducting 7-cell weakly coupled subunits, have been installed in the TESLA Test Facility linac (TTF) for the cold- and beam-test. The energy stability, the HOMs damping, the frequency and the field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirmed expectation on the superstructure performance and proved that alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider, as it was proposed in TDR, is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results which are commented in more detail elsewhere in these Proceedings.

  9. Investigations of the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction in cast, annealed, and cold-rolled palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilic, R.; Rant, J.; Sutej, T.; Dobersek, M.; Kristof, E.; Skvarc, J.; Kozelj, M. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper reports on a search conducted for neutrons, protons, tritons, {sup 3}He ions, gamma rays, and ion-induced X-rays from deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion in cast (36-g), annealed (4-g), and cold-rolled (16-g) palladium specimens and a palladium hydrogen thermal valve (11 g) electrochemically charged with deuterium. The palladium cathodes were charged in an electrolytic cell (0.1 M LiOD (99.8% deuterium), platinum anode) at a current density of 25 mA/cm{sup 2} from 20 to 140 h.

  10. MERGING COLD FRONTS IN THE GALAXY PAIR NGC 7619 AND NGC 7626

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, S. W.; Jones, C.; Kraft, R.; Forman, W. R.; O'Sullivan, E.

    2009-05-10

    We present results from Chandra observations of the galaxy pair NGC 7619 and NGC 7626, the two dominant members of the Pegasus group. The X-ray images show a brightness edge associated with each galaxy, which we identify as merger cold fronts. The edges are sharp, and the axes of symmetry of the edges are roughly antiparallel, suggesting that these galaxies are falling toward one another in the plane of the sky. The detection of merger cold fronts in each of the two dominant member galaxies implies a merging subgroup scenario, since the alternative is that the galaxies are falling into a preexisting {approx}1 keV halo without a dominant galaxy of its own, and such objects are not observed. We estimate the three-dimensional velocities from the cold fronts and, using the observed radial velocities of the galaxies, show that the velocity vectors are indeed most likely close to the plane of the sky, with a relative velocity of {approx}1190 km s{sup -1}. The relative velocity is consistent with what is expected from the infall of two roughly equal mass subgroups whose total viral mass equals that of the Pegasus group. We conclude that the Pegasus cluster is most likely currently forming from a major merger of two subgroups, dominated by NGC 7619 and NGC 7626. NGC 7626 contains a strong radio source, consisting of a core with two symmetric jets, and radio lobes. Although we find no associated structure in the X-ray surface brightness map, the temperature map reveals a clump of cool gas just outside the southern lobe, presumably entrained by the lobe, and possibly an extension of cooler gas into the lobe itself. The jet axis is parallel with the projected direction of motion of NGC 7626 (inferred from the symmetry axis of the merger cold front), and the southern leading jet is foreshortened as compared to the northern trailing one, possibly due to the additional ram pressure encountered by the forward jet.

  11. Renewable Energy Resoure Assessment for the Communities of Cold Bay, False Pass, and Nelson Lagoon

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Resource Assessment Aleutians East Borough 5/18/10 PAGE 1 OF 56 "Celebrate the power of nature"TM ... with YourCleanEnergy LLC 308 G Street #212, Anchorage AK 99501 907-274-2007 www.yourcleanenergy.us Renewable Energy Resource Assessment for the Communities of Cold Bay, False Pass, and Nelson Lagoon This report for Aleutians East Borough was funded by a grant from the Alaska Energy Authority, Project No. 407051 FINAL REPORT COMPLETED MAY 18, 2010 BY: ANDY BAKER, P.E. & LEE

  12. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-06-09

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

  13. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laabs, Gary W. (Los Alamos, NM); Funk, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Asay, Blaine W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile.

  14. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  15. Energy Detectives Help Pennsylvania Town Reduce Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Judith Mondre spent the past two months learning the ins and outs of Upper Darby Township, Pa.'s energy usage. She's analyzed energy bills, observed town facilities and interviewed staff to put together a plan to help the municipality reduce its total energy usage.

  16. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  17. Summary Of Cold Crucible Vitrification Tests Results With Savannah River Site High Level Waste Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovsky, Sergey; Marra, James; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2014-01-13

    The cold crucible inductive melting (CCIM) technology successfully applied for vitrification of low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) at SIA Radon, Russia, was tested to be implemented for vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) stored at Savannah River Site, USA. Mixtures of Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and 4 (SB4) waste surrogates and borosilicate frits as slurries were vitrified in bench- (236 mm inner diameter) and full-scale (418 mm inner diameter) cold crucibles. Various process conditions were tested and major process variables were determined. Melts were poured into 10L canisters and cooled to room temperature in air or in heat-insulated boxes by a regime similar to Canister Centerline Cooling (CCC) used at DWPF. The products with waste loading from ~40 to ~65 wt.% were investigated in details. The products contained 40 to 55 wt.% waste oxides were predominantly amorphous; at higher waste loadings (WL) spinel structure phases and nepheline were present. Normalized release values for Li, B, Na, and Si determined by PCT procedure remain lower than those from EA glass at waste loadings of up to 60 wt.%.

  18. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1 -Story Homes in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team analyzed five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. These homes were chosen for testing as they are common in Minnesota and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled the team to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  19. Final Report - Spent Nuclear Fuel Retrieval System Manipulator System Cold Validation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.R. Jackson; G.R. Kiebel

    1999-08-24

    Manipulator system cold validation testing (CVT) was performed in support of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Sub-Project, a subtask of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The FRS will be used to retrieve and repackage K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) currently stored in old K-Plant storage basins. The FRS is required to retrieve full fuel canisters from the basin; clean the fuel elements inside the canister to remove excessive uranium corrosion products (or sludge); remove the contents from the canisters; and sort the resulting debris, scrap, and fuel for repackaging. The fuel elements and scrap will be collected in fuel storage and scrap baskets in preparation for loading into a multi canister overpack (MCO), while the debris is loaded into a debris bin and disposed of as solid waste. The FRS is composed of three major subsystems. The Manipulator Subsystem provides remote handling of fuel, scrap, and debris; the In-Pool Equipment subsystem performs cleaning of fuel and provides a work surface for handling materials; and the Remote Viewing Subsystem provides for remote viewing of the work area by operators. There are two complete and identical FRS systems, one to be installed in the K-West basin and one to be installed in the K-East basin. Another partial system will be installed in a cold test facility to provide for operator training.

  20. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Sites Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facilitys environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  1. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  2. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  3. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-08-22

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

  4. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.

    2012-07-08

    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  5. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Chau, Hoi Fung

    1998-01-01

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.

  6. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.

    1998-03-24

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.

  7. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  8. New system reduces sludge management costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roll, R.R. ); Koser, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    This article describes a recently completed a $2.7-million project to upgrade the sludge dewatering and stabilizing system at a 48-mgd wastewater treatment facility in Niagara Fall, New York. The work was necessitated by the deteriorated condition of the plant's original vacuum filters and increasing costs to landfill the dewatered sludge. The new equipment has restored sludge production capacity while reducing the final material's moisture content. The Niagara Falls plant is one of the few municipal physical-chemical treatment plants built in this country, and is the largest still functioning. Constructed in the mid-1970s, it was designed to treat a combination of domestic sewage and industrial wastes. One third of the flow and one half of the solids are industrial in nature. The changes made reduced electrical power consumption and sanitary landfill costs.

  9. Erratum: "Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Erratum: "Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in ... Title: Erratum: "Reduced model prediction of electron temperature profiles in ...

  10. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  11. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  12. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2005-02-15

    A device for a vehicle with a pair of swinging rear doors, which converts flat sheets of pliable material hinged to the sides of the vehicle adjacent the rear thereof into effective curved airfoils that reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle, when the doors are closed by hand, utilizing a plurality of stiffeners disposed generally parallel to the doors and affixed to the sheets and a plurality of collapsible tension bearings struts attached to each stiffener and the adjacent door.

  13. NREL Transportation Project to Reduce Fuel Usage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Project to Reduce Fuel Usage For more information contact: Sarah Holmes Barba, 303-275-3023 email: Sarah Barba Golden, Colo., Mar. 23, 2001 - The Jefferson County Seniors Resource Center (SRC) Paratransit Service has become an important part of Eulalia Gaillard's life since her stroke in 1996. She calls on SRC to drive her to cardiologist, neurologist and chiropractor appointments each week. "It's wonderful," Gaillard says. "I'd give this program 150 plus in regards

  14. Reducing Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Diesel | Department of Energy Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About Light-Duty Diesel Reducing Petroleum Despendence in California: Uncertainties About Light-Duty Diesel 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies PDF icon 2002_deer_phillips.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Use in California Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Market Dumping Dirty Diesels: The

  15. Renewable Energy Can Help Reduce Oil Dependency

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Arvizu, Dan

    2013-05-29

    In a speech to the Economic Club of Kansas City on June 23, 2010, NREL Director Dan Arvizu takes a realistic look at how renewable energy can help reduce America's dependence on oil, pointing out that the country gets as much energy from renewable sources now as it does from offshore oil production. For a transcript, visit http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/energy_overview_06_10.pdf

  16. Performance of the Los Alamos National Laboratory spallation-driven solid-deuterium ultra-cold neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, A.; Makela, M.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Boissevain, J.; Bowles, T. J.; Currie, S. A.; Hill, R. E.; Hogan, G.; Morris, C. L.; Mortensen, R. N.; Ramsey, J.; Seestrom, S. J.; Sondheim, W. E.; Teasdale, W.; Wang, Z. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Back, H. O.; Broussard, L. J.; Hoagland, J.; Holley, A. T.; Pattie, R. W. Jr. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); and others

    2013-01-15

    In this paper, we describe the performance of the Los Alamos spallation-driven solid-deuterium ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source. Measurements of the cold neutron flux, the very low energy neutron production rate, and the UCN rates and density at the exit from the biological shield are presented and compared to Monte Carlo predictions. The cold neutron rates compare well with predictions from the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the UCN rates agree with our custom UCN Monte Carlo code. The source is shown to perform as modeled. The maximum delivered UCN density at the exit from the biological shield is 52(9) UCN/cc with a solid deuterium volume of {approx}1500 cm{sup 3}.

  17. Thermal spray and cold spray analysis of density, porosity, and tensile Specimens for use with LIGA applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DECKER,MERLIN K.; SMITH,MARK F.

    2000-02-01

    This analysis provides a preliminary investigation into using Twin-Wire Arc Thermal Spray and Cold Spray as material deposition processes for LIGA applications. These spray material processes were studied to make an initial determination of their potential as alternatives to producing mechanical parts via the electroplating process. Three materials, UltraMachinable{reg_sign} Stainless Steel, BondArc{reg_sign}, and aluminum, were sprayed using Thermal Spray. Only aluminum was sprayed using the Cold Spray process. Following the spray procedure, the test specimens were released from a copper mold and then tested. Three tests, density, tensile strength, and porosity, were performed on the specimens to determine the spray effect on material properties. Twin-Wire Arc Thermal Spray did not demonstrate adequate deposition properties and does not appear to be a good process candidate for LIGA. However, Cold Spray yielded better density results and warrants further investigation to analyze the minimum feature size produced by the process.

  18. Lipocalin 2 regulation by thermal stresses: Protective role of Lcn2/NGAL against cold and heat stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi, E-mail: roudkenar@ibto.ir [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halabian, Raheleh [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roushandeh, Amaneh Mohammadi [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourani, Mohammad Reza [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masroori, Nasser [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, Majid [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical Injury Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikogoftar, Mahin; Rouhbakhsh, Mehdi; Bahmani, Parisa [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Biology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-01

    Environmental temperature variations are the most common stresses experienced by a wide range of organisms. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2/NGAL) is expressed in various normal and pathologic conditions. However, its precise functions have not been fully determined. Here we report the induction of Lcn2 by thermal stresses in vivo, and its role following exposure to cold and heat stresses in vitro. Induction of Lcn2 in liver, heart and kidney was detected by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry following exposure of mice to heat and cold stresses. When CHO and HEK293T cells overexpressing NGAL were exposed to cold stress, cell proliferation was higher compared to controls. Down-regulatrion of NGAL by siRNA in A549 cells resulted in less proliferation when exposed to cold stress compared to control cells. The number of apoptotic cells and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins were lower in the NGAL overexpressing CHO and HEK293T cells, but were higher in the siRNA-transfected A549 cells compared to controls, indicating that NGAL protects cells against cold stress. Following exposure of the cells to heat stress, ectopic expression of NGAL protected cells while addition of exogenous recombinant NGAL to the cell culture medium exacerbated the toxicity of heat stress specially when there was low or no endogenous expression of NGAL. It had a dual effect on apoptosis following heat stress. NGAL also increased the expression of HO-1. Lcn2/NGAL may have the potential to improve cell proliferation and preservation particularly to prevent cold ischemia injury of transplanted organs or for treatment of some cancers by hyperthermia.

  19. 2007 TY430: A COLD CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT TYPE BINARY IN THE PLUTINO POPULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Ragozzine, Darin; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2012-03-15

    Kuiper Belt object 2007 TY430 is the first wide, equal-sized, binary known in the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune. The two components have a maximum separation of about 1 arcsec and are on average less than 0.1 mag different in apparent magnitude with identical ultra-red colors (g - i = 1.49 {+-} 0.01 mag). Using nearly monthly observations of 2007 TY430 from 2007 to 2011, the orbit of the mutual components was found to have a period of 961.2 {+-} 4.6 days with a semi-major axis of 21000 {+-} 160 km and eccentricity of 0.1529 {+-} 0.0028. The inclination with respect to the ecliptic is 15.68 {+-} 0.22 deg and extensive observations have allowed the mirror orbit to be eliminated as a possibility. The total mass for the binary system was found to be 7.90 {+-} 0.21 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} kg. Equal-sized, wide binaries and ultra-red colors are common in the low-inclination 'cold' classical part of the Kuiper Belt and likely formed through some sort of three-body interactions within a much denser Kuiper Belt. To date 2007 TY430 is the only ultra-red, equal-sized binary known outside of the classical Kuiper Belt population. Numerical simulations suggest 2007 TY430 is moderately unstable in the outer part of the 3:2 resonance and thus 2007 TY430 is likely an escaped 'cold' classical object that later got trapped in the 3:2 resonance. Similar to the known equal-sized, wide binaries in the cold classical population, the binary 2007 TY430 requires a high albedo and very low density structure to obtain the total mass found for the pair. For a realistic minimum density of 0.5 g cm{sup -3} the albedo of 2007 TY430 would be greater than 0.17. For reasonable densities, the radii of either component should be less than 60 km, and thus the relatively low eccentricity of the binary is interesting since no tides should be operating on the bodies at their large distances from each other. The low prograde inclination of the binary also makes it unlikely that the Kozai mechanism could have altered the orbit, making the 2007 TY430 binary orbit likely one of the few relatively unaltered primordial binary orbits known. Under some binary formation models, the low-inclination prograde orbit of the 2007 TY430 binary indicates formation within a relatively high velocity regime in the Kuiper Belt.

  20. Segmented electrode hall thruster with reduced plume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2004-08-17

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes along the channel, which make the acceleration region as localized as possible. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to minimize erosion and arcing. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to produce a substantial reduction in plume divergence. The use of electrodes made of emissive material will reduce the radial potential drop within the channel, further decreasing the plume divergence. Also disclosed is a method of arranging and powering these electrodes so as to provide variable mode operation.

  1. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg F. (Livermore, CA); Comaskey, Brian (Stockton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends.

  2. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, G.F.; Comaskey, B.; Sutton, S.B.

    1994-04-19

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends. 11 figures.

  3. Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical Absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klem, John F. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-08-16

    A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-index and low-index quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon absorption resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-index and low-index quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.

  4. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Michael L. (Kennewick, WA); Perez, Jr., Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Chapman, Chris C. (Richland, WA); Peters, Richard D. (Pasco, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  5. Working Together to Reduce Our Environmental Footprint

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    MONDAY April 13 - TUESDAY April 21 All Day * Earth Day Displays * Forrestal First Floor, Ground Floor, & DOE Cafeteria MONDAY APRIL 20 11:00 A.M. - 2:30 P.M. * Environmental Film Series * Forrestal Small Auditorium GJ-015 See two excellent films related to reducing our carbon footprint and evaluating the environmental consequences of some of the products we use on a regular basis. 11:00-12:30 Tapped 1:00-2:30 Bag It TUESDAY April 21 12:00 P.M. - 1:00 P.M. * Green Tips for the Home Workshop *

  6. Transport of thermal neutrons in different forms of liquid hydrogen and the production of intense beams of cold neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, K.; Tewari, S.P.

    1982-10-01

    From their studies the authors find that the thermal neutron inelastic scattering kernel incorporating the chemical binding energy in liquid hydrogen is able to successfully explain various neutron transport studies such as pulsed neutron and steady-state neutron spectra. For an infinite-sized assembly, D/sub 2/ at 4 K yields a very intense flux of cold and ultracold neutrons. For the practicable finite assembly corresponding to B/sup 2/ = 0.0158 cm/sup -2/, it is found that liquid hydrogen at 11 K gives the most intense beam of cold neutrons.

  7. Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Landreth

    2008-06-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 16, 2005 through December 31, 2008 on the project entitled â??Brominated Sorbents for Small Cold-Side ESPs, Hot-Side ESPs and Fly Ash Use in Concreteâ?. The project covers testing at three host sites: Progress Energy H.F. Lee Station and the Midwest Generation Crawford and Will County Stations. At Progress Energy Lee 1, parametric tests were performed both with and without SO{sub 3} injection in order to determine the impact on the mercury sorbent performance. In addition, tests were performed on the hot-side of the air preheater, before the SO{sub 3} is injected, with H-PACâ?¢ sorbents designed for use at elevated temperatures. The BPACâ?¢ injection provided the expected mercury removal when the SO{sub 3} injection was off. A mercury removal rate due to sorbent of more than 80% was achieved at an injection rate of 8 lb/MMacf. The operation with SO{sub 3} injection greatly reduced the mercury sorbent performance. An important learning came from the injection of H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side of the air preheater before the SO{sub 3} injection location. The H-PACâ?¢ injected in this manner appeared to be independent of the SO{sub 3} injection and provided better mercury removal than with injecting on the cold-side with SO{sub 3} injection. Consequently, one solution for plants like Lee, with SO{sub 3} injection, or plants with SO{sub 3} generated by the SCR catalyst, is to inject H-PACâ?¢ on the hot-side before the SO{sub 3} is in the flue gas. Even better performance is possible by injecting on the cold-side without the SO{sub 3}, however. During the parametric testing, it was discovered that the injection of B-PACâ?¢ (or H-PACâ?¢) was having a positive impact upon ESP performance. It was decided to perform a 3-day continuous injection run with B-PACâ?¢ in order to determine whether Lee 1 could operate without SO{sub 3} injection. If the test proved positive, the continuous injection would continue as part of the long-term test. The injection of B-PACâ?¢ did allow for the operation of Lee 1 without SO{sub 3} injection and the long-term test was conducted from March 8 through April 7, 2006. The total mercury removal for the 30-day long-term test, excluding the first day when SO{sub 3} was injected and the last day when a plain PAC was used, averaged 85%. The achievement of 85% Hg removal over the 30 days longterm test is another milestone in the history of achievement of the Albemarle Environmental f/k/a Sorbent Technologies Corporation B-PACâ?¢ sorbent. A clear indication of the impact of B-PACâ?¢ on opacity came at the end of the long-term test. It was hoped that Lee 1 could be operated for several days after the end of the long-term test. It took less than a day before the opacity began to increase. The discovery that B-PACâ?¢ can improve ESP performance while capturing a large amount of mercury is another milestone for the B-PACâ?¢ mercury sorbent. The parametric testing at the Midwest Generation Crawford Station was divided into two phases; the first using C-PACâ?¢, the concrete friendly sorbent, and the other using nonconcrete friendly materials. The first phase of the parametric tests was conducted before the long-term test. The second phase of the parametric testing was performed after the long-term test in order to avoid contaminating the fly ash containing the concrete friendly sorbents. The parametric test began with an injection rate of 1 lb/MMacf and, after a period to allow the mercury concentration to stabilize, the rate was increased to 3 lb/MMacf. The Hg removal for this test was about 60% due to sorbent and 69% total at the injection rate of 1 lb/MMacf and 80% due to sorbent and 84% total for the 3 lb/MMacf injection rate. The average total vapor phase mercury removal for the first 21 days of the long-term test was 82% at an injection rate o

  8. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bang, Y.; Abdel-Khalik, H. S.; Jessee, M. A.; Mertyurek, U.

    2013-07-01

    While the accuracy of assembly calculations has considerably improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This manuscript extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system. (authors)

  9. Cold Climate Foundation Retrofit Experimental Hygrothermal Performance. Cloquet Residential Research Facility Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Harmon, Anna C.

    2015-04-09

    This project was funded jointly by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL focused on developing a full basement wall system experimental database to enable others to validate hygrothermal simulation codes. NREL focused on testing the moisture durability of practical basement wall interior insulation retrofit solutions for cold climates. The project has produced a physically credible and reliable long-term hygrothermal performance database for retrofit foundation wall insulation systems in zone 6 and 7 climates that are fully compliant with the performance criteria in the 2009 Minnesota Energy Code. These data currently span the period from November 10, 2012 through May 31, 2014 and are anticipated to be extended through November 2014. The experimental data were configured into a standard format that can be published online and that is compatible with standard commercially available spreadsheet and database software.

  10. Cold-Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, P.; Christensen, C.

    2006-07-01

    This project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Program, is a case study in reaching zero energy within the affordable housing sector in cold climates. The design of the 1200 square foot, 3-bedroom Denver zero energy home carefully combines envelope efficiency, efficient equipment, appliances and lighting, and passive and active solar features to reach the zero energy goal. The home was designed using an early version of the BEOpt building optimization software with additional analysis using DOE2. This engineering approach was tempered by regular discussions with Habitat construction staff and volunteers. These discussions weighed the applicability of the optimized solutions to the special needs and economics of a Habitat house--moving the design towards simple, easily maintained mechanical systems and volunteer-friendly construction techniques.

  11. Phase-mixing of Langmuir oscillations in cold electron-positron-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Chandan

    2014-07-15

    Space-time evolution of Langmuir oscillations in a cold homogeneous electron-positron-ion plasma has been analyzed by employing a straightforward perturbation expansion method, showing phase-mixing and, thus, wave-breaking of excited oscillations at arbitrary amplitudes. Within an assumption of infinitely massive ions, an approximate phase-mixing time is found to scale as ?{sub pe}t{sub mix}?[(6/?{sup 2})((2??){sup 5/2}/(1??))]{sup 1/3}, where ? and ? (= n{sub 0i}/n{sub 0e}) are the amplitude of perturbation and the ratio of equilibrium ion density to equilibrium electron density, respectively, and ?{sub pe}??(4?n{sub 0e}e{sup 2}/m) is the electron plasma frequency. The results presented on phase-mixing of Langmuir modes in multispecies plasmas are expected to be relevant to laboratory and astrophysical environments.

  12. Diagnostic constraints on the amount of cold mass in imploded argon pinches on Z

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apruzese, J. P.; Jones, B.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Ampleford, D. J.; Jennings, C. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Moore, N. W.; Lamppa, D. C.; Coverdale, C. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Giuliani, J. L.; Ouart, N. D.; Thornhill, J. W.

    2014-12-15

    The refurbished Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories has been successfully configured to drive gas-puff Z pinches. A series of experiments using Ar loads produced K-shell yields of 330 9% kJ, with highly reproducible K-shell spectra and power pulses. Using spectroscopic and power data, we are able to constrain the properties of both the cold, non-K-shell radiating mass as well as the hot K-shell component of the pinch plasma. As in previous gas-puff shots on the original version of Z, only about 1/4 to 1/3 of the load mass was heated to temperatures sufficient to produce K-shell x-rays.

  13. Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rakholia, Akash V.; McGuinness, Hayden J.; Biedermann, Grant W.

    2014-11-24

    We demonstrate a dual-axis accelerometer and gyroscope atom interferometer, which can form the building blocks of a six-axis inertial measurement unit. By recapturing the atoms after the interferometer sequence, we maintain a large atom number at high data rates of 50 to 100 measurements per second. Two cold ensembles are formed in trap zones located a few centimeters apart and are launched toward one another. During their ballistic trajectory, they are interrogated with a stimulated Raman sequence, detected, and recaptured in the opposing trap zone. As a result, we achieve sensitivities at μg/ √Hz and μrad/s/ √Hz levels, making thismore » a compelling prospect for expanding the use of atom interferometer inertial sensors beyond benign laboratory environments.« less

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulated Siding Retrofit in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the U.S. Department of Energy’s team Building America Partner¬ship for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) worked with Kinsley Construction Company to evaluate the real-world performance of insulated sid¬ing when applied to an existing home. A 1960s home was selected for analysis. It is located in a cold climate (zone 6) where the addition of insulated siding and a carefully detailed water-resistive barrier have the potential to offer significant benefits. In particular, the team quantified building airtightness and heating energy use as a function of outdoor temperatures before and after the installa¬tion of the insulated siding.

  15. Dual-axis high-data-rate atom interferometer via cold ensemble exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakholia, Akash V.; McGuinness, Hayden J.; Biedermann, Grant W.

    2014-11-24

    We demonstrate a dual-axis accelerometer and gyroscope atom interferometer, which can form the building blocks of a six-axis inertial measurement unit. By recapturing the atoms after the interferometer sequence, we maintain a large atom number at high data rates of 50 to 100 measurements per second. Two cold ensembles are formed in trap zones located a few centimeters apart and are launched toward one another. During their ballistic trajectory, they are interrogated with a stimulated Raman sequence, detected, and recaptured in the opposing trap zone. As a result, we achieve sensitivities at ?g/ ?Hz and ?rad/s/ ?Hz levels, making this a compelling prospect for expanding the use of atom interferometer inertial sensors beyond benign laboratory environments.

  16. GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION INDUCED BY COLD ELECTRONS VIA COMPTON PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Zhe; Jiang Yunguo; Lin Hainan, E-mail: changz@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangyg@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: linhn@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2013-05-20

    The polarization measurement is an important tool to probe the prompt emission mechanism in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The synchrotron photons can be scattered by cold electrons in the outflow via Compton scattering (CS) processes. The observed polarization depends on both the photon energy and the viewing angle. With the typical bulk Lorentz factor {Gamma} {approx} 200, photons with energy E > 10 MeV tend to have smaller polarization than photons with energy E < 1 MeV. At the right viewing angle, i.e., {theta} {approx} {Gamma}{sup -1}, the polarization achieves its maximal value, and the polarization angle changes 90 Degree-Sign relative to the initial polarization direction. Thus, the synchrotron radiation plus CS model can naturally explain the 90 Degree-Sign change of the polarization angle in GRB 100826A.

  17. Angular distribution of products of ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunakov, V. E. Kadmensky, S. G. Kadmensky, S. S.

    2008-11-15

    Within quantum fission theory, angular distributions of products originating from the ternary fission of nuclei that is induced by polarized cold and thermal neutrons are investigated on the basis of a non-evaporative mechanism of third-particle emission and a consistent description of fission-channel coupling. It is shown that the inclusion of Coriolis interaction both in the region of the discrete and in the region of the continuous spectrum of states of the system undergoing fission leads to T-odd correlations in the aforementioned angular distributions. The properties of the TRI and ROT effects discovered recently, which are due to the interference between the fission amplitudes of neutron resonances, are explored. The results obtained here are compared with their counterparts from classic calculations based on the trajectory method.

  18. Cold Crucible Induction Melter Studies for Making Glass Ceramic Waste Forms: A Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Maio, Vincent; McCloy, John S.; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian J.; Benefiel, Bradley; Vienna, John D.; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.; Olszta, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (~1/4 scale) cold crucible induction meter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

  19. Cold crucible induction melter studies for making glass ceramic waste forms: A feasibility assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod; Maio, Vince; McCloy, John; Scott, Clark; Riley, Brian; Benefiel, Brad; Vienna, John; Archibald, Kip; Rodriguez, Carmen; Rutledge, Veronica; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joe; Olszta, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being developed to immobilize fission products, separated from used nuclear fuel by aqueous reprocessing, into a stable waste form suitable for disposal in a geological repository. This work documents the glass ceramic formulation at bench scale and for a scaled melter test performed in a pilot-scale (approximately 1/4 scale) cold crucible induction melter (CCIM). Melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling were measured on a small set of compositions to select a formulation for melter testing. Property measurements also identified a temperature range for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form. Bench scale and melter run results successfully demonstrate the processability of the glass ceramic using the CCIM melter technology.

  20. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  1. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  2. Insulated Concrete Form Walls Integrated With Mechanical Systems in a Cold Climate Test House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallay, D.; Wiehagen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Transitioning from standard light frame to a thermal mass wall system in a high performance home will require a higher level of design integration with the mechanical systems. The much higher mass in the ICF wall influences heat transfer through the wall and affects how the heating and cooling system responds to changing outdoor conditions. This is even more important for efficient, low-load homes with efficient heat pump systems in colder climates where the heating and cooling peak loads are significantly different from standard construction. This report analyzes a range of design features and component performance estimates in an effort to select practical, cost-effective solutions for high performance homes in a cold climate.

  3. Volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides from soil heated in an induction ``cold`` crucible melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aloy, A.S.; Belov, V.Z.; Trofimenko, A.S. [Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, S.A.; Stefanovsky, S.V. [SIA Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gombert, D.; Knecht, D.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of heavy metals and radionuclides during high-temperature treatment is very important for the design and operational capabilities of the off-gas treatment system, as well as for a better understanding of the nature and forms of the secondary waste. In Russia, a process for high-temperature melting in an induction heated cold crucible system is being studied for vitrification of Low Level Waste (LLW) flyash and SYNROC production with simulated high level waste (HLW). This work was done as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) funded research project for thermal treatment of mixed low level waste (LLW). Soil spiked with heavy metals (Cd, Pb) and radionuclides (Cs-137, U-239, Pu-239) was used as a waste surrogate. The soil was melted in an experimental lab-scale system that consisted of a high-frequency generator (1.76 MHz, 60 kW), a cold crucible melter (300 mm high and 90 mm in diameter), a shield box, and an off-gas system. The process temperature was 1,350--1,400 C. Graphite and silicon carbide were used as sacrificial conductive materials to start heating and initial melting of the soil batch. The off-gas system was designed in such a manner that after each experiment, it can be disconnected to collect and analyze all deposits to determine the mass balance. The off-gases were also sampled during an experiment to analyze for hydrogen, NO{sub x}, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and chlorine formation. This paper describes distribution and mass balance of metals and radionuclides in various parts of the off-gas system. The leach rate of the solidified blocks identified by the PCT method is also reported.

  4. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  5. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-07-30

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  6. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, Sean C.

    2006-03-07

    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular flat front face comprising a plurality of load bearing struts of a predetermined size attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides and top thereof, a pair of pliable opposing flat sheets having an outside edge portion attached to the flat front face adjacent the sides thereof and an upper edge with a predetermined curve; the opposing flat sheets being bent and attached to the struts to form effective curved airfoil shapes, and a top pliable flat sheet disposed adjacent the top of the flat front face and having predetermined curved side edges, which, when the top sheet is bent and attached to the struts to form an effective curved airfoil shape, mate with the curved upper edges of the opposing sheets to complete the aerodynamic device.

  7. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  8. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  9. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David; Mireles, Jose; Marquez, Noel; Quinones, Stella

    2011-11-01

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  10. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN; Van Berkel, Gary [Clinton, TN

    2011-08-23

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  11. Method of data communications with reduced latency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocksome, Michael A; Parker, Jeffrey J

    2013-11-05

    Data communications with reduced latency, including: writing, by a producer, a descriptor and message data into at least two descriptor slots of a descriptor buffer, the descriptor buffer comprising allocated computer memory segmented into descriptor slots, each descriptor slot having a fixed size, the descriptor buffer having a header pointer that identifies a next descriptor slot to be processed by a DMA controller, the descriptor buffer having a tail pointer that identifies a descriptor slot for entry of a next descriptor in the descriptor buffer; recording, by the producer, in the descriptor a value signifying that message data has been written into descriptor slots; and setting, by the producer, in dependence upon the recorded value, a tail pointer to point to a next open descriptor slot.

  12. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Anan

    2010-12-15

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, {var_epsilon}. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  13. Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hartley, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Kletzing, C. A.; Denton, M. H.; Kurth, W. S.

    2015-02-17

    Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1–0.9 fce). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wavemore » intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10⁻³ nT², using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.« less

  14. Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Kletzing, C. A.; Denton, M. H.; Kurth, W. S.

    2015-02-17

    Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.10.9 fce). Results from this study indicate that the calculated wave intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10? nT, using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.

  15. 1/2-Story Homes in Cold Climates Ojczyk, C. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy loss through the building envelope, improving building durability, reducing ice dams, and providing opportunities to improve occupant comfort and health. National Renewable...

  16. Creep-Rupture Behavior and Recrystallization in HR6W and Haynes Alloy 230 Cold-Bent Boiler Tubing for Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shingledecker, John P

    2007-01-01

    Creep-rupture experiments were conducted on HR6W and Haynes 230, candidate Ultrasupercritical (USC) alloys, tubes to evaluate the effects of cold-work and recrystallization during high-temperature service. These creep tests were performed by internally pressurizing cold-bent boiler tubes at 775 C for times up to 8000 hours. The bends were fabricated with cold-work levels beyond the current ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (ASME B&PV) Code Section I limits for austenitic stainless steels. Destructive metallographic evaluation of the crept tube bends was used to determine the effects of cold-work and the degree of recrystallization. The metallographic analysis combined with an evaluation of the creep and rupture data suggest that solid-solution strengthened nickel-based alloys can be fabricated for high-temperature service at USC conditions utilizing levels of cold-work higher than the current allowed levels for austenitic stainless steels.

  17. Investigation of cold fusion phenomena in deuterated metals. Final report, Volume 1. Overview, executive summary, chemistry, physics, gas reactions, metallurgy. Technical information series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.; Barrowes, S.C.; Bergeson, H.E.; Bourgeois, F.; Cedzynska, K.

    1991-06-01

    The March 1989 announcement by Pons and Fleischmann stimulated worldwide interest in the cold fusion phenomenon. In Utah the legislature appropriated $5 million to support cold fusion research and development. As cold fusion inquiries continue worldwide, this interim report has been written to document the scientific and legal work that has been funded by the Utah legislature. Partial contents include these titles of papers: Cold Fusion Studies in a High-Pressure Sealed Cell; Tritium and Neutron Generation in Palladium Cathodes with High Deuterium Loading; Deuterium-Gas Phase Reactions on Palladium; Excess Heat Estimation with the Kalman Filter; Ultrasonic Energy Effects on Palladium Electrodes in Cold Fusion Cells; Nuclear Measurements on Deuterium-Loaded Palladium and Titanium.

  18. On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) On-Bill Financing: Reducing Cost Barriers to Energy Efficiency Improvements (201) October 8...

  19. A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Title A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry Publication Type...

  20. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in ... More Documents & Publications Technology Performance Exchange - 2013 BTO Peer Review ...